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Digital Libraries in Malaysia: Problems Faced and Factors for Future Growth Norasiah Haji Harun Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT The article is based on the doctoral research findings from both the questionnaire (223 respondents) and interview sessions with 36 libraries (9 academic, 21 special and 6 state/public libraries). It was found that Malaysian libraries were facing various kinds of problems. Top in the list was the lack of Information Technology (IT) personnel; followed by the lack of budget, lack of digital library initiatives (DLIs) and ICT training, renewal of online subscriptions, lack of and underutilization of digital resources, and lack of suitable integrated library system. Digital library related problems were lack of staff (professional, support and IT), absence of a blueprint and National Information Infrastructure (NII) policy, digital project was too expensive which could be due to budget constrain, lack of role model and problems related to Copyright Act clearance. As the outcome of the findings, a total of eleven factors for future growth have been proposed. Keywords: Digital Libraries, Malaysia Academic Libraries, Special Libraries, Public Libraries and Copyright Act


INTRODUCTION The first emerging sign of digital library development from the research was that 36% of the libraries have declared to become hybrid type, having some components of their collection digitized and was providing some form of online services. The remaining 55% was printbased and only 1.3% declared to be digital. Perhaps the phrase from MALMARC (1978) to PERDANA (1999) might be able to give a glimpse as the degree of digital library development that has taken place in Malaysia. The force behind to the endeavor has been the National Library of Malaysia (PNM), earlier working strategically with the Multimedia Development Corporation, state/public libraries, and selected academic and special libraries. Of recent development, PNM has been working on the U-Library project, operational July 2010, with a new anchor partner – the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) in an attempt to bring PERDANA project to a higher level. PROBLEMS FACED This research has identified problems faced from two different perspectives. One was the general kinds of problems and second was the digital library related problems. It would be difficult to progress if not supported by adequate facilities, budget, training, management support and skilled human resource. It was found that only 54% of the libraries have installed an integrated library systems, meaning 46% were still without library system. It would be hard to imagine that in the cyber era, where the Internet has changed predominantly the way we live, there were still libraries without library system. Therefore nineteen different kinds of general library problems have been asked in the questionnaire and these were (Fig. 1) what the research has unfolded:Figure 1: Analysis of General Problems Lack of IT personnel has been identified as the most problematic and this was in fact very crucial to digital library development that was supposed to be IT dependent and IT driven. This has resulted in some form of dependence on IT unit of the parents’ organizations for technical


support (56%) and also the reason why heads of libraries (96%) unanimously agreed that librarians must embrace digital technology. Webb (2000) reiterated that digitization projects were complex and the cost was always more than you expected and it required a significant amount of investment (Chowdhury and Chowdhury, 2003). But as the research has found, the lack of budget came next after the lack of IT personnel. Only 5% of the respondents had budget of more than 2 million (Fig.2) and funding from non-governmental sector for digital library development was not yet a norm in Malaysia. Unlike in the United States, bodies like NASA and FBI were also involved in the sponsoring of digital library programs. The only known Malaysian non-governmental sector that has been sponsoring part of the maintenance costs of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Virtual Library has stopped doing so at the end of 2008 for reason they only knew (Maimunah, 2008). Figure 2: Budget for Digitization The problems of underutilization of digital resources and renewal subscription of online databases were inter-related. The underutilization of digital resources could stem from two reasons. It’s either users were not familiar with digital resources or the new services have not been promoted. With limited budget, renewal would be a problem if the subscriptions remained underutilized. Together with the lack of digital library initiatives, lack of IT training, lack of suitable integrated library system, lack of library space and lack of IT facilities (Fig. 3 and 4), digital library development would be affected. The fact that only 22% have Internet access was indeed surprising and disappointing. For the other 78% of the libraries, there would be no virtual access and services and definitely digital library would be out of question. Only 83% of the respondent did possess PCs in varying numbers and the biggest percentage was within the range of 1-5. This was also not a good indicator for digital library development. The availability of PCs meant the possibility of online services.


ICT training was also minimal where most of the training was in the areas of application software (72%), introduction to computers (66%), World Wide Web (51%) and web design (40%). What needed most were training on developing and maintaining database management systems, operating system and content management. The librarians were trained both in-house and externally (42%), in-house only (24%) and self-trained (23%). Training duration was mainly less than 1 week (70%) and definitely this was just introductory courses. Digitization Related Problems The research found that only 29% of the respondents have started some kind of digitizing works and 71% have not done anything as yet, which is again not a good indicator. The questionnaire has posted 18 possible digitization related problems and 6 items have been classified as the top most problems (Fig. 5). the finding on staff shortage for digitization works (digitization project done with existing staff) further intensified earlier finding that stated lack of IT personnel (64%) as one of the general problems faced by Malaysian libraries. Cost factor (60%) also bore similar weightage as lack of budget (63%). Figure 5: Problems Related to Digitization From the field visits to 38 libraries that the researcher did for the qualitative data, it could be seen that all of these libraries were planning and doing their own digitizing works independently, at their own pace depending on whatever resources they had at their disposal. There were not any concerted or collaborative efforts at any level among the libraries that could be the platform for some kind of cooperative work, except those spearheaded by PNM or PERPUN (Persidangan Perpustakaan Universiti dan Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia). The involvement of the respondents with digital library projects under PNM was also very small i.e. only 11% and 89% have never been involved. They did communicate through the invisible college but not through well chartered and published guidelines.


This observation has been further justified when 71% of the respondents felt that the absence of a blueprint as a guideline for digital library development as one of the major problems faced, followed by the absence of National Information Infrastructure (NII) policy (64%). Many felt that policy with respect to NII should be formulated by the authority concerned to help putting in place the much needed basic information infrastructure to keep regulate digital library development. Lack of role model (57%) where the libraries could learn, emulate and evaluate before starting their own digital library works was also lacking. Due to the lack of published literature on Malaysian DLIs, no one knew what the others were doing and as such nothing could be learned from those who had initially Started digitization works. This lack of common official platform, called for an urgent extensive collaborative digital library projects among all Malaysian libraries and other related national information agencies. The last problem identified was Copyright Act Clearance (51%). There was a co-relation between this problem and materials digitized by libraries. The research revealed that information surrogate was one of the most popular methods chosen by Malaysian libraries as a short-cut to the formation of a digital library. Newspaper cuttings was the most widely digitized (56%), followed by theses / dissertations, articles, books (33%), conference Papers/proceedings (31%), booklets/pamphlets/leaflets (30%),



(28%), newsletters/house organs (23%), speeches (22%), minutes of meeting/organizational reports (20%) and circulars (19%). Therefore it could be inferred that in the process of transforming these materials into digitized form, they did face some copyright problems, thus contributing to the reason for resorting to digitizing mainly their internal organizational publications. Findings from the Interview Sessions Some of the digital library key problems that have been voiced and highlighted were leadership, lack of background knowledge and exposure, lack of technical expertise and staff shortage. Other problems included budget, over dependent on PNM for DLIs, collaboration, expensive user license, monitoring the utilization of e-resources, digital ownership, digital library training, time factor, the promotion of online services, ICT facilities and infrastructure and the need for a national digital library blueprint. The interview session


with the Director of the PERDANA Service Division of PNM has resulted in similar answers with a few additional points raised such as the importance of public awareness, lack of coordination, absence of a dedicated team and a segmented library management system between state libraries. Even though there have been various kinds of problems as have been identified, it could be said that Malaysian libraries have accepted the concept of digital library, internalizing and digesting it, and conceptualizing it into plans that would see more DLIs in the near future. The basic foundation of digital library has been laid by the MALMARC Project 1978, followed by the Jaringan Ilmu 1994, Connected Learning House 1999, International Islamic Digital Library 2003 and PERDANA /MyLib 1999-2015 projects, but more impetus were needed to bring digital library development to a greater height due to the facts that generally as of 2004: • Some libraries were still run by non-professional librarian • Lack of staff especially technical expertise • Modest ICT infrastructure; only 54% has installed library system and only 5% have more than 100 PCs. • High dependency on IT Unit of parents’ organizations • Print materials still dominates • The introduction of basic online library services (OPAC, circulation, website services, reservation, registration, reference and SDI) • Digitized materials were mainly press cuttings and organizational publications • Minimum ICT training • Only 29% have done digitization works • Only 11% have been involved with PERDANA Project • Dominated by private domain • Only 1.3% have budget more than RM2 million • Digitization related problems were basic in nature (staff, blueprint, NII, budget, role model, copyright act) • Not much change in collection development policy • No concrete digital library future planning


• No international collaboration as yet The scarce of some of the above basic necessities were not good indicators for national digital library development. As Ali (2003) suggested, the three key components which constitute the theoretical framework underlying DLIs were people, information resources and technology. These three components were some of the problems faced by Malaysian libraries, as the research has unfolded. FACTORS FOR FUTURE GROWTH Digital library development requires every sector – government and non government bodies, to collaborate in promoting its creation and usage. Basic infrastructure for connectivity and interoperability, including funding, human resource, training, and leadership must be in place to support more digitization projects. Digital library research and extensive knowledge were important to help coordinate and consolidate efforts toward planning, organizing, establishing, creating and servicing digital library development for the country. As for the factors for future growth, the possibility of extending digital library programs to as many libraries as possible should be PNM’s main agenda, strengthening its national digital library planning in terms of central leadership in DLIs and human resource development/digital expertise. Other growth factors would be ICT training and exposures, the establishments of a digital library special commission and digital library research center, blueprint, budget increase, publishers and e-publishing, digital content development, legal framework for digital library development, citizens’ awareness, broadband facility and ICT infrastructure and consolidation of the national information infrastructure, support from policy makers, standard governance, formulation of digital library policy and adoption of digital library standards, and extensive collaboration especially of the national information agencies. The digital library development worldwide has somehow enforced Malaysian librarians to change their course of actions into becoming more receptive to the provision of online


services. Libraries were no longer playing the role as intermediaries as they were no longer the one stop information center that they used to be. The disintermediation of function must be dealt with seriously in the context of digital library perspective; otherwise libraries position would be at stake. Based on the collected data, where there has been some convergence of findings, therefore these were the recommended factors for future growth: The Formation of a National Commission on Digital Library Development The National Commission on Digital Library Development (NCDLD) framework was proposed and created based on the elements that have been put forward, suggested and thought of by the interviewees on the basis of functionalities, relevancy, expertise, collaboration and cooperation that could contribute to the whole spectrum of digital library development in Malaysia. It is supposed to help tackle the problem of collaboration, the need to enable a more central digital library effort, focused and coordinated planning be developed, based on strategic alliance with information related agencies and other organizations as shown in Appendix 1. It would bring the related information agencies/organizations under one roof to spearhead and organize DLIs through the formation of two separate dedicated digital library teams, handling digital library projects and technical aspects. The division of teams with clear functions of activities would be streamlined for the production of knowledge portals. PNM has been doing this to some extent but due to some constraints such as human resource, expertise, budget and time factor as it is also involved in the provision of public library services, so the existence of a central body would help accelerate Malaysian digital library development much faster and in a proper, guided and planned manner, in a much wider scale.


Blueprint for Digital Library The creation of a digital library blueprint that would serve as a common guideline. It may contain the following propositions: a) The definition and elements of a digital library by Malaysian standards. b)The procedures for information surrogates, including some of the best practices in terms of selection of materials, methods of surrogating, selection of storage media and a choice between public and private domain. c) The creation of local digital contents as an important component if they wish to qualify under the categorization of a digital library. d) The availability and range of online services that is operational. e) Elements for success such as management support, technical expertise, collaboration, global access, resource sharing and budget requirement. National Information Infrastructure (NII) The creation of the NII is given priority, emphasizing on the provision of broadband facility on a much wider national scale. This factor should be able to help solved ICT related problems of LAN, Intranet, Internet, WAN, Telnet, Extranet, and the number of PCs owned. Budget Increase There should be an appropriate budget increase to help facilitate digital library planning and digitization works. It should be in tandem with the other related factors for future growth such as the establishment of digital library research center, training of professional librarians, database subscriptions, the purchase of all the necessary hardware and software, the acquisition of suitable infrastructure, the provision of online services and operations and also budget for maintenance purposes.


Human Resource and ICT Training for Professional Librarians Human resource management/development and leadership for digital libraries are indeed important factors for future growth. Libraries should be headed by the professional librarians and ICT training for them should be intensified. Human resource development through proper training is important to support digital library technology implementation and to lessen the over dependent on the computer science professionals. Collaboration: Libraries, Archives and Museum The development of digital libraries saw the need for cooperation and collaboration among libraries and information centers becoming more important than ever as exemplified in the west. In Malaysia this is severely lacking. Collaboration in DLIs, particularly among the national information agencies vis-Ă -vis PNM, the National Archive of Malaysia and the National Museum of Malaysia be given serious consideration. Collaboration is one of the fundamental aspect of DLIs and in supporting virtual re-unification of digital library resources. National Digital Library Policy and Services Digital library policy and services is as important as the creation of a digital library blueprint. Both are to be used as a form of guidance to streamline all activities that relates to digital libraries. There should be digital library policy on acquisition, born digital materials, information surrogates, reference service, domain types and anything that would serve as national standard guidelines. That the formulation of a national digital library policy and services be drafted to supplement the blueprint on digital library proposed earlier. Copyright and Intellectual Property Right There is a need for legal framework for digital library development that includes the revision and amendments to the copyright act be done to ease digitization works and more importantly to include the legal deposit of born digital materials.


Education System The factor for growth based on education system is meant for long term planning and in capitalizing the fact that the government has introduced the Smart School Concept under the program of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). It is about the introduction of e-learning at early age and utilizing the schools’ resource centers to the fullest. As it involves policy matters, definitely it needs the collaboration of several other government agencies in particular the Educational Technology Division and the Ministry of Education. The Establishment of a Digital Library Research Center A digital library research center be established by any related organizations that possess adequate technical expertise. This is crucial because a digital library research center can provide leadership, bringing a pool of expertise and conduct research that may see the production of many DLIs, prototypes and digital library model. Publishers and E-Publishing E-publishing is synonymous with e-books and e-journals, two important components of digital libraries. The presence of these two elements is associated with libraries’ most popular online services and has resulted in the increase of online subscription of commercial databases to the extent that libraries now provide access to materials that they do not owned. Digital materials form the basis for digital library services where universal and remote access is fundamental to virtual service. Malaysian publishers should therefore consider seriously adopting e-publishing to support and spearhead further digital library development in Malaysia.


CONCLUSION Those eleven factors for digital library growth as proposed by the interviewees were the elements that they thought would accelerate further whatever that have been achieved so far in relation to digitization works. As the literature review has revealed, particularly in the United States and United Kingdom, digital library projects were abundance and the topic has gained great attention from the government and the community. Foreign digital library literatures were discussing about post digitization era. They have done many DLIs, so the next step they were talking about multi-lingual digital library (MLDL), open repository concept, integration of e-resources, handle system or digital unique identifiers, interoperability, metadata, intellectual property right, virtual unification of resources, digital preservation, democratization of information, user authorization and authentication, digital archiving, digital policy management and digital rights management. Private and government funding were abundance, there were plenty of avenues for intellectual discourse and collaboration has been widespread between the private sectors, the governments, libraries, museums and archives, not only locally but also internationally. These scenarios should be able to provide some provocative thoughts: Library of Congress’s American Memory Project has digitized 9 million items as of June 2007; Britons may visit their






demonstrated the concept of virtual reunification of e-resources through World Treasures; New Zealand has contributed to world’s digital library development through the Greenstone software; India, China and the United States were collaboratively

working on the Million Book Project;

France’s Gallica, was

offering 90,000 volumes in image format, 1200 volumes in searchable text format, 500 sound recordings and 80,000 digitized still images; The Koninklijke Bibliotheek, of Netherlands was planning mass digitization from 2007 – 2011, putting online 8 million pages from colonial Dutch daily newspapers; Europeana, started in July 2007 had initially 2 million digital collections of texts, images, audio files and movies and the number is projected to reach 6 million items by 2010; the Portal of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) has 54,000 online articles from 30 journals it ever published; European Commission’s DLIs


under the EU’s i2010 strategy, aimed to make over the next 5 years, 6 million resources accessible through the European Digital Library web portal; the NBdigital of Norway that started digitization of its first book in March 2006, but by Spring 2009, the digital collection was comprised 90,000 books, 200,000 newspapers, 3100 hours of film, 250,000 hours of radio broadcast, 420,000 photographs and 23,000 manuscripts (Takle, 2009); Dibrary ( – the digital library of the National Library of Korea was launched in May 2009, offering more than 116 million knowledge information resources that have been collected at the Dibrary Portal. On top of this, the World Digital Library ( was launched on 21 April 2009.


National Library of Malaysia has digitized 600,000 pages as at September 2008. In a nutshell, Malaysian libraries were moving toward digital library development, at different phases and levels, despite facing problems of various natures described earlier. While accepting PERDANA Project as the national digital library program, they have expressed high hopes for the National Library of Malaysia to provide a more coherent leadership and playing a bigger role in initiating DLIs both locally and internationally. They also expected the National Library of Malaysia to establish effective collaborative efforts by working together with the Malaysian National Archive and the National Museum. To conclude, digital library development in Malaysia needs a lot more impetus to stand on equal footing with her western counterparts as we were developing areas that were done by them about 20 years ago. With the right incentives and directions, taking into considerations the factors for growth that have been voiced out, the potential is there for Malaysian libraries to move forward.

Given the right assistance, input and impetus, and tackling the known existing

problems, Malaysian libraries might achieve the same directions of digital library development as their western counterparts, in no time.


References Ali Shiri. (2003). Digital Library Research: Current Developments and Trends. Library Review, 52 (5): 198-202. Retrieved on 13 December 2007 from Chowdhury, G. G. and Chowdhury, Sudatta. (2003). Introduction to Digital Libraries. London: Facet Publishing. Killer, J., and Gay, G. (1998). The social construction of a digital library: a case study examining implications for evaluation. Information Technology and Libraries. 17 (2): 60-70. Maimunah Kadir. (2008). HUKM Medical Virtual Library, August,6. Kuala Lumpur. [Personal interview]. Nahl, D. (1998). Learning the internet and the structure of information behaviour. Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 49 (11): 1017-1023. Nguyen, An. and Western, Mark. (2006). The complimentary relationship between the Internet and traditional mass media: the case of online news and information. Information Research. 11 (3): 15-20. Pors, Niels Ole. (2006). The public library and students’ information needs. New Library World. 107 (7/8): 275-285.

Takle, Marianne. (2009). The Norwegian National Digital Library. Ariadne, 60 (July). Retrieved on 22nd October 2009 from issue60/takle/#author1. Vilar, P. and Zumer, M. (2005). Comparison and evaluation of the user interfaces of


e-journals. Journal of Documentation. 61 (2): 203-227. Webb, C. (2000). Limitations and Pitfalls of Digitization. Paper presented at Pacific History Association Conference, Canberra. Accessed 11 April 2003 from Wilson, T.D. (2000). Human information behaviour. Information Science. 3 (2): 48-50.


CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS Fatin Alia Binti Ab Aziz NorJannah Binti Abu Bakar Siti Khatijah Binti Zulkafli Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia ABSTRACT Libraries allow users to find information that already being organized in a faster ways and easiest ways to library’s patron. There are also having several types of libraries such as Public Library, Academic Library, Special Library, and National Library. Each types of this libraries using different classification in order to organize the materials. “Warehouse of Knowledge” organized materials by using classification. Classification has being used in all libraries especially in organizing the materials. There are also having several classifications in organizing the information such as Library Congress Classification (LCC) and Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Keywords: Library, Classification systems, Library Congress Classification, and Dewey Decimal Classification,


Introduction Classification is tooled that being used to organize things. Even in daily life people organize things according to needs, personal, and others. The best example of classification that can be easy to understand is things inside house. The thing will be arrange according to its types. The detergent will be put together with shower foam, toothpaste inside the bathroom. So that, people can finds the materials at the appropriate places. It same concept as we organize materials that have in a libraries. Things need to be organizing very well. In contrast, the arrangement of library materials according to its subject, types and others that related. There are several reasons in why need to classified. Usually, classification start with broader things and it will become narrow things. For example, Technology – Computer – Dell – Features. It becomes narrow according to its hierarchy. That is the best reasons in why classification is important in organized things. Before classified things, step by step need to be follows and there are several rules. In LCC, there are rules that being provided in order to use the classification. The rules must be following properly in order to avoid mistakes. DDC also have rules. So that, the librarian will follow the rules before organized the materials and put it on the shelves.


Library of Congress Classification (LCC) Library of congress classification (LCC) is a combination of numerical and alphabetic letter that are placed in front of the book cover to assign each of the material at the shelves. The type of notation for Library of congress classification (LCC) is a mixed notation because it combines between letter and number. As defined by Central European University Library stated that “Library of congress classification (LCC) is an alphanumeric library classification system which organizes all knowledge into 21 classes� (2006). The classification system was established by library of congress (LC) and it has been tested and used by the library before it being use by other libraries in the world. This classification system is maintained by Library of Congress and they also provided the outline for Library of Congress Classification (LCC) system in assigning the call number for each information material such as book. A call number helps the library to assign book or other material at the shelves. Hence, the call number is located either horizontally which was in front of book cover or vertically which was on the spines of book. These classification systems include 21 main classes. It contains the major classes and followed by subclasses in creating the full call number. Each of the major classes has a single letter to describe the subject or element and each of the letters is describe for a broad subject field. However, the letter also contain in two or three letter to describe the subject such as N stand for Art and the subclasses is NA stand for architecture. The letters that represents each of the subjects is arranged by common to specific area. The first process in making one call number is started with identifying the letter that suitable for subject. In assigning call number, librarians need to know name of the subject or topic by refer it to the outline Library of Congress Classification for which letter should be used. Then, the next process is involved with a number called decimal number. By identifying the subtopic under broad topic the librarian will know the exact number to assign call number. The last process is assigning the author by using a Cutter Number and date of publication of the book or other items.


If element or subject is assign by computer schedules or published in computer format it will be form by the following example: BP



Decimal Number


Author name of the book by using Cutter Number


Date of publication

For example, below is detail information for major classes: A General Works

N Fine Arts

B Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

P Language and literature

C Auxiliary Sciences of History

Q Science

D History (General) and Old World

R Medicine

E-F History: America

S Agriculture

G Geography, Maps, Anthropology

T Technology

H Social Sciences

U Military Science

J Political Sciences

V Naval Science

K Law

Z Bibliography, Library Science,

L Education

Information Resources

M Music and Books on Music The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) History The Dewey Classification System (DDC) is conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and it is first published in 1876. It has been revised and expanded through 23 major editions, and the latest issued in 2011. The DDC is the most widely used classification system in the world. Libraries in more than 138 countries use the DDC to organize and provide access to their collections, and DDC numbers are featured in the national bibliographies of more than sixty countries. DDC is the most widely used classification system in the world. More than 138


countries used DDC to organize and provide access to their collections. Besides that, DDC also has been translated into over thirty languages which are Arabic, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese, and many more. One of Dewey's great strengths is that the system is developed and maintained in a national bibliographic agency, the Library of Congress. The DDC made up of ten classes, each divided into ten divisions, and each having ten sections. The ten main classes are: 000 Computer science, information & general works 100 Philosophy & psychology 200 Religion 300 Social sciences 400 Language 500 Science 600 Technology 700 Arts & recreation 800 Literature 900 History & geography Below is detail information of ten main classes: Class 000 is the most general class, and is used for works not limited to any one specific Discipline. It also used is also used for certain specialized disciplines that deal with knowledge and information, Class 100 covers philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, and psychology. Class 200 is devoted to religion. Class 300 covers the social sciences. Class 300 includes sociology, anthropology, statistics, political science, economics, law, public administration, social problems and services, education, commerce, communications, transportation, and customs. Class 400 comprises language, linguistics, and specific languages. Literature, which is arranged by language, is found in 800. Class 500 is devoted to the natural sciences and mathematics. Class 600 is technology.


Class 700 covers the arts: art in general, fine and decorative arts, music, and the performing arts. Recreation, including sports and games, is also classed in 700. Class 800 covers literature, and includes rhetoric, prose, poetry, drama, etc. Folk literature is classed with customs in 300. Class 900 is devoted primarily to history and geography. A history of a specific subject is classed with the subject. Conclusions Classifications are the important things inside the library, especially. Classification systems such as LCC and DDC being used in organized materials. These articles enable people to understand more about the classification systems. Academic library usually used LCC and National library used DDC. The library can choose which classification systems that suitable and appropriate for the items that have in the library. The classification systems must be used correctly in order to get the best results and performance. We believe that, users also easy to find the materials in the library effectively and efficiently.


References Library







from Central European University Library. (n.d.). Library of Congress Classification. Retrieved from Farlex.




from nisegaro603/library-of-congress-classification Frank, W. (n.d.). Library of Congress Classification and Subject Headings. Retrieved from Library








CRUCIAL SOURCES FOR YOU Nor Sabariah Binti Mansor Noraleeza Binti Zahari Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia

ABSTRACT Information packages are materials that came out in many forms of materials. All kind of information packages differ in terms of their knowledge and contain. Books are just big general information packages that can be identify in many kind of form. Within this article there are many crucial sources, or information packages that can helps user in identifying with sources that most suits in fulfilling their information needs. Keyword: Information packages, Information sources

1. Dictionary It is the most commonly used reference books. It consists of an alphabetical list of words with their meaning, etymology, pronunciations, usage and sometimes with graphic illustrations. There are two types of dictionaries that always been seen in markets which are words dictionaries and subject dictionaries. a) Words dictionary It is suitable for anyone because it is for general use, for those who want to know the definitions and translations for any words. For example: Oxford word power dictionary for learners of English. b) Subject dictionary It refers to any term that related to one subject. It will make ease for user to find the terms according to any specific subject. For example: A dictionary of Sociology.


2. Thesauri It is more quite similar with dictionary but the content is more in depth. Thesauri can be defined as controlled vocabularies that display relationships among terms in a scientific or technical discipline to facilitate indexing and retrieval of documents. The different from dictionary is they do not contain meaning or definition of words except to a very limited extent in the form of scope notes.

3. Encyclopedias It is a material to obtain a general orientation on a wide variety of topics. There are two types of encyclopedias as stated below. a) General encyclopedia It is sufficiently exhaustive to provide background of information on specific topics not only to the general reader but also to the subject specialist seeking background information in an area peripheral to the specialization. For example: The new encyclopedias Britannica b) Specialized encyclopedia The scope of specialized encyclopedia is limited to a clearly defined branch of knowledge such as physics, biochemistry or chemical technology. There are also provided some specific terms that relate to the subject. For example: The Encyclopedia of Malaysia 4. Handbooks It is a concise manual or reference book providing specific information or instruction about a subject or place. It can be a collection of data in both textual and numerical format. Data are collected from diverse sources, being assembled, categorized and presented for ready used. Handbook will give quick access and reliable data for users. For example: Chemical Engineer’s Handbook


5. Yearbooks Yearbook is summarizing of data or events for a particular subject field pertaining to an annual period, typically for the preceding year. It is sometimes called as annual books. The scope can be covered for any kind of field. For example: The yearbook of Astronomy 6. Journal Journal is a periodical presenting articles on a particular subject. It was published by the industries, commercial bodies and other organization as their collections. There are several types of journal which are academic/scholarly journals, trade journals, current affairs/opinion magazines, popular magazines and also newspapers. 7. Directory Directory is a list of organizations, people, or products/services that arranged in some systematic order for easy reference. There are three types of directories as stated below. a) Biographical directory It is the list of personalities that are specialist in certain subjects. The biographical information can be obtained, for example their address, contact number and others. For example: Yellow Pages b) Institutional or company directories It provides some information on academic institutions, government agencies, or Private Sector Company. The user can locate the company by obtaining the details like address, and contact number. For example: Research Center’s Directory c) Product Directories This kind of directories will show the users about details of some products. It provides information, and also description of the product. So, it will make ease for user to select an item before buying. For example: Worldwide Directory of Computer Companies.


8. Bibliographies A bibliography is a list of materials regarding to a particular subject prepared by an individual or specific group or bodies. The arrangement might be in the form of Author/title, subject and classified. a) Current bibliographies It includes material published recently, usually within a short time span, maybe in a month or a few months. Example: Bibliography of the History of Medicine b) Retrospective bibliographies This kind of retrospective bibliographies are describing about material published in the past. It might intend to aid comprehensive literature surveys. Example: American Medical Bibliography, 1492-1897 c) Special subject bibliographies It only is focusing on certain specific subject. It provides access to literature in specific subject areas. For example: Bibliography of Meteorites 9. Dissertations and theses Dissertation can be defined as a length, formal treatise especially one written for the doctoral degree at a university. The dissertations can be more in depth, and the literature review is more that theses. It is quite similar with theses, where by theses can be define as a research papers required for certain master’s degrees. The research paper is easier, short and simple. 10. Trade Literature Trade literature is a written and printed works that describe a particular type of practical human activity or the machinery and equipment used in it. It covers any advertisements, catalogs and also company magazines. Mostly it contains the kind of practical information and not published in more conventional literature. Normally, it will be well presented and illustrated in order to attract user to the products.


References An introduction to Lexicography: types of dictionaries. (n.d.). Retrieved from Oxford wordpower dictionary for learners of English. (2000). New York NY: Oxford University Press. College of San Mateo Library. (2008). Print resources and search strategies: type of print resources. Retrieved from Clark College. (2009). Subject Encyclopedias: tools for success. Retrieved from CQ University Australia. (2006). Types of journals. Retrieved from Haliza Yahaya. (2011). Lecture: Sources & services in Science & Technology [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from UiTM Puncak Perdana. Yale University. (2009). Writing a thesis or dissertation. Retrieved from rtations.pdf


Ancient Library Architecture Muhammad Zaidie bin Bardan Mohd Amin Azhari bin Sibu Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi Mara(UiTM),Malaysia

ABSTRACT Library is a building that has its own uniqueness in terms of its architectural design that frequently been influence by the traditional culture of that particular area. To established as a building that purposely been built for storing books and knowledge, the way on how the captured peoples intention to utilized and used all the knowledge within the library is based on the creativity of the architecture in building that can simply attract people. There are many kind of libraries that been highlighted in terms of its building architectural art and design, for example Hattusa, it was an Assyrian trading point for Mesopotamia, The main structure is 32 meters long and the ground floor contained storage rooms. Besides that, The Library of Ashurbanipal also was highlighted; the library was created for royal contemplation. In other words, it has the king's personal, professional reference collection. However priests and members of the learned class may also have used the palace library. Other than that, Library of Hadrian Athens. The building was located on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens. Designed in the Roman Forum architectural style, the building included lecture halls and reading rooms. The libraries of Rome were very different in design than those of Greece. In Greece, they generally followed the Pergamon model of an open area with adjacent small rooms for the stacks. Roman libraries were designed with a large open space for reading with bookcases around the perimeter. Keyword: library architecture, art in library


Introduction: Architectural History Library is a building that holds knowledge throughout civilization. It is a building that has existed since the year before Christ was born. The architecture of library has faced much kind of changes throughout generation due to development of creative and artistic art related with building architecture. Architectural features such as niches in walls help historians identify the locations of libraries in homes, palaces, and other buildings. Investigating the history of libraries can be difficult. Over the centuries, many libraries have been destroyed either accidently or on purpose. In the beginning, libraries were no more than depositories for records. Cared for by priests and slaves, these areas were often found in temples.


Hattusas Palace Archives, Turkey Hattusa was an Assyrian trading point for Mesopotamia between 1900 BCE and 1700 BCE, major development of the Hittite group in this area occurred between 1650-1350 BCE. The palace archives contained thousands of clay tablets. Using cuneiform writing, the collection includes correspondence, contracts, legal codes, ceremonies, prophecies, and literature. Although known as an archive, some have identified the building as a library. The main structure is 32 meters long and the ground floor contained storage rooms. Most of the more than 3000 clay tablets were found in the three southern rooms. They stood on end like modern books on wooden shelves along the wall.

The map below shows the location of the archives/library


Library of Ashurbanipal Nineveh, Assyria, Mesopotamia (Iraq) Ashurbanipal is credited with establishing the first systematically organized library in the ancient Near East. Containing more than 30,000 cuneiform tablets, the Library of Ashurbanipal was created for royal contemplation. In other words, it has the king's personal, professional reference collection. However priests and members of the learned class may also have used the palace library. Referred to as "record rooms" or "house of the rolls", the library consisted of two small rooms (27 and 23 feet long and 20 feet wide) in the palace of Ashurbanipal. Two colossal basreliefs of Dagon, the fish-god were located outside each chamber. It's possible that these panels were intended to guard the contents.

The image shows a plan for the library


Library of Hadrian Athens, Greece Created by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 132 CE, the building was located on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens. Designed in the Roman Forum architectural style, the building included lecture halls and reading rooms. The rolls were kept on the eastern side of the building. The library was damaged during the Herulian invasion of 267 CE and later repaired. Three churches were also built on the site.

Library of Handrian Athens Libraries of Rome The libraries of Rome were very different in design than those of Greece. In Greece, they generally followed the Pergamon model of an open area with adjacent small rooms for the stacks. Roman libraries were designed with a large open space for reading with bookcases around the perimeter. These libraries probably served professionals interested in literature or seeking information. Libraries may also have been found in Roman Baths. Although open to the public, these baths were privately owned and charged a fee. During his reign, Augustus opened baths that were free to the public. Later emperors continued the trend adding amenities to the baths including libraries.


Forum of Trajan or Ulpian Library Rome, Italy Like other libraries in the city, the Greek and Latin libraries at the Forum of Trajan were separated by a small court. Built around 114 CE, this library was also the public record office of Rome. The library was fitted with presses for roll and book storage and probably contained about 20,000 rolls.

Floor plan of library rooms


Library of Celsus Ephesus, Anatolia (Turkey) Built by Celsus' son and completed in 135 CE, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and serve as a tomb for Celsus. Bookcases lined the back and side walls and were elevated from the floor. It has Greek influence on Roman architecture.

Library of Celsus Ephesus, Anatolia Library at Thamugadi Timgad, Algeria Timgad was a Roman town founded by Emperor Trajan around 100 CE. Located a few blocks from the forum, the library was easily accessible to users. The large building contained a U-shaped portico with entry into a main room with wall niches. Other rooms were found on the side that could






scriptoria. A podium runs around the room providing access to elevated bookcases. Library at Thamugadi Timgad, Algeria


Vatican Library, Italy In 1587, Pope Sixtus V began the design for the Vatican Library. Designed by the architect Fontana, the library reflects a Roman design. The great hall with seven large windows is 184 feet long and 57 feet wide and divided into sections. The books are housed in plain wooden presses (7 feet high by 2 feet deep) on the walls beneath the windows. The floors are decorated marble and the walls are covered with frescoes exploring the great libraries of the world and the establishment of the church. It's unlikely that the room was intended for study.

The Great Hall of the Vatican Library looking west Conclusion As a conclusion, throughout century, the evolvement of library architecture can be seen clearly, the importance of library that acts as the center of knowledge lead to many efforts in making the building to be more convenient to be used. The creativity and building features and design really shows the degree of mentality and culture within that particular area. The way of how human socialize and be treat can be seen by looking at the way of how that particular library been used, some area, only noble have the right to seek knowledge within library. But, as time goes, those practices change.


References Casson, Lionel (2001). Libraries of the Ancient World. Yale University. Carley, Hames P. (2006). Leland, Johns (c. 1503-1552). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Clark, John Willis (1901). The Care of Books. Cambridge University Press Warehouse. Available: Leland, John (1544). The New Year's Gift. Published by John Bale as The Laboryouse Journal (1549).


The importance of libraries from various perspectives Nur Syafiqah Binti Razali Faculty of information management Universiti Teknologi Mara(UiTM),Malaysia

ABSTRACT This article discuss about the importance of libraries from various perspectives such as towards society, children, academic researcher and student perspectives. There are a lot of advantages that people will gain when they use libraries wisely and effectively. It also talk about different perspective depend on type of user toward libraries. The major reason why people used library is to find information. Keywords : Libraries, information, knowledge According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, library is a place in which literary, musical, artistic, or reference materials (as books, manuscripts, recordings, or films) are kept for use but not for sale. Can you ever imagine life without library? Library is placing that give different meaning to each user. Some of them prefer to choose library as place to momentary rest, make library as magical place for them to gain knowledge and information or even as place to support for bright future of hope. It’s clearly state that library plays important part to all of us, no matter our stage in life such as children, students, researcher or even employee. There are a lot of important of libraries from various perspectives such as towards education, society, academic researcher, children, and public. The major important of library is library is a store-house that contains of all kind of book under one building. Library is not have collection of book only, it also subscribe newspaper each day from various newspaper and various magazine as well each month for their user that come to library. Library is place where public can get daily information from various news and update in their collection about particular topic.


In library collection its contain books on various subjects ranging from history, science, fiction, literature, fashion, health and beauty. Not everyone is affordable to buy each book that they desire to read. One of the specialties about libraries that different from our collection in house is all collection in libraries is arranged based on the subject in the shelf. There are certain numbers that being given in each book in order to make them are easy to find back at the shelf. This will helps them to find the location of the books in easy and quickly ways. The importance of libraries towards society perspective From society perspective, libraries act as place where public, especially, can help can increase and develop reading habits among them. For children it is a place where they can go and learn to read and have fun in every program that being held in the library. It is also give benefits for student who need some privacy and quiet environment and make them easy to access to information for research. In others side, for someone that looking for a new job can learn skills to help them improve and upgrade their skill and resume. Moreover, for employee or even busy mum that need some rest and relaxing time may visit libraries to have some leisure time for read magazine or even news about daily life and interesting article or books for increase their knowledge. There are two major reasons why society tends to choose library as place to go is to get information and to gain advantages from free program that offer by them. With the different aims to go to library all they needs is quick and correct information from library. Sometimes public are prefer to spend their time to stay at libraries just because want to collect only authorize and correct fact and information about something. This is because sometimes when we search information in internet, we will find that the information is unauthorized and incorrect.

The importance of libraries toward children perspectives What is the meaning of libraries toward children? To children, it’s a magical place, of learning and reading as well as talking and having fun. It’s a place for multi-programs, for after school knowledge, for growing up and getting older. Library is place for them to gain more knowledge and open their mind about new thing with family or even their friends. It will give them leisure time and make them more interesting to explore more knowledge in


interactive ways such as learn via internet, colorful books, good storyteller by librarian, and many more. From early stages of learning, if children are often go to the library will give them good impact from their life in future. Children may used library as place to doing their homework, to gain more knowledge, to learn with fun and to share interest with their friends.

The importance of libraries toward academic researcher perspective When we’re taking about academic researcher we will focus on academic libraries. Academic researcher is refer to someone that learn about specific field of education such as engineering, medical, accounting, and many more and they need specific material to being use as their researcher. What will happen when academic researchers only have general sources of book on doing their researcher? It will give hard task for them to finish their work as well their research will not specific and accurate. Academic researcher is usually working with difficult and obscure subject often needs books that are very expensive and usually not available in the market. Furthermore, sometimes researcher need to deal with original article or manuscript that impossible available in market. In this time, it makes strong points that library is really important towards them in order to make their work more easily and effectively. In all such cases, academic researcher will find it very advantageous to visit the various libraries especially academic libraries that provides specific field in particular subject and allow them to collect all the material without purchase or even waste their money.

The importance of libraries toward student perspective Student is very synonym with a lot of assignment and project as their part of assessment in each subject that they need finish within semester. In every university or collages, there must be academic library that provides information that meets student needs. Academic library have different collection from public library because in academic library it more specific to certain field that relevant to student. It also provides a lot of service that will help and assist user such as gives awareness about new collection, give advise in reference desk, and many more. Without library, student will face difficultly to handle and finish the assignment that given cause lack of material and correct information. In additional, library also helps student


to gain more knowledge beyond their subject and give wide knowledge about certain information. librarian also act as guilders that will help student in find good and correct material about certain topic or subject in reference desk. Furthermore, apart from academic collection, libraries also provides motivational books that will help student to increase their passion, novels collection that can release their stress, and even magazines and daily newspaper so that student will get update information about global issues.

References Agarwal, Rohit. (2012). Eassy on important of library. Retreived from

Bandy, Tony. (2010). The Importance of Libraries by Tony Bandy. Retrieved from

Koski, Lisa. (2012). The importance of a library in society. Retrieved from

Merriam-Webster. (2013). Definition of library. Retrieved from


THE PROCESS/ STEPS IN INFORMATION LITERACY Muhammad Amirulnaim Bin Muhamad Saupi Muhamad Hafizan Bin Razak Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM),Malaysia

ABSTRACT Information Literacy is the ability to identify what information is needed, understand how the information is organized, identify the best sources of information for a given need, locate those sources, evaluate the sources critically, and share that information. It is the knowledge of commonly used research techniques. Information literacy is critically important because we are surrounded by a growing ocean of information in all formats. Not all information is created equal. Some is authoritative, current, reliable, but some is biased, out of date, misleading, and false. The amount of information available is going to keep increasing. The types of technology used to access, manipulate, and create information will likewise expand. The process or steps in Information Literacy which are access, evaluate, use, and source are the important major in order to adapt the information literacy Keywords: information literacy, process, access, evaluate, use, source


Introduction According to Paul Zurkowski the description of Information Literacy information literate individuals as people “trained” in the application of information resources to their work , who have learned techniques and skills for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in molding information as the solutions to their problem. Information literacy generally defined as the ability to access, evaluate, organize and use information from various sources. An information literate person access the information as the information that they will need recognize the need for information. They are also recognizing the information that accurate and complete information as it is the basis for intelligent decision making. From the accession of the information, they can formulate questions based on information needs and identifies potential sources. According to Jennifer Hoyer through her article “information is social: information literacy in context”, she stated that while information literacy is widespread in many context today, traditional concepts of information literacy focus on information use in academic environments and often ignore the application of these concepts in other communities of information use. Thus, according to Andrew K. Shenton & Megan Fitzgibbens through their article “Making information literacy relevant”, they stated that the task of engaging learners with the principles of information literacy and then ensuring that they apply the associated knowledge, skills and understanding effectively in appropriate situations are among the greatest challenges faced by information professional working in educational settings. The process of Information Literacy such as access, evaluate, organize, use and the information from various sources can help students to get the right information that they need and apply it to their assignments or research.


Access Accessibility is often means to read data from or write data to a storage device. Koltay (2009) stated that a person skilled in accessing and using information are able to abstract the main ideas of a document and extract the information. According to Johnson and Jent (2005), libraries will continue to be the centers within universities and schools if they offer up-to-date information environments and efficient access to any kind of information. When the student asks to the librarian about the information that they need, the librarian should clearly explained to the student about what information that they need to find which is related to their subject. The student should find the information in the right place. In term of finding information, the student should know the subject that they need to find out. They cannot straightly ask the information professional without knowing their subject. This is because; the process to asking is become more easily. Dunaway and Orblych, (2011) stated that the questions presented and the responses provided by students during the pre-assessment exercise phase were used to create a set of questions that were presented to students during the instruction session. These entire questions will encourage the students recheck their answer especially in what source they find the information and reliability the answer to specific question they answered. This question measured studentsâ€&#x; ability to evaluate the quality and relevance of a source based on information contained within its citation, such as the type of content or characteristics of the source, Dunaway and Orblych, (2011).


Evaluate There are the three objectives in evaluation process which are to determine the significance, worth, or condition of usually by careful appraisal and study, the process of determine the currency, factual of accuracy statement or information, and lastly is the ability to evaluate the authority of information and consider the currency of information. According to these objectives the student should evaluate the information before they use in their assignment and research. They need carefully evaluate and interpreted the information that they get from the variety of sources. The student will employ their critical thinking skills to access and evaluate the right information whether information is accurate or not. Evaluation process is emphasis on what materials they use to find the information. Johnson, Sproles, Detmering & English, (2012), the pupils who believed sources should be critically evaluated using “logic and rulesâ€? interpreted the documentsâ€&#x; validity differently than those who relied solely on their internal judgment and personal feelings. In searching the answer for the task, student must determine if the information need has been satisfied or if additional information is needed. Student will evaluate information sources with an understanding of context, intention, and audience (bias, opinion, satire, inflammatory, balanced). After get the book or article student must summarizing the main ideas and reviewing multiple points of view to construct an answer for the task. Student must exploring different sources of information (web, books, database, and primary resources) to understand a topic.


Organize The third component of Information Literacy is organized. According to Iannuzzi (1998), organize is the information literate student can manage information effectively and efficiently. For completing the task student must formulate questions based on their information need. One sample task has been given is “What is the tallest building in the world?” showed that students must define the question ask in what field (History, Science, Architecture, or others) to diminutive the scope. In completing this task, student must develop a research plan and timeline to get the information at in accurate time. Additionally, based on Anna Marie Johnson, student must identify key concepts and terms those describe the information need and identify different types of resources (books, periodicals, web sites) and their different formats (print, electronic), formats and uses of information sources. In addition, according to Jake Wallis (2005), understand the characteristics and value of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources. Use various search techniques such as keywords, controlled vocabulary, limiters, Boolean terms (AND, OR, NOT), and truncation to find relevant items. While, “Who create airplane?” showed student can find information that related to vehicle and creator history this is a search strategy to narrow down results in databases and search engines.


Use After the process of accessed, evaluated and organized, it is time to fully use and apply all the fact and answers that were collected. Malliari and Nitsos (2008) in their article, 'Contribution of an information literacy programme to the education process: The case of a Greek academic library' stated that according to the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) 'Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education', information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have a bility to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information. Other than that, in article 'Information literacy strategy development in higher education: An exploratory study', by Corral (2008), the ability to find, assess and use information effectively is now widely recognized as an essential competence for effective participation in contemporary society. The student need to use their interactive skills for ability to them to understand what was being read, viewed or listened to and relate this to existing knowledge. Selective skills also were important in using information. Its can helps the students to select appropriate information or reject the information that were not accurate. Evaluation skills were use as ability to them to evaluate information and ideas. As stated by the author of the article title 'Challenges facing information literacy efforts in Kenya: A case study of selected university libraries in Kenya', Kavulya (2003), for the students, regardless of their discipline, information literacy skills enable them to master content and give the confidence to proceed with investigation, be self-reliant and have a sense of being in control of their learning'. Besides that, recording skills also has being used by the pupils as their ability to take notes in a systematic way. For their ability to bring together related ideas, facts, and information, the students also use synthesis skills.


Source Most of the students informed that the use of electronic information sources such an internet sources could enhance effectiveness, efficiency, and the quality. For them, it easier to get information then goes to find the book in the resource center or library. According to Shaheen & Alfia (1999), effective use of these electronic information sources for retrieving needed information would be cumbersome without proper computing and information retrieval skills. Students tended to reply that they used certain kinds of information were found useful (Masuda, 2002). The difference sources may give difference information about the same subject. But, it can sure and find out the right information. If just depend on one sources, the user just accept it as the right information. The use of difference sources can give sure to the pupils to the right information. The information landscape today includes e-books, digital databases of articles and newspapers, and resources outside the library like Google Scholar, and all these resources see heavy use by students and non-students alike (Martin, 2011). According to Korobili, Malliari, & Christodoulou (2009) there is a slight difference in those respondents who had attended an information literacy course integrated in the curriculum with respect to how often they had used the sources and tools of the library and how well they thought that they had mastered most of the items concerning the process of retrieval and use of information. Librarians and information science (LIS) specialists can contribute to studentsâ€&#x; learning in a number of ways: by providing structured access to information, by helping students to learn about how to evaluate information with respect to accuracy, timeliness and relevance, and compare different sources (Fjällbrant, 2000). Resource center can play an important role in imparting information literacy skills to prepare students to embark on life-long learning (Shaheen & Danamalar, 2007).


Conclusion The process of Information Literacy such as access, evaluate, organize, use and the information from various sources can help students to get the right information that they need and apply it to their assignments or research. By following these steps or steps the information the students get will be more accurate to use. In addition, the sources like book and database is the most valid information that can be refer by the students. This is because, this source usually has the valid authority that produced or written. But the students still need find the information that suitable with their field or subject. The development of the technology nowadays was giving the big impact in Information Literacy world. The students nowadays do not like anymore to go to the resource center or library. They rather like to get the information from the internet without knowing the validity of the information that they get. Teacher or lecturer also should play an important role in implying information literacy to pupils or students. The greater dialogue within school communities could help teachers develop a shared understanding of information literacy as a whole. For example, the relationship of information literacy and learning within the curriculum as a whole, the balance between different information outcomes in terms of skills development, knowledge building and generation, and social and ethical issues related to information use. Strategies could be considered to enhance mediation of the information process for the students, for example: to clarity of learning objectives in information activities ensuring that they understand and fulfill teacher expectations, taking account of prior knowledge and also they understanding when presenting activities, to ensure that the pupils understand how information is organized and presented in various physical and virtual environments, and the importance of developing the practical skills and cognitive abilities to use information effectively. Lastly, hopefully all students can adapt this important information literacy in their self which will help themselves in the future.


References Corrall, S. (2008). Information literacy strategy development in higher education: An exploratory study, International Journal of Information Management, Vol: 28 Iss:1 pp: 26-37, retrieved from Dunaway, M. K. & Orblych, M. T. (2011). Formative assessment: Transforming information literacy instruction, Reference Services Review, 39(1), 24 – 41. Fjällbrant. N. (2000). "Information literacy for scientists and engineers: experiences of EDUCATE and DEDICATE", Program: electronic library and information systems, Vol. 34 Iss: 3 pp. 257 – 268 Iannuzzi, P. (1998). Faculty Development and Information Literacy: Establishing Campus Partnerships. Reference Services Review, 26(3). Johnson, A. M., & Jent, S. (2005). Library instruction and information literacy - 2004. Reference Services Review, 33(4), 487-530. Retrieved from Johnson, A. M., Sproles, C., Detmering, R., English, J. (2012), Library instruction and Information literacy 2011, Reference Services Review, 40(4), 601 – 703. Kavulya, J.M. (2003). Challenges facing information literacy efforts in Kenya: A case study of selected university libraries in Kenya, Library Management, vol:24, Iss: 4/5 pp: 216-222. Koltay, T. (2009). Abstracting: information literacy on a professional level, Journal of Documentation, 65(5), 841 – 855. Korobili, S., Malliari, A., & Christodoulou, G. N. (2009). "Assessing information literacy skills in the Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece", Reference Services Review, Vol. 37 Iss: 3 pp. 340 – 354 Malliari, A. & Nitsos, I. (2008). Contribution of an information literacy programme to the education process: The case of a Greek academic library, Library Management, Vol:29, Iss:8/9, pp: 700-710, retrieved from Martin, C. (2011). "An information literacy perspective on learning and new media", On the Horizon,Vol. 19 Iss: 4 pp. 268 – 275 Masuda, K. (2002). "Using "Children's Voting" in Japan to improve information literacy: children's information use in learning activity", Performance Measurement and Metrics, Vol. 3 Iss: 3 pp. 145 – 149


Shaheen Majid, & Alfia Fanilievna Abazova. (1999). "Computer literacy and use of electronic information sources by academics: A case study of International Islamic University Malaysia", Asian Libraries, Vol. 8 Iss: 4 pp. 100 – 111 Shaheen Majid, & Danamalar Kanagasabai. (2007). "Information source preference for project work by primary school students", Library Review, Vol. 56 Iss: 1 pp. 24 – 33 Wallis, J. (2005). Cyberspace, information literacy and the information society. Library Review, 54(4). Retrieved from


LIBRARY IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION Izzan Ramizah Idris Wati Yusuf Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

ABSTRACT This article contains three major kinds of Library in Islamic Civilization which is Public Library, Semipublic Library and Special Library. This article stated and give example of the library that been categories under the three major kind of libraries that been stated. This article also stated those are responsible person whom generates the library during the Islamic civilization era. KEYWORD : Islamic Civilization Era, Bayt Al-Hikmah, library

The information centre has been developed started from the golden age of Islamic civilization by Rasulullah and Khulafa‟ Arrasyidin by developing a mosque in order to do all the reference based on information and knowledge until to the end of their lives. Then, the development has been continued by Umayyad (Umayyah) and Abbassid (Abbasiyyah) era by developing the library in order to enhance the level of knowledge for all of Islamic followers. On that time, information and books has a high values in Islam as said by Al- Mutanabi, the famous Arabic poet in his poem,

“The noble place to sit in the world is in horse saddle and the best ever companion is book”


The first people that generate the library is Khalid bin Yazid (125-126H/743-744 Masihi). He provided a special room in his castle to keep all the old information materials such as in fields of chemistry, doctored and medicine. He actively invited a Greece translator to translate a book (kitab) from Greece and Qibti language to Arabic language. The effort continued until the era of Caliph Abu Jaafar Al-Mansur (136-158 H/755-758 M) that encourages the Persian translator to translate the foreign book such as in astrology field, government, politics and moral to Arabic language. The library has been introduced to the people during that time and who are having a library in their house will be respected and appreciated. Prof. Ahmad Shallaby stated in History of Muslim Education, there are 3 category of the library on those times which are: i.

Public library


Semipublic library


Special library

Public library The public library usually is a part from the mosque, Islam school (madrasah) and other learning institutions. This kind of library can be used by public either visitors or the people study. Below are the examples of the public library: i.

Bayt Al-Hikmah Bayt Al-Hikmah or also known as Khazanatul Hikmah, Darul Hikmah and House of Wisdom are an information and knowledge centre developed by Harun Al-Rasyid in Abassid Era (170-193 H/ 786-809 M) for an Islamic intellectual to get knowledge. It was the first library in Islam world used by pious people (para ulama), researcher and Islam students. The collection of the library covers on doctoral field, philosophy, mathematics, agriculture, chemistry, astronomy, etc. The collection contain in many languages such as Arabic, Persian, Greece, Syriac, Latin, Hindi, Qibti and others. There is no discrimination among people in terms of religion, race or nation for using the


library.Instead of that, the Chief of Bayt Al-Hikmah is Yuhanna Al-Musaiwah which is a Christian and Syriac and the library translator, is Abu Sahl Al-Fadl is a Persian.Bayt AlHikmah is well developed and start to destructs when a Tartar people lead by Hulago enter a Baghdad City and kill Mu‟tashim who is the last Bani Abbas caliph. They destroyed the entire Baghdad City and by that, the Bayt Al-Hikmah is also destroyed. ii.

Perpustakaan Al- Haidariyahin An-Najaf, in Iraq The library was developed based on spirit of the group of “Syiah”. The name of AlHaidariyah derived from the the word “Haidar” which is refer to the nickname of Caliph Ali bin Abi Thalib. The library was being used by a minister, governor, and chief of Syiah community for example Adhud Al Daulah Buwahi (350 H). The collection of the library are Al-Quran, a book (kitab) such as Kitab Al Rasail Al Syiraziah wrote by Abu Ali Al Farisi, KitabMu‟jamUdaba‟ by Yaqut, Kitab Al Taqrib by Abu Ahyyan Al Andalusi, Kitab Al Mu‟tabar Min Al Hikmah by Hibatuddin Ibn Ali and many more. The library is still exists until today in Iraq as an appreciation for Saidina Ali bin AbiThalib that also being graved in the library surrounding.


Perpustakaan Ibnu Sawwar in Basrah The library is created by Ali Ibnu Sawar which very closed to Adhud Al Dauah, a chief of Syiah community. The library functions as learning institution for gaining information and knowledge. The library is led by a Sheikh to teach knowledge about Islam Theology and Philosophy based on Mazhab Al Mut‟tazilah.


Perpustakaan Khazanah Sabur Darul Ilmiin Baghdad The library developed by Abu Nasr Sabur Ibnu Ardasyir on 383 H. He is the King for Bani Buwaih kingdom during Bahaud Daulah period. The collection is 10,400 volumes that are focused on religious books, philosophy and science. He also received the donation of the books with a good quality. The library is also can be known as cultural center as many musicians, scholars and poets came to the library to study and exchange ideas. The religious person also donates their books and writing materials to the library.



Perpustakaan Darul Hikmah in Cairo The library is developed by Khalifah Al Hakim Ibn Amrillah Al Fathimi on 966 M (10 Jamadil Akhir 395 H)in order to let the people disremember about the nobility of Bayt Al Hikmah that was developed by Harun Al Rasyid in Baghdad. The library has 4000000 collections. Besides; the library has 40 cupboards whereby each cupboard can support 18,000 of the books.


Madrasah Library Nizamiyah Madrasah was developed by Nizamul Mulk in 1065 M, which is the famous person in Baghdad and Prime Minister in Saljuq Goverment. It was the famous Madrasah library in Baghdad as it was supported by scholar, intellectuals and community. The library becomes well-known among people as it was created by Nizamul Mulk and attracts many people to go there. The famous librarians in Nizamiyah Madrasah are Abu Zakariah Tibrizi and Yaâ€&#x;qub Ibn Sulaiman Al Askari. In 1116 M, the library burned out and it destroyed the building and collections.


Perpustakaan Kitab-kitab Wakafat Masjid Az-Zaidi The library was developed in a mosque named Masjid Az-Zaidi that was developed by Abu Al-Hassan Ali Ahmad Al-Zaidi. He was died in Baghdad on 575H. He encourages all the religious person and peoples to increase the library collection by an endowment. The most people who give a lot of contribution are Abu Al-Khattab Al-Ulaimi (547H), Abu Al-Khair Suhaib Al-Habasyi (584H) and popular historian, Yaqut Al-Hamawi (626H).


Semipublic Library Semipublic library was founded by caliphs and kings in order to gain knowledge. There are three types of semipublic library which are: i.

Perpustakaan An-Nashir Dinillah This library built by Caliph An-Nasir Li Dinillah. It is a symbol as his deep devotion to knowledge. He considered as person who can bring back the greatness and splendor of caliphates. One of the things which he cares so much is in terms of development of knowledge to the people. That is why, he care about the library and built it so that people at that time can get lots of knowledge from the library.


Perpustakaan Al- Muzta‟sim Billah This library built by Caliph of Al-Mu‟tassim Billah which is last Caliph during Abbasid Era. Large amount of library expenses is by himself which he used his own money. He got the throne at 1211 M and killed by Moghul people at 1237 M after the ruin of Baghdad City. However, his library gives lots of knowledge contribution to the people (Qalyubi, Syihabuddinddk, 2003: 53).


Fathimiyah Caliphs Library in Cairo According to historians, there is 2400 al – Quran in this library. Some of them are written by famous writers and it was bind perfectly. Besides, there are 1200 of scripture comes from Tarikh Al-Tabari which one of them is handwritten. 100 copy of Al-Junharah book by Ibnu Duraid. At about 30 Al-„Ainscriptured by Khalid. All of the collection reached large amount of copy which is almost millions copy. These large collections contain many efforts in various disciplines, language, history, traditions, discussion and chemistry. Based on Abu Syamah and Al – Maqrizi, “This library is one of the wonders of the world; besides that unique and special library among others library at that time (medieval).” Amounts of the books at the library reached about 2,000,000 (2 million). This library contains several of knowledge, for example, Al – Quran, philosophy, astronomy, language, lexicography and medicine.


Special Library The special library is developed by individual mostly by pious person (ulama) and Islamic scholar (sarjana islam) for their own reference and collections. Below are the examples of the special library: i.

Perpustakaan Al- Fath Ibnu Haqam (247 H) The library was developed by Al-Fath Ibnu Haqam, who was a „wazir‟ from Al Mutawakkil Al Abbasi. Perpustakaan Al- Fath Ibnu Haqam was large library. Al–Fath gives his trusty to Ali bin Yahya Al–Munjim to collect all the books until his library contain lots of wisdom books which are cannot be found at Bayt al – Hikmah. Besides, the library also consists of writing text produced by Al-Jahiz which is the famous poet and writer. He was killed together with Caliph Al Mutawakkil at Samura on 818 M. He is a pious man which is love to read and has high dream. (Masruri, Anisddk, 2006 : 101).


Perpustakaan Hunain Ibni Ishaq The library collections areon medicine and languages.Hunain can speak fluently in 4 language such as Arab, Greece, Suryani and Paris language. He was the most mediator of ancient Greek science to the Arabs. He was the finest medical and scientific mind of the early Abbasid era. He went to Baghdad to study medicine as a young man.


Perpustakaan Ibnu Khasyab (567 H) IbnuKhasyab is a pious man to „nahwu‟ (Arabic Grammar). He has wide knowledge about „tafsir,‟ „hadith,‟ logic (mantic) and „filsafat.‟ He loves books until reached its limit which is greedy. This favorite helps him to collect all the knowledge and built his own library.


PerpustakaanJamaluddin Al Qifthi Jamaluddin Al Qifthi donated his library valued 50 Dollar to An-Nashir when he died. The library was being a reference and visited by many types of peoples as he is a philanthropist.



Pepustakaan Al MuwaffaqIbnulMathran (587 H) Al MuwaffaqIbnulMathran is specialist doctor and book lover. In his library, there are 10000 volumes of books. To increase the collection of the books, he copied the books himself as he is the famous writer and paid for 3 people to copy all of his writing texts. He repaired and preserves the library collections by himself.

As a conclusion, Umayyad and Abassid Era had developed knowledge to help people at the era become knowledgeable person. That is the why many library are built which can be found from public library, semi public library and special library. At this time, many people realize the important of knowledge until there is man who willing to sacrifice his property in order to built his own library so that he can help people gaining knowledge. That is why we should realize how important the knowledge is. Knowledge help people develop themselves and change human life. In terms of knowledge, library is suitable and good place to gain valuable knowledge and interesting information.


References Ahmad Mansyur. (2008, May 13). Perpustakaan pada masa peradaban masyarakat Islam. Retrieved from A.Rifqi Amin. (2012, Juli 1).Sejarah perkembangan Perpustakaan dalam dunia Islam. Retrieved from Hasan Langgulung.(1997). Pengenalan tamadun islam dalam pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Islamedia. (2012). Sejarah perpustakaan Islam: perintisan, peranan hingga kemunduran. Retrieved


perintisan.html Mohd









from Shaharom TM Sulaiman. (1999, Feb 18). Perpustakaan peradaban Islam.Utusan Online. Retrieved

from ec=Rencana&pg=ot_05.htm#ixzz2RGYFIRd6 Tschanz, David W. (2003). Hunayn bin Ishaq: the great translator. Retrieved from UPT.Perpustakaan & Informasi.(2011). Sejarah Perpustakaan Islam. Retrieved from SSID=d9e45f2590c19e203905c546c32e307f


THE ROLE OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN CHILDREN’S LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Nosheena Binti Hasmudin Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi Mara(UiTM),Malaysia Abstarct This article stress about the important role of public libraries in children literacy development.Through this article the author talk about the roles and approach that being done by the public libraries to expose the children with the reading materials during the crucial year of their growth.A few example also have being discuss regarding this particular topic where the author try to compare the program that being by conduct in United State and Malaysia. Keywords:Public Libraries, Children, Literacy, Reading Habits, Public libraries play an important roles in helping children to read. Parents and teachers should encourage the children to frequently visiting libraries to improve their children’s reading skills. Public libraries’ role is to expose children into great quantities of materials reading during the crucial preschools and elementary schools years. In this stage, they started to be exposed to a wide variety of high qualtity books from various topics, genres and perspectives in order to acquire literacy skills.Apart from that,they also need books that will reflect the diverse and multicultural nature of our society. For an examples in Malaysia, in the early stage parents or teachers will read the story telling about traditonal story, poems and folklore in the learning and teaching process. For a start,public libraries are helping to close the “book gap” by providing the children of all backgrounds access to high-quality reading materials and rich language experiences.According to the American Library Association (ALA), librarians work to ensure that as many children as possible with regardless of socioeconomic status and achieve their


full potential as readers. The link between libraries, children, and literacy is exemplified by the many services public libraries offer throughout the country. ALA statistics show that 94% of libraries offer study space for children, 95% offer summer reading programs, 89% provide story hours, and 83% work cooperatively with schools (American Library Association, 2000). But in Malaysia, there are less programs that related to childrens. Basically, in schools there have the readings programs but it no happen in continously. In public libraries also has several programs such as reading campaign and Kelab Membaca Sinar Pintar. These programs are to create awareness among the parents and also to the children about important of reading habits and roles of library. The public libraries must play important roles in continously doing the campaign of reading habits and preschool programs. These programs attract children who might not otherwise come to the library. As preschoolers, they visit the library for story hour with their parents or day-care center. As elementary and middle-school students, they are brought to the library by parents, camp counselors, or babysitters to participate in summer reading programs. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this evaluation examines how library preschool and reading habits programs contribute to children’s reading skills. Each public libraries have traditionally offered early literacy programming to preschool children in the form of storytimes. The libraries also need more spaces on children are. Through the use of wide range of high-quality picture books, songs, poetry, fingerplays, puppets and crafts, public libraries have been making literacy more fun. They have created inviting spaces for children to enjoy literacy-rich, hands-on experiences in an interactive and caring environment. I also suggested that the public libraries need to provide tips for parents on how to select and use age appropriate materials for their children. To increase the number of the children that unable to attend the libraries, it is necessary for libraries to take their programmes into the communities to where the children’s area. It includes daycares, schools, community, or an organization. As conclusion, by capturing a child’s interest and imagination early, librarians believe that they help children discover that libraries and literacy. It can be an enjoyable and valued part of their lives. Librarians believe that young children who become regular library users will benefit from the meaningful early literacy experiences available through storytimes. They


also believe that this will allow children to develop the early literacy, communication and social skills needed to be ready to learn by the time they enter school.

References Dr. Celano, Donna & Dr. Neuman,Susan (2001) The Role of Public Libraries in Children’s Literacy Development. Retrieved from


10 Most Wonderful Libraries in the World Nur Bazlina Binti A Manap Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia ABSTRACT This article is made for the purpose of exposing the 10 most wonderful libraries in the world to people. It is designed to tell people about the libraries’ brief history, the collections, the building, the materials used to build it and the architects involved in building the libraries. This paper will includes some pictures of the outer view and also inner view of the libraries. Keyword: Library, Wonderful Library, Incredible Library Introduction According to the Oxford Paperback Dictionary & Thesaurus, the word „library‟ means a building or room containing a collection of books which people can read or borrow. There are lots of libraries all over the world. It is functioned as the keeper for all the books collection that has been published within the area. However, there are 10 most wonderful libraries that catch people‟s eyes such as the St. Gallen Abbey Library in Switzerland, Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, Bibliotheca Espana in Spain, Black Diamond Library in Denmark, Herzog August Library in Germany, Jose Vasconcelos Library in Mexico, National Library of Belarus in Belarus, Library of Parliament in Canada, Geisel Library in California and The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library in Connecticut.


St. Gallen Abbey Library

Inner view of St. Gallen Abbey Library

Outer view of St. Gallen Abbey Library

St. Gallen Abbey Library located in Switzerland is also known as the „pharmacy of the soul‟. It is previously a hermitage built up b an Irish monk called Gallus. There are two cherubs holding a banner with Greek words written “Psyches iaterion” which means „soul apothecary‟ above the library door. Two things that becomes the point of attraction in this library are the huge quantity of books and the prettiness of the room. The library is made of strong mixture of rich woodwork, stucco and paintings at the ceiling. The stone and wood place on the floor level actually represents the Earth while the painting on the ceiling represents the paradise. There are 34 windows placed to lighten the entire room. The library consisted of 160 000 collections but only 30 000 of it is made available as some of the collection are believes to be too valuable to be shown to public. 400 books in this library are considered as more than 1000 years old that includes the Latin manuscript of the Gospel, the oldest book in German and also the architectural drawn of the abbey itself on five large pieces of sheepskin parchments sewn together. The glass cases are put to maintain the fine illuminated manuscripts.


Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Inner view of Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Outer view of Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Bibliotheca Alexandrina is also known in some other different names such as Alexandrian Library, Library of Alexandria and Mouseion. This library is actually a reincarnation of the ancient library of Alexandria which was founded by Ptolemy I and was severely damaged by fire during Julius Caesarâ€&#x;s invasion. It is situated in Alexandria, Egypt and was formerly functions as a temple. The plan on restoring the ancient library was set up by Alexandria University in 1974. The concept of the library is modern and striking. It has 160 meter diameter of glass panelled roof slanting out towards the sea. The outer wall of the library was made of grey Aswan granite with symbols from 120 different scripts engraved on it. The Main Reading Hall is able to hold approximately 2000 readers as a time. It also provided 200 study rooms for researchers and scholars. The books on the shelves were donated from around the world and consist of wide choices of subjects and languages. This library has six specialized libraries, four museums, a planetarium, nine screens for multimedia presentation, a virtual immersive science and technology applications system, an Exploratorium for children, fifteen permanent exhibitions four art galleries, a conference centre, eight research institutes and a discussion room.


Bibliotheca Espana

Outer view of Bibliotheca Espana Bibliotheca Espana or Spain Library was located at the top of the mountain in Medellin, Spain. It looks like a volcano comes up from the Earth. The libraryâ€&#x;s main focus is to accommodate a lot of programs, resources and services offers to all ages with a stress on small children. The project of building this library finished up in 2007. The concept of this library is ultra modern cubist design where users have to use the gondola called Metrocable to travel up the side of the mountain. The library is covered with black stone tiles while the libraryâ€&#x;s windows are rectangular and small which are arranged in a non- symmetric grouping. The periphery of the roof allowed the daylight to penetrate the building through a series of skylights that runs underneath it. The library has limited windows in order to break the connection of people from their contextual environment which makes the users to be in another world and modify their reality. This library is considered as a touristic point in the city where it attracts people to go to the library. The construction of the library has the motive of changing the reality of people in which they experienced daily into a warm environment based on natural light that allows great mood of study or lectures.


Black Diamond Library

Outer view of Black Diamond Library

Inner view of Black Diamond Library

Black Diamond Library was previously known only as the Royal Library. It was founded by King Frederick III in 1653 situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The library consists of the three famous Danish collections and also the King‟s own collections. After that, the library has moved into a proper building in 1673 and issued the first legal deposit legislation that demands the delivery of five copies of all books printed in Denmark. The library has been opened to public in 1793. After 195 years, the University Library has combined into the royal library starting from 1988 to 2005 which means that this library has served for two functions that are as a Copenhagen University Library and also as a National Library of Denmark. In 1999, three Danish architects have built a new building as the addition of the existing library which is located near the old library cathedral. The name „Black Diamond‟ refers to the prismatic sharp edges and the black marble plates and glass of the external surface that is able to reflect the water of the harbour. The black marble plate is made of total black granite from Zimbabwe that was cut in North Italy with the weight of 75 kilograms each. The panoramic view of the harbour can be seen from the balconies of central foyer. The library has seven floors that include four new reading rooms, a concert hall, exhibition galleries, bookshop, cafe and restaurant.


Herzog August Library

Outer view of Herzog August Library

Inner view of Herzog August Library

Herzog August Library can be also known as Herzog August Bibliothek. This library was honoured as the eighth wonder of the world. It was established by Herzog Julius zu Braunschweig (Duke Julius) in 1572 at the small town of Wolfenbüttel located between upland and Harz Mountains in Germany. Then, it was re-established by Herzog August zu Braunschweig (Duke August) in 1664. The library consists of 135 000 printed works and manuscripts on a very broad variation of subjects. This library also contains some other special collections such as Gospels of Henry the Lion, the most well known baronial book collections, books on painting, portrait engravings, historical cards and illustrated pamphlets. This library is also well-known because of their famous librarians which is Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz as the philosopher and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing as the German dramatist who wrote the famous play of “Nathan the Wise” on religious toleration in his house.


Jose Vasconcelos Library

Outer view of Jose Vasconcelos Library

Inner view of Jose Vasconcelos Library

The library designed by Alberto Kalach, a Mexican architect, is known as Jose Vasconcelos Library or Bibliotheca de Mexico which is located in Mexico City. This library is able to support up to 1.5 million books and 15 000 visitors per day. It is equipped with a botanical garden that matches its concept which is concrete and glass structure enclosed by greenery and water. The building has an outer shell that looks strong and secure surrounded by botanical gardens that act as the shield against the urbanism noise. The interior design of the library is filled by a network of bookshelves in a glass case that levitate in the middle of the building. There are also huge planes of glass and metal that includes the wide-panel aluminium ceilings to keep the libraryâ€&#x;s state of the art facilities to be in smooth appearance.


National Library of Belarus

Outer view of National Library of Belarus

Inner view of National Library of Belarus

National Library of Belarus was designed and built by Viktor Kramarenko and Michael Vinogradov in Minsk, Belarus. The library was founded in 1922 where it was initially a part of Belarusian State and University. After that, the library has been separated from the university and became a self-governing institution. The library was designed under the unique shape of an enormous diamond which symbolizes the huge value of knowledge stored in the books. It is covered with the glass panels during daytime and all the 24 sides will glitters like a real diamond while at night, the glass panel surface will be light up with colourful lights. The building has 22 floors that can be seated by 2000 patrons with a conference room that can be fit up to 500 people. The library holds over 8 million collections including the electronic database that consist of bibliographies, factual graphics, full-texts, graphics, sound, language database, humanities, social sciences, history, art and culture of Belarus.


Library of Parliament

Outer view of Library of Parliament

Inner view of Library of Parliament

The library of parliament is attached to the Canadaâ€&#x;s parliament building which is the Centre Block in Ottawa where both of the buildings are located at the highest point on Parliament Hill near to the Ottawa River. It is also can be known as Parliament Hill Library or Bibliotheque du Parlement. After the incidents whereby the Parliament building was caught on fire, the only building survived is the Library of Parliament. The building has gone through conservation, restoration and upgrading process for 4 years and was reopened again in 2006. Some of the extensive collections were moved back in. The library building was built under the style of Gothic Revival designed by Thomas Fuller who was a Canadian architect. The library was built with a rough external surface of Nepean sandstone, steep copper roof covered by iron cresting, branching out buttresses and huge pointed-arched windows that allowed the light into the reading room. The inner decorations are filled with variation of textures, colours and handcrafted detail. The white pine panelling in the library has been carved with flowers, masks and mythical beasts. There is also a white marble statue of the young Queen Victoria in the middle of the room. The library consists of a rare and specialized collection of more than 600 000 printed work that involves primarily with parliamentary procedure, economies, finance and constitutional law. The library also contains books, periodicals, government documents, CD-ROMs and videos.


Geisel Library

Outer view of Geisel Library

Inner view of Geisel Library

Geisel Library has been categorized under 25 most modern libraries in the world. The former name of this library is The University Library Building before it was changed into Geisel Library in order to compliment Audrey and Theodor Geisel for their contributions to the library and their dedication to enhancing literacy levels. The library was designed by William Pereira in 1970 with the support of concrete and glass library building that accommodate four of the universityâ€&#x;s nine libraries. The library has eight stories located near the centre of the UCSD campus, California. This library has act as the main repository that kept more than 8500 items documenting the complete range of Geiselâ€&#x;s creative achievements.


The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Outer view of Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Inner view of Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript has the biggest building that maintains and preserve rare books, manuscripts and documents. This library was designed by Gordon Bunshaft in 1960 and is situated in New Haven, Connecticut. The building was made of Vermont Woodbury marble and granite with bronze and glass. These marble panels will clarify light in order to avoid the rare materials from any damage. This library consists of the primary rare books and literary manuscripts from Yale University. This library has kept 500 000 printed works and several millions of manuscripts. Conclusion As a conclusion, these most wonderful libraries help on attracting people. Its unique building with the accommodations provided draw people to use the library and enhanced their reading habits. Moreover, these libraries also have made their users to feel comfortable to read books and also to do their work in the library. This is very good to encourage people on using the libraries often and help users to gain extra knowledge about new things.


Bibliography ArchDaily. (2010, June 29). AD classics: Beinecke rare book and manuscript library. Retrieved on 2013, April 6 from ArchDaily. (2008, June 17). Espana library. Retrieved on 2013, April 6 from ArchDaily. (2010, December 27). Vasconcelos library. Retrieved on 2013, April 6 from Arnold, W. (1990, Winter). Herzog August library. Journal of Library History, 25(1), 151152. Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library. (2013). About the building. Retrieved on 2013, April 6 from Canadaâ€&#x;s Historic Places. (n.d.). Parliament Hill, library. Retrieved on 2013, April 6 from Celsus: A Library Architecture Resource. (2013). The national library of Belarus. Retrieved on




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Top 15 most famous librarians in history Nur Azzura Azzahra Jaafar Salzawany Abdul Karim Faculty of Information Management Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia ABSTRACT Librarian is one profession that responsible in dealing and managing the library materials, they required to have knowledge in various kind of field in order for them to help and assist user in finding material that they needed. In the history of librarian, there are several famous librarian that can be consider as an icon in information management profession, this article describe briefly related to those librarian that can be consider as a role model so that others that also involve in the field of knowledge management can gain certain knowledge on how to be a great librarian. Keyword: Famous librarian, librarian icons.


Ben Franklin

Ben Franklin was a great librarian where Ben Franklin didn’t sit behind a circulation desk and help college kids find research materials, but he is still a legitimate librarian. In 1731, Franklin and his philosophy group Junto organized the “Article of Agreement,” which set up the nation’s first library. Their library, called The Library Company, was first meant to benefit only the members of Junto, so that they could share books on the issues they discussed during meetings. It was organized as a subscription library, and members of Junto paid a small fee to retrieved books. Franklin was actually the second librarian, and the Company grew to include more books than most university libraries at the time, plus artifacts like coins and fossils. Over time, the Library Company granted access to members of the Second Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention and others.


Melvil Dewey

He were founder of the Dewy Decimal System, Melvil Dewey was born in New York in a different cataloging and organization methods for library collections, Amherst College published his work A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library. Dewey has been named the “Father of Modern Librarianship� and even helped created the American Library Association in 1876. Eratosthenes

The Greek scholar Eratosthenes discovered the system of latitude and longitude and made significant contributions to astronomy. Eratosthenes was also the chief librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria.


Saint Lawrence

He was as one of the patron saints of librarians, Saint Lawrence, or Lawrence of Rome who was a Catholic deacon who was killed by the Romans in 258 for refusing to turn over the collection of Christian treasures and document then he was entrusted to protect. . Mao Zedong

He is the person who responsible for uniting China during the 1940s and 50s when he organized the People Republic of China, was a librarian. In 1918, Mao lived in Peking China as a young man. In the meantime he was as assistants at Peking University. The chief librarian at Peking University was a Marxist, and succeeded in converting Mao to communism.


Seyd Mohammad Khatami

He was the fifth president of Iran and a former Iran Minister of culture. He is also a former head of the National Library and Archives Organization of Iran. He is considered to be a reformist in Iranian culture and politics, supporting freedom of expression and foreign diplomacy.

Golda Meir

He was the fourth prime minister of Israel, from 1969-1974. She was also one of the twenty-four who signed the Israel declaration of independence in 1948. He is a ambassador to the Soviet Union, a Minister of Labour from 1949-1956, and the inspiration for the Broadway play Golda which starred Anne Bancroft. Before her distinguished political career Golda Meir worked as a librarian.


J. Edgar Hoover

As the legendary director of the FBI, J.Edgar Hoover led domestic investigation from 1924-1972 as head of the Bureau of investigation and when he founded the FBI in 1935. In his early life, however, Hoover went to night school at Goerge Washinton University and supported himself by working at the Library of Congress. There, he was a messenger, cataloger and clerk. In 1919, Hoover left the Library of Congress and worked as a special assistant to the Attorney General. John J. Beckley

He was recognized as being the first political campaign manager in the U.S. He was also the first Librarian of the United Stated Congress, serving from 1802-1807. In 189, he was sponsored by James Madison to be the Clerk of the House and supported the new Republic party in 1792, backed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.


Giacomo Casanova

The famous spy, writer, diplomat and lover Casanova. He was born in Venice during the first half of the 18th century. Although he studied to become a priest at the University of Padua and the seminary of St. Cypria, Casanova is well-known for being a drinker and for having scandalous love affairs with numerous women. Later in life, he worked as librarian for the Count of Waldstein in Dux, Bohemia.

Pope Pius XI, or Achille Ratti

Pope Pius XI served from 1929-1939, during which time he established the feast of Christ the King and spoke out against social justice crimes and unethical financial corruption practices. Before he becomes pope, Ratti was a librarian and scholar and at the Vatican, Pope Pius XI famously reorganized the archives.


David Hume

Scotsman David Hume contributed greatly to 18th century philosophy and economics, writing important works like Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and A Treatise on Human Nature. He was an anti-Mercantilist and according to The New School, Hume “was also one of the better articulators of the Quantity Theory and the neutrality of money”. In 1752, Hume became a librarian at the Advocate’s Library in Edinburgh, where he wrote his famous History of England. Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp is considered to be one of the most significant and influential modern artists of the Dadaist and Surrealist movements. Duchamps was born in the HauteNormandie region in France, where he took drawing and painting classes as a child. In the arly 1900’s, Duchamps experimented with Cubism, nude works and was active in the intellectual and artistic groups influencing the newest culture and trends in Paris at the time. Around 1912, Duchamps become tired of painting and worked as a librarian at the Bibliotheque Saint-Genvieve, during which he devoted his time to math and physics experiments.


Lewis Carroll The author of Alice’s Adventure in Wonderland and through the looking Glass, Lewis Carroll’s real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodson. Dodson grew up in Chesire and Yorkshire, England and after graduating from Oxford with B.A. in mathematics, he became a sub-librarian at Christ Church there. He left that position in 1857 to become a Mathematical Lecturer. Dodson first told the story of Alice Adventures in Wonderland to the three daughters of the Dean of Christ Church, in 1862. The book was published three years later and continues to be a popular and significant work of fiction today.

Beverly Cleary She was popular children books author Beverly Cleary wrote the Ramona Quimby books and Henry Higgins books and has received three Newbery Medals. But before she became a celebrated author, Beverly grew up in a tiny town in Oregon where her mother asked the State Library to send books to their farm. During the depression, Beverly went to junior college in California and later attended the University of California at Berkeley.


Reference Top 25 most famous librarians in history. (2013). Retrived March 22, 2013, from World Wide Web:

























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