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FINAL REVIEW 2010/2011

Yefim Freidine Soviet Ideology of Preservation: How It Works Today (The Ideology of Preservation)


2

Soviet ideology of preservation: How It Works today? 1. History: genetic code of soviet ideology of preservation 2. Contemporary situation: mediator is missing 3. Plan for mediacampaign: action in the field

Scientific restoration of Kazan Cathedral on the Red Square (arch.Baranovsky, 1925-1933) Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Plan


3

Lecturers

Natalya Dushkina (MARHI) Meetings

Alexander Kibovsky (MosComNasledie)

Alexander Margolis (Memorial)

Boris Kirikov (former KGIOP)

Kira Dolinina (European University)

The lecture by Kira Dolinina ‘Great’ St.Petersburg museums: imperial ambitions, territorial expansions, the test for contemporary art. The 7th of March 2011

Vladimir Shukhov (Do.co.mo.mo) Experts

Michael Turner (Unesco)

Georgy Evdokimov (Central restoration workshops) 29

Marina Khrustaleva (Archnadzor) Keepers

Grigory Revzin (Kommersant)

Elena Olshanskaya (Lissitsky' printing office)

Yekaterina Karinskaya (Melnikov' house)

Clementine Cecil (MAPS)

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Experts http://screenshots.etvnet.com/000/278/050/b02.jpg http://www.rospres. com/backup/margolis.jpg


genetic code of the ideology of preservation in soviet times

Public organisation International support Professional society Regional network

State Organisation

1907

Public State

VOOPIK All-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

MAPS Russian mansion amateurs etc. DO.CO.MO.MO ICOMOS UNESCO

Academy of Architecture Ethnographers' bureau branches

Ethnographic museums

Central state restoration workshops

Narkompros 1917

Production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

1937

VOOPIK's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops Regional restoration institutes&workshops Federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage

VOOPIK's restoration workshops

State inspection for protection of monuments

RosSvyazOhranKultura/Federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

Ministry of culture 1947

Office for state protection of heritage

1957

1967

1977

1987

1997

2007

System of protection 2010 >15000

8000 listed monuments 1995 8834 1930 8000

Genetic code

Regional scientific-production center Regional department of culture for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Ministry of construction 1927

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Regional office of culture

Central state restoration workshops

Comission of Academy of Architecture

Museum department of Glavnauka (Science)

Russian avantguard Archnadzor foundation

Academy of Architecture

Regional inspections for protection of monuments

Gubmusei (regional museums)

Professional restorers

Laws

Old Moscow, Old Saint-Petersburg Russian mansion amateurs etc.

4

1. Heritage as abandoned disfunctional monuments 2. Closed community 3. Opposition to the officials 4. Emotional defense of heritage 5. Public support as part of state system 6. State is the only a mediator of dispute 7. Total restoration 8. Inhabited heritage 9. Activism as way of defending

abandoned builngs as museums 1974 6515

1923 2870 1930Museum of wooden architecture 1947 (Msk) 2000in Kolomenskoe 550

536 (1990)

478 (2000)

115 (1986) Mansion/palace in Archangelskoe as museums

Kazan41cathedral as museum of religious history and atheism (Spb)(2010)

Statistic of monuments in federal lists Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://webmarki.com/pochtovya-marka-sssr http://photos.sochi.org.ru/v/arch-sochi/zdravnici/


genetic code of the ideology of preservation in soviet times

Public organisation International support Professional society Regional network

State Organisation

1907

Ethnographers' bureau branches

VOOPIK All-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

Central state restoration workshops

Production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

Russian avantguard Archnadzor foundation

1937

Office for state protection of heritage

VOOPIK's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops Regional restoration institutes&workshops Federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage

VOOPIK's restoration workshops

State inspection for protection of monuments

RosSvyazOhranKultura/Federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

Ministry of culture 1947

1957

1967

1977

1987

1997

2007

System of protection 2010 >15000

Blasting of the Christ the Saviour cathedral, 1931

1995 8834 1930 8000

1923 2870

Genetic code

Regional scientific-production center Regional department of culture for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Ministry of construction 1927

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Regional office of culture

Central state restoration workshops

Comission of Academy of Architecture

Narkompros

MAPS Russian mansion amateurs etc. DO.CO.MO.MO ICOMOS UNESCO

Academy of Architecture

Regional inspections for protection of monuments

Ethnographic museums

Museum department of Glavnauka (Science)

1917

State

Disbanded system

Academy of Architecture

Gubmusei (regional museums)

Professional restorers

Laws

Old Moscow, Old Saint-Petersburg Russian mansion amateurs etc.

5

1. Heritage as abandoned disfunctional monuments 2. Closed community 3. Opposition to the officials 4. Emotional defense of heritage 5. Public support as part of state system 6. State is the only a mediator of dispute 7. Total restoration We have enormous set of architectural and technical media to reject the 8. Inhabited heritage threat of demolition of architectural monuments an enrich city image. Excessive sizes of squares and streets are unprofitable threaten 9. Activism asandway ofto heritage G.Krutikov, protection inspector, 1940 G.Krutikov in 1940 defending

Planning scheme doesn't stop before demolition of one or another monument, if it's on the way of urban development

L.Kaganovich, officer for moscow metro and ÂŤMasterplan of Moscow reconstructionÂť

1974 6515

-75% monuments removed from list

1930 2000

536 (1990)

115 (1986) 1947 550

478 (2000)

41 (2010)

Statistic of monuments in federal lists Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://webmarki.com/pochtovya-marka-sssr http://photos.sochi.org.ru/v/arch-sochi/zdravnici/


genetic code of the ideology of preservation in soviet times

Public organisation International support Professional society Regional network

State Organisation Laws 1907

VOOPIK All-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

Old Moscow, Old Saint-Petersburg Russian mansion amateurs etc.

State

Russian mansion amateurs etc. DO.CO.MO.MO ICOMOS UNESCO

Academy of Architecture Ethnographers' bureau branches Ethnographic museums

Central state restoration workshops

Narkompros 1917

Production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

1937

VOOPIK's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops Regional restoration institutes&workshops Federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage

VOOPIK's restoration workshops

State inspection for protection of monuments

RosSvyazOhranKultura/Federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

Ministry of culture 1947

Office for state protection of heritage

1957

1967

1977

1987

1997

2007

System of protection 2010 >15000

Nikita Khrushev

Jozef Stalin

Ust'-Ilim Hydropower station 1930 8000

Tower of Ust-Ilim fortress 1995in museum (Irkutsk) 8834 1974 6515

536 (1990)

478 (2000)

15 000 000 members of All-Russian

society for protection of historical and cultural monuments (VOOPIK) 115 (1986)

1923 2870 1930 New Arbat (Kalininsky2000 avenue) in Moscow

Genetic code

Regional scientific-production center Regional department of culture for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Ministry of construction 1927

Russian avantguard Archnadzor foundation

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Regional office of culture Central state restoration workshops

Comission of Academy of Architecture

Museum department of Glavnauka (Science)

MAPS

Academy of Architecture

Regional inspections for protection of monuments

Gubmusei (regional museums)

Professional restorers

6

1947 550

Statistic of monuments in federal lists

1. Heritage as abandoned disfunctional monuments 2. Closed community 3. Opposition to the officials 4. Emotional defense of heritage 5. Public support as part of state system 6. State is the only a mediator of dispute 7. Total restoration 8. Inhabited heritage 9. Activism as way of defending

41 (2010) Suzdal - turistic center and city-reserve

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://webmarki.com/pochtovya-marka-sssr http://photos.sochi.org.ru/v/arch-sochi/zdravnici/


genetic code of the ideology of preservation in soviet times

7

Gatchina palace was burnt during german occupation of Leningrad suburbs.

Genetic code 1. Heritage as abandoned disfunctional monuments 2. Closed community 3. Opposition to the officials 4. Emotional defense of heritage 5. Public support as part of state system 6. State is the only a mediator of dispute 7. Total restoration 8. Inhabited heritage 9. Activism as way of defending

Postwar Postwar total total restoration restoration

Contemporary state Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://webmarki.com/pochtovya-marka-sssr http://photos.sochi.org.ru/v/arch-sochi/zdravnici/


genetic code of the ideology of preservation in soviet times

8

Genetic code

Heritage Heritage of of XX XX century century

Institute in Sochi (arch.Tshussev) was listed in 1974 (2011)

1. Heritage as abandoned disfunctional monuments 2. Closed community 3. Opposition to the officials 4. Emotional defense of heritage 5. Public support as part of state system 6. State is the only a mediator of dispute 7. Total restoration 8. Inhabited heritage 9. Activism as way of defending

Resort in Sochi (arch.M.Merjanov) was listed in 1974 (2011) Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://webmarki.com/pochtovya-marka-sssr http://photos.sochi.org.ru/v/arch-sochi/zdravnici/


contemporary situation in preservation field

Public organisation International support Professional society Regional network

State Organisation Laws 1907

Academy of Architecture Ethnographers' bureau branches

Regional inspections for protection of monuments

Central state restoration workshops

1917

Regional office of culture Central state restoration workshops

Comission of Academy of Architecture

Narkompros

1937

Production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

1957

1967

VOOPIK's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops Regional restoration institutes&workshops Federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage

RosSvyazOhranKultura/Federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

Ministry of culture

1947

Office for state protection of heritage

Regional scientific-production center Regional department of culture for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

1977

1987

Sergey Polonsky real-estate developer

Marina Khrustaleva activist, journalist, Archnadzor Sergey Gordeev, ex-senator, Russian avanguard foundation

Vladimir Ressin (building department supervisor), Vladimir Putin (prime-minister), Jury Luzhkov (ex-mayor of Moscow)

Grigory Revzin, architectural critic, journalist

Russian avantguard Archnadzor foundation

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

VOOPIK's restoration workshops

State inspection for protection of monuments

Ministry of construction 1927

MAPS

Russian mansion amateurs etc. DO.CO.MO.MO ICOMOS UNESCO Academy of Architecture

Ethnographic museums

Museum department of Glavnauka (Science)

Public International State Private State VOOPIK All-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

Old Moscow, Old Saint-Petersburg Russian mansion amateurs etc.

Gubmusei (regional museums)

Professional restorers

9

Alexander Kibovsky, head of Moskomnasledie Natalia Dushkina, expert on preservation of modern architecture

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

1997

2007

Contemporary situation: missing mediator 1. Fragmentation of protection system 2. Replication and preservation as antisoviet politic 3. No preservation/ No development

-90% historical cities list


contemporary situation in preservation field

10

Kazan cathedral (1936/1989)

Kolomenskoe (1750/2009) Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Contemporary situation: missing mediator 1. Fragmentation of protection system 2. Replication and preservation as antisoviet politic 3. No preservation/ No development


contemporary situation in preservation field

11

Development

Contemporary situation: missing mediator 1. Fragmentation of protection system 2. Replication and preservation as antisoviet politic 3. No preservation/ No development

Ruins Preservation Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Defense of Kadashy (2010, Moscow): new ruins


contemporary situation in preservation field

12

Development

Preservation Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Contemporary situation: missing mediator 1. Fragmentation of protection system 2. Replication and preservation as antisoviet politic 3. No preservation/ No development


contemporary situation in preservation field

13

Development

Mediation Preservation Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Contemporary situation: missing mediator 1. Fragmentation of protection system 2. Replication and preservation as antisoviet politic 3. No preservation/ No development


media-capmaign in preservation field

14

Plan for media campaign

world war i

1917 civil war empire collapse

keePer and restorer: sigHt on History

the preservationist community is fairly clannish; it obtains the necessary data from professional publications like the Hermitage magazine and our Heritage and from conference reports. this community is subdivided into two major groups: the keepers of heritage (museum staff, overseeing state functionaries) and the restorers (who actually perform the restoration and “editing” of national history, sometimes reinterpreting and presenting it anew). the exponents of either group are, as a rule, conversant with the history of their profession, adhering to particular schools and certain principles of which their circle possesses quite a few. they can be easily contacted, once you found common ground, and they set great store by the names of their icons. We have chosen two figures—Count Valentin Zuboff and Piotr baranovsky—from the many worthy names. they both started working during the october revolution, but each in his own manner. Zubov gradually came to adopt the attitude of a keeper that he put into practice at the former Palace in gatchina, while baranovsky became a model restorer, working in that official capacity from 1918 until the 1980s. Zuboff was a champion of wholeness, striving to preserve cultural heritage in its context, together with entire historical strata in their transformation. emotional bonding with the object of preservation was very important for him. baranovsky, on his part, valued most of all the genuine look of a monument as it was in its heyday, not its current appearance with possible later additions or subtractions. He found inspiration in research and imaginative reconstruction of history. the two men shared great activity and certain radicalism—in the cause of preservation, they were ready to go to all lengths, ignoring political and economic considerations, as well as state borders. Unfolding my story through the abovementioned figures and demonstrating the controversial nature of the decisions they made, i “cracked”—so to speak—the genetic code of national system of preservation

of historical monuments. i juxtapose the old and new practices and modes of thinking, demonstrating a direct link between them, to prompt the keepers and restorers of today to think about relevant problems in this field. For better or worse, the results of older and more recent renovations are here for all to see. this would involve some degree of responsibility. Would it be right, in this connection, to pursue the old soviet ideology of preserving dead heritage regardless? this article might result in a discussion about preserving historic monuments that are still inhabited which would require working out new strategies of preservation. conferences of keepers of small museums who need additional expertise and opportunities for the development of their institutions under current conditions could be a logical continuation of this trend.

Kazan cathedral on the Red square in Moscow: disclosure, restoration (1925), demolition (1934), replication (1989)

Renovation on new place (in Kolomenskoe, Moscow from Irkutsk region)

modern movement

Kazan cathedral on the Red square in Moscow: disclosure, restoration (1925), demolition (1934), replication (1989)

Professionals chief of moscow deputy branch of сhief

Сollaborator of 1939

our experts in the above-mentioned domain were: igor malakhov, a designer from samara who developed the program for the togliatti museum of flooded cities; georgi yevdokimov, a restorer of the moscow kremlin; yelena olshanskaya, the keeper of the Lisitsky Printing Office, Moscow; Kira Dolinina, an art critic and professor at the european University, st. Petersburg, clementine cecil from moscow architecture preservation society, natalya dushkina, expert on preservation of modernist' heritage. a related event: “re/evolution of avant-guard: life, place, time” meeting of keepers in commemoration of s.o.khan-magomedov at Strelka Institute (14/06/2011, co-curator - Maria Troshina)

old russian style

1940 made a critical report on moscow reconstruction plan and preservation of historic buildings 1928 graduated from ladovsky studio in vkHUtemas with widely known diploma project on future cities.

1933

1940 1946

1951

Comission on protection of monuments in academy of architecture

State inspection for protection of monuments

1958

first >moscultprog tour: church and Palaces of kirillov on bersenevskaya embankment

George Krutikov, konstructivist, under influence of Piotr Baranovsky became keeper, then - head of Moscow system of preservation (1946-56)

khan-magomedov s.o. «g.krutikov»

1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Wooden palace in Kolomenskoe Replication after 250 years (1750s/ 2009)

Scientifical restoration on optimal epoche (1940s)

1948 Prepared the list of architectural monuments for moscow 1943 execute documentation on different sites in moscow: krutitskoe podvorie, church and palaces on bersenevskaya embankment

Alisa Bogdonaite, Museum of Russian Architecture

Museum of wooden architecture in Kolomenskoe

Andrey Erofeev, curator, art critic, expert on New Avantguard

Sergey Nikitin, art historian, founder Moskultprog and Velonotte

Interior of Gatchina palace

Elena Olshanskaya, keeper of Lissitsky' printing office

Piotr Baranovsky, restorer, founder of museum in Kolomenskoe, exiled 1934-1936. Vladimir Shukhov, president of Shukhov tower foundation, head of Do.Co.Mo.Mo in Russia

Ekaterina Karinskaya, keeper of Konstantin and Viktor Melnikov' House

Count Valentin Zuboff, art historian, keeper, founder of Gatchina museum immigrated in 1925

http://www.strelkainstitute.com/en/#url=/en/summer/events/511

Stalin/Tschussev dialogue about future

Krutikov/Kaganovich dialogue about urbanization

in my oPinion tHe decision (demolition of toWer) Was rigHt, i sUPPose, tHat soviet PeoPle coUld create greater and more memorable examPles of arcHitectUre tHan sUkHareva toWer

our society is able to create the beauty, immensely more excellent than all, what could be dreamt about in the past

>15000 (2010)

Planning scHeme doesn't stoP before demolition of one or anotHer monUment, if it'S on the way of Urban develoPment l.kaganoviCh, officer for moscoW moscow general plan curated by kaganovich&stalin 1935

v.lenin, 1918

nowhere people could learn such artistic range as that was done by nobility at its zenith

Sergey Polonsky , real-estate developper

1934 blasting of sukhareva tower by traffic reason (officially)

a.lunacharsky «Why we protect romanov'

We Have enormoUs Set of arcHitectUral and tecHnical media to rejeCt the threat of demolition of arChiteCtural monumentS an enriCh City image. excessive siZes of sQUares and streets are UnProfitable and tHreaten to Heritage g.krutikov, Protection insPector, demolition of toWer is inaPProPriate, if tHe target is adJUstment of traffic, tHe resUlt can be acHieved by otHer medias a.tShuSSev and groUP of arcHitects

a.lunacharsky

the head of 1929

1918

narkompros Commissariat of enlightenment

bombing of moscow kremlin by bolsheviks 1917

1927

1937

1933

1947

1957

1967

1977

1987

1997

Marina Khrustaleva activist, journalist, Archnadzor Sergey Gordeev, ex-senator, Russian avanguard foundation

g.krutikov

2007

General Public Preservationist' community

State organisation laws State/private/public 1907 system of preservation

15 mln members (1981)= 3/4 communist party

6 mln members (1971)

established (1966)

voopik all-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

old moscow, old Saint-petersburg russian mansion amateurs etc.

-75%

ethnographers' bureau branches gubmusei (regional museums)

2000 (1930)

museum department of glavnauka (Science) narkompros 1917

regional inspections for protection of monuments

production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

Regional office of culture

Public suPPort

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

115 (1986)

550 (1947)

Central state restoration workshops

1937

russian avantguard archnadzor foundation

academy of architecture

ethnographic museums

Comission of academy of architecture ministry of construction 1927

mapS russian mansion amateurs etc. do.Co.mo.mo iComoS uneSCo

academy of architecture

Central state restoration workshops

in federal lists

professional restorers

voopik: own budget/workshops

al cities

regional network

25

mln rubleS from sales from State hermitage and other museums' collections

source: osokina «gold for industrialization», Jukov «stalin: operation Hermitage»

Ю.Б. Галай Нормативные акты об охране колоколов и их практическая реализация в Нижегородской губернии

international support professional society

to preServaCtion?

Antiquariat auction trade from museum collections for inustrialisation needs

2870 (1923)

oric listed hist

60%

of cost came back to museum

Recycling of bells by Rudmetalltorg

478 (2000)

archnadzor 6/02/2010 up to 700 participators in protest manifestation

6515 (1974)

of industrialization needs or price of tractor plant in tchelyabinsk

40%

public organisation

8834 (1995)

536 (1990)

Voopik/Archnadzor

of cost came to the budget of city

Natalia Dushkina, expert on preservation of modern architecture

Grigory Revzin, architectural critic, journalist

gostorg in moscow

2%

Alexander Kibovsky, head of Moskomnasledie

mentioned

8000(1930)

rudmetalltorg – office of metall stocking and trade for industrialization needs

Vladimir Ressin (building department supervisor), Vladimir Putin (prime-minister), Jury Luzhkov (ex-mayor of Moscow)

monuments

activity. i propose lifting communication barriers between all participants, creating an operational vocabulary of terms and forms of interaction not only within the preservationist sphere but also outside it. the present publication is intended for mass media including the kommersant-vlast’, the russian reporter, the new times, the gazeta.ru, the expert, etc. our principal experts in this area were: alexander margolis (memorial, Unesco expert, spb), alexander kibovsky (Head of moskomnaledie), marina khrustaleva (activist, journalist, archnadzor), clementine cecil (maPs, journalist), grigori revzin (architectural critic), tatiana krasheninnikova (deputy director of kremlin museum), boris kirikov (head of saint-Peterburg branch of institute of theory of architecture and Urbanistic, niitag). a related event was our participation in the conference of the niitag raasn titled “Urban Problems of Preservation” (June 9–10, 2011), with a report on the interaction between the old and new city.

history and its heritage. the structural transformation of the protection system itself, the involvement of public support in it became new characteristics of the “state–heritage” situation. it is important that private enterprise which, starting from the 1990s, became part of the system after legalizing the self-financed building projects that had existed unofficially before can no longer be controlled by the state: the entire activity is now contract based. the same applies to the parties renting monuments— they work under contract, on mutually beneficial terms. Who but the state authorities and urban protection movements backed by civil society has the real power over our heritage? for even the owners of historic buildings have no real power to preserve or destroy them. by unfolding the socio-political topic of power and history, by delineating my own map of the world and demonstrating that the old leviathan tears the historical fabric of the city to pieces with appalling efficiency, I try to involve a wide audience in our

Quantity of

PoWer and Heritage

1907

the second target audience of our planned campaign are decisions makers, including state officials, and members of movements protecting urban heritage. the goal of this publication is their serious, nonformal involvement in the sphere of heritage preservation, as well as the definition of the current state and structure of that sphere and an attempt to create an efficient vocabulary for interaction within it. the article is based on a reconstruction of the historical context of current state of dissonance in the sphere of urban development, especially as regards the demolition of historic blocks of the capital. it is important for the parties involved to see one another as parts of the same system, to have a clear perception of the history of their relationship. during the soviet epoch they were all technically the gears of the same governmental clockwork, with each gear acting in the interests of the whole machinery. the dynamics of listing architectural monuments entitled to protection—as regards their number and identity—show the state’s changing attitude to

private/commercial

State inspection for protection of monuments

1957

1967

the third direction of our media campaign suggests a possible strategy of heritage preservation and opens a potential new sphere of activity (or a new sector of market) for professionals like developers and middlemen. the article is based on case studies of the interaction between the processes of preservation and destruction which led to various results, including favorable ones. the transformation of the very hub of that interaction—which took place in bureaucrats’ offices, at architects’ desks and even on building sites—is demonstrated. another aspect of the paper concerns the object of preservation. What will it be: the historical environment, some spatial structure, or some incorporeal, intangible constituent? We have so far two government initiated cases in russia: the pilot project of Block 130 in Irkutsk and the transformation of the gorky Park in moscow. the irkutsk project features traditional wooden architecture of mid-19th century, while the gorky Park basically involves landscape architecture reproducing the czar’s palace and structures of early soviet era. both cases illustrate the interaction between parties previously regarded as antagonists whose conflict of socio-economic and political interests is now resolved beyond the framework of architectural projects. there is an organizational structure suggested for Block 130. The foundation and management company involved in it tried to take into account the interests of all concerned parties: investors, owners, architects, restorers, the state and of course the prospective end users. as regards the gorky Park project, a system of preliminary discussions was put forward. those discussions are supposed to align the attitudes of participants and to define the object of preservation. the extremely diverse range of people (professional architects, landscape designers, keepers, social scientists, investors, art directors, various officials, local residents, etc.) attracted by those discussions all ended up “in the same boat.” Trying to find common ground they discussed various issues sitting literally on the same level, without a central stage. there was a “roomful of kids of different ages,” as fred manson (urban renewal specialist from the United kingdom) described the participants of the gorky Park preservation round table. the object of preservation includes something more than just blueprints, archaeological layers and the remains of buildings from various eras. these are memories and feelings. the object of the project is an extremely subtle combination of various traditions that emerged, relative to the park, in different generations, involving different spaces and scenic effects that express them. the interesting part is that the park becomes a stage for an ever-changing set of actors—ordinary people who visit it and bring to life the preserved

governmental

1977

1987

1997

blasting/recycling new moscow 1935

destruction/ future heritage urbanization

socialist ideology& industrialization +present affirmation state regional Professionals PUblic sUPPort

socialist ideology& urbanization +futuristic position state regional Professionals PUblic sUPPort

Restorers, historians, ethnographers + citizens, nimby

traditions and spaces. kids laugh, old men noisily move chess pieces, reenactment aficionados recreate the universe of tolkien or the napoleonic invasion. The just described process of mediation is not unique even in the case of russia—similar models were being used for about 30 years. However, the critical mass of the process of social-oriented design, especially in the sphere of heritage protection, may prove a turning point in architectural history, attracting professionals of all descriptions. our experts were: grigory revzin (architectural critic), mark meerovich (methodologist, architectural historian), alexander margolis (deputy chief of spb “memorial” branch, historian). a related event: “the gorky Park: the Past and the Future,” a round table at Strelka (May 18, 2011, moderated by nikita tokarev).

Mechanism preservation>>>of next Preservation

rosSvyazohrankultura/federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

ministry of culture 1947

Office for state protection of heritage

Regional scientific-production center for regional department of culture preservation of historical and cultural heritage

voopik's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops 41 (2010) regional restoration institutes&workshops federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage

voopik's restoration workshops

strategy of Preservation

Lenin/Lunatcharsky dialogue about creativity

2007

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

mansion/palace museums

state regional Professionals PUblic sUPPort

commercialization affirmation of selfidentity

Gorky park in Moscow: from Attack of fountain to New old symbols.

tower of ust-ilim fortress in museum (irkutsk)

megaprojects, ust-ilim hydroelectric power station, 19601980

postwar palace renovation

regional

Professionals

PeoPle

kazan cathedral as museum of religious history and atheism (Spb)

preservationist

media&architect +owner

planner&owner

1930(-75%) 1966(+75%) museum of wooden architecture in kolomenskoe (msk)

2011(-90%)(city)

veracity& veracity& authenticity authenticity +futuristic position +balance old/new

veracity& authenticity +image of the past

Architects,

state regional Professionals PUblic sUPPort

painters, restorers state + defending of regional religious values Professionals PUblic sUPPort

Architects,

painters, restorers, state historians, ethnographers regional +tourists, peasants Professionals PUblic sUPPort

defense

recreation of palace in kolomenskoe (model of 1947, application in 1978), demolished in Xviii century

Sukhareva square 1935 new moscow 1924

PUblic sUPPort

Professionals

middleman

State

History of planning structure

aggressive formulation of the problem for the preservationist community and the breaking of the latter’s restrictive circle; exposure of the current heritage preservation system and the motivations of its participants, with the arrangement of their dialogue in the media; the creation of an adequate vocabulary for such a dialogue; the suggestion of new approaches and mechanisms—all those are but initial steps in the possible transformation of the heritage preservation system based on the study of its ideology which was shaped in the Soviet period.


media-capmaign in preservation field

15

Plan for media campaign

Count Valentin Zubov Gatchina palace keeper arrested in 1918, 1922 emigrated in 1925

Keeper and restorer. Samples Piotr Baranovsky restorer, activist, official exiled in 1934-1936

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Kazan cathedral on the Red square in Moscow: disclosure, restoration (1925), demolition (1934), replication (1989)


media-capmaign in preservation field

16

Round table talk ÂŤRe/evolution of avant-guardÂť in commemoration of S.O.Khan-Magomedov june 14,2011 Andrey Erofeev, curator, art critic, expert on New Avantguard curators: Y.Freidin, M.Troshina

Alisa Bogdonaite, Museum of Russian Architecture

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Elena Olshanskaya, keeper of Lissitsky' printing office Nar.kom.fin: art group or residents

Vladimir Shukhov, president of Shukhov tower foundation, head of Do.Co.Mo.Mo in Russia

Ekaterina Karinskaya, keeper of Konstantin and Viktor Melnikov' House Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

http://www.strelkainstitute.com/en/#url=/en/summer/events/511


media-capmaign in preservation field

International support Professional society

State Organisation

1907

Old Moscow, Old Saint-Petersburg Russian mansion amateurs etc.

Ethnographers' bureau branches

Regional inspections for protection of monuments

Ethnographic museums

Central state restoration workshops

Narkompros 1917

VOOPIK's restoration workshops

State inspection for protection of monuments

Ministry of culture

Ministry of construction

1927

1937

1947

1957

1967

1977

Russian avantguard Archnadzor foundation

Academy of Architecture

Scientific-production center for preservation of historical and cultural heritage

Regional office of culture

Central state restoration workshops

Comission of Academy of Architecture

Museum department of Glavnauka (Science)

Production bureau (group) for protection and usage of historical and cultural heritage

MAPS

Russian mansion amateurs etc. DO.CO.MO.MO ICOMOS UNESCO

Academy of Architecture

Gubmusei (regional museums)

Professional restorers

Laws

VOOPIK All-russian society for protection of historical and cultural monuments

Transformation of protection system

Public organisation

Regional network

17

Office for state protection of heritage

Regional scientific-production center Regional department of culture for preservation of historical and cultural heritage VOOPIK's restoration workshops Central state restoration workshops Regional restoration institutes&workshops Federal center for protection of architectural and urban planning heritage RosSvyazOhranKultura/Federal service for protection of mass media and cultural heritage

1987

1997

2007

In my opinion the decision (demolition of tower) was right, I suppose, that soviet people could create greater and more memorable examples of architecture than Sukhareva tower

J.Stalin to Joltovsky, Tshussev,

Heritage+power 1934 Blasting of Sukhareva tower by traffic reason (officially)

Demolition of tower is inappropriate, if the target is adjustment of traffic, the result can be achieved by other medias

Statistic Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism


media-capmaign in preservation field

18

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Demolition <Mediator?> Protection

Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11


media-capmaign in preservation field

Architecture/ Masterplans

Media/Activism Building sites Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

19

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism


media-capmaign in preservation field

20

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Irkutsk. Quarter 130 of wooden architecture: management structure Foundation + restorers + investors Concept: Elena Grigoryeva, Mark Meerovich Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11


media-capmaign in preservation field

21

Discussion ÂŤGorky park: past vs futureÂť moderator: Nikita Tokarev may 17,2011 Regional: management

Restorer of landscape (Private)

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Public support Citizens

Professional (Private) Resident (Public) State (Moskomnasledie)

Moscow. Gorky park: dicussion space Dispute+competition+management Concept: Strelka Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11


media-capmaign in preservation field

22

Plan for media campaign 1. Professional problems 2. General public/ mediator missing 3. Preservation mechanism

Mediation on mental level as alternative strategy of preservation Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Gorky park in Moscow: from Attack of fountain to New old symbols.


23

Yefim Freidine Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today?

Thank you for your attention Preservation | Yefim Freidine | Soviet ideology of preservation: how it works today? Final review_28/06/11

Preservation next. Soviet Ideology of preservation. How it works today?  

Yefim Freidine/Strelka institute 2010-2011

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