Page 1

Processing KODAK Color Print Films, Module 10

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP2E

ŠEastman Kodak Company, 2006


Table of Contents Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E PROCESS CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photographic and Sensitometric Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation of Mechanical, Chemical, and Sensitometric Data . . . . . . . . Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Time and Temperature Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of pH and CD-2 Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of NaBr and Na2CO3 Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Na2SO3 Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of AF-9 and PB-2 Prebath Contamination. . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of CD-3 for CD-2 and Stop Bath Contamination . . . . . . . . Effects of Persulfate Accelerator and Hydroxylamine Sulfate Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of F-35B Fixer and NaCl Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of KI Contamination and Water Dilution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Bacterial Na2S and Na2SO4 Contamination . . . . . . . . . Effects of Under- and Over-Replenishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIAGNOSTIC SCHEMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Color Print Film Diagnostic Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verification Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Sorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low Developer Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Developer Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High D-min (Green Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sound Track Process Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retained Silver (Ferricyanide or UL Bleach). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retained Silver (Persulfate Bleach) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retained Silver Halide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIAL TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verification Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solution By-pass Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Omitting Prebath Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed-out Strip Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Omitting First Fixer Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROCESSED FILM PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10-3 10-3 10-3 10-3 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-17 10-17 10-18 10-19 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25 10-26 10-27 10-27 10-28 10-28 10-28 10-28 10-29

The information contained herein is furnished by Eastman Kodak Company without any warranty or guarantee whatsoever. While Kodak is unaware of any valid domestic patents of others which would be infringed by the methods, formulas or apparatus described herein, the furnishing of this information is not to be considered as any license for inducement of, or recommendation for any action by any party any such action being a matter for independent investigation and decision by such party.

-2

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


10 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process ECP-2D and ECP-2E PROCESS CONTROL The successful processing of KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383, KODAK VISION Premier Color Print Film / 2393, and KODAK VISION Color Teleprint Film / 2395 / 3395 requires a good process control system. The essential phases of such a control system include mechanical, chemical, and photographic control, plus correlation and interpretation of results. The philosophy and a recommended system of process control are given in Module 1, Process Control. The following sections are specific for Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E.

Mechanical Control Mechanical control includes items basic to any chemical reaction, such as temperature, agitation, and time of reaction. The developer temperature should be maintained tightly within specifications. The temperatures of other solutions, while not quite so critical, must nevertheless be carefully controlled. Recirculation and replenishment rates must be regulated to maintain the required chemical activity of the various solutions. Turbulated solutions should be piped through devices that indicate the rates of flow and pressures so that the jet-agitation action of the solution at the film surface can be controlled. A method for calibrating and measuring flow rates is given in Module 2, Equipment and Procedures. The operating speed of the processing machine should be checked frequently. All such factors, whether regulated automatically or manually, constitute the physical or mechanical aspects of control. A checklist for daily operation of a processor is given in Table 10-2, Checklist For Daily Operation.

Chemical Control Maintaining the proper composition of the processing solutions is one of the most important elements of control. Maintain the chemical composition of the solutions within the published tolerances to achieve satisfactory process control. Do not compensate for chemical imbalances by altering mechanical parameters. This action is not good process control procedure and is not recommended. Use the Analytical Methods recommended in Module 3, Analytical Procedures, to determine the chemical composition of each processing solution. Some of the methods require the use of a pH meter to accurately measure solution acidity or alkalinity. An automatic titrator or pH meter is required for potentiometric titrations. A spectrophotometer is required to measure constituents in some processing solutions. With these three instruments plus chemical reagents and the assorted glassware (pipets, burets, hydrometers, beakers, etc,) usually found in analytical

laboratories, all of the solutions used in the process can be analyzed. Table 10-1, Critical Chemical Analyses shows the method number for each analysis that is performed on each process solution. Only the basic method number is listed in Table 10-1. Since the methods are constantly being improved and reissued with a new suffix, be sure to use the latest version of the basic method. For example, if the current basic method for measuring sulfite in color developer is number 1305C, the next revision of the method will be 1305D. When the technology or chemistry of the method is changed, a totally new number will be assigned to the new method as was done when the pH method changed from 810 to ULM-191-2. Table 10-1 Critical Chemical Analyses Analyses

Tank

Analyses Replenisher

Method Number

pH Specific Gravity Total Alkalinity CD-2 Bromide Sulfite

D, F T, F T, F T, F T, F T, F

F F F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ECP-0001/1 ECP-0003/1 ECP-926C ECP-2-1305C

Solution Developer

Stop

pH

D, F

F

ULM-191-2

First Fixer*

pH Specific Gravity Hypo Index Thiosulfate Sulfite

D, F W, F W, F W, F W, F

F F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ECP-0002/1 ECP-0002/1 ECP-0002/1

Accelerator pH (Persulfate Specific Gravity Bleach) Metabisulfite Buffer Capacity PBA-1

D, F W, F W, F W, F W, F

F F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ECP-0025/01 ECP-0020-01 ECP-0027-01

Bleach Persulfate

pH Specific Gravity Persulfate Chloride Buffer Capacity

D, F W, F W, F W, F W, F

F F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ECP-0026/1 ECP-0009/1 ECP-0019-01

pH Bleach† Ferricyanide Specific Gravity Ferricyanide Bromide

D, F W, F W, F W, F

F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ULM-0021/1 ULM-0004/1

Sound Track Hydroquinone Developer* Viscosity

F F

— —

ECP-2-407 ECP-2-99

D, F W, F W, F W, F W, F

F F F F F

ULM-191-2 ULM-0002/1 ECP-0002/1 ECP-0002/1 ECP-0002/1

Second Fixer

pH Specific Gravity Hypo Index Thiosulfate Sulfite

D=Daily T=Twice Weekly W=Weekly M=Monthly F=Each Fresh Mix * Process ECP-2D only † Alternate Bleach

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-3


Table 10-2 Checklist For Daily Operation Steps

Spec.

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

Sun

1.Was shutdown strip in control? 2.Turn on power, air and water supplies, and the exhaust system. 3.Check solution levels* in machine tanks. 4.Check replenisher supply tanks and make fresh replenishment solutions (if necessary).

Developer Stop Fixer† Accelerator Bleach Sound Track Developer Fixer Final Rinse.

5.Turn on recirculation pumps. 6.Adjust wash-water flow-meters to proper setting. 7.Turn on and check air supply to squeegees. 8.Turn on temperature controls systems. 9.Turn on replenishers. Use leader rates until film is being processed. 10.Turn on dryer fan motor and heater. 11.Start machine and check machine speed. 12.Check final squeegee for cleanliness and adjustment. Make corrections if necessary. 13.Check leader for twists. 14.Check solution time.

Developer

15.Use KODAK Process Thermometer, Type 3. Developer Check solution temperature.‡ Accelerator 16.Check recirculation rate.

Developer Stop Fixer† Accelerator Bleach Fixer Final Rinse

17.Run control strips. 18.Proceed to production if in control. 19.Check replenisher flow rate.‡

Developer Stop Wash Accelerator Bleach Wash Sound Track Developer† Spray Rinse Fixer Final Wash Final Rinse

* Solution levels must be high enough in the weir boxes to prevent air from being drawn into the recirculation systems when recirculator pumps are turned on. † Process ECP-2D only. ‡ Start-up and every two hours.

10-4

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Analyze all fresh chemical mixes, as the first defense against mixing errors. The tank solutions should be checked on a regular basis to monitor any changes in the chemical composition. The most useful analysis is pH. It is relatively easy to measure and must be done on a daily basis. A drift in developer pH is usually the first warning of a process about to go out of control. When such drifts are observed, it is important to try to find the cause, rather than to blindly adjust the pH and continue processing. In most cases, this will require a complete developer analysis. Table 10-2, Checklist For Daily Operation, indicates a starting point for the frequency of analysis. The schedule of analysis can be customized by a particular installation to keep its process in chemical control. The customized frequency will depend on the amount of film being processed, and the historical stability of the process.

Photographic and Sensitometric Control The chemical reactions involved in processing color films are so complex that it is impossible to evaluate and control the process completely on the basis of mechanical and chemical data alone. The end results are photographic and include the characteristics of the sensitized material and the chemicals of the process. Actual picture tests demonstrate how the process behaves photographically. It is possible, although cumbersome, to use such tests for photographic control. Apart from rigorous photographic control, however, viewing printed picture work off a process is important because it is an indication of the overall photographic condition of the process, both sensitometric and physical. The best process control methods furnish quantitative information about the process. Sensitometric control strips provide a rapid, accurate and greatly simplified means of evaluating the process photographically. Introduce strips into the process with regular production footage every one or two hours. Evaluate visually, or more precisely, by densitometric methods. Examine the strips immediately after processing and plot the results on the same charts where the mechanical and chemical data are recorded. This information gives an hour-to-hour check on whether accidents have occurred causing the process to drift away from the process aim. See the Typical Control Chart in Module 1, Process Control, for examples. For your convenience, sensitometrically exposed control strips in 16 and 35 mm are available from Eastman Kodak Company. KODAK VISION Color Print Control Strips, Process ECP-2D are packaged in 30.5 metre (100-foot) rolls containing at least 120 exposures and a processed reference strip. The exposures on the roll are spaced at 240 mm (9.5-inch) intervals. Each exposure has 21 gray-scale steps at 0.15 log H increments. The reference strip is exposed exactly as the control strips and is subsequently processed under well-controlled conditions. The instruction sheet contains correction factors that are required to establish your process aims. A four-digit code number appears on the carton, can, control strips, reference strip, and instruction sheet, identifying each production batch of strips. The

procedures for using control strips are found in Module 1, Process Control.

Correlation of Mechanical, Chemical, and Sensitometric Data Record and interpret all mechanical, chemical, and photographic results, to monitor whether the process is in or out of control. If the process drifts out of control, your control records should indicate what corrective action was taken to reestablish control. As your experience increases with Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E, you will accumulate mechanical, chemical, and sensitometric data under many conditions. This reference will indicate what photographic results to expect when various mechanical and chemical changes occur. Until experience is gained with your process, it is important to know generally what photographic effects to expect as a result of chemical or mechanical variations, and approximately what magnitude of change produces a noticeable photographic effect. This information helps diagnose a photographically off-balance condition.

Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations Diagnostic Charts The control plots in this section illustrate some of the major photographic effects of mechanical and chemical variations on KODAK VISION Color Print Film / 2383. Each plot shows the effect of a change in a process parameter (horizontal axis), on the dye density of the processed film (vertical axis). The specifications for the various parameters are represented by the letter “S� along the horizontal axis. A plot at + 0.10 for the red density indicates the parameter change caused the red density to increase by 0.10 densitometric units (looks cyan) above the process aim. The magnitude of the changes shown in these plots should not be considered to be process control limits. Also, the data presented are qualitative, not quantitative. The plots were derived from experiments using small laboratory machines in which all constituents were held constant except the variable being studied. Hence, the figures should be used only as trend charts and guides. If two or more process parameters are varied, the resulting photographic effect is not predictable because all effects are not additive. Interactions can occur that produce effects other than those predicted by addition. The plots in this publication are representative only; they do not contain all possible solution problems. Most of the important photographic effects take place in the developer. The Color Print Film Diagnostic Charts are diagnostic schemes for the process and highlight the importance of not only the developer, but also the stop, bleach and fixer.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-5


Developer Mechanical Variations Figure 10-1 Effects of Time and Temperature Variations—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Time G R

.20 0000

Temperature

.25

B

G R

B

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10 .15 .20 B

B

G R

G R

.25 .20

.05 .10

R G B

.15 R

G B

.20

D-Min RED GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

R G B

.10 .05 + 0

B R G

F002_1070EC

10-6

R G B

R G B

.05 .10 .10

R G

G R

.05 + 0

B B

.05 B

G R

.10 140

B/W

.10

R G B

sec

G

B

R

104

B/W

.05

220

BLUE

B R

G

B G R

200

GREEN

.05 + 0

180

RED

.10

160

LD

102

B/W

.05 + 0

100

BLUE

R

.10

98

RED GREEN

G B

G R

96

MD

B

.15

˚F

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-2 Effects of pH and CD-2 Variations—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

pH

CD-2

.25 .20

0000

G

.15

HD

.10

R

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

B

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10 .15 .20

G B R

B B R G R G

.25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15 .10

.05 .10

G R B

G B R

.05 + 0

B R G

B R G

.15 .20

RED GREEN BLUE

.10 .10 .05 + 0

G

F002_1071EC

R

B

.05 .10

B R G

B

G

R 10.39

B/W

.05

R G B

pH

R G B

3.20

HD-MD

R B G

2.95

B/W

.05 + 0

2.70

BLUE

.10

2.45

RED GREEN

.10

2.20

D-Min

.05

10.79

B/W

G R B

B R G

R G B

10.69

BLUE

.05 + 0

10.59

RED GREEN

.10

10.49

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-7


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-3 Effects of NaBr and Na2CO3 Variations—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

NaBr

Na 2 CO 3

.25 .20

0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

G R B

G B R

B

G

R G

R B

.15 .20 .25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15 .10 .05 + 0 G R B

.05 .10

B R G

G R B

.15 .20

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0 .05

B G R G R B

F002_1072EC

10-8

G B R

B R G

.10 1.32

B/W

.05 + 0

g/L

21.1

B/W

G R B

.10

19.1

BLUE

R B G

.10

17.1

RED GREEN

.05

15.1

D-Min

G R B

13.1

B/W

R G B

2.12

BLUE

B G R

1.92

GREEN

.05 + 0

1.72

RED

.10

1.52

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-4 Effects of Na2SO3 Variations—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Na 2 SO 3 .25 .20

0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

B G R

R G B

B G R

R G B

.15 .20 .25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15 .10 .05 + 0 .05 .10 .15 .20

D-Min RED GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.10 .10 .05 + 0

R B G

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0

R B G

R G B

.05 .10 3.50

B/W

.05

F002_1073EC

4.50

B/W

G R B

4.25

BLUE

.05 + 0

4.00

RED GREEN

.10

3.75

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-9


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-5 Effects of AF-9 and PB-2 Prebath Contamination—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

AF-9

PB-2 Prebath

.25 .20

0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

B

R G

.15 .20

G

.25

R B

.20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15 .10 .05 + 0

R B G

.05 .10 .15

G B

.20

B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.05 + 0

F002_1074EC

10-10

G B R

R G B

.05 .10 .10

B

.05 + 0

G R

.05 .10 0

B/W

.10

g/L

B

G R

100

BLUE

.10

50

RED GREEN

R G B

25

D-Min

.05

0

B/W

R G B

3

BLUE

.05 + 0

2

RED GREEN

.10

1

LD

R

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-6 Effects of CD-3 for CD-2 and Stop Bath Contamination—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Substitute CD-3 for CD-2

Stop Bath

.25 .20

0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10 .15 B

R B G

.20 .25

G

R

.20

B/W

.05 .10

R B G

.15 .20

B/W

D-Min RED GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.05

F002_1075EC

R B G

.10 .10 .05 + 0

G B R

R G B

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0

R G

.05 B

B R

G

.10

0.0

B/W

R B G

% CD-3

52.0

BLUE

.05 + 0

34.0

RED GREEN

.10

17.0

LD

B R

G

100.0

BLUE

.05 + 0

50.0

GREEN

.10

25.0

RED

.15

0.0

MD

mL/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-11


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-7 Effects of Persulfate Accelerator and Hydroxylamine Sulfate Contamination—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Persulfate Accelerator

Hydroxylamine Sulfate

.25 .20

0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

R B B

.15

R

.20

G G

.25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15 .10 .05 + 0

R B

B R G

.05 .10 G

.15 .20

GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.05 + 0 .05

F002_1076EC

10-12

G B R

R B

B

.10 .10 .05 + 0 .05 G

R

G

.10 0

B/W

R G B

.10

mL/L

8

RED

.10

4

D-Min

.05

B R G

2

B/W

R B G

0

BLUE

.05 + 0

20

GREEN

.10

10

RED

5

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-8 Effects of F-35B Fixer and NaCl Contamination—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

F-35B Fixer .25

B

NaCl G R

.20 0000

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

G B R

.15 .20 .25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

G

R B

.15 .10 .05 + 0

B G R

.05 .10 .15 .20

BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

.05 + 0

R G B

G R B

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0

R

B

G B

.05 G R .10 0.0

B/W

.10

mL/L

3.0

RED GREEN

.10

2.0

D-Min

.05

1.0

B/W

B R G

0.0

BLUE

1.5

GREEN

G R B

.05 + 0

1.0

RED

.10

0.5

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-13


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-9 Effects of KI Contamination and Water Dilution—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Kl .25

G

Water Dilution

R

.20 0000

B

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

.10

B

.15

R

.20

G

.25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

G

R

B

.15 .10

B

.05 + 0 R G

.05 .10 .15 .20

BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

G R B

.05 + 0

F002_1078EC

10-14

R G B

.05 .10 .10

R

.05 + 0

G B

.05 B

G R

.10 0.0

B/W

.10

mg/L

400.0

RED GREEN

.10

200.0

D-Min

.05

0.0

B/W

B R G

100.0

BLUE

B

7.5

GREEN

R

G

.05 + 0

5.0

RED

.10

2.5

LD

mL/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-10 Effects of Bacterial Na2S and Na2SO4 Contamination—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Na 2 S

Na 2 SO 4

.25 .20

0000

.15 G R B

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

G

B/W

.10

R

.15

B

.20 .25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

G

.15 B R

.10 .05 + 0

G

.05

R

.10 B

.15 .20

GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

F002_1079EC

R G B

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0

R

B G R

B .05 G .10 0.0

B/W

G B R

.05 + 0

g/L

20.0

RED

.10

10.0

D-Min

B

.10

5.0

B/W

R G

.05

0.0

BLUE

10.0

GREEN

G B R

.05 + 0

5.0

RED

.10

2.5

LD

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-15


Developer Chemical Variations Figure 10-11 Effects of Under- and Over-Replenishment—2383 Film in Process ECP-2D / ECP-2E Developer

AIM VALUES REFERENCE STRIP CODE NO.

Under and Over Replenishment .25 .20

0000

G R

.15

HD

.10

RED GREEN

.05 + 0

BLUE

.05

B/W

B R

.10

G

B

.15 .20 .25 .20

MD RED GREEN BLUE B/W

.15

G

.10 .05 + 0 .05 .10

R B

B R G

.15 .20

BLUE B/W

D-Min RED GREEN BLUE B/W

HD-MD RED GREEN BLUE

B R G

G R B

B G R

R G B

.05 .10 .10 .05 + 0 .05 .10 .10 .05 + 0 .05

F002_1080EC

10-16

R B G

B G R

.10 No Repl. = -18%

B/W

.05 + 0

2X Repl. = +18%

RED GREEN

.10

Stand. Repl.

LD

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


DIAGNOSTIC SCHEMES Color Print Film Diagnostic Charts The flow chart procedures illustrated in this section will aid in determining the source of an out-of-control process. There are nine major schemes: • Verification Process, Figure 10-12 • Problem Sorting, Figure 10-13 • Low Developer Activity, Figure 10-14 • High Developer Activity, Figure 10-15 • High D-min (Green Only), Figure 10-16 • Sound Track Process Analysis, Figure 10-17 • Retained Silver (Ferricyanide or UL Bleach), Figure 10-18 • Retained Silver (Persulfate Bleach), Figure 10-19 • Retained Silver Halide, Figure 10-20 Following Figure 10-20 there are instructions on how to run the three special tests mentioned at various places in the Diagnostic Charts.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-17


10-18 Variable Control Strips

Exposure variability Storage Confirm; Process 20 strips at the same time to check for consistency

Light leak Storage Confirm; Run crossover test with another batch of control strips

Calibration error Wrong status filters Plotting error Dirty Filters Densitometer malfunction

Does Deviation Continue to Show? NO

Densitometer Problem

NO

Process Another Control Strip

YES

Do Densitometered Readings Continue to Show Deviation?

Reread previously processed control strip.

Control Strip Damage

YES

Check for fog, fingerprint, cinch mark, scratch, etc.

NO

YES

Process Another Control Strip

YES

Does Deviation Continue to Show?

Go to appropriate Process Troubleshooting Diagram

Process Problem Verified

Verify Densitometric Readings "Before" and "After"

Do Pictures Agree with Process Control Strips?

Control Strips Show Apparent Process Problem

Continue to process control strips until a decision can be made

NO

Figure 10-12 Verification Process

F002_9010EC

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E See Fig. 10-20

NO

Is it Retained Silver?

YES

Ferricyanide & UL See Fig. 10-18

See Fig. 10-15

Developer High Activity

NO

Check IR Density and/or Rebleach Strip to Verify Problem See the Retained Silver Test.

Retained Silver

Persulfate See Fig. 10-19

Retained Silver Halide

YES

Check Strip for Opaque Streaks/Refix Strip to Verify Problem See the Retained Silver Halide Test.

Is it Retained Silver Halide?

Higher Densities

Determine Sensitometric Deviation from Process Control Aim

Process Problem Verified

See Fig. 10-14

Developer Low Activity

Lower Densities

See Fig. 10-16

High D-min (Green Only)

High D-min (Green Only)

G

G

Figure 10-13 Problem Sorting

F002_9018EC

10-19


10-20 Time Too Short

Check and Adjust Parameter if Necessary

Temperature Control Malfunctioning or Set Too Low

YES

Compare with Fresh Developer; Run By-Pass Test

Check Bars/Nozzles for Plugging; Check Recirculation

Mix Fresh Solution

Eliminate Source of Contamination (incl. recirculation & replenisher lines)

Developer Contamination

NO

Low Agitation

Are the Developer Physical Measurements Off Specs?

NO

G

B

YES

Adjust Replenisher Mix

Check Mixing Procedure

Replenisher Mix Error

Check Exposure Level on Film Stock

Check and Adjust Repl. Rate if Necessary

Increase Repl. Rate

Large Volume of Film Stock (low probability) Replenisher Rate Too Low

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer Replenisher Off Specs? YES NO

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer Tank Off Specs?

R

Figure 10-14 Low Developer Activity

F002_9011EC

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

Check & Adjust Parameter if necessary

B

Check Mixing Procedure

Adjust Repl. Solution

Compare with good Developer: run by-pass test mix fresh dev.

Eliminate Source of Contamination (incl. recirculation & repl. lines)

Check pH

Adjust Stop Repl. Conc. & Repl. Rate to Maintain Stable Tank Chemistry; Check Operation of Crossover Squeegee

Mix a Fresh Solution

Repl. Mix Error

YES

Developer Contamination

NO

High Stop Bath pH

Time too long

Temperature Control Malfunctioning or Set Too High

YES

Are the Developer Physical Measurements Off Specs?

NO

G

YES

Check & Adjust Repl. Rate

Repl. Rate Too High

NO

Check & Adjust Rem-jet Wash Buffer/Squeegee if necessary

Dilution from Excessive Carry-in

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer Replenisher Off Specs?

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer Tank Off Specs.? Also see Figs. 10-15, 10-16 and 10-17

R

Eliminate Source of Oxidation

Check for Air leaks/foaming

Aeration/ Oxidation of Solution (low sulfite only)

Decrease Repl. Rate

Check Exposure Level on Print Stock

Low Exposure Level on Print Stock (low probability)

Figure 10-15 High Developer Activity

F002_9019EC

10-21


10-22

Biological Growth

Viscose Rayon Filters Used

Mix a Fresh Tank Solution

Eliminate Source of Contamination

Inadequate Stop Wash

Improve Stop Wash

Time too short/ Rate too low

Other

Developer Contamination

Compare with Good Prebath: Run By-pass Mix Fresh Prebath or Developer

Other

Prebath Contamination

Adjust pH/Rate

Repl. pH too High/ Repl. rate too low

Improve Stop Repl. Rate

High CD-2 in stop

High Stop pH

Adjust Recovery Unit/Fix Repl.

Mix a Fresh Tank Solution

Increase Fix Repl. Rate

Adjust Repl.

Repl. pH/ Rate too high

In-Line Silver Recovery unit malfuctioning/ Fix Repl. pH and/or Rate Too High Inadequate Stop Wash

Improve Stop Wash

High Ferri Bleach pH

High Fix pH (>5.8)

Review Data Repeat Tests

Green D-min persists

High CD-2 in Fix (>0.05g/L)

Low Fix Repl. Rate

This Symptom can be the Result of Any One or Multiple Combination of the Following Causes:

Run Process Omitting 1st Fixer Test

Run Process Omitting Prebath Test

Secondary Solution-Related

Which Secondary Solution?

Green D-min disappears

Run Fixed-Out Strip Test

Prebath or Developer Contamination?

Development-Related

G R B

Is it Development-Related or Secondary Solution Rated?

High D-min (Green Only)

Omit Buffering Agent

Possible Soln. Contam. following first fix

Buffering Agent Added to Ferri Bleach

Figure 10-16 High D-min (Green Only)

F002_9021EC

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


YES

See Fig. 10-15

NO

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E See Fig. 10-20

Retained Silver Halide

Incomplete Fixing in First Fixer

Is there high activity in the Picture Process?

Higher IR Densities

See chart on High Developer Activity

F002_9023EC

See Fig. 10-14

See chart on Low Developer Activity

YES

NO

Check Mixing Procedure

Mix Error in Sound Developer

Is there low activity in the Picture Process?

Lower IR Densities

Compare with Fresh Developer

Sound Developer Contamination

Make Fresh Mix

Compare with Fresh First Fixer

Bleach Contamination of First Fixer

Contamination

Determine Sensitometric Deviation from Process Control Aim

Process Problem Verified

NO

YES

YES

See Fig. 10-16

See chart on High D-min (Green only)

Is it Developement Related?

Sound Dev. Too Old/Excessive Oxidation of Solution

NO

Is there High D-min (green only) in the Picture Process?

High D-min (Green Only)

Figure 10-17 Sound Track Process Analysis

10-23


10-24

Check Bars/Nozzles for Plugging; Check Recirculation

Low Agitation Time too Short

Check & Adjust Parameter if Necessary

Temp. Control Malfunctioning or Set Too Low

YES

Run By-pass Test

Bleach Contamination

NO

Mix a Fresh Solution

Eliminate Source of Contamination (incl. repl. & recirculation)

Are the Bleach Physical Measurements Off Specs?

NO

Adjust Replenisher Mix

Check Mixing/ Regeneration Procedure

Mix/ Regeneration Error

Are the Chemical Analyses of Bleach Off Specs?

Retained Silver

Discard a Small Portion of Repl. & Adjust Chemical Levels

Check Specific Gravity

Sulfate Buildup Too High in Ferricyanide Bleach (regeneration)

Check Repl. & Adjust Rate if Necessary

Repl. Rate Too Low

Are the Chemical Analyses of Bleach Replenisher Off Specs? YES NO

YES

Figure 10-18 Retained Silver (Ferricyanide or UL Bleach)

F002_9091EC

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


NO

Accel. Contam. (Hypo)

NO

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

Confirmed, Mix a Fresh Tank Solution

Eliminate Source of Contam.

Run By-pass Test

Check & Adjust parameter if necessary

Accel. Time too short

YES Accel. Temp. too high

Are the Accelerator Tank's Physical Measurements off Specifications?

F002_9022EC

Bleach Contam.

NO Temp. too low

Check & Adjust parameter if necessary

Time too short

YES

Are the Bleach Tank's Physical Measurements off Specifications?

Are the Chemical Analyses of Accelerator Tank and Repl. Off Specifications?

Retained Silver

Discard part of replenisher; Adjust solution

Check Sp Gr

Sulfate Buildup in Bleach Reconstitution

Check & Adjust if necessary

Low Replenishment Rate Bleach or Accel.

Check for air leaks and excessive agitation

Excessive Aeration of Accel.

YES

Keep mixing and storage records

Old Accel Mix and/or Tank

Mix a Fresh Solution

Check Mixing Instructions

Mix Reconstitution Error

Check 1st Fixer and 1st Fixer Wash Squeegees

Fixer Contam. of Accel.

Figure 10-19 Retained Silver (Persulfate Bleach)

10-25


10-26

Check Bars/ Nozzles for Plugging Check Recirculation

Low Agitation

Time Too Short

Check and Adjust Parameter if Necessary

Temp. Control Malfunctioning or Set Too Low

YES

Persulfate Bleach Accelerator PBA-1 Level Too High

Are the Fixer Physical Measurements Off Specs?

NO

Time Too Long in Bleach Accel.

NO

Eliminate Source of Contam.

Run By-pass Test

Fixer Contam.

Mix a Fresh Solution

Check Mixing/ Reconstitution Procedure

Mix/ Reconstitution Error

Are the Chemical Analyses of Fixer Tank Off Specifications?

Retained Silver Halide

Check Repl. Rate

Increase Repl. Rate

Eliminate Air Leaks in Recirculation System

Repl. Rate Too Low

NO

Check Specific Gravity

Sulfate Buildup Too High (excessive aeration)

YES

Are the Chemical Analyses of Fixer Replenisher Off Specs?

YES

Correct Malfunction

Check Unit

Silver Recovery Unit Malfunctioning

Figure 10-20 Retained Silver Halide

F002_9016EC

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


SPECIAL TESTS In support of the diagnostic procedures, the following five special tests are required: • Verification Tests • Solution By-pass Test • Process Omitting Prebath Test • Fixed-out Strip Test • Process Omitting First Fixer Test

Verification Tests There are two verification tests for suspected problems— retained silver and retained silver halide. Retained Silver Retained silver is the result of ineffective bleaching. The symptoms are: • Increased density in the high-density areas of the film, particularly D-max, with no changes in lower densities (such as D-min). It may be seen as increased contrast. • The infrared density of the D-max patch increases. Normally, an infrared density (at 1,000 nm) of less than 0.07 is acceptable, between 0.07 and 0.14 is marginal, and greater than 0.14 is unacceptable. A sound track densitometer is a suitable instrument for this measurement.

Retained Silver Halide Retained silver halide is the result of ineffective fixing. The symptoms are: • There are large increases in density (i.e., greater than + 0.10 R, G, and B) in both the D-min and D-max steps of the control strip. The overall contrast is only slightly increased. • The infrared density of the D-max patch is normal. Normally, an infrared density (at 1,000 nm) of less than 0.07 is acceptable, between 0.07 and 0.14 is marginal, and greater than 0.14 is unacceptable. A sound track densitometer is a suitable instrument for this measurement. • Opaque streaks are generally visible when the strip is viewed with reflected light. Verification Test:

1. Re-fix the processed control strip for 1 to 2 minutes in a small volume of a fresh fixer replenisher solution or known good fixer replenisher. Agitate by moving the film manually. Wash the film for 30 to 40 seconds under running water. 2. Dry the film and reread the densities. If the D-min and D-max readings are down to normal control levels after refixing and/or the opaque streaks disappear, the problem can be attributed to retained silver halide.

Verification Test:

1. Prepare a small volume of fresh ferricyanide bleach, or use a known good solution of ferricyanide bleach replenisher. 2. Immerse the processed film with suspected silver retention in the bleach for 1 to 2 minutes. Agitate by moving the film strip manually. Wash the film for 30 to 40 seconds under running water. 3. Fix the strip for 1-2 minutes in a small volume of a good fixer solution, again agitating manually. Wash the film for 30 to 40 seconds. 4. Dry the film and reread the infrared density. An infrared density within the acceptable region (which had formerly been marginal or unacceptable) confirms silver retention. Lower optical densities also confirm retained silver.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-27


Solution By-pass Test

Fixed-out Strip Test

Use this test to check out any processing solution when it is suspected of causing a photographic deviation. It is particularly useful in avoiding unnecessary dumping of a suspected processing solution. Although the test is often used with secondary solutions, it can also be used to check out prebath and developer problems if an adequate “sinkline� process (i.e., with a controlled temperature bath) is available.

Use this test to help distinguish development-related sources of high green D-mins from those caused by secondary solutions.

1. Obtain a sample of the suspected solution. 2. Mix a fresh sample of the solution in question or use a known good solution of the same type, i.e., from another processing machine. 3. In a sink-line process, run one set of control strips through the suspected solution, and the other set through the known good solution. Use normal processing times and temperatures. If possible, process both sets together at the same time. Use the same solutions for both sets of strips for all other processing steps. Note: For secondary solutions, strips can often be processed in the machine up to the point in question. After cutting out the strip at the crossover, proceed as described above in a sink-line process. The strips may be spliced onto machine leader at the exit of the suspected solution and processed together for the remaining steps. 4. Compare the photographic results from the suspected solution and the known good solution. If the set of strips processed in the suspected solution deviates in the same direction as the actual photographic deviation, the suspected solution is causing the photographic effect. If the results between the two solutions are similar, repeat the test to check the other processing solutions, one at a time.

1. Fix out a strip of KODAK Color Print Film for 1 to 2 minutes in a fresh fixer or replenisher solution. Wash and dry. 2. Process the above fixed-out strip along with a strip of unexposed print film (D-min). 3. Measure the red, green, and blue (D-min) densities of both strips and compare the readings. 4. Results/Action: a.

If high green D-mins disappear in the fixed-out strip, the stain is development related.

b.

If high green D-mins persist, a secondary solution problem is implicated.

Process Omitting First Fixer Test (ECP-2D only) Use this test to help isolate the source of high green D-mins caused by secondary solutions. 1. Process a strip of KODAK Color Print Film omitting the first fixer. This can be done right on the film processor by skipping the first fixer racks. 2. Read the red, green, and blue densities of this strip and compare the results with the D-min of a normally processed strip of print film. 3. Results/Action: a.

Note: Since sink-line tests may not give exactly the same results as machine runs, it is important to look at the difference between the sets of strips, even if they do not exactly match normal control strips.

Note: High green D-mins can also disappear in this test if the stop or stop wash is inadequate. b.

10-28

If high green D-mins disappear in the print film strip when omitting the first fixer, the first fixer is most likely the solution causing the stain. Proceed with checking fixer pH levels and CD-2 contamination. Also, check ferricyanide bleach pH and/or any buffering agents that may have been added (a nonstandard addition).

If high green D-mins persist, check for a contaminated solution after the first fix.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


PROCESSED FILM PROBLEMS Problem

Appearance

Possible Source of Problem

Suggestion Corrective Action

Black lines and comets

Short, black lines and comets on emulsion surface. Shiny in reflected light.

Under certain conditions, the electrolytic silver cell in Use a 10- to 15-micron filter in the fixer the fixer recirculation systems produces small, return line from the cell, or correct flocculent silver flakes. These flakes get into the fixer operation of the cell. tank, attach to the emulsion, and then go through the fixer squeegee, where each one is smeared into a line or comet.

Dirt particles

Dark spots and marks. Easiest to see under high-intensity specular lighting.

Dirt may consist of dust, cloth filaments, hair, skin flakes, chemical crystals, scum, etc. Such dirt can come from machine operators, air-conditioning units, incorrect construction materials, lack of solution or dryer air filters, water hardness, poor housekeeping, etc.

Yellow particles on surface.

Low fixer pH causes the formation of sulfur particles in Maintain the fixer pH within the fixer. specifications.

Showers of dots on emulsion.

Soft touch tire pressing on the emulsion during processing.

Dots equally spaced apart, repeating

Establish and follow good laboratory cleanliness procedures. For more information on laboratory cleanliness, refer to Module 2, Equipment and Procedures.

Be certain the emulsion does not ride on spools with soft-touch tires.

Emulsion skivings Small particles of Spools improperly aligned, or with burrs. emulsion sheared from the film edges and deposited on the film surface.

Check the machine spools.

Ferrotyping

Adjust the dryer to provide adequate film drying.

Irregular, shiny areas Wet or tacky emulsion at windup. on the emulsion surface. High windup tension on unprocessed films. Unwinding and rewinding unprocessed cold film without allowing it to reach room temperature.

Fungus or algae deposits

Light irregular smears, streaks, and spots.

Magenta fingerprints Newton’s rings

Fuzzy, erratic, faintly colored lines.

Cyan stain

Reduce the windup tension. Always allow adequate time for film to come to room temperature before using.

Fungi and algae tend to form on the inside walls of the A 5 1/4 percent solution of sodium wash tanks. Their presence is indicated by a slippery hypochlorite, available as household and slimy feel to the tank walls. liquid bleach (e.g., Clorox), can be used to clean the tank in order to control the formation of fungi and algae. See Control of Biological Growths in Module 2. Touching the emulsion surface prior to processing.

The film should be handled with lint-free nylon or Dacron gloves.

High or uneven printer gate pressure.

Adjust printer.

Low relative humidity in printing room.

Raise relative humidity to 60 percent.

Preprint film was dried too fast or overdried.

Adjust drying conditions of preprint film.

Contamination of Developer by hypo or RA-1.

Discard developer.

Pink stain

Magenta color High level of CD-2 in stop or first fixer (ECP-2D only). See Figure 10-16, High D-min (Green balance in low density Only). areas.

Reticulation

Rough emulsion surface.

Scalloped or fluted edges

High solution temperatures.

Adjust to specifications.

Dryer temperature too high or relative humidity too low.

Adjust to specifications.

Excessive tension on the film strand.

Check the processing machine for excessive tension in the film loops caused by a high rack or improper machine drive. Check for improper threading. Rectify either condition.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-29


Problem Scratches

Appearance Light lines parallel to the film edges.

Possible Source of Problem

Suggestion Corrective Action

Deposits on rem-jet buffer.

Install a buffer-cleaning nozzle, and replace the buffer roller regularly. Water from the cleaning nozzle must not run onto unsprayed rem jet. KODAK Anti-Calcium, No. 4, or equivalent, in the prebath prevents the precipitation of calcium or magnesium salts.

Old, hard, worn, crystal-laden, or maladjusted wiperblade squeegees.

Use spring-loaded wiper blade squeegees of 40-durometer hardness or less. Keep them clean, and replace them when worn.

Cinching a roll of film before or after processing.

Be certain that the machine take-up does not jerk the film roll. Train film handlers in proper film rewinding techniques.

Improper loading of processing machine.

Always handle film with care. Examine equipment for sharp edges, burrs, etc, and eliminate them.

Machine spools that are not rotating freely or are out of line.

Check spools regularly, and replace bearings when necessary.

Chemical crystals or other foreign material on spools. Spools and racks should be cleaned regularly according to the procedures in the machine maintenance section of this manual. Improper machine threading (a twist in the film) or improper splices.

These problems should be corrected according to normal processing procedures.

Shoreline

Fuzzy contour lines Nonuniform drying of the film emulsion. near the edges of the film.

Reduce the temperature, or increase the relative humidity of the air in the drying cabinet.

Static marks

Magenta and/or Rapid rewinding or transporting film in low relative yellow spots and dots. humidity.

Unprocessed film should not be rewound at high speed. The relative humidity in the rewinding area should be 50 percent or greater.

Tacky film

Water spots

10-30

Emulsion contact with flat electrophoretic rollers before processing.

Only undercut rollers should come in contact with the emulsion surface. Use conductive materials on the rewind, load accumulator, etc, and ground them.

Inadequate final film squeegee action.

Check the air flow, alignment and cleanliness of the final squeegee.

Inadequate drying conditions.

Check the temperature, relative humidity, and flow rate of the air in the dryer cabinet. The heaters or the fan may not be functioning properly, or the air filters may be plugged with dirt. If the dryer uses recirculated air, be sure it is mixed properly with incoming air. Also check the humidity control of recirculated air. If the film is still tacky after all possible normal corrective measures have been taken, as a temporary measure, increase the temperature of the dryer air. Because increased air temperature can be injurious to the film, such action requires close attention to the physical appearance of the film.

Irregular areas on Lines, drops, or puddles of water allowed to enter the emulsion surface best dryer on the film. seen in specular reflected light.

The final squeegee in the process must be very efficient and must remove virtually all water from the emulsion surface.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E


Problem Fingering (ECP2D only)

Appearance

Possible Source of Problem

The edge of the High surfactant level. Low thickener level. sound track looks like tiny fingers reaching Application too heavy. into the picture area

Suggestion Corrective Action Check viscosity of sound track developer, if low, replace. Increase distance between applicator wheel and film.

Film insufficiently dry.

Set-up or adjust pretreatment sqeegees and hot air treatments.

Bends or turns in the development path.

For higher transport speeds less tolerance exists for film movement in the Z axis direction.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

10-31


Processing KODAK Color Print Films, Module 10 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E MORE INFORMATION For more information on motion picture products, call or write to the Entertainment Imaging office nearest you. Or access Kodak’s home page on the Internet, web site address— http://www.kodak.com/go/motion Click on either “Photography” or “Customer Solutions,” then choose the Entertainment Imaging area. You may want to bookmark our location so you can find us more easily.

Entertainment Imaging Processing KODAK Color Print Films, Module 10, Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP-2E

Kodak, Vision, 2383, 2393, 2395, and 3395 are trademarks.

Minor Revision 7/06 Printed in U.S.A.


Processing Kodak Motion Picture Films - Module 10 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Pro  

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Processes ECP-2D and ECP- 2E ©Eastman Kodak Company, 2006

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