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HUNGARIAN GENETICS michelangelo.cn

(This work is a draft; it shall be completed and reviewed after my sabbatical)

INDEX: click the cyan link and go to: V. Hungarian genetics

I. Map of R1a II. Map of Pazyyrkia’s MtDNA VII. Africa VIII. Victor Mair IX. I am proud

VI. Linguistics

III. Map of N1a MtDNA IV. Local peaks X. References XI. Credits.

FOREWORD FOR EUROPEAN INDO-EUROPEANS

If you are an “Indo-European speaker” you should know that: • Your Y Chromosome pool is essentially made of ΣR1a+I+R1b that in most cases is over 70% of your Y chromosome pie. • None of the three above Palaeolithic Y chromosomes can be associated to the Indo-Europeans (even if somebody is trying hard to associate R1a1a to the Indo-Germans! See further on: nonsense!). • The rest of your pie is made of other non Indo-European components (E.g.: E3b (African) in Southern Europe, and N (Arctic) in Northern Europe). • No genetic feature has so far indisputably been associated to the Indo-Europeans. • If ever an Indo-European gene shall be indisputably associated to the Indo-Europeans, it shall only affect maybe the 0,0.. % of your pie. • Thus, in genetics, the term Indo-European is pure nonsense: it assumes that the Indo-Europeans had their own DNA! • The category “Indo-European” can only be associated to a language, not to a genome. If you are a scientist and not and IndoGermanist, you should replace the term “Indo-European” with “Indo-European speaker”. In this case you can be associated to a lot of populations: Hong Kong and Macau Chinese, Bantu and Bushmen, Amerindians, Indian Brahmins, Russians… in fact, most of them are “Indo-European speakers”… • …or you can replace “Indo-European” with “White Race”, but it is not very politically correct… and in this case you would again be associated to the Hungarians (with the exception of Obrusánszki Borbála, who declares to be Mongoloid), to the Finns, the Khanty Mansi, the Ainu, the Yukaghirs… but, some of you don’t like this, do you? …these peoples were all matriarchal, peace loving, egalitarian, non stratified societies (they had no castes)… in other words, inferior peoples for the Indo-Germanists! • If you are unhappy with the term “Hungarian”, you can read it “Old European”, but do not forget that the Hungarians are the only cultural fossil remains of Old Europe. When this work was ready to be published, another Indo-Germanist, aware of the untenability of the equation R1a1a=IndoEuropean, has published a new equation: R1b=Celtic. This equation is based on speculations around a map (left, Eupedia), which is also founded on speculations: in fact, this map is probably wrong! The map says that R1b1b split in the Middle East into R1b1b1, which spread to Asia, and R1b1b2, which spread to Europe and which would be the marker of the Celtic east>west migration from the Middle East to Europe. The truth is different: R1b1b split in Europe: R1b1b1 originated from west Europe and was brought, together with R1b1b2 (now R1b1a2-M269), in a west>east migration, to Arsia and Pazyrykia. See the map on the right (www.familytreedna.com>R1b1b1), where red samples are R1b1b1 cluster A, green ones R1b1b1 cluster B1, and blue ones R1b1b1 cluster B2. Possible spread of R1b1b1, if you add data from YHRD and pertinent researches, left. Bashkortostan (RU, the Magna Hungaria of monk Julian) is the only region where isolated pockets of R1b1b1 (55% in Abzelilovsky, at the border with Kazakhstan) and R1b1b2 (R1b1b2-a1b4/R1b-U152, old R1b1c10, at 9% in Bashkortostan, right map) coexist at significant rates. Guess who brought R1b to central Asia! If there is enough R1a1a there, it could have been brought to central Asia by the same people that brought there also R1a1a: the Hungarians. (In the Tarim Basin there are both R1b1b1 and R1b1b2, at disputed rates). In fact, R1a and R1b appear to have migrated with the same carrier, to the same places, at the same times. Both the above maps need support of more data in order to be final, but the following statements help to better understand the situation. The highest rate of R1b is in the Basque territory, where in some areas it peaks up until 90%. According to the Indo-Germanist map, the Celts, who spoke an Indo-European language, arrived in Spain in around 2000 B.C.. After that time the R1b Celtic Indo-European speakers would have replaced their language with Euskara! The Basque language, is an isolate language, without any connection with any Indo-European language! Unbelievable! Even the Romans were unable to make they change their language. Furthermore: “We do not observe any particular link between Basques and Celtic populations beyond that provided by the Paleolithic ancestry common to European populations, nor we find evidence supporting Basques as the focus of major population expansions”. (“The place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome diversity landscape”, Santos Alonso et al.). Furthermore, in Euskara, mother and father are still ama and aita, as it was in most European pre-Indo-European languages (“Honfoglalás…” page 142). In Irish, notwithstanding the Celtic Indo-Europeanization, athair and aite have survived. Furthermore, Gimbutas found evidence of the Basques being a matriarchal society in antiquity: matriarchal IndoEuropeans? Or the only Indo-European society that ever converted to matriarchalism? Furthermore, Celtic archaeology does not appear in Spain before 1000 B.C. according to mainstream scholars (not before 500 B.C. according to me, when the Celts emerged from the Celto-Pannonici). There is little evidence of incineration in Spain and it is not in the Basque territory (it is in Catalonia) and not 4000 years old. Did the Celts learnt to incinerate (independently from the Indians) from the Europeans, who never incinerated? … and why they never incinerated in the Basque territory? Furthermore, the area of Europe where the Celts had settled for more than 2 millennia (blue line) and where Urnfields cemeteries have been found is the area with the smallest R1b rate in Western Europe. Instead, the highest rate of R1b (green line) is in the area in which the last remaining Celts, pushed by later migrations, found a refugium (the western part of the British isles), and in the Basque Country, where the Celts never settled. R1b was already there where it is now, before the Celts arrived. Why the “Indo-European R1b” is missing in Indo-European Asia (Persia, Pakistan, India)!? Eventually, this theory shall collapse soon, as all the other Indo-European theories of origin did, without I need waste more time on it!

NOTE:

Genetics is still far from being accurate, due to: • the small number of tests performed on a 7 billion human population (+ 14 billion dead). • the criteria used for the choice of samples to be researched, sometimes influenced by politics and chauvinism. • the bad habit of researching a sample from a town and linking the result to the nation, or, even worse, to its linguistic majority. • the manipulations that are made with conflicting lists and maps, often created by software that flattens peaks and pockets. • the fancy interpretations of data that are not acknowledged by history, archaeology, cultural anthropology, and… common sense, notwithstanding an unheeded paper of Bálint Csanád that “stresses the necessity of intensive collaboration between experts of genetics, historians and archaeologists in the research of the ethnogenesis of populations”). The images of archaeological artefacts that appear on this PDF are a small part of the thousands that are published on the page “Magyar Art…”.

I. MAP OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF R1a1a IN EURASIA

WARNING!

You can find in the Net a number of different maps made to support that R1a1a is speaking Russian (they are usually limited to the distribution of R1a1a in Europe!). A very detailed map that shows the distribution of R1a1a in Europe, with the resolution of a county area, is the following one. This map (familytreedna.com) is very “political borders dependent”! The peak of R1a1a in Finland is correctly placed around Eura, where a cemetery of Pannonico Hungarians has been excavated (see G. The Finns).

The Underhill map (below) is the only one that I have found that shows the distribution of R1a1a in the entire Eurasian area, and which, to my knowledge, is congruent with more detailed maps of local regions, except maybe in some unclear or disputed situations, in particular in Europe (e.g.: the Underhill map does not show the peak of R1a1a that is instead stressed in the above map in the Tanaïs area, the western terminal of the Hungarian Silk Road. The Underhill map shows peaks of R1a1a in Moscow, and New Delhi; on the Kivisild one (right), the Indian peak is in Arsia. Some local peaks and pockets of R1a1a are not detectable from the Underhill map: I have listed them in the table “Local Peaks”.

“Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a” Underhill, Kivisild, et al., European Journal of Human Genetics (2009), 1–6. (R1a1a is also known as R-M17 (formerly Eu19) and R-M198).

The research of Underhill, thanks to the use of the subclades R1a1a6-M434 (“typical of South Asia”) and R1a1a7-M458 (with a “significant frequency in Europe”), has come to some new unexpected (for the Indo-Germanists!) results: “The coalescent time estimates of R1a1a correlate with the timing of the recession of the Last Glacial Maximum [26,500 - 19,000 B.P.] and predate the upper bound of the age estimate of the Indo-European language tree”. R1a1a predates whichever linguistic, archaeological, cultural, and historical undisputed evidence of the arrival of Indo-Europeans in Europe! R1a1a cannot be associated to the migrations of the Indo-Europeans, because R1a1a was already in Europe when they arrived, whichever urheimat theory you choose. The highest diversity of R1a1a is in Southern Pakistan (right map, chronology of the spread). “In Europe, Poland has the highest R1a1a7-M458 diversity, corresponding to approximately an 11 KYA coalescent time”. “Among the R1a1a*(xM458) chromosomes the highest diversity is observed among populations of the Indus Valley yielding coalescent times above 14 KYA (thousands of years ago), whereas the R1a1a* diversity declines toward Europe where its maximum diversity and coalescent times of 11.2 KYA are observed”. The supposed migrations hypothesised by the Underhill research all occurred in late Palaeolithic-early Holocene. R1a1a likely originated from India and from there it spread to Europe: the Indians were right! See also: • X. References > India, 62., “Indian genetics and the Aryan debate”. • “The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system”. Swarkar Sharma et al. • “Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages”, Kivisild at al. • “Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs”, Malyarchuk B. at al.. “MtDNA haplogroups R1a, U4, U5, HV3 and HV4, which have been inferred to have pre-Neolithic spread in East Europe, occur at marginally low frequencies in India”. The Siberian R1a1a is not Indian. “R1a does not distinguish Indo-Iranian, Finno-Ugric, Dravidian or Turkic speakers from each other”. “R1a1a7-M458 frequency [in Europe] peaks among Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples” …because the R1a1a Finno-Ugric Chudes were obliged to learn Slavic languages! “The inevitably large error margins of our coalescent time estimates … do not allow us to exclude the association of the coalescent time of R1a1a with the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), that ourished ca. 7.5À-6.5 KYA BP in the Middle Danube (Hungary) and was spread further along the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Vistula river valleys and beyond the Carpathian Basin migratory and early agricultural zones” [Pannonia]. Unfortunately, the “11,000 samples from across Eurasia”, which have been used in the research, may suffice (notwithstanding the many caveat in the research) for estimating the age and direction of the spread of M17, but do not suffice to trace the relatively smaller migrations of the Hungarians. Nevertheless, if Hungary is a R1a1a7-M458 region, it would confirm the European origin of the Hungarians. In this case, the Hungarians should have left traces of M458 in Central Asia: if not in Arsia (because most came back home), in Pazyrykia (where most stayed), or at least in Siberian and Tarim basin ancient DNA. Furthemore, if in Hungary R1a1a6-M434 is found at a rate higher than in its neighbours, it would confirm the Hungarian migrations to Central Asia and back to Hungary. Further investigation is needed. As the Hungarians stayed for 2-3000 years out of Europe, they could have even developed a marker specific of their migrations.

CREDITS AND “DISCREDITS”

The above map is more accurate, but astonishingly similar to the map that I published in 2007, on “Honfoglalás…”, page 166. See my map. In order to draw that map, I used the pies, related to a limited number of countries, published by J. Douglas McDonald (“World haplogroups”) on www.scs.uiuc.edu. See the McDonald’s maps. There is an area termed “Indo-European” in my map: McDonald thought that he had found there the urheimat, linked to the Y chromosome H maybe, or to R1a?! Another miserably failed attempt to locate the urheimat! Out of dozens! The Indo-Europeans are a DNA free population! I showed on that map the areas in which each Y haplogroup was the main component. That map was not “not new”; it was futuristic! Mainstream geneticists have needed 3 more years of researches to publish a map similar to mine! Nevertheless, both Varga Csaba and Obrusánszky Borbála commented my book with the same mantra: “Naddeo did not say anything new that the Hungarians had not known already since ages!”. “Two things only are infinite: the universe and human ignorance… and I'm not sure about the universe.” Paraphrase of a sentence of Albert Einstein.

II. MAP OF THE “PAZYRYKIA’S” HUNGARIAN MtDNA

“Ancient MtDNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people”, Christine Keyser at al. (See X. References > 37.)

The above map replies to the following question of the geneticists that made the above research on populations of Khakassia (Minusinsk Basin, Pazyrykia): where are today samples with the same MtDNA that we found in Pazyrykia? Their answer was the above map. By the similarity of its pattern to the pattern of the Y-R1a1a spread map, this map confirms my hypothesised migrations of Hungarians from Pazyrykia to the Ob-Ugrian area, to Yukaghiria, and, through the Amur Valley, to Sakhalin and Japan (the Ainu migration). These migrations are not clearly detected by the R1a1a spread. What should be further investigated is why the Hungarian MtDNA and no Y R1a1a reached Sakhalin, and why little Hungarian MtDNA reached the Tarim Basin from Pazyrykia. The little presence of this MtDNA in Arsia and on the Hungarian way back home could point to the fact that women were those who had more to loose from an Islamic conquest of the Tarim Basin: Global MtDNA they would have lost all the remaining privileges that they still had in a community that had been matriarchal for several millennia: all of them left! It would explain why the Madjars still take wives from out of their community: they could not find Hungarian women in central Asia. Several other hypotheses are possible, but waiting for more data is wiser. Other discrepancies between the MtDNA spread and the R1a1a spread are along the Lvov-Kiev-Moscow line, (high R1a1a and low MtDNA), and in Italy and Greece (Low R1a1a and high MtDNA). The separation of the western Finnics from those of the Volga-Kama region is more evident in the MtDNA map. In general, it could be said that this map confirms the presence of Hungarians also in areas where R1a1a has disappeared or is detected at low frequencies: Greece, Padania (IT), Germany, Sweden, Finland, Yukaghiria, Ainuland. Furthermore, all the northern regions of Eurasia, where a Finno-Ugric language is spoken, are covered by the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA. No Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found in Indo-Asia (Persia, Pakistan, India): it cannot be Indo-European. The black cross on the map indicates a MtDNA different from the rest of it, but whose spread also confirms a link between Hungary and Southern Siberia.

MtDNA Haplogroup U

“Barbujani and Bertorelle estimate the age of haplogroup U5 as about 52,000 years ago, but it could be as old as 60,500 years, being the oldest subclade of haplogroup U” (Wikipedia). Others estimate that U came from Africa where it was already present 70.000 B.P.. The Kostienki (RU) human, 30,000 years old, had U2 (also found in Arsia, Pazyrykia, and Khanty Mansi); the Cheddar man (U.K.), 9150 years old, had U5a; the Loschbour (Luxemburg) men, 8000 years old, had U5a and was “very dolichocephalic”: the skulls of all these guys had some Neanderthalian features. (See X. References > General > 4. “The Neanderthals are with us!”). The today spread of U5, similar to the one of H, is approximately the same as the Neanderthal spread and its peaks are centred on Hungary, Finland, the VolgaKama region, Belgium and the Caspian Sea. It reaches the Baikal lake, at the eastern borders of Pazyrykia. Was haplogroup U already in Europe in 50.000 B.C.? The case of U MtDNA could be similar to the one of the “Ginger gene” that would have made the Neanderthal red haired. (See “Honfoglalás…” page 247). The ginger gene and U5 are supposed to be as old as 50.000 years, thus predating by far the Indo-Europeans and also the Cro Magnons in Europe, as long as a 50.000 years old Cro Magnon is not discovered. U2, U3, and U7 link together the populations of Pazyrykia, of Arsia, of the Tarim basin, and of Hungary. (X. References > 38).

III.

MtDNA N1a: A MARKER OF THE HUNGARIAN MIGRATIONS

“Mitochondrial haplogroup N1a phylogeography, with implication to the origin of European farmers”, Malliya Gounder et alii.

“MtDNA sequences of subcluster N1a1a1 related to the farmer DEB3 and FLO1 lineages are widely distributed, accounting for nearly half (82 out of 166) of the total N1a data. Lineages from this subcluster were observed in populations of central/eastern Europe [East Pannonia], Volga-Ural region [Sarmatia or Volga-Kama?], central Asia [Arsia], South Siberia [Pazyrykia], […and Khanty Mansi, …and Tarim basin (see Sampula) …and Magyars (See X. References)], Egypt, Yemen, Iran, Turkey, and eastern/southern India). The cumulative frequency of N1a1a1 reaches a maximum in eastern Europe and central Asia, and decreases in the direction of central and northern Europe. The same occurs in the southern direction, towards Anatolia and the Caucasus”:

N1a1a1

N1a1a2

(The layer with the red circles and names of countries should be moved several hundred km westward!)

Unfortunately, the big circles labelled “Russian Federation” do not help us much: if somebody draws a map of the distribution in Russia (Volga-Kama/Volga Ural region? Khanty Mansi? Yukaghirs? Sakhalin? Pazyrykia?) of the above clades, we might get acquainted with the details of the Hungarian migrations. "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)", Csanád Bálint (10 2008): “About 85-90 % of the [Magyar] MtDNA [including N1a1] belonged to main European Haplogroups”. Dienekes Blog: “MtDNA N1a was a genuine signature of the Central European Neolithic. Leading Magyars of the St. Stephen's Hungary, came back home [from Arsia] with the same N1a they had left Europe with”. The subclade “N1a1a1a is restricted to Kazakhstan, Altai and Buryat Republic (Pazyrykia and Arsia), and the European part of Russian Federation. These areas were centres of expansion”. Furthermore, “a subcluster of N1a1a2 was observed in Denmark, Poland, Scotland, Norway, Switzerland, France, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, and Volga-Ural region”. The coalescence age of N1a1a2 (between 3,400 - 4,000 years) and its spread in Europe and to the Volga Ural regions, makes of the subcluster N1a1a2 the perfect candidate marker of the Hungarian diaspora to Magna Pannonia (1500-500 B.C.). Its coalescent age would not allow any earlier hypothesis of its migrations. However, it should also be checked if the N1a found in the Saint Stephen Magyars belonged to this subcluster, or it should be found in Pazyrykia and/or Arsia. The pattern of the spread of N1a could be very similar to the one of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, but Asia should be investigated more accurately in order to confirm it. N1a has been found in the Han dynasty time Sampula cemetery, Tarim basin. The N1a Haplogroup is the best marker of the Hungarian migrations because it peaks in territories were the spoken languages were the Uralo-Altaic languages, because it is at very low rates in west Indo-Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, France and UK), and because it is almost absent in Indo-Asia (Pakistan, Iran, and India) except at the borders of India with Pakistan (Gujarat).

IV. LOCAL PEAKS AND POCKETS OF R1a1a IN EURASIA

The local peaks and pockets of R1a1a, (most are undetectable from the Underhill map) are listed in the following table, which is a selection of lines from this Wikipedia table. (Cyan sentences are my comments and additions)

Population with archaeology congruent to: Kinship

Continent

Pannonico,

Country

Europe

Hungary

Where?

Europe

Hungary

Where?

Europe

Hungary

Europe Europe

Where?

Romania

R1a1

53

NA

45

NA

36

Where?

Romania

Magyar archaeology. Cultural kinship:

Sample

HUNGARY

Where?

Hungary

Europe

Sarmato-Avar,

Population

0.00%

22.0%

215

NA

-

NA

45

Dniester-Carpathian

R1a1* R1a1a

You can get whichever result you need, if you chose the right sample!

Scotland

Europe

Orkney islands (Gaelia)

Scotland

121

Orkney islands (Gaelia)

Semino et al. (2000)

24.2%

Rosser et al. (2000)

Völgyi et al. (2008)

NA

20.4%

Varzari (2006)

NA

NA

NA

60.0%

1.40%

NA

NA

26

Battaglia et al. (2008)

NA

INDO-EUROPEAN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Europe

56.6%

NA

NA

20.0%

Source

Rosser et al. (2000)

7.0%

NA

Capelli et al. (2003)

27.0%

Wells et al. (2001)

It should be quite improbable to get so different results from a population of only 20,000 people!) Europe

Italy

Sicily

236

NA

NA

Europe

Greece

Greece

Sesklo/Dimini

57

NA

0.00%

Europe

Greece

Europe

Greece

Europe

Nea Nikomedeia Crete, Lasithi Plateau

Greece

Europe

Europe

Europe

20

Komi-Permians Perm

43.2%

38

King et al. (2008)

0.00%

29.3%

Martinez et al. (2007)

10.5%

Martinez et al. (2007)

10.5%

Battaglia et al. (2008)

0.00%

13.92% Underhill et al. (2009)

NA

NA

NA

NA

King et al. (2008)

17.4%

NA

23.8%

37

Tver

Russia

NA

42

21.1%

1.80%

NA

Di Gaetano et al. (2008)

5.5%

0.00%

0.00%

NA

79

Macedonian

Russia

NA

57

Macedonia

Russia

NA

23

Macedonian Greeks

Republic of Macedonia

Europe

NA

41

Crete, Lasithi Prefecture

Greece

Europe

57

35.0%

Semino et al. (2000)

NA

Malaspina et al. (2003)

Malaspina et al. (2003)

0.00%

57.9%

Mirabal et al. (2009)

NA

33.0%

Nasidze et al. (2004)

The red-haired FINNO-UGRICS OF PERM are proud to be of Finno-Ugric descent (“We were here before them [the Russians!]!”). The red-haired FINNO-UGRICS OF TVER also are proud, but they complain that they are often not shown in the maps of Finno-Ugric language speakers. Caucasus

Georgia

Caucasus

CAUCASUS

Abkhazians

12

Karachays Karachays Cherkes, RU Cherkessians

Caucasus

Caucasus Caucasus Caucasus

Nogays

Caucasus Caucasus

Abazia RU

Caucasus

NA

0.00%

12.70% Underhill et al. (2009)

0.00%

13.16% Underhill et al. (2009)

38

NA

0.00%

13.2%

NA

0.00%

NA

141

13.48% Underhill et al. (2009)

0.00%

NA

Battaglia et al. (2008)

25.74% Underhill et al. (2009)

0.71%

NA

42

12.64% Underhill et al. (2009)

0.00%

NA

89

Avars

27.54% Underhill et al. (2009)

NA

136

Abazas

0.00%

76 87

Balkarians Kabardino Balkars Balkaria, RU Kabardians

Caucasus

NA

126

Kumyks

Dagestan RU

NA

69

19.10% Underhill et al. (2009)

0.00%

2.38%

Underhill et al. (2009)

The CAUCASIAN AVARS disputed that the Central European Avars were real Avars (and vice versa). Some Cerkessians are still red-haired. Several Caucasian cultures are equestrian cultures.

Middle East Lebanon Middle East Syria

Syrian

Tajikistan

31

NA

NA

9.7%

Semino et al. (2000)

50

NA

NA

18.0%

Nasidze et al. (2004)

NA

NA

64.0%

Wells et al. (2001)

20

Isfahan

Middle East Iran Central Asia

WESTERN SILK ROAD

Lebanese

Tajiks/Khojand

NA

22

NA

10.0%

Semino et al. (2000)

KHOJAND, FERGHANA, where the Hungarians bred the “heavenly horses”, was the third heart of the Silk Road after Bukhara and Samarkand. Obrusánszki Borbála, were this people your Huns, who sold the horses to the Emperor, who left 64% of R1a1a there? Isfahan: see the line of Istens on a mosque: line 165 of “The Mother Isten” abstract, and the Istens on Iranian tribal carpets.

CHINA, SILK ROAD

Centr/East Asia China

Dongxiang (Mongolian descent) Gansu

49

NA

0?%

28.0%

Wei Wang et al. (2003)

Centr/East Asia China

Bonan, Mongolian descent border Qinghai/Gansu

52

NA

0?%

17.0%

Wei Wang et al. (2003)

47

NA

0?%

26.0%

Wei Wang et al. (2003)

NA

NA

18.0%

NA

0.00%

69.2%

Fornarino et al. (2009

Sengupta et al. (2005)

Centr/East Asia China

Salar (Central Asian Turkish descent?) border Qinghai/Gansu

Is it not astonishing that the only 3 listed pockets of R1a1a in China are located at the borders of Gansu with the Tibetan plain? Could their inhabitants be mongolized descendents of those 150 (Hungarian) Yueh Chih families that the Chinese Chronicles reported having fled the Hsiung Nu by recovering in Tibet? …or rather, are they the descendents of the Little Yueh Chih, who had remained exactly in the area were R1a1a has been found now?

INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT

South Asia Pakistan

Kalash

44

South Asia Nepal/India

Chitwan, Nepal Hindus (proxy for Indian ancestry)

26

South Asia Pakistan

Pakistan Kashmiri

12

NA

NA

Qamar et al. (2002)

58.0%

Qamar et al. (2002)

The Nepalese Burkha and Sherpa are said to be Pashtun from Afghanistan or even Hungarians: this genetic research makes that hypothesis more probable. Burkha and Sherpa are worldwide appreciated for their moral and physical features. Who better than a people that had lived at an elevation of 1000 metres for over a millennium and that was used to cross the Pamir passes (4/5000 metres high) carrying heavy rolls of silk, could fit the job profile of a Sherpa? South Asia India

Dravidian Upper Caste

59

NA

NA

28.8%

South Asia India

Bihar (Paswan)

27

NA

0.00%

40.74% Sharma et al. (2009)

South Asia India

Indo-European Lower Caste

50

NA

NA

26.0%

Sengupta et al. (2005)

Bihar is supposed to have been reached by Heftalites (Timo Stickler), who left their Hungarian Mother Istens and other Hungarian artefacts in the region. Bihar was also the name of the today Oradea county in Érdely. South Asia India

Bihar

(Brahmins) 38

NA

0.00%

60.53% Sharma et al. (2009)

South Asia India

Bombay, Konkanastha (Brahmins) 43

NA

NA

41.9%

South Asia India

Gujarat

South Asia India

Himachal Pradesh

South Asia India South Asia India

South Asia India

Siberia

West Bengal

(Brahmins) 30

Maharashtra

(Brahmins) 32

57

Russia

Kamchatka, Itelmen

18

Kivisild et al. (2003)

47.37% Sharma et al. (2009)

0.00%

72.22% Sharma et al. (2009)

NA

0.00%

67.74% Sharma et al. (2009)

NA

0.00%

38.1%

NA

KAMCHATKA

32.81% Sharma et al. (2009)

0.00%

NA

(Brahmins) 42

Madhya Pradesh (Saharia)

0.00%

NA

(Brahmins) 31

Madhya Pradesh

South Asia India

NA

(Brahmins) 30

Uttar Pradesh

South Asia India See Brahmins.

(Brahmins) 64

0.00%

43.33% Sharma et al. (2009) Sharma et al. (2009)

NA

22.8%

28.07% Sharma et al. (2009)

NA

NA

22.2%

Lell et al. (2006)

In Kamchatka, there is the easternmost and most isolate pocket of R1a1a. The Ainu did arrive there, before mixing with the Jomon. Their main business was sea trade and fishing; they arrived there from the Kuril islands, which are still part of Ainuland.

MONGOLIA

Mongolia

24

Soldiers mainly from Khalkh (East Mongolia)

Mongolia

NA

402

NA

NA

4.0%

0.00%

Wells et al. (2001)

2.5%

Weale et al. (2001)

“Many of the peoples of the Ordos region, were identified as belonging to the Xiongnu cultures. Ordos was occupied predominantly by peoples showing Mongoloid features, known from their skeletal remains and artefacts.” [Zhang et al. "Cultural History of Ancient Northern Ethnic Groups in China", p. 176-225.]. Borbála, if the Huns came from Ordos, they were Mongols! If there were Caucasoids in Ordos, they were slaves of the Xiongnu… they were the Hungarians who made the bronze artefacts of the Xiungnu and the Sarmatian jewellery of the Huns.

V. THE HUNGARIAN SPREAD ACCORDING TO GENETIC RESEARCH

The following map resumes the data gathered by the above researches in a single map of the spread of R1a1a, of the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, of N1a1a1, and of the spread of cultural, archaeological, linguistic, artistic, religious, and anthropologic markers of the Hungarians.

The above map defines the areas in which R1a, Pazyrukia’s MtDNA, and N1a coexist still today:

THE HUNGARIAN GENETICS

The Hungarian Y Chromosome pie (right, Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009 Mar;3(2):e27-8.) is a European pie (ΣR1a+I+R1b=72.8%) that shows the central and west Asian admixture of Sarmatians and Avars (ΣG+J+H=19.3%). The 19.3 frequency of the west Asian admixture is higher than in countries bordering Hungary and Transylvania, and it includes the admixture of the agriculturists that brought farming technologies to Europe from the Middle East. G is recognized to be the Sarmatian marker in Europe. Its “Britannic cluster” is at high rates in Székelyföld and in Britannia, where it was brought by the 5,500 Sarmatians (not Daco-Romans!) that Marcus Aurelius relocated in Britannia. (See “Erdely Dacia”). It is wide spread in north Caucasus, on the route the Sarmatians took to come back to Europe. J could rather be Avar. It is wide spread south of Caucasus, on the route the Avars took to come back to Europe. The J Y-chromosomal lineage is more frequent in Szeklers (J1-M267=10.3%, Semino et al., 2000a, 2004; Di Giacomo et al., 2004. J2e1-M102=7.2%) than in Hungarians: in fact the Sarmatians and the Avars settled mainly in Transylvania; instead, the Magyars, who had mainly come from the Tarim Basin (where the rate of these 2 haplogroups is lower) rather settled in Hungary (See “Erdely Dacia”). H is typical of India and of the Roma; it is at a frequency of 2-4% in Arsia, where it reaches 20% in the Kalash population, who live close to the urheimat of the Roma. The isolated peak of R1b in Arsia, together with R1a1a, is the evidence that these haplogroups were brought there from the Balkans, the only other place where these haplogroups still coexist. I Hg is found at low rates in Arsia and in pockets in Ferghana and Pakistan, Joseph Skulj. Underhill has found 1.5% I Hg in Central Asia, but he has not specified where exactly. E1b in Arsia points to a migration of Pannonici to Arsia (1000 B.C.) from east Pannonia (the region between the Tisza and the Dniester valleys), where these haplogroups are still at low rates today. This hypothesis would explain the lower rates of I, and E1b in today Hungary if compared to bordering countries: the Pannonici had not yet received that admixture and the Honfoglalás peoples did not bring it back home. Furthermore, the most ancient Turul has not been found in today Hungary, but in west Ukraine (beginning of first millennium B.C., Odessa Museum); the “deer stones” migrated (at that same time) to Pazyrykia from Moldova (See “Sacred Symbols”), and the hit and run technique was a Cimmerian innovation that spread from east Pannonia up until Japan (See “Pre-Indo-European Rites”). Semino found out that the Hungarians who live west of the Danube are more akin to the Finns than those who live east of the Danube: west Hungarians had not migrated to Central Asia and they have retained a higher kinship with the Finns. The rarity of I, R1b, and E1b in Pazyrykia points to a migration (2000 B.C.) to Southern Siberia that could have originated from even further east: from west Ukraine or rather from south west Urals, regions that had already been colonized by Pannonici at that time (Syntashta, Abashevo, Andronovo cultures). Actually, the spread of E1b1b1a1b to Europe came quite late: “Cruciani's latest study suggests that E1b1b1a1b (E-V13, formerly E3b1a) actually arrived in the Balkans [Albania] from Western Asia during the Palaeolithic, and then spread throughout Europe much later (circa 5300 years ago, 3300 B.C.)”. “Bird (2007) proposes a still more recent dispersal out of the Balkans, around the time of the Roman empire.” I hypothesise that most of the eastward spread of E1b1b1a1b (from the Albanian peak toward the Dnieper river) could be connected to the migrations of the Aromin Vlachs to Romania in the Middle Age. E1b1b1a1b is at only 4.2% in Hungary (much less than in Countries bordering Hungary, Eupedia), because the Pannonici that migrated to central Asia had not yet received that admixture, and the peoples of the Honfoglalás therefore did not brought it back. In Britannia, some very small but high rate pockets of E1b1b1a1b have also been found and have been associated to “Roman soldiers from the Balkans” (Bird, 2007): as the Sarmatians did not carry E1b1b1a1b, those pockets could be pockets of early Vlachs that had started migrating to Dacia and that were among the Sarmatians that had been sent to Britannia by Marcus Aurelius (See “Erdely Dacia”). At that time, the Sarmatians:Vlachs ratio in Székelyföld was much higher than the today Hungarians:Romanian Vlachs ratio. MtDNA gives further evidence of the migrations of the Hungarians from Central Europe to Central Asia and back to Europe (See above II. and III.). The high rate of I Hg in Hungarians (25%, all I1, not congruent with the below maps!) confirms their ancient European ancestry. If the Magyars had originated from Central Asia or if they were Huns, the Hungarians could have never had such a high rate of I Hg!

Haplogroup I1 distribution

Haplogroup I2 distribution

Turkish genetic pie

The above genetic pie of Turkey is in the research “Excavating Y-DNA strata in Anatolia”, Hum. Genet. (2004), Cinnioglu et al.: “Current Anatolian genetic pool has received 13% - 30% genetic inflow from Central Asian Turkic speakers”. “The Anatolian Turks are overwhelmingly indigenous (William Z. Ripley and Carleton S. Coon). They are 64% Caucasoid” (Wikipedia). The R1a, R1b and I Y-DNA of the Turks is due to ancient natural geographical diffusion from Europe, as it clearly appears from the maps of this paragraph. Therefore, the Anatolian Turks could be connected to the Pannonici, but not to the Magyars: this connection is shown by archaeology. If 13% - 30% is the Turkish speakers contribution to the pie of the people living in Anatolia, then, the north east Asian Haplogroups N, Q, C, O (Σ=7.26%) could make from 24 to 55% of the invading Turkish speakers’ pie, and it would confirm the North East Asian origin of the Turkic speakers and their admixture from the Mongolic Rouran. The Göktürks were descendents of the Ashina clan. The centre of the Ashina power was the Orkhon valley. The Orkhon valley was the border between Mongolia and Pazyrykia and genetics says that the Orkhon Valley is still inhabited by people that received a significant Hungarian and Mongolic admixture. It is very possible that the Orkhon Valley was the place where the Turks learned agriculture, learned the 300 Hungarian words, and they also learned the rovásírás. A tribe of the Göktürks, the Uyghurs, migrated southward and threatened the Chinese Empire. Later on, they invaded the Tarim basin. The hypothesis that some Turks had Hungarian ancestors would also explain why the genetic contribution of the Turkic Uyghurs did not affect the 2000 years genetic continuity of the Tarim basin, at least as far as MtDNA is concerned. (See X. > Arsia > 45.). The Turks could have not influenced the Sarmatian and Avar genetics, because, when the Turks appeared in east Asia, the Sarmatians and the Avars were already in Europe. The Magyars, who lived in central Asia at the time the Turks were there, have no east Asian genes in their pie: intermingling between Turks and Magyars is improbable. Furthermore, the 300 common words in Turkish and Hungarian (mainly related to agriculture) could well have been taught by the Magyars to the Turks, not viceversa, because the Turkish speakers, at the time of the meeting, were still nomads, and the Pazyryki and Arsi were agriculturalists since millennia. Furthermore, the Turkic Uyghurs invaded the Tarim Basin in 840 A.D., when the Arsi were already preparing their luggage. In any case, 300 hundred words is the same quantity of words that the Longobards left in Italy, but nobody has ever hypothesised that the Italians are Germanics! The Hungarians were not Turkish speakers and the only possible link between Hungarians and Turkish speakers may be found in Orkhon! (…but Turkey could have been inhabited by Hungarian Pannonici, as archaeology confirms!). The I, R1b and R1a1a admixture in Anatolia clearly arrived there due to natural spread and cannot be connected to the Magyars or the Turks, but to the Pannonici.

R1b

E1b1b1a1b (E-V13)

I

N Y-DNA (left, Rootsi; right, annals of Human genetics 2004) and Tat C (almost absent in Mongolia and China) are very frequent in northern Eurasia including Finland and the Khanty-Mansi area. Therefore, they have been considered signatures of the Uralic speakers. However, they are missing in Hungary. How is it possible, since the Hungarians, according to the HAS, came from the Khanty Mansi

area, i.e. from Yugra? As simple as this: the Hungarians did not come from Yugra! The absence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C in Hungary (Rosser 2000) confirms my theory because, in my theory, the ancestors of the Hungarians never dwelled north of the 51 st parallel, which is the approximate southern limit of the presence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C. (See also the Note G below: “The Finns” > N1c1c. N1c was formerly N3). The absence of N Y-DNA and of Tat C in Hungary demolishes the linguistic theory of origin of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, because, if the Magyars had come from the Khanty-Mansi area (Yugra), they would have had a much, much higher rate of N and of Tat C! I know that for the linguists it is blasphemous to maintain that not the Khanty-Mansi, (who speak today the closest language to Hungarian) came back to Hungary, but the Arsi (who now speak Chinese or Turkic) did! The linguists are pseudo scientists, who believe that linguistics is the mother of all sciences and that archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and history should be bent to fit their linguistic fantasies. The linguists are pseudo-scientists that are unable to understand and accept a concept as simple as this: the Hungarians shall soon speak Chinese (left: Chinese military parade, Tien'anmen, CN), as all the Europeans will. (It will be after a bloody atomic war declared to China by another Indo-European Bush, in the last attempt to maintain global supremacy. Yesterday the U.S. debt, which is in Chinese hands, has been downgraded by S&P: the process has started). When it shall happen, the Hungarians shall replace their language within a couple of generations, but their archaeology shall forever remain Hungarian, their genome shall remain Hungarian for centuries, and their culture shall slowly start changing. Nevertheless, they shall never worship the Buddha, but rather His Mother, that they shall again name Nagyboldogasszony, as they named Nagyboldogasszony the Mother of Christ, as they called Nagyboldogasszony their ancestral Mother Goddess – the Mother Isten. You understand now why 4 years ago I published the following sentence on the “The Ugaritic Abjad…” page of this website: “If you quote my work, please do not label me as a linguist. I consider that title an offence.” N Y-DNA and Tat C are not the signature of the Uralic speakers, but they are the markers of the Arctic people! The Hungarians of Yugra are not those who speak a Ugric language, or those who carry N and Tat C: the Hungarians of Yugra are those who carry R1a1a (whichever language they speak!) and who worshipped a Mother Isten idol as tall as a human, entirely made of gold, still at the time the Russians showed up in Yugra, in the 17th century. When I say “Hungarian”, I refer to a population that kept its genetic and cultural identity along 10 millennia, regardless of the language they spoke or shall speak! Language connections are irrelevant. Not the Khanty-Mansi migrated to Hungary, but the Altaic Pazyryki did migrate to the Khanty-Mansi area: “All the U7 sequences found in Khanty and Mansi are identical, and the same sequence is found in Uighur of Central Asia. This suggests a recent founder effect of U7 haplogroup in Khanty and Mansi with a probable Central Asian origin. Similarly, the Southeast Asian-derived Y chromosome N2 lineage, allegedly specific for Uralic speakers (!!), is also found among Altaic speakers….” (“Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers”, Forensic Biology, University of Helsinki) (See: X. References > Pazyryki and Khanty Mansi). The Pazyryki moved to Yugra after they were attacked by the Huns in about 200 B.C. (see the abstract “The Hsiung Nu/Huns”) and they brought there the Hungarian language, the Mother Isten, R1a1a, and the European Pazyrykia’s MtDNA, and they intermingled with local populations, and… they never came back home, to Hungary. In fact, the little archaeology of the Khanty-Mansi is congruent with the Siberian archaeology of the Pazyryki:

J.D.Kimball, А.И.Соловьёв (history.novosibdom.ru) (+Pleiades) Magna Hungaria: Ust-Polui, Turbino, Seyma Rostovka Turkish Ainu Furthermore, there is no archaeology in west Asia, in the middle Age, that can support the presence there of an advanced community that could have arrived in Europe and could have become, on arrival, the strongest military power of Europe, unless you hypothesise that the “hunter gatherer” Yugrans learnt all they had to learn overnight, on arrival in Hungary. In fact, the Magyars were not “hunter gatherers”, as somebody does define the Yugrans! Yugra: the linguistic theory of origin of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is woodoo science! (Genetics and the HAS) The Hungarian pie does not show any Chinese or Mongolic (Hunnish) admixture. Mongolic genetic traces in Hungary? Of course, yes! But not coming from the Huns. Rather from the Magyars! In fact, the Arsi and the Chinese peacefully shared the Tarim Basin for as long as one millennium (Han to Tang dynasties). They shared the cemeteries (Astana), they shared religious rites (in the Buddhist caves), and they shared the same enemy: the Hsiung Nu/Huns. Even being both endogamic cultures, it is very possible that some intermingling between Chinese and Arsi did happen in such a long time. This intermingling is confirmed by genetic researches on the Magyars: when the Magyars arrived in Europe, there was still the evidence of some East Asian admixture. In fact, the 5% East Asian MtDNA (B and M, "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)" Csanád Bálint, 10 2008) found in Honfoglalás Magyar women, is not necessarily Mongolic, but it can rather be of autochthonous Chinese of the Tarim basin: B and M (widespread in Han populations) have been found in the DNA of ancient and modern people of the Tarim Basin, in cemeteries where West Eurasian and east Asians were buried. Additional East Asian genetic traces in Hungary may have also derived from the Cumanians and the Mongols of Genghis Khan, but not from the Huns! (See “The Huns”). Mongolic traces: • low rate of GM genetic markers on immunoglobulins (Hideo Matsumoto, who also found it in the Ainu). • blue spot, which, being dominant, could have been at very low rates on arrival in Europe. • phenotypes with infrequent Mongolic features. • … other traces. The Hungarians were not Mongols, not Hsiung Nu, not Huns! CONCLUSION: the genetic impact on Hungary of the peoples of the Honfoglalás (Sarmatians, Avars, and Magyars) was small because they found in Hungary other Hungarians (see X. > Hungarians > 20.). The genetics of the Magyars helped to keep the local rate of R1a1a and R1b high, to increase the rate of G and J, and to decrease the rate of E1b, I, and N in pre-Honfoglalás Hungarians of Carpathia that had received the admixture of E1b, I, and N in the 2 millennia the Honfoglalás people were not in Europe. The Hungarians were not Mongols, not Yugrans, not Turks, not Finns (The Finns were Hungarians!). They were Pannonici, who migrated to central Asia (Arsi), who came back home as Sarmatians, Avars and Magyars, who mixed with the Szekely and Pannonici that had remained in the Carpathian Basin, and thus they made the modern Hungarian identity.

NOTES

(See the letters on the Map at the beginning of V., from West to East) Wherever I found Hungarian cultural markers (“Honfoglalás…“) and archaeological markers (“The Magyar art…”), there R1a1a and/or Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found by genetics!

A.

GAELIA

In this area, people descending from Palaeolithic inhabitants could still live, who had survived in Scotland and western Ireland thanks to the North Atlantic Drift, and who had been trapped there, after England and the Channel had been covered with ice. In 3000 B.C., Gaelia homed an advanced culture that erected some of the largest and most ancient Kurgans and megaliths, far before the “IndoEuropean Kurgans” appear in Europe. Spiraliform motifs were already there. In the Orkney islands R1a1a is still at a peak of 27%. It could be Norse in the islands, but not all over Scotland and the Belfast area. The Norse did not migrate only to the Orchad islands, why should they have left their R1a1a only in islands that were inhabited by a civilized people since the Neolithic? (Skara Brae).

B.

SICILY

The frequency of R1a1a is 5.5%, Di Gaetano et al., 2008: Siculi? Lombards? Alans from Tunis? In Italy, a higher frequency is only found in Friuli, where Cividale is. Cividale was the first capital city of the Avar Longobards. If 5.5% is the average for all of Sicily, how high can the frequency of R1a1a be in the pockets and in the refugia where the Siculo-AvarSzékely-Lombards live now? E.g: in San Fratello. Bettino Craxi (not an Italian surname!), Italian prime Minister, was a Siculo-Lombard. His father was from San Fratello. He is not loved by many Italians, but the other prime Ministers after De Gasperi were not better. He defended, the dignity of Italy as a sovereign state, against an intrusion of R. Reagan, in Sigonella, with Carabinieri ready to fire onto American Marines. (See “Archaeology of Sicily” on “Székely Varese”). There are pockets of R1a1a also in Calabria (Wapedia); some Avar/Lombards settled there too. A small town in Calabria holds the name of “Longobardi”. The walls of the presbytery of the S. Francesco church of Longobardi are decorated with yellow Delivering Mother Istens, on a red background, right. They claim that King Liutprand was there and a popular name in town is Lipranno, a distortion of Liutprand.

C.

URHEIMAT

The only undisputed European Urheimat of the Germanics (Sweden) was introduced to the Bronze Age by “Hungarian adventurers” (Metropolitan Museum of Art) in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C.: the Metropolitan explains this peak of R1a1a. The swords, razors and other artefacts found in Sweden are congruent with Pannonico archaeology.

D. AMBER ROAD TERMINAL

There is Sarmatian archaeology in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, and Pannonico and Sarmatian archaeology in Pribaltika. Note that, in Aržan (Tuva, Siberia), amber has been found in graves C14 dated 620 B.C.: Herodotus was right! “In the fifth century B.C., Herodotus mentioned transit trade occurring in Central Asia along a route that stretched from the Urals in the west to the Altai and the Minusinsk Basin [Pazyrykia] in the east” (Hemphill and Mallory 2004).

E.

GREECE

MACEDONIA AND THESSALY.

See References > 64.: “Greece. R1a1a is not where the Greeks settled!” There is a peak of R1a1a in correspondence of what was the Macedonia of Alexander the Great. In ”Honfoglalás…” I had hypothesised that Alexander was not Greek but Hungarian! Demosthenes said it quite clearly in his Philippics: "Γένοιτ’ άν τι χαινότερον, ή Μαχεδών ανήρ Αθηναίους χαταπολεμών χαί τά τών Ελλήνων διοιχών" (Would a Macedonian [non Greek] rule the Greeks!?). The Underhill map strengthens my hypothesis with genetic evidence, after I have already proved, with archaeology, that Macedonia was a culturally Hungarian region:

Macedonia, Early Iron Age, Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum.

All the above artefacts are congruent with Bronze Age Pannonico archaeology (See the book “The gold of the world” G. CH. Chourmouziadis, and my images abstracts). The archaeology of ancient Macedonia is not Indo-European, and it can be seen in the Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. In Kavala, Macedonia, the Hungarian spiral bronze bracelets were in use until the 6 th century B.C.. At that time, north of Athens, the conical hat was also still in use (bronze figurines). In Dendra and Maraton, Bronze Age Horse burials have been found (right, 1550 B.C.). Hungarian Gold Idols have been found in Sesklo and in Aravissos Yannitsa (left, 4 millennium B.C.) Nea Nikomedeia: R1a1a=21.1%; Sesklo/Dimini, R1a1a=10.5%. All over Greece, the Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found.

MYCENAE.

The Peloponnese, where Mycenae and Sparta were located, is almost R1a1a free. The Greek Mycenaeans and Spartans were the most Indo-European Indo-Europeans: they lived in a state of permanent war. Imagine that the Spartans, when there was no war against foreigners, declared war against the ilotes (their slaves) or celebrated the kripteia, which was another “ceremony” for murdering their ilotes. (Jorge Cano Cuenca, Carlos III University, Madrid, Spain. Read his “Sparta, the warring city”). In other words, the slaves were human targets for the Spartan war games. Why the Indo-Germanists do not tell you these things? If you are an Indo-Germanist, if you read the article of Jorge, you shall be ashamed of being termed “Indo-European”, and you shall ask for a Hungarian passport next day! The only genetic research I have found on Myceneans regards MtDNA (Circle B Grave, late 17 th century B.C., Abigail S. Bouwmana, Keri A. Brown, N. W. Prag A. John and Terence A. Brown): “[The Mycenaean] U5a1a lineage within haplogroup U5 arose in Europe approximately 30,000 years ago, [23,000 years before the Indo-Europeans start speaking their language!] and is mainly found in northwest and north-central Europe. In the context of its rather ancient origin, the modern distribution of haplogroup U5a1 suggests that individuals bearing this haplogroup were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe”. (The other 3 samples carried Hg H2 and Uk). This research is hard to find, nobody comments it! That MtDNA was not Indo-European, but PreIndo-European! In fact, in Greece, including Peloponnese, also the Hungarian Pazyrykia’s MtDNA has been found! It was the MtDNA of Bronze Age Hungarians (Pannonici). I long for seeing a research looking for Y-DNA in Mycenae. Nevertheless, I would not be surprised if no R1a1a is found: the IndoEuropeans used to kill the men (or to use them as human targets for their war games!), but they did enslave the women for their “Bunga Bunga”. Before Indo-Europeanization, the Helladics buried their Horses, in Mycenae too, as they did in Dendra and Maraton. The Scythians and the Amazons were allied of Troy against Mycenae (Homer); the Scythians were allied of Athens against Sparta: Scythian mounted archers protected the walled corridor between Athens and Piraeus. Here is some of the archaeology of the Hungarians of Mycenae, before their Indo-Europeanization: exactly the same things that you can find in Carpathia even at an earlier time, including the Pleiades (Athens Archaeological Museum: you must go there to see them, as these artefacts are not published or commented in books!):

6

The earliest inhabitants of Mycenae, were not (not!) Indo-Europeans. The genetic legacy of the Hungarian female slaves (Pazyrykia’s MtDNA) of the Mycenaeans survives in Greece. In Greece, R1a1a has only survived in pockets because the Hungarians that had been enslaved there were used as “human targets” for the “war games” of the Mycenaeans and of the Spartans.

BLONDS IN GREECE.

Wilhelm Sieglin has found out that 170 out of the 362 (47%) ancient gods or prominent Greeks, described in ancient Greek literature, were blond or red haired, with gray, blue, or light green eyes: this is why democracy was born in Greece! No other Indo-European society has ever been democratic before modern time! (Wilhelm Sieglin, che si è preso la pena di andare a scovare tutti i passi delle fonti greche dove si parli del colore degli occhi e dei capelli, ha potuto dimostrare che dei 121 personaggi della storia greca di cui gli autori ci descrivono i caratteri fisici, 109 sono biondi, e solo 13 bruni. Lo stesso Sieglin ha raccolto le descrizioni dei personaggi della mitologia: delle divinità, 60 hanno capelli biondi, e solo 35 capelli scuri (di cui 29 numi del mare o degli inferi); degli eroi delle saghe, 140 sono biondi e 18 han capelli neri; dei personaggi poetici, 41 biondi e 8 neri). The higher prolificacy of the testosteronic Indo-Europeans and the African admixture in Greece have made the blonds disappear from the country. CRETE (Lasithi Plateau, R1a1a=29.3%: Lasithi Prefecture, R1a1a=17.4%). Left: Etruscan amphora ; attic black-figures, 540–530 BC: Poseidon fighting the Giant Polybotes during the Gigantomachy, Louvre. That succumbing Giant with his Mother Isten on his shield (left, complete with head and offspring), was a Pannonico pre-IndoEuropean God, who belonged to a community of Gods, in which two Goddesses – Gaia and Rhea – took all decisions. How many were the Titans? 6. And the Giants? 6. And the sisters of the Titans? 6. 6, the sacred number of the Hungarians. Was what I named 6 Ray Sun (right, Mycenae) the sacred representation of the divine sixes? “In the Cretan tradition, the Titans were portrayed as agrarian [not pastoralist!] Gods, who lived in the vicinity of Knossos in Crete, where they ruled over mankind during the Golden Age”. The Golden Age of Old Europe. Lasithi could be the refugium where the descendents of the matriarchal pre-Indo-European Gods still survive. The mythical wars between the new and the ancient Gods (Asir versus Vanir, in Nordia; Greek Gods vs. Titans and Giants, in Greece) represented the mythic, epic conquest war of the “nomadic, pastoralist, war faring” newcomers.

F.

G. THE FINNS

The Finns were “Hungarian adventurers” that started the Amber Road in very ancient time, and who “brought the Bronze Age to Scandinavia” (Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, USA, website, Scandinavia timeline) in the second half of the 2 nd millennium B.C.. They were pushed further northward first by the Slavs and later on by the Germans (Deutschritterorden). They intermingled with the Saami. If you leave the relevant Saami admixture out of the Finnish genetic pie, you find out that, before the admixture, the Finns were Europeans and akin to the Hungarians. N1c1c: the Finns are Mongols, the Hungarians are not Finno-Ugric! Right, distribution of N1c, formerly N3a. The subclade N1c1c, very frequent in Finland, has been first connected to the Uralic languages, then used in order to prove that the Finns are Mongols, and finally, as it has not been found in Budapest, to prove that the Hungarians are not Finno-Ugrics! N1c1c has even been used to prove that the Slavic Slovenians “did not arrive 1500 years ago, but they were indigenous to the lands they still now inhabit”! “Y-Chromosome frequencies and the implications on the Theories relating to the Origin and settlement of Finno-Ugric, Proto-Hungarian and Slavic populations”, Hindu Institute of Learning, Toronto, Canada, by Joseph Skulj (clearly of “Slavic” Slovenian origins!). Unbelievable! Some people decide what they want to prove, first, and, later on, they start ruminating. Furthermore, as N1c1c has not been found in Budapest, but it has been found only in Őrség (Guglielmino 2000), the Őrség inhabitants would be the only Uralics in Hungary! N1c1c has nothing to do with the Finns, nothing to do with the Uralic languages, nothing to do with the Mongols. The geneticists say that N1 originated in Southern China (Sichuan, 14.000 B.C.) and N1c1c originated from south of the Baikal lake (6000 B.C.), from where it spread to the Arctic shores. N1c1c is the marker of the migrations of the Arctic populations. When the Uralics of Eurasia were pushed northward, they intermingled with the N1c1c peoples, whose languages were Uralicized. Finnicized in Europe and Ugricized in Asia. (Right: Uralic languages). The N1c1c Saami, were in Nordia since at least 5.000 B.C. and they had migrated there from the central shores of the Arctic Sea (Noel D. Broadbent, Smithsonian Institution). The russification policies made of the Saami language a forbidden language; Saami children were picked up from Saami families and were given back at the age of 15, after they had been Russified. (Note that slavery was abolished and in Indo-Russia, as in Indo-USA, in the second half of the 19th century!). The Soviet Empire finally relocated the Saami in collective farms here and there in the south. I could bet that Stalin relocated them where russification was more needed: Pribaltika, Tatarstan, Volga-Kama. Stalin was diabolic: he did not oblige the Tatars, the Baltics, or the Finno-Ugrics, to learn Russian, but he mixed all these peoples together so that they freely decide to learn Russian as a lingua franca, so to be able to understand each other! Furthermore, Stalin obtained the result that, today, there are no minorities in Russia, but only mixed populations, who all speak Russian now and therefore they are “Russian” in Russian statistics. The Europeans are so busy blaming Hitler, that they have forgotten what Stalin did! The Saami are said to be about 100.000 in Nordia. In Russia, the Saami speakers left are only 1600 (BBC), but there are millions of genetic Saami in the territory of the former Communist Empire: N1c1c in Northern Russia: 41.3%; in Central Russia: 17%. These Saami have no right on the territory they live in now: it has never been their homeland. The recent Saami migrations were not voluntary migrations, but forced migrations, like the migrations of the Volga Germans (that Czarina Catherine had “imported” to implement Russian agriculture) and of the Russian Hebrews: Stalin relocated the Germans in Kazakhstan and the Hebrews in an autonomous Okrug of east Siberia. Beside Norway, Sweden, and Finland, N1c1c is at high frequencies, only in the areas where other ethnic minorities dwelled in the former Soviet Empire. In antiquity, maybe some Saami migrated southward looking for 12 hours daylight, maybe some of them preferred joining the FinnoUgrics so that together with them they could better defend themselves from the hordes of Slavics… but most of them were spread all over the empire and now they speak Russian only thanks to the Soviet relocations and to the russification policies. Why there is no N1c1c in Budapest? Because, when the Hungarians migrated to Central Asia, Stalin was not yet born and because the Tarim Basin did not ever belong to the Soviet empire, and because, at the time the Hungarians left Pannonia, N1c1c had not reached central Europe yet: this is why the Hungarians only have 0,6% N1c1c. Around Hungary, in Slavic Czekia, N1c1c is at 1.6%, in Slavic Ukraine at 6%, and in Slavic Serbia at 0-6.2%. In Romania N1c1c is 0%, because the Romanians came from Albania, where it still is 0%: N1c1c has never migrated as far as to Albania. In Pribaltika it is at 20-40%. The low rates of N1c1c and of Tat C in Hungary are also evidence of very little Slavic admixture in the Hungarians, as the low rates of E1b is evidence of little Aromin admixture. The Hungarians never lived close to the Arctic peoples, this is why they have only 0,6 % N1c1c. For the same reason, Tat C, which has also been mistakenly considered a Uralic marker, is at high rates in Finland (above 50%) and along the Arctic Sea, but it is almost absent in Hungary. The Finns are the last remnants of a migration of Pannonici that brought the Bronze Age to Nordia, that started the Amber Road, that were pushed northward by Germans and Slavs, that spread a Uralic language to Nordia, and that intermingled with an overwhelming N1c1c and Tat C local population, which was there since 5000 B.C. (Smithsonian Institution). Instead, the Saami MtDNA received a central European admixture (U5b1b, V, H1) that is absent in Siberian Arctic populations (“The western and eastern roots of the Saami, the story of genetic "outliers" told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes”, Kristiina Tambets et al.). In Nordia, the Finns are NOT those who speak a Finnic language, or those who carry N1c1c or Tat C, but those who bear a Central European DNA made of a mix of R1a1a, I, and R1b. Other references: • “A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe”, Siiri Rootsi et al. • “Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe”, Miroslava Derenko et al. • “Dual Origins of Finns Revealed by Y Chromosome Haplotype Variation”, Derenko M. et al. • “Honfoglalás…” page 232, about the methods of the Slavic conquest of Russia. The following images reconstruct the final migration of the Hungarians from the amber road terminal to Finland:

II c. A.D. “The Balts”, Gimbutas. Crown of double spirals.

Sarmatian Aorsi (Ptolomaeus map), Lithuania, Horse burial.

800 A.D., Madona, Latvia Spiral bracelets, rattles, comb with dotted circles, 3 circles design pins.

X century A.D., Eura, Finland. Spiral bracelets in a grave.

Schosseinyi, Gunevsky, Kaliningrad, RU (East Prussia). Bronze. Dotted circles

The Pannonici that had remained in Prussia - the amber road terminal - in the 11th-12th century, still decorated their animals with dotted circles, as they had done along several millennia and as the Avars of Cividale still did when they arrived in Italy with the Longobards! Later on, the custom of decorating horses with geometric designs shall move to Lithuania, right.

The double spiral of Gimbutas is the same that the Hungarians wore on their neck since the Calcholitic (History Museum Budapest and Romanian figurines), and that, in the Bronze Age, they had on their forehead (left, Pannonia; right, Southern Sweden). I have hundreds of images of Hungarian sacred symbols unearthed in the area from Kaliningrad to Novgorod to Finland, in the Oka valley, in the Volga-Kama region (Hermitage, History Museum of Moscow, books) and images of jewellery of Rus (Hermitage and books) that prove the Hungarian cultural continuity in Northern Europe, from the Bronze Age to the beginning of the Russification of Russia, at the end of the Middle Age. For cultural markers, see “Holmgard and the origin of democracy” on “Honfoglalás…”. Note that the archaeology of the Finnics had not evolved since t O m m m

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Hungarian genetics, Madjars, Xiungnu, Tarim basin, Huns, Uyghur  

Hungarian genetics, Madjars, Xiungnu, Huns, Tarim basin, Finnish, R1a1a1, Uyghur, Tarim basin, Xinjiang

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