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"' SOUl'H;ANtfEASTERN 'ASIA F.ROM

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THE ~~R

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EST TIMES TO THE PR;ES..:

'JJtJ-An,. .Epitome of For- · ~ gptten C~aj>ters of W prlcl-History · . · O~ing t!ie very least one.may knaw of ~he s~bject ~ith<nrt being.. fairly" considered ignor~t .<kit) by Au.stin S-raig·, , Prpfessor of History j.,9 ~he ~ · , University -of Maqila. ENT

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EX LIBRIS

AYALAY CIA.


(Copyright 1926 by Aus tin Craig, with protest again s t the confis.ca tion - without-compens ation provision of the Philippine Copyright Ac t . )

SOUTH AND EASTERN ASIA TH E PRESENT CONTINENT OF EURASIA

Asia , "the gorgeous East," home of more than half the human race, is called the largest continent. It includes about one-third of the whole world's dry land and covers a twelfth of earth's surface. Really it is not a continent, but only part of a continent. the gr~ndest of grand divisions. Its complement, Europe, is needed to make up the proper geographical unit Eurasia. The dividing line between the two grand divisions is a political , and not a natural boundary. Asiatic India, shut off by her lofty mountain walls, is less in touch by land with her oriental neighbors than is European Russia. Along the present frontier between Europe and Asia, great changes have taken place within historic times. Once the succession of seas was a single body of water. Only a few centuries ago caravan routes caused an interchange of trade between regions now isolated. The name , from assha, D awn , suggests that those who named it resided to the west of it. Similarly those on the most extreme east of the Asiatic continent called the neighboring islands of Japan " The Land of the Rising Sun" .


AN OLDER ASIATIC CONTINENT

In prehistoric times in the eastern half, the lay of the land was much different. In the (early Tertiary) period when milk-giving, hair-covered animals- the mammals- developed, North and Central Asia made up a continent to which geologists have given the name Angara Land. Just above the present east-and-wes t mountains that parallel the Himalayas to the north ran Tethys Sea whose southern shore was Gondwana Land. This ancient continent included islands south of the Philippines , and the lower point of the present peninsula of India. By land now submerged under the Indian Ocean , it is supposed to have stretched across the island of Madagascar into Central Africa. The Jesuit Colin, best educated among the early Spanish historians of the Philippines , considered the Magellanic archipelago to be part of an ancient land bridge that connected America with Asia. Mr. Wells says that about 3000 B.C. the East India Islands were scantily inhabited by stranded groups of people who had wandered there in far remote times when there was a nearly complete land bridge by way of the East Indies to Australia. THE CHANGING CONTINENTS

Disappearanc e and reappearance of lands, called the continental shelf, near the surface of the oceans, have repeatedly changed the continents. Once all the continents were entirely detached. Then at a later period North America and Asia and Europe and Africa became united by broad land bridges.


Different continents developed different animals but, by the land bridges, some ki_nds would emigrate while others would come in as immigrants. If the Pacific ocean's level were lowered two hundred metres , a land connection sixteen hundred kilometers wide would join North America to Asia. The shifts in land and water came from changes in the crust of the earth. A typical disturbing factor was the filling in of the delta of the great Ganges river, by which fifty thousand square miles of fertile soil were added to India. But the extra weight of thousands of tons of rock strained the earth's crust and brought a change of equilibrium. Geology, what Mr. Wells calls " the testimony of the rocks", tells the history of these ages of changes. Their chief events were storms , floods , earthquakes, tremendous fires , and volcanic eruptions. Of all these Asia had its fair share. How

THE CouNTRY AND THE CLIMAT E W ER E CHANGED

During an era of great contraction of the ea rth 's crust and by shifting of the surface requiring mnny, many centuries of time , there rose up a plateau where had been the warm sea. This cha nged the climate to colder and drier. Tropical forests were supplanted by temperatezone forests interspersed with patches of grass. In turn the later forests gave way to larger grass areas. In time the summer browned the grass, the prairie became a steppe, and eventually the steppe changed into desert. The animal life changed with the character of the country.


EAST A S I A

WAS MANKIND ' S EARLIEST H OM E

The ear)y home of man has been the subject of much speculation. Just now it is popular to locate it in the desert of Gobi in China. There immense stores of remains from the far-distant past are being gathered. Particularly abundant are fossil° eggs of the giant lizards- called Dinosaurs-of the (Mesozoic grand division of geological history) Age of Reptiles. The most generally held hypothesis is that man 's center of dispersal- a more technical terrp for earliest home-was the Central Asian plateau. There have been the centers of many other great groups of modern mammals. A RGUMEN T S

FOR

C ENTRA L A S IA

AS M ANK I ND'S FIR ST

H OME

One of the world's foremost paleontologists, Henry F airfield Osborn , President of the American Museum of N atural History , a rgues : A ]though Central Asia and t h e southern part of the continent are conceived t o have been p articularly favorable, some t wo million years ago , for the development of the anthropoid apes and man, th e dehydration and gradual ch ange of the plateau to a cold, arid , t reeless region made it a less and less suitable h ome for m an -like creatures. These climatic and geographic changes, t he search for m ore agreeable surroundings, the chase of anim als upon which primitive man depended for food and sk ins, and m any other causes induced extensive wanderings and op ened migration routes that led far from the source of man's early evolution. Tradition and the earliest history show that wave a ft er wav e of primitive tribes swept into Europe from the East ,- from Asia. Similar ¡ migrations went south and west toward Africa ; to America they came northeastward , crossed by way of the land-bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska, and turned southward along the mountain slopes, spreading fanwise


into the most remote parts of South America. Although America has been carefully explored no evidences of early human life have been found. Man came to us at a late date, geologically speaking, probably on the trails of the moose , elk, caribou, big-horn and the so-called " Rocky Mountain goat". All these animals, which sportsmen hunt today in America, are of undoubted Asiatic origin. They are part of the evidence that Asia was the home not only of early man but, as well, of many mammals that inhabit other parts of the earth today. SOUTHEASTERN

ASIA

HAS

THE

OLDE ST

HUM AN

EVIDENCE S

Other scholars would put the first home of the human race in Lemuria. That is a lost continent, now mostly covered by the waters of the Indian Ocean, which may have included the Philippines. The characteristic animal, from which it took its name , was the Lemur. a fox-nosed, monkey -like creature most active at night, but not the " fl ying- fox" or fruit-bat. common on Mindoro Island. Changing conditions of climate caused migrations from th e central plateau of Asia . One route was along what was then a peninsula, but now is the Indian archipelago in which the Philippines and Borneo are included, to Java. In Java , by the Trinil river , some years ago there were found a few teeth , part of a skull and a thigh bone whose owner is supposed to have lived half a million years ago. Evolutionists class this creature as an apeman. He comes in development, they say, between the man-ape whose bones were later found in Africa and the earliest human being discovered in Europe, who is given an antiquity of 250,000 years , or only half so long ago.


Asia, therefore, may claim human remains twice as old as any other find. This individual was no beauty by our modern standards. Great ridges were over the eyes, the chin was almost unnoticeable, and the teeth sloped outward. The arms were short in proportion to the body , the legs bowed backward, and no narrowings in either upper or lower limbs marked wrists and ankles. ANCIENT DIVISION OF MANKIND INTO RACES

Ethnology has to carry on the story of human development from here. Only recently can it be regarded as a science, for at first Europeans would not apply to themselves the standards by which they judged non-Europeans. The divisions taught in elementary geographies, black or Ethiopian, white or Caucasian. yellow or Mongolian , red or Arnerind. and brown or Malay , no longer are used. The conservative European scholar now speaks of : Whites, -including Mediterraneans, Alpines and Nordics; Yellqw-Browns , -Mongoloids , the Malays and the American Indians (Amerinds); and BJacks ,- Negritos , Negrillos. and Bushmen, the Melanesian Negroes and Australians , and the African Negroes. Against this classification may be objected , for one instance, that the N egrito is not black but very deep brown. But the entire scheme is utterly unscientific and only the last stand of vanquished but obstinate prejudice. Better excuse really exists for the ancient Chinese theory that all mankind was one, their's being the flesh color. Those who went north became pale while


emigrants to the south got tanned. All corpses, whatever their color.. in life, are said to turn yellow after death , while children everywhere at first seem to have that eye peculiarity called the Mongolian fold. So two reasons can be urged for this view, according to Dr. Neil Gordon Munro, author of Prehistoric Japan (Yokohama 1911). The Indian idea of race came in a secret teaching, reserved for a chosen few among the priestly class. It was called the Ancient Wisdom. Huma nity was supposed to ha ve evolved through unnumbered a ges in successive root -races. E ach rootrace was divided into seven sub-races and these aga in into minor races. The third root-race developed on Lemuria , a vast continent of the southern hemisphere tha t d isappeared through volca nic agencies. The fourth root -race was on the fa bled continent Atla ntis, younger tha n Lemuria , a nd in the Atla ntic Ocean . It had suffered three partial disasters, according to this tradition . 800 ,000 years ago , 200 ,000 yea rs a go , and 80 ,000 years ago. The remna nt from the last disast er , ca lled P oseidonis. was said t o ha ve complet ely disappea red a bout 10,000 B . C . TH E

M ODERN

S C IE N TIF IC

R AC E - C LA SS I F ICAT I ON

Modern sci ence, that based on rega rd for truth ra ther tha n on the preferences of prejudice, gives for Eurasia three races. A Brow n-Brunette race is t o be found from Irela nd , along the European Atla ntic Coast , through the Mediterranea n and the Indian ocean northern shores and Asia's P acific Coast , to Korea. Jutting off northwa rd from it in Europe a re


the Nordics, and correspondingly Asia has a northern offshoot in the Mongols. The Brown-Brunette people developed civilization. Nordics and Mongols, comparatively recent in getting culture, have remained more vigorous, which is their compensation. This way of dividing mankind , and the method of historical treatment observed in the following pages, was announced a little less than half a century ago by a German ethnologist, Dr. Friedrich Ratzel. He was teacher, friend and biographer of Dr. Jose Rizal and to his influence is it due that the Filipino's history writings are in advance of their time. Only in the 20th century did a leading American historian adopt what he called " The New History" (Essays[ llu stra t ing the Modern Historical Outlook, by Professor James Harvey Robinson , of Columbia University , 1900, 1908, 1911). Seven years later the English scientific novelist H. G . Wells, with 48 specialists as associates, made it the basis of his revolutionary outline of history. Mr. Wells' work followed the Great War caused by national jealousies from prejudices. It sought to prevent another such catastrophe by general enlightenment as to the racial unity of nations. P'HY S ICAL CoND1TIONS, AND NoT RACE , THE CAUSE oF DIFFERENCES AMONG NATION S

Dr. Emil Reich , in his "Success Among Nations", which appeared about thirty years ago, thus dismisses the old notion of superior and inferior races: The parallelism between the economically successful nations is exceedingly striking. In spite of every possible difference of 8


"race" and time, we note the same phenomena recurring with almost constant regularity . Among many latter-day historians it has been the fashion to seek an explanation of national preeminence in race . This method certainly has the advantage of flattering national vanity, but it cannot claim any great scientific value, as the problems it deals with , though expressed in a different set of terms, are not brought any nearer solut ion. In nearly every instance the racial threads froni which a white nation is woven are so inextricably intertwined that it would be quite impossible to determine, even with approximate exactitude, what is the predominant element. L et us, then, at once set aside the hypothesis of ¡any peculiar virtue inherent in a particular shade of complexion or variety of blood , and seek for a far readier explanation of our facts in the physical conditions under which t hose nations lived and had their being. We shall then see wh y it is that the conquering race is so often compelled to bow to the civilization of t he vanquished and advance along their line of development. H ow often has t his been the case in E gypt, B abylonia, and even China!

... " For once and a ll the reader must sacrifice the theory of race with which all , or almost all, the modern popula r works on history a re indissolubly blended. America , we have seen , owes infinitely more to the constant influx of foreigners than to any supposititious strain of semi-Teutonic blood among its original settlers." IDENTIFYING T H E C USTOM S OF THE B ROWN- B RU N ETTE R ACE

Certain curious customs in common make it possible to identify the branches of the Brown-Brunette race in Europe, Africa and Asia. First is the s un and serpent worship with which P hilippine mythology is filled. The red K atipunan banner bore a sun as does the tricolored Philippine


flag. " Naga' ', the old word for "serpent", is still the name of several towns here, the most important being in Camarines. The more pretentious boats used by the Filipinos at the time of their " discovery" also showed the same influence. The bow and stern posts, respectively, were carved like the head and the tail of a serpent, of which the boat's keel was the body. Massage was the healing art, and still is popular. Mummifying in the Ilocos country is made possible by a wonderful preservative herb, and anciently was common for chiefs. Tattooing led the Romans to talk of the painted Britons and for the like reason the Spanish invaders spoke of the Bisayans as " Pintados", or painted people. A tattooed mummy of an ancient Igorot chief was , not many years ago, exhibited at a Manila Carnival. The swas tika is an emblem of good luck among Philippine hill-folk, just as it is in India. Circumcision was practiced here for health reasons before Islam, through the Moros , made it a religious rite. In the Bisayan islands the operation still bears the name of the religion. Deceiving the evil gods by the couvade in France had its counterpart here. The Filipino father slashed the air with his bolo during his child's birth to keep away the asuang, or evil spirit. The big s tone monuments , -pyramids in Egypt, temples in India , great mounds in Japan, and circles of big stones in England, -have no counterpart in the Philippines . Perhaps this is only because these islands have never been sufficiently explored. Indo-China 10


revealed the wonderful temple of Angkor W at where it was believed destitute of stone monuments , and a similar discovery has recently been m ade in Borneo. TH E CHIEF B RANCHES OF THE BR OWN - BR UNETTE R ACE

The culture of the customs just mentioned 1s called (Heliolithic) Sun-Stone, a nd goes back to It produced the primitive (Neo~bout B. C. 10,000. lithic) New Stone civilization. The members of this brownish race a re : (1) The Iberian , or Mediterranean or " darkwhite" p eople of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Coasts ; (2) The Hamitic Berbers of North Africa and the Egyptia ns ; (3) The Dravidians, or da rker element in India ; (4) Most of the East India ns ; (5) M any Polynesia ns , (6) The M aoris of N ew Zealand. The Nordics and the Mongols branched off earlier, remained apart for long and so became more unlike the original brownish stock from which they too originated. Mr. W ells says: Nearly all the European nations are confused mixtures of brownish, darkwhite, white and Mongol elements. SAVAGE,

B ARBARIA N

OR

C IVILIZED ,

MANKIND

E VERYWHERE

AND AT Au. T1MES 1s VERY MucH ALI KE

Other times , distant lands and different races do not make historic men much different from ourselves IL


1s the belief of Dr. Edward B . Tylor (Primitive

Culture Researches, New York, 1903). Surveyed in a broad view, the character and habit of mankind at once display that similarity and consistency of phenomena which led the Italian proverb-maker to declare that "all the world is one country". To general likeness in human nature on the one hand , and to general likeness in the circumstances of life on the other, this similarity and consistency may no doubt be traced, and they may be studied with special fitness in com: paring races near the same grade of civilization. Little respect need be had in such comparisons for date in history or for place on the map . ... . As Dr. Johnson contemptuously said when he had read about Patagonians and South Sea Islanders in Hawkesworth's Voyages, " one set of savages is like another". How true a generalization this really is, any Ethnological Museum may show. Examine for instance the edged and pointed instruments in such a collection ; the inventory includes hatchet, adze, chisel, knife, saw, scraper, awl , needle, spear and arrow-head, and of these most or all belong with only differences of detail to races the most various. So it is with savage occupations .... Even when it comes to comparing barbarous hordes with civilized nations, the consideration thrusts itself upon our minds, how far item after item of the life of the lower races passes into analogous proceedings of the higher, in forms not too far changed to be recognized, and sometimes hardly changed at all. Look at the modern European peasant .... . . . If we choose out in this way things which have altered little in a long course of centuries, we may draw a picture where there shall be scarce a hand's breadth difference between an English ploughman and a negro of Central Africa. These pages will be so crowded with evidence of such correspondence among mankind, that there is no need to dwell upon its details here, but it may be used at once to override a problem which would complicate the argument, namely, the question of race. For the present purpose it appears both possible and desirable to eliminate 12


considerations of hereditary vanet1es or races of man, and to treat mankind as homogeneous in nature, though placed in different grades of civilization . . . . Just as the catalogueofall the species of plants and animals of a district represents its Flora and F auna, so the list of all the items of the general life of a people represents that whole which we call its culture. And just as distant regions so often produce vegetables and animals which are analogous, though by no means identical, so it is with the details of the civilization of their inhabitants . . . . To t urn from t he distribution of culture in different countries, to its diffusion within these countries. The quality of mankind which tends most to make the systematic study of civilization possible, is that remarkable tacit consensus or agreement which so far induces whole populations to unite in the use of the same language, to follow t he same religion and customary law, to settle down to the same general level of art a nd knowledge. It is this state of things which makes it so far possible to ignore exceptional facts and to describe nations by a sort of general average. It is this state of thin gs which makes it so far possible to represent immense masses of details by a few typical facts, while, these once settled, new cases recorded by new observers simply fall into their places to prove the soundness of the classification. There is found to be such regularity in the composition of societies of men, that we can drop individual differences out of sight, and t hus can generalize on the arts and opinions of whole nations, just as, when looking down upon an army from a hill , we forget the individual soldiers, whom, in fact, we can scarce distinguish in the mass, while we see each regiment as an organized body, spreading or concentrating, moving in adva nce or in retreat . . . . "Man," said Wilhelm von Humboldt, "ever connects on from what lies at hand. " The notion of t he continuity of civilization contained in this maxim is no barren philosophic principle, but is at once made practical by the consideration that they who wish to understand their own lives ought to know 13


the stages through which their opinions and habits have become what they are. Auguste Comte scarcely overstated the necessity of this study of development when he declared at the beginning of his " Positive Philosophy" that "no exception can be understood except through its history'', and his phrase will bear extension to culture at large. To expect to look modern life in the face and comprehend it by mere inspection, is a philosophy whose weakness can easily be t ested . . . . Nowhere, perhaps, are broad views of historical development more needed than in the study of religion. Notwithstanding all that has been written to make the world acquainted with the lower theologies, the popular ideas of their place in history and their relation to the faith of higher nations are still of the mediaeval type. It is wonderful to contrast some missionary journals with Max Muller's Essays, and to set the unappreciating hatred and ridicule that is lavished by narrow hostile zeal on Brahmanism, Buddhism, Zoroastrism , besides the catholic sympathy with which deep and wide knowledge can survey those ancient and noble phases of m an 's religious consciousness ; nor , b ecause the religions of savage tribes m ay be rude and primitive compared with the great Asiatic systems, do they lie too low for interest and even for respect. The question really lies between understanding and misunderstanding them. Few who will giv" their minds to master the general principles of savage religion will ever again think it ridiculous, or t he knowledge of it superfluous to the rest of mankind . Far from its beliefs and practices being a rubbish-heap of miscellaneous folly, t hey are consistent and logical in so high a degree as to begin , as soon as even roughly classified, to display the principles of t heir formation and development ; and these principles prove to be essentially rational t hough working in a mental condition of intense and inveterate ignorance. ASIA ORIGINATED CIVILI ZATION

Asia, in volcanic regions like the Philippines , made that greatest of all human discoveries , the dis14


covery of fire . By it perhaps first the bamboo was heated and bent, and copper and then iron were smelted. Banana leaves and bamboo spines furnished the materials that led to writing. According to Chinese legend the earliest characters imitated the markings on the tortoise's back, which suggests the tropic seas' origin. Among Asia's material contributions to their European kinsmen were polished stone weapons, or war , the art of breeding animals , or stockraising, and planting crops, or agriculture . As the foundation for literature, Europe originated no alphabet of its own though even the Philippines has three to its credit. All the great world religions are of Asiatic origin. The old tale of Aryan superiority now is referred to as " the Aryan myth''. Its foundation , the tracing of migration by following similar words , or philological history-making, is discredited. Civilization , according to Dr.James Henry Breasted , in his Ancient Times , began in the Orient between five and six thousand years ago , B.C. 4004 was the date formerly assigned to the Creation of the first man , Adam, according to Bible chronology. Of course this date had no claim to inspiration , but it is a coincidence. A similar coincidence is that waters covered a large region where was developed a culture, or civilization , known by tradition to the ancient Hebrews , so establishing Noah's Flood, or the Deluge. Not all of us may hold the religious views of the Jewish sacred writings that make up the earlier part of the Christian Old Testament. But the student 15


is compelled to recognize that the Bible narratives are being corroborated as history with every new archaeological discovery in the region of which they treat. As1A' s

SEVEN GREAT RELIGIONS

]udaism.- The Jews have as their sacred writings, besides their later Talmud, what Christians consider the Old Testament of the Holy Bible. Just now a movement called Zionism is attempting to restore the Jews to Palestine, their holy land but also sacred in Christian and Muhamadan eyes . 2. Zoroastrism.- lts great prophet was Zoroaster, or Zarathrusta, who lived in Persia about a thousand years before Christ's time. The Zoroastrian sacred writings are called the Zend-Avesta. 3. Brahmanism . -This is a later development of the earlier Vedic religion of the Aryan invaders of India. It fastened on India the great handicap of the caste system, a social custom more retarding even than Europe's feudal system. The Hindu practice of the suttee, or burning the widow with her late husband's corpse, is mentioned of Manila in the 14th century. 4. Buddhism.- A reformation of India's earlier religion was made by the Hindu sage Gautama Siddhartha, surnamed Buddha or "The Enlightened". He flourished in the 6th century before Christ. The religion of Buddha has been adopted by the larger part of the people of Central and Eastern Asia, its original home profiting least by it. Buddhist missionaries are believed to have made conversions in the northeastern part of Luzon, and in the Cottabato region of Mindanao. I.

16


5. Confucianism.-China's great Confucius was a statesman of the 6th century before Christ. He purified Chinese traditions and restored history, but was a teacher of morality, or ethics, rather than a religious leader. Present-day Chinese do not think it inconsistent to reverence Confucius while adhering to Buddhism, or even Christianity. Over-emphasis on the literal acceptance of Confucian teachings is blamed for China's retarded development. 6. Christianity.- The religion sprang up in Palestine but spread, as a later Greek culture, throughout the Roman empire. Its general acceptance nearly four centuries ago in the Philippines took the Filipinos out of their heathen surroundings and made them virtually a remote part of Christendom. 7 Muhamadanism. - Muhamad (spelled after the Sulu usage) , the prophet of " Islam", reformed the religion of the Arabs toward the close of the sixth century of the Christian era. He was influenced both by Jewish and Christian teachings, but his religion was spread by the sword. His followers were particularly successful against "devil-worshippers' ', who believed in multitudinous spirits (animists). The prohibition of eating pigs was because pork tasted like human flesh and the worst idolaters were ceremonial cannibals. Arab adventurers and traders broughtMuhamadanism to the Philippines in the 14th century and its gradual spreading was stopped by the coming of the Spaniards. Two monotheistic religions, Buddhism and Islam , thus made easy Christian conversions here. The political and selfish aims that so quickly appeared after Spain's conversion-conquest alienated 17


the Mindanao and Sulu people. Those that retained their old religion were called Moros , or Moors , because of the same faith as the Saracens who had formerly dominated in Spain. The Manila Bay and Batangas regions , Lubang Isla nd and West and Southern Mindoro were all held by the Moros when Legaspi moved to Manila in 1571. EUR OPE R ECEIVED C 1v1LIZATION FROM T H E

NEAR ORIENT

What Europeans ¡call the Nearer Orient included the lands around the east ern end of the Mediterranean. Egypt, though geographically in Africa, was thus grouped for it acquired oriental civilization and transmitted it to Europe. Here, in the M esopot amian region , civilization developed . It produced great nations while Europe was still in the Late Stone age. The Europeans indirectly obtained thence writing, metals and sailing ships , a nd the less congested regions , as is the world's way, because freer from trammeling customs , progressed more rapidly. Civilized leadership both in peace and war . says Dr. Breast ed , shifted slowly from the Orient to Europe. The change began about B. C. 3000 , but it went very, very slowly till the beginning of modern history. As late as the time of Columbus , those who benefited by Chinese civilization , as did the Philippines , were probably better off materially than the Europeans. At any rate Theodore Roosevelt so asserts in .his introduction to Curtin 's The Mon gols. The Orientals four hundred years ago dressed better, lived better and perhaps had a higher average of popular education. 18


I TEMS

IN

C1v1LJ ZAT 10N's

D EBT TO THE

ANc rENT ORIENT

A recent writer has made a brief summary of what the Ancient Orient in the course of its Jong ca reer rea lly accomplished for the human race. The Orient gave the world the fir st highly developed practical arts, like metal work. weaving, glassmaking , pa per-making, and m a ny other similar industries. To distribute the products of these industries among other p eoples a nd ca rry on commerce , it built the earlies t seagoing ships. The Orient fir s t wa s able to rno ve great weights and undertake large building enterprises, large even for today. It early brought forth a great group of inventions surpassed in importance only by those of the modern world. The Orient also gave the earlies t architect ure in stone masonry, the colonnade, the a rch , and the t ower or spire. It produced the earliest refined sc ulpture, from the wonderful portrait figures a nd colossal statues of E gypt t o the exquisi t e seals of early B abylonia. The Orient originated writing and the earlies t alphabet. In literature it brought forth the earliest known tales in narra tive prose , poems, historical works , social discussions , and even a drama. It supplied the calendar still in use. It first produced government on a large scale, wh ether of a single great nation or of a n empire made up of a group of na tions. I n religion the E ast developed the earliest belief in a sole God (monotheism) a nd His fatherly care for all men. It laid the foundations of a religious life from which came forth the founder of the leading religion of the civilized world today. For these things, 19


most of them accomplished while Europe was still undeveloped, the world's debt to the Orient is enormous. THE FAR EAST KNOWN TO THE ANCIENT EUROPEANS THOUGH FORGOTTEN IN LATER TIMES

The Farther Orient, including China, Japan and India, has been almost neglected by European historians, yet the region was known to the originators of the so-called European civilization , really Christian Civilization for that was what made Europe great. Sir Robert Hart, an Englishman for over half a century .at the head of the Chinese customs , believed the Old Testament referred to Chinese when it wrote , in the book of Isaiah (chap. 49 , v. 12) , These from the Land of Sinim. One of Sindbad's voyages is considered to have been to the Philippine archipelago and Borneo vicinity. An ancient copy of these interesting adventures was found in the tomb of an Egyptian nobleman buried about B. C. 2000 . The Egyptian was fond of tales of wanderings and adventure in Asia , tales of shipwreck at the gate of the unknown ocean beyond the Red Sea (Breasted). So much the rolls of papyrus placed in a rocktomb tell and more readers since that distant time, many today, share the taste. Of course, the modern version of Sindbad only dates back a thousand years but it was the recasting then of an ancient tale. EUROPE INFLUENCED BY EGYPT , AND EAST ASIA BY ANCIENT SUMERIA

The distinguishing difference between Europeans and Asiatics in their development from their common 20


cultural center in Mesopotamia has been governmental. Europe had God-kings, like Egypt, origin of the mediaeval idea of the divine right of kings. Asia, except for a confusion of the two ideas in Japan, has imitated Sumeria and had priest-kings. The king as a priest gave rise to the modern idea of a representative of the people. Sumerian influence in China shows itself, too, in the sixty-year cycles instead of centuries in her ancient chronology, as well as in the general use of seals instead of signatures. The honorific prefixes of the Japanese language, like "honorable father" , may be traced to Sumeria. The Philippines has a few words of like character that were honorable in the ancient natural religion. " Bo" is the prefix in the Bisayas, " Po" , also the word for "Sir", for Tagalog, and "O" , as in Japanese, among the Ilocanos. The Surnerians were originally mountaineers whose place of origin is unknown. Central Asia is as good a guess as any other. Perhaps their influence on the Chinese came from some homesick spirits who wandered back by the trail that their ancestors had followed to the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. We don't know now, but further discoveries may be expected soon to settle these and like questions. The world is interested in investigating its past, and is doing so without prejudice. Coming close after the Sumerians , and for a time sharing their reign , were the rnen of Akkad. Ancient Akkadan portraits preserved on clay tiles show slanting eyes, but that may be due to the drawing instruments' limitations rather than to nature. Classing them as 21


a Semitic tribe, however , is only another manifestation of prejudiced European " scholarship". Till very recently Europe claimed any creditable historic character or people as of the white race wherever the contrary was not positively proven. As yet w~ know nothing certainly of the Akkadans. The land of the Chaldees, where was Abraham's birthplace at Ur, Nineveh against which Jonah of whale fame prophesied , Babel , Babylonia, -all these names belong to the region which was the gathering place of many peoples. " The mixed crowd of nations" early it was called, with trade both to East and West. THE MALAYS THE COMMERCE- C ARRIERS OF A s1A , E AST AFRICA AND

THE

P ACIF IC

J S LE S

AS

THE

PHO EN IC I ANS

WERE FOR E UROPE

Culture came out of the E ast and it is believed was here received from the Ugro-Finnic branch of the Turanians. The Persian Gulf then extended to the old Turanian home and brought commerce from India, and, by transhipment, from the lands which India knew. In this earliest trade were spice islands and seas where tortoises lived and pearls were found,perhaps the region of the Philippines. Ships had sailed on the seas as far back as B. C. 7000. They coasted along the shores , plundering where they could, and trading where they had to do so , says Mr. Wells. The Phoenicians in the Mediterranean a re most heard of in history. But the Malays ranged from Madagascar, near Africa , to Easter Island , off the South American coast. The Malays were more travelled and daring seafarers than the Phoenicians even if they have had less renown. 22


How

THE

As1ATIC

HITTITES

CONQUERED

E GYPT

From B.C. 1500 to 1480 a n Egyptian Napoleon conquered countries in Western Asia. With wealth gained in twenty years of warfare, during the rest of a half-century reign he beautified his home land. With more E gyptian history, his conquests are recorded on the walls of the temple of Karnak. An imperial successor sought to change the ancient many-god religion for monotheism. Against this the Asiatic subject-kings of the empire wrote many letters of remonstrance. The correspondence, over three thousand years old , is in Ba bylonian characters and was unearthed only recently . The discontent made Egypt's Asiatic possessions a n easy prize for new conquerors , the Hittites. Of th em we know that they were not Semitic and came from a land of horses. Some have considered their description to justify regarding them as Mongolians. Sculptures show them to have been short and heavilybuilt , with prominent bones , broad-shaped heads , receding foreheads , long noses, thick lips and short chins. The hai r of the men was frequently worn in tha t pig-t ail style, or cue , imposed upon the Chinese by their Manchu conquerors and discarded largely with the advent of the Chinese R epublic. (Shorter cues were worn in Europe till 1800.) Their dress was a long robe worn over a tunic, a high conical cap, and long boots turned up at the toes. M any Hittite records , some sixty, exist in a pictographic character that has not yet been deciphered. The Bibl e calls the Hittites " the children of Heth". The P atriarch Abraham , when his wife died 23


while he was in a foreign land , bought a burial place from one of them. The Book of Ezekiel mentions them as co-founders of Jerusalem. The wife of Uriah the Hittite, was the mother of that wisest of men, Solomon, King David's son , and so an ancestress of Jesus Christ who was " of the house of David". The Hittites were not content with seizing Egypt's outlying dominions. They took advantage of a domestic war in the valley of the Nile to take possession , with slight, if any, resistance, of Egypt itself. From Memphis they collected tribute until at last the Egyptians became united by oppression and expelled the invaders. The Pharoah of Moses' time, who lived from 1317 to 1250 B.C., wrote a poem to celebrate his triumph over the Hittites, known to him as Cheta . MODERN

S C HOL ARSHIP

MODIFYING

EUROPE ' S

FORMER

PREJUDICED HI STOR IE S

The old prejudice attributed the conquest of Egypt to a Semitic confederation. But records tell that the conquerors came from the east and were loathed and despised barbarians in the eyes of the cultured but pacifist Nile-dwellers. Kheta was another name for Hittite , and in Egypt they were the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. This is only another theory, but now it is considered more plausible than the Semitic presumption. The length of their rule and all its events are unknown. The Egyptian king in whose- reign occurred the disastrous civil war is known only through an Egyptian historian's reference to these " ignoble", in his eyes, invaders. Surmises and. probabilities which favor Asia have been noted mainly because less likely surmises, and 24


many improbabilities , favoring Europe have been allowed to creep into European-written history. For the former perversion of history there has been no other reason than the ill-founded belief that thus Europe would be glorified. Ex oriente lux, " The light of learning came from the East ," was the tribute of the world's most ancient savants. Modern scholarship , too, considers Asia the cradle of civilization, and most likely to have been the mother of the human race. The Nearer Orient, to use the European designation, however, improved much on what it received from the East. Asia's glory is of the past, today it is backward. The change in European attitude towa rd Asia is shown in Herbert Bruce Hannay's " European and Other Race Origins," printed in London in 1915. The book is dedicated to the Indian vice chancellor of Calcutta Universit y and attempts to establish the Asiatic origin of the British people. Instead of the mythical Aryans, the Phoenicians are the progenitors, those daring sailors of Solomon's time. CHINA AND INDIA AND C ENTRAL ASIA

How the Ganges delta became a fertile land from the wearing away of the mountains and the carrying away of this soil by the south-flowing rivers already has been mentioned. Fertility made possible supporting a large population and out of numbers arose civilization , peace instead of war, and specialization in industry. China also began , probably earlier than India , with Central Asian soil transported by the wind instead of by water. The region deeply and richly overlaid 25


by wind-blown soil is larger than all France. For ages the west wind blew the soil from central Asia. This yearly deposit made the fertility that gave rise to the early civilization of China. In the " Romance of Geology" (New York , 1926) , Enos A. Mills tells of the ancient home of the Chinese, the valley of the Hoang-ho, or Yellow river. Though for centuries the Yellow River has been carrying this away and building a broad delta into the Yellow Sea, the soil , still rich with west-wind spoils , feeds a crowded population. The Yellow River of China probably receives its name, its color , and much of its sediment from the ancient dust which its waters are washing from t his region . After generations of lowering erosion, this dust layer over the Yellow River region still is in places hundreds of feet thick. A vast area must have been eroded for the making of this deep deposit.

Migrations to India , and China and the P acific Coast between them, Burma , Siam and the southernmost Chinese provinces, were made possible by the valleys of rivers that flow south , north and east from the high lands. The cause was in a dryness over vast areas of central Asia thousands of years ago. The desert crowded in on what had been habitable land and compelled the inhabitants to seek new homes. Recently explorers, notably Dr. Ellsworth Huntington , an American , and the Scandinavian Dr. Sven H edin, have published accounts of travels in this once populous region. They tell of numbers of sand-buried cities and of some cities, once covered, from which the sand is being blown away. Horses first came from Central Asia, then with more moisture, warmth and forests than now. They 26


made possible the chariot as an advance in the art of war. Chicken s and eggs such as we now know came later from India , a thousand years before the Christian era began. Some centuries afterwards China, " the Land of Seres" in the classic mentions , began to export silk. Though unknown to the forerunners of European culture in Mesopotamia and Egypt, coeval civilizations existed in India and China. The latter apparently was in the lead. Before the Shepherd kings had been expelled from Egypt , and so quite a while before Moses led the children of Israel out into the Wilderness , the Shang dynasty was reigning in China. From it ha ve come down bronze vessels whose beauty and workmanship testify that they were the product of no new civilization. The Chinese rulers were emperors who as priests celebrated sacrifices for the seasons after the Sumerian precedent. They exercised little real authority over their vassal kings . China comes into history as a civilized state, the product of a higher a nd perhaps earlier southern culture joined to the northern culture , before 2000 B.C. Later, but much before B . C. 1000, Sanscritspeaking Aryans descended through the western passes into North India. There the Dravidians imparted to them the a ncient brown-brunette civilization upon which they improved as their relatives later did in Europe. More Aryans settled in the highlands of Central Asia where in Eastern Turkestan are still to be seen fair, blue-eyed tribes who however speak Mongolian tongues. 27


THE END

OF MESOPOTAMIAN

PR ESTIGE

The rise of the greatest of the early empires is thus summarized by Dr. Reich , a Hungarian scholar, and so a European of Asiatic ancestry. When we know the history of one Oriental dynasty, a slight change of names will allow us to reconstruct the history of any other with almost mathematical precision. In every case some warlike, courageous chief puts himself at the head of a needy but no less courageous tribe, and hurls himself against the already decadent structure of the empire to which he is nominally a subject. The empire promptly collapses, and the insurgent chieftain possesses himself of the inheritance of his sometime masters, and becomes the founder of a new empire, which in its turn is doomed to a similar end. Such is the history of Cyrus and of the rise of the Persian dominion. Of the early doings of Cyrus we know but little, save that at the head of the malcontent Persians, who chafed under the yoke of the Medes, he defeated these latter in a couple of battles, and possessed himself of the Medic Empire (544). Carried on by the impetus of his success, he proceeded next to demolish the kingdom of Lydia. Croesus was beaten in the Thymbraean plains and taken alive at Sardis (544) ; Babylon was the next to fall (538), and with it all its possessions passed under Persian rule.

Cyrus died in battle. His son Cambyses, who conquered Egypt, was succeeded by Darius. I NFLUENCE ON THE F AR EAST OF THE INDIAN CONQUESTS OF DARIUS AND XERXES

Darius the Mede in the sixth century before Christ made Persia the greatest empire that the world had known till then. He invaded India and by a satrap ruled from its western frontier to the Indus river. Soon there followed the defeat and later assassination of pis son and successor, Xerxes. This brief experience of the " Persian peace" gave the conquered Indians better ideas of government and a more practical 28


civilization. India thus came to learn of, and to be known by, the more progressive lands westward of it. What Western India learned , eventually but slowly, reached Eastern India. Thence the knowledge spread through the Indian archipelago and by way of the Philippines to Southern China, Japan and Korea. Wherever Malay migrations had come, and Malays are to be found in the Japanese island of Kyushiu and on the Korean peninsula, Indian influence reached. About this time , in the 5th centuryB.C., the earliest emigrations from India to the islands of the sea occurred. China had not yet extended south and the Amoy and Canton regions, not then Chinese, were trading with , and learning of the Indian peoples, through, ports of transhipment, if not directly. Herodotus, the Father of History, used Xerxes' defeat to point out to the Greeks how , if united , they could despoil Asia of its great wealth. Asian riches then were gold, silver, bronze, embroidered gar ments, beasts (probably horses and elephants) and slaves. THE CONQ UEST OF I NDIA BV AL EXANDER THE GREAT

A century later, a Greek , Alexander, pupil of Aristotle, tried to follow Herodotus' advice. He planned to conquer not only Asia, but all the then known world. His father , Philip of Macedon , in preparation had trained the Macedonians to fight in phalanxes , an Asiatic fashion , as infantry, and to fight as cavalry , another war idea from Asia whence horses had come. Alexander was only twenty-two years old , but he knew all there was then known about Asia when , 29


in B.C. 334, he entered Asia Minor. His career of conquest began by breaking up the Persian empire, whose " King of Kings" was murdered by his own followers when fleeing after a disastrous defeat. The "empire" was not centralized and its vast armies were mobs of contingents from subject peoples. These had nothing in common , so, when defeated , they were glad of the change to a new conquer.or. The disciplined Greeks, and the conquered peoples organized by them into auxiliary forces , proved irresistible. Alexander's triumph came from organization, equally in the handling of his troops and in the government of the conquered peoples whom he made allies. The Greeks penetrated the hill-country of Western Turkestan , and by way of Afghanistan came down through the Khyber Pass into India , as the Aryans had done long before them. In a victory when for the first time the Greeks ¡ fought against war elephants, Alexander defeated Porus, greatest of Indian kings. He dealt magnanimously with the Eastern potentate. Porus voluntarily came to the Greek camp to surrender and, in answer to a question as to how he expected to be treated, replied , Like a king . The Greeks built ships , after completing their Indian conquest, and sailed down to the mouth ofthe Indus. From there they marched back by the coast of Baluchistan to Mesopotamia which they had left six years earlier. 30


THE L AST I NG I N FL U E NCE OF ALEXANDER O N EA ST A S I A

The leader planned to consolidate and organize his extensive empire but was handicapped by the jealousy of his countrymen. Imperialism for them was selfish interest, exploitation of the subject peoples, and their idea of policy did not extend beyond their own momentary profit. Thus early began the curse that has made trouble in the relations of West and East during the succeeding twenty-two centuries. Rulers from afar may have the best of intentions to benefit their remote subjectpeoples but their plans are blocked by the selfishness of subordinates on the ground. Another occidental defect, still noted in the Orient, appears in Alexander's death as the consequence of alcoholic excess. Great in achievements , and by name, he lacked character. The conqueror had tried to tie to himself his new subjects by matrimonial unions between his soldiers and the peoples of the conquered countries. "The wedding of the East and West" was the name given to a wholesale wedding under this policy. Alexander married King Porns' daughter , and their son has been the legendary ancestor of all regular Malay sovereigns. Manila's royal family in A .D . 1571 boasted of this descent. The rajah of Tondo bore Alexander's name as called by Malays but clipped in T a galog fashion. Rajah Iskandula appears in Philippine history as Lacandola but it would be better written Lakan 'Dula , the title being the Indian "rajah" , rajang among some Malays and here with the "r" 31


changed to "l". The Luzon rulers when the Spaniards first came to Manila spoke in the language of the Bisayans who then dominated Formosa and Borneo as well as the intervening islands. A reminder of this fact is many Bisayan names of places around Manila Bay and in Batangas, as well as the use of " l" for "r", as in "rajah" made into "lakan" and even " ladia". Seleucus, one of the Macedonian generals , kept control of India west of the Indus , ruling it with a portion of Persia. Before Alexander's time, Asia had been educating Europe. Now the roles were to be reversed. Greek culture permeated western India and then , by the islands along the Asiatic coast, spread even to Japan and Korea, wherever the Malays had penetrated. The Greek invaders brought merchants, artis ts and officials who influenced trade, art and government . The ideas of Aristotle that had guided Alexander inspired the general who fell heir to Egypt. Ptolemy established at Alexandria a scientific institution , the Museum, so called because dedicated to the Muses , or the arts and sciences as we now say. The work of this pioneer bureau of science reached wherever Alexander had conquered and any of his soldiers had remained. U NWARRANTED BO AST I NG

OF ANCIENT INDI A

India advanced into a po~ition of intellectual leadership for the Far East through acting as distributor of Alexandrian learning. The vagueness that enshrouds earlier Indian history is largely because nothing of really great importance has happened there. India's 32


ancient geography is uncertain a nd her chronology inexact, for the same reason. Modern Indian schola rs , just as more recently the J apanese have tried to do, have speculated and philosophized about a remote a nd wonderful culture. There is nothing t a ngible to prove for India much more than was common to the entire central BrownBrunette race. Europe , principally Professor Max Muller who recant ed b efore he died, built up the Aryan myth. Some Indian students while helping to puncture that historical bubble have attempted to shift its glory to Indian Aryans. The Dravidians. the darker Indian element, seem rather to have educated the Aryan invaders. The ba rbarous newcomers as nomads had more initiative for they were not custom-bound as would be such a congested population as lower India's fertile soil had produced. The Vedic lite rature, despite all the enthusiasm displ ayed over it, cannot be compared with the Chaldeac literature which has come down to us through the H ebrews in the Bible's Old Testament. INDIAN S ALWAY S A SUBJ U GAT E D PEO P LE ,

Now

AT F IR ST

BY LANO ,

BY SEA

The successive subjugations which make up Indian history are summed up in H . B . George's R elations of Geography and History (Oxford , 1910): The history of India before very mod'e rn times is based entir ely on t wo geographical fa ct s ; t he north-.west ern frontier was passable, a nd invaders, on~e across it, found no ph ysical barriers to limit their adva nce . 33


The Aryan immigration more than a thousand years B.C. found dark-skinned men in occupation of the peninsula, and yellow Mongolians, who had doubtless entered at the northeastern corner where there is no serious mountain barrier, possessing at any rate the Ganges basin. Like the Anglo-Saxons in England, they destroyed or drove into remote hills the bulk of the previous Mongolian population. Like the Anglo-Saxons in Scotland, they more or less penetrated with their influence, but did not oust, the dark races of the south. Alexander the Great's famous invasion was a mere raid: he came through the same north-western mountains, but he never went beyond the Indus basin. Whoever the Scythians were (of the broadheaded Alpine race, from West Asia plateaus, according to Prof. Rapson, of Cambridge), who are said by Greek authorities to have entered India later, they doubtless followed Alexander's example. It was not till two thousand years or more after the great Aryan immigration that a real new element was introduced into the small separate world of India. Then began the long series of invasions and conquests, more or less extensive, more or less ephemeral, by Mohammedan rulers from beyond the Suleiman mountains. One desi:ot after another established himself in Afghanistan, or further off still , and poured his hosts into India through the ever open door of the Khabar pass. A new element was thus added to the population, which was on the whole of far greater weight than mere numbers would explain. For the Mohammedan religion entered with them, and seems to have attracted the more active and restless among the Hindu population , mainly peaceful and agricultural, and bound down by the tyranny of caste. Mohammedans were numerous among the military adventurers who succeeded in founding new states, or usurping the mastery of old ones, in a country which had never imagined any other form of government than despotism. There is nothing in the geographical or social conditions to prevent such states from grov.ing up anywhere, extending as far as their rulers' fighting ¡energies allowed, and disappearing when those rulers degenerated. 34


Ultimately the Moguls established a power more durable and more extensive than any previous state, thanks partly to t he exceptional qualities of some of the Mogul emperors, thanks also to the fortunate loss of their territories beyond the Suleiman mountains. Their supremacy, however, was never carried over the whole of peninsular Ind ia. The M aratha power indeed had begun to grow up before the Mogul empife h ad reach ed its u t most limits. Sivaj i, the founder, (about 1650) , re presented a reaction , mainly religious but partly also racial, against Mohammedan domination: but otherwise the Marathas were purely military. B eginning in t he D eccan , they spread over a great part of the northern plain , from time to t ime virtually mastering the d ecadent Moguls, and again suffering defeat from fresh invaders from beyond the Suleimans. Such was the state of t h ings, when for the first time in the h istory the destinies of India began to depend on the sea. The discovery of the Cape route by Vasco da Gama marks t he dawn of the new era, though more than two centuries elapsed before the effect s v.ere seriously felt . One European nation a fter a n other began trading with India by sea , and managed to establish settlem ents on the coast, with no purpose beyond security for their comm erce .. . . Clive' s conquest of lower B engal, which inevitably led by gradual steps to the B ritish conquest of India, was the victory of coherent and disciplined strength . H ere, as in other parts of the world , the civilized power has found itself virtually compelled to extend and consolidate its sway : and whether or not the benefits accruing to a conquered population t hrough peace and good government are a justification for conquest , British rule in Indi a has at least not hing to fear from comparison with similar cases elsewhere. G eograph y is indeed concerned , but only indirectly ; the unwarlike character of t he B engalis , which facilitated t he first stage of British advance, was the fruit of long ages of su bmission to foreign conquerors, against whom natu re had given t hem no sh ield . There were racial and religious differences, which on the whole helped towards the conquest, 35


but these existed rather in spite of the geographical openness of the whole country .... The transformation is thus complete. India, whose history during many ages was altogether a land history, whose various peoples have always been entirely averse to the sea, is now under the government of a distant power, whose base is the sea, and which cannot reach India by land. A better illustration of the far-reaching and flexible character of sea power cannot be desired. THE MALAYS AS SPREADERS OF CIVILIZATION

India has been regarded as the mother of nations. A string of islands along the Asiatic coast and much of the south-eastern mainland of Asia have been covered by successive overflows from there. But these enterprising immigrants, of the days before Alexander, were from Central Asia. They broke through the mountain passes and traversed the country to the coast. Thence they pushed on from island to island till they reached Korea. The better blood among the adventurers was the bolder and fared farthest. Those who dropped out of the procession earliest were the weaklings, or less spirited. So India retained the least desirable and Java came next. Stronger character made up for lessened numbers. The influence of the Malay migrants, as these Central Asian wanderers came to be called, soon controlled the development of the islands and lands through which they passed and where some of them stopped as settlers. India's chief contribution to Pacific Coast Asia's development is through the Malays. Passing through India on their way from Central Asia , these transients became the means of obtaining in India, and spreading throughout the rest of South and most of Eastern Asia, 36


learning, sciences and arts that were gathered and developed in Greece and in Alexandria. If Mr . Wells is right in regarding the date of the foundation of the Alexandrian Museum as the true beginning of modem science, let us not forget that this part of the world had a share, even if to much less degree than did nearer Europe, in this first systematic gathering and distribution of knowledge. How ITs CASTE SvsTEM HANDICA7 PED INDIA

Europe at first failed to make the most of the new knowledge because its separation into classes prevented the learned people and the practical people from cooperating. But India was still worse handicapped. An attempt to keep pure the blood of conquerors from the North-West, caused India's caste system. The invasion of the Sanscrit-speaking people, who introduced this extremest and longest-lasting example of race-prejudice, occurred some two thousand years before the time of Christ. The country had layers of society which kept religiously separate the various elements. These neither intermarried nor could eat together and might not even associate. It was the most successful scheme for hampering the progress of a country that a perverted intellect has ever devised. Europe had its divisions into nobility and commoners, but a noble act could promote one of the lower class to the higher. By a blot on European morals that until recently historians have ignored , as a feudal right, the lord could invade the home of his newly-wed vassal by what was called the law of the 37


first night (}us primae noctis in Latin). This not only explains the European custom of the first-born inheriting all the father's property (primogeniture) but it shows how all classes of Europe were united in blood. China early abolished the feudal system. It had no classes nor restriction on inter-marriage other than its sweeping prohibition of unions of those of the same name. This prevented interbreeding with its resulting racial deterioration. The Malays in marriage had the European idea of unions between relatives to keep together the family property. They rather favored the marriage of cousins. India, with its people socially divided, paid the penalty by not becoming really a great people. Indians are numerous but never has India been of much importance nor is it now. Always it has been a community of communities, and a prey to the invaders. B UDDH A' S

FAILUR E

TO

REFORM

I rmt A

A revolt against India's deadening system came m the sixth century before Christ in the person of a prince. Siddhartha Gautama followed the local custom of retiring to the jungle to meditate. He learned the philosophy, and became disgusted with it, of this land of dreamers and never-doers. He tried fasting and terrible penances , which , as in Europe, sometimes resulted in visions. These aberrations of overwrought imagination were considered the way to religious wisdom. But the new Buddha, after exhausted nature caused unconsciousness , had a refreshing sleep and awoke sensible. The folly of the weakening of himself came home to him and he an38


nounced to his disciples that henceforth he intended to act sensibly, whereupon they all deserted him. The philosophy that finally Gautama Buddha evolved and taught was an immense improvement over what India had had. Still it is not in the same class either with Greek wisdom or Christian ethics if one may j udge by its effects . According to Buddhism, self cannot be forgotten but, b y concentrating upon it, may be destroyed . Man's cravings bring him sorrow but when these are overcome he attains to perfect peace, Nirvana , or serenity of the soul. Gautama's idea was above the heads of his countrymen but his influence made for straight thinking, higher aims, better works , improved conduct and honest living. The Buddha 's influence has been greatest outside his own vast land and Buddhism is one of the world's great religions. It originated in India but we think of it rather as the religion of the Chinese and of the J apanese. By Alexander's arrival it had degenerated , but India's greatest times have been during the periods of its revival. A SOKA'S GR EAT WORK FOR EA STER N ASIA

A golden era was that of A soka , who lived half a century after Alexander's death. His grandfather, Chandragup ta Maurya , had vainly tried to persuade the great invader to continue his raid to the Ganges and conquer all India . On Alexander's refusal , Chandragupta undertook the t ask alone, with the aid of hill tribes, and succeeded. In B .C. 303 , twenty years 39


after Alexander's death, he drove the invaders out of the Punjab (or Five Rivers region) and ended Greek rule. His son extended the empire, and Asoka, the grandson, ruled from Afghanistan to Madras. Asoka did a little conquering himself at first , annexing the Kalinga (an Indian name repeated in the Luzon mountains) country, but revolted at the cruelty and horror of war. The peaceful doctrines of Buddhism appealed to him. Thenceforth he devoted his energies to propagating the faith with a success that extended Buddhism widely. Northeastern Luzon and the Cottabato region of Mindanao are the parts of the Philippines that are supposed to have been converted to Buddhism by his missionaries . General digging of wells, opening hospitals, and planting fields with medicinal herbs made for the people's better health. Countless shade trees and many public gardens contributed to their comfort. A burea u to care for backward peoples and provision for the education of women , were other contributions of this worthy monarch. He was far in advance of his a ge. Asoka had tried to arouse the Buddhist priests to a better understanding of their religion and to secure their return to the pure principles of its unselfish founder. Therein he failed. The Brahmans ' gods were not high ideals but gross superstitions. The ingenuity of the Brahman priests at first corrupted Buddhism. When no longer a worthy competitor , it was relegated to a very subordinate position. Therefore , unfortunately for India, 40


Buddhism's greatest growth has been in other lands,China, Siam , Burma and Japan. CoNFt:c1us, LAo-T sE, AND M ENc1 us,

THE GREAT TEACHERS

oF

CHINA

China had an intellectual revival of its own in Buddha's time. under Confucius. Another notable name belongs in this same eventful sixth century, though overshadowed by his greater contemporary, Lao-tse , founder of what developed into China's mystical religion Taoism. Mencius , who lived two centuries later, expounded Confucius' doctrines, together with some of his own on original virtue,- that man by nature was good. Confucius did not found a religion , but taught a system of ethics which has influenced his countrymen to this day. Through him the Chinese came to regard more their conduct in this world than preparation for the spiritual life after death. Confucianism is not considered incompatible with a religion , and the Chinese as a mass venerated this greatest man of their nationality . In Confucius' time the Chinese had as neighbors the Huns , the Mongols, the Turks and the Tatars or Tartars, all somewhat alike in languages and customs. Peoples of nomadic origin , they were horsemen made strong by the free life of the desert. They are credited, with discovering iron , a thousand years b efore Christ , in their early abode in the Altai mountains. The discovery travelled thence to India and the islands of the Indian archipelago. These raiders descended on the brown-brunettes who had had a loose confederacy of kingdoms and 41


city states in China as early as B.C. 1174, under a priest-emperor called "Son of Heaven". He was of the Shang dynasty that ended in B .C. 1125. The Chow dynasty followed the Shang. During its long rule, it became less efficient as it grew older , according to nature's rule. Hunnish peoples wandered in and set up governments of their own , weakening the imperial power till most states became independent. By Confucius' time, called by the Chinese an "Age of Confusion" , there were five or six thousand separate states in China. Of China's past we know little but the earliest part is due to Confucius' gathering together and editing the legends of the past. The Confucian legends are not to be called history but a modern ethnologist could make no more plausible surmises as to the origin of inventions and their order than appear in this early Chinese folklore. Confucius was adviser to the ruler of a small state but his advice was not then heeded. He did not so much originate as gather up from the past and preserve. The Chinese ideal man whom he portrayed was the best type of what China had up to then produced. He idealized things really Chinese and set standards which have tremendously influenced succeedings generations of his countrymen. His was not the fault that the Chinese became stereotyped , adhering so closely to Confucian models and words that they have lost individuality and initiative. Lao-tse did for the Chinese what was attempted in India when the Brahmins added mysticism to Buddhism to make its high ideals more popular. He 42


. taught stoical indifference to the world and return to the simple life. With magic and childish marvels added, the ideas deduced from his rather obscure writings (he used riddles for conveying his meanings) have developed into the popular religion Taoism. North China, the Hoang-ho region , has been most influenced by Confucius. Taoism has proved most popular in South China , in the Yang-tse river region. The two divisions have held through history, till now it has brought practical separation. Mr. Wells characterizes the North as official-minded, upright and conservative, and the South as sceptical, artistic, lax and experimental. CHINESE Ass c c1ATION

WITH OTHER . LANDS

The earliest mention of foreigners is in 2697 B.C. when one riding on a white stag came offering tribute. (The word " tribute" as used by the Chinese often means merely the exchange of gifts that usually signalized the beginning of what now we would call commercial or diplomatic relations). This particular foreign envoy may well have been from one of the small states later included in China as the Chinese expanded from their original home in the bend of the Yellow river. A thousand years later (about 1766 B.C.) travelers from the region of Canton brought fish-skin cases , sharp swords (perhaps the Malay bolos that in the Orient had the same fame as the swords of Damascus , and later Toledo, in Europe) , and shields. This war material is significant of the less peaceable tastes of the southerners who just now are making themselves masters of the whole country, to its decided advantage. 43


The Cantonese then wore their hair short and were tattooed like the ancient Filipinos. Association with the southern sea islands is proven by their bringing also pearls and tortoise shell , besides elephants' teeth, peacocks' feathers , birds and small dogs. Here may be our earliest mention of the Philippines, though if Canton had older records doubtless trade with the near-by islands would be found to have been much earlier, for its fertility gave Luzon a very ancient civilization. The originating of three alphabets in the Philippines sufficiently proves this without needing other corroboration, though that is not lacking. After a six-hundred-year interval (1122 B.C.) , Canton had established relations with eight foreign nations and was the trade center for the products of all China. Many foreign merchants then lived there. Duty on foreign goods was first imposed in 990 B.C . As Sin , Sinim , Chin , Chinae, (Tchina is supposed to have been the name given by the Malays) , Seres, and later Cathay, the vastness of the ancient empire and its great wealth were rumored abroad throughout the entire civilized world. An embassy, from the distant south, of B.C. 2356 , is considered, from the envoys' dress and the style of their writing, to have been from Assyria. Europe first learned of China from the Arabs apparently, for their language has no " Ch" sound and thus accounts for the form " Sinae" and " Thinae" found in Ptolemy's geography, of the first half of the second century of the Christian era. " Sere" and " Serica" were also used by Ptolemy, names for people and country derived from their silk (serik , selik would 44


be the different pronunciations of the same word by Chinese and J a panese today) , then already in demand in eastern Europe. A Chinese general in the second century B .C . took an army into Bactria , on the European side of India, and in the first century after Christ a nother Chinese military commander reached the shores of the Caspian sea. Embassies from R ome came to China in A.D. 166, and 284 , and in the 7th century from Consta ntinople. Other European envoys arrived in 711 a nd 719. In 742 came the " Priests of Great Virtue" , Christians of the N estorian heresy, as the Church of Rome h eld them. The monument commemorating their arrival over the ca ra van route is one of the most interesting in Asia , for their influence on Chinese and Japanese Buddhism affected many millions long b efore other forms of Christianity reached E astern Asia. Another embassy came in 1081. These dates are used only to show tha t in Chinese history there is definite knowledge, not the uncertainty of time and place tha t characterizes India's past. Were it not that long belief has given credit to Europe 's ancient history, stud ents would realize that the current versions have less authority than the accounts for the same times of the Chinese. For ancient Rome a modern writer says: The h istory of all grea t na tions is a t its beginning chiefly mythical, nor is R om e a ny except ion t o t h is general statem ent. The m y ths that surround the earl y history of R ome, however, are o f impor tance since t hey give us in t he fir st place some d efinite outline o f the m ai n facts a ttendant on t he ri se of t he nation, and , secondly, they a re t he grou nd work o f much of the writings of later Roman litera ture. 45


But the Chinese mythical period is more than two thousand years earlier than the like period for Rome. Excepting the Roman occupation , England has very little authentic history before the Norman conquest in A.D. 1066. But, because accustomed to hearing it, few stop to consider that its commercial relations for the first half of the eleventh century are based on surmises from coins in a purse supposed to have been thrown away by a Saxon fugitive from the Battle of Hastings . The School History of England, published in 1911 by Rudyard Kipling and C. R. L. Fletcher, will prove a revelation by its candor to those accustomed to the so-called standard histories. The Pope's envoy of 1245 , Friar John de Plano Carpini , a Franciscan , reported of the Chinese: Their betters as craftsmen in every art practiced by man are not to be found in the whole world. Their country is very rich in grain, in wine, in gold and silver, in silk, and in every kind of produce tending to the support of man. Friar William of Rubruquis , also a Franciscan, added the further information that the Cathayans, as he called them after noting that theirs was probably the land of the ancient Seres , were first-rate artisans of every kind and their physicians have a thorough knowledge of the virtues of herbs. They do their writing with a brush and a single character of theirs comprehends several letters, so as to form a whole word. The Polo brothers, merchants of Venice, visited the Chinese court about 1260 and were commissioned by Kublai Khan to engage in Europe 100 instructors 46


well skilled in the arts and sciences to teach the Chinese. This mission they did not fulfill , but returned to China with only the elder brother's son , Marco , for theirs had been empty boastings when they had claimed that Europea ns could t each Chinese anything then in those lines. M a rco P olo's observations during his seventeen y ea rs' residence constitute the ea rliest European work on China . B etter knowledge of the country enhances the esteem for the writer whose statue the Cantonese included amon g the 600 in their H all of Fame. Another Fra nciscan Fria r , John de Monte Corveno, ca me by sea t o China just after the Polos finally left. He did so well in conversions that the Pope made him Bishop of P ek ing. A R oma n Catholic church was esta blished in T sua n -chow , in Fokien province, a city from which cam e ma ny of the immigrants at the beginning of Spain's rul e in the Philippines. These were generally soon baptized and it m ay have been historic predisposition ra ther tha n m ercena ry interest , as then charged , that lea d t o their ra pid conversion. Domingo Lamco , an ancest or of Rizal, was from this pa rt of China. In 1338 the great Khan , or Chinese Mongol emperor , sent an embassy to Rome , and in return Pope Benedict XII sent Fria r John de Marignoli to Pekin as pap al d elega t e. A commercial guide on Chinese ma rkets a nd trade was prepa red by an Italian in 1340. When the Ming dynasty succeeded the Mongols their expa nsion policy a nd commercial and political activity soon drove out the foreigners. They sent a Chinese eunuch as governor of Luzon to M a nila in the early 1400's. 47


It is European forgetfulness that has led writers since the 16th century to consider the coming of the Portuguese and Spaniards as the beginning of European association with Eastern Asia. CHINESE HISTOR Y UNEARTHED BY EUROPEAN SCHOLARSHIP

Except for Confucius we would have no real knowledge of Chinese beginnings had it not been for foreign scholars in Chinese employ or resident there as missionaries, merchants and diplomats during the past century. To pass the time in what the scarcity of congenial society made like exile, the habit grew up among them of intensive study and research. The results have greatly extended oilr knowledge of ancient China. The workers, too, benefitted by the better esteem of the Chinese for those whom they had been regarding as igRorant barbarians. Present-day Chinese in their zeal to acquire occidental culture seem almost to have abandoned to foreign scholars the study of their own classics. Dr. Morrison compiled the first Chinese dictionary so arranged as to be really a reference book. Since his time a number of European, and some American, names figure in the great work of making China's literary treasures available to the world. From the records now translated is coming a better understanding of ancient times. One item of considerable interest is a mention in Ma-Touan-lin's A.D. 1224 encyclopedia , quoting a story (from Quien-hing-tong-Kao , of A.D. 755) about a region believed to be where California has her giant ¡redwoods. Chinese early association with America now has to be accepted as more than a theory. Recent recognition 48


of Indian place-names in the American P acific Northwest as of Chinese origin corroborat es M a-Touan-lin's quotation . Instead of quot ing old Europe's prejudiced belittling of the Orient, it seems better to keep a n open mind . L et us wait for the truth tha t resea rch is st eadily affording. Particula rly will the Philippines profit by closer study of Chinese a ncient works. Such writings as those of Cha Ju-Kua and Wa ng-Ta-yuan, of the 12th to 14th centuries of the Christia n era, a re proofs of this. It should b e noted here tha t the beginning of Greek philosophy was in the Ionia n colonies , a nd so of Oriental origin . To the G reek influence Europeans attribute their trend t oward democracy, but t hey have dou bted th e possibility of democracy in the Orient . Y et the st ep should b e easier from t he rule of a loosely centralized empire t o local self-government tha n where many minor political bodies intervene, as ha ppened under th e feudal system . TH E AoE OF C ON FU SION IN C H I NA

" China's age of Confusion " was wh en the Ts'i and T s'in st a t es were rivals in t he north a nd the st ate of Ch'u was the power in the Yan gt se valley. Then t he N orthern t wo in alliance overcam e th e southern military power a nd compelled general disarmament and a peace treaty . N ext a T s'in mona rch , who was a contempora ry of India's great Asoka , seized the Chow emperor 's sacrifical v essels, a nd thus took over his priest -emperor d uties. Shi Hwan g-ti (king in B.C. 246 a nd emperor in B .C. 222) , a son of the enterprising T s'in , is called in Chinese Ch ronicles " the First Universal Emperor' '. 49


He reigned thirty-six years as king and emperor, bringing unity and prosperity to China. He fought successfully against Hunnish invaders from the northern desert, and planned and began great walls , among the world's wonders , to end their invasions. Ancient traditions were not being taken so seriously. People were questioning the old morals and the ancient wisdom, and that spirit of investigation and experiment which has made progress possible was awakening. Yet the country was in disorder just as it is today while it is assimilating Occidental culture and again bringing itself abreast with world progress. WHEN CHINA AND ROME RULED THE WORLD

The superiority of China's civilization to Rome's at this time is clearly evident. In Emperor Shi-Hwangti's day, Rome, in fear of the Gaulish invasion, was offering human sacrifices to its gods , but in China this barbarous practice had already long been forgotten. Early in China's history the practice of human sacrifice at the burial of a chief had been abandoned. Instead images were put in the tomb to represent the attendants anciently killed. Today the Chinese burn imitation money, of gilt papers, at funerals, while the Jews still put a real coin in the corpse's mouth and many European Christians continue placing pennies on the eyes of the dead. All these practices, however ingeniously explained, are survivals of an ancient heathen belief that the souls of the departed needed money to pay the ferry fare across the river of death. Our custom of carving angels on the gravestone is the Christian substitute, but much later than the Chinese substitute, for sacrifice. 50


Priority for the Chinese appears too in their great wall. to keep out the Huns. Rome , under Emperor Hadrian , in A.D. 117 , or nearly two thousand years later, employed the same device against bothersome neighbors, a wall across Britain , and a palisade between the Rhine and the Danube. China and Rome in the first and second centuries before Christ divided world rule. Under the H an dynasty , which had followed the death of Shi-Hwangti, Chinese authority had been extended across Tibet and over the Pamirs mountain passes into western Turkestan. At this tirne, Mr. Wells writes , China had the greatest, bes t organized and rnost civilized political sys tem in the world. Rome a t its highest point could not compa re with it in population nor in area. The two empires then knew little of each other because of lack of means of communication . In Alexander's time Rome had no knowledge of anything beyond the Ganges river. To the farthest Eastern port of India were credited imports from distant lands by strange ships which sailed no farther westward. The carriers were Malays , who controlled the commerce between India, South China a nd the Indian archipelago. This fact was recently brought to light by the labors of Dr. Berthold Laufer of the Field Museum , Chicago. The Chicago scholar proved that, through Chinese carelessness a bout foreigners , the same word was employed for the Persians that was used of another 51


seafaring people. He sorts out the ancient allusions to the two peoples and it is at once apparent that they were distinct, one the Persians and the other the Malays , because of the different articles of trade carried in their commerce. The Malay people were between China and Rome and influenced by both. The old Malay King of Menangkabau , in Sumatra , in official papers styled himself younger brother of the rulers of China and Rome. Some trade got to China by caravans across Persia and more was brought by coasting ships by way of India and the Red Sea. THE EXP A N SION O F

CHIN A

In B.C. 102 a Chinese expedition under Pan Chau reached the Caspian Sea and sent out spies to learn about Rome. In B.C. 66 Roma n troops under Pompey visited the same shore. Both of the empires had to the north of them somewhat similar conditions. From barbaric wildernesses, aggressive nomads wanted to push down into the rich lands of their civilized neighbors and forcibly profit by their industry and knowledge. The Chinese under the Han dynasty not only kept back the barbarians , but they were gradually penetrating and possessing the border land. The Chinese population would pass beyond their great wall barrier, headed by the frontier guards. Closely following them came the agriculturist with horseandplow to destroy the former pasturage. Naturally the nomad herdsmen resisted , as not long ago, in 52


the western states, American cattlemen resisted homesteaders who came legally but were depriving the herders of the cattle range. The Hunnish tribes raided and murdered the settlers but in every case the military expeditions visited upon them more severe punishment. So the once rovers had to choose between settling down and paying taxes to China out of their own farm labor, or seeking new pasture lands. A few became themselves settlers and were absorbed . Others ranged north-eastward and eastward till they crossed the mountains and reached eastern Turkestan. This crowding out of the Mongolian horsemen kept on from B.C. 200 till its effects were realized in pushing on Aryan tribes who in turn pressed against the Roman frontiers. CE NTRA L ASIAN MIGRATIONS INTO I NDIA

Some of the emigrants found the line of least resistance to be through Central Asia and , like so many invaders before, entered India by the Khyber Pass. So a succession of conquerors rushed down through the Punj ab and pillaged and laid waste the great plains, breaking up Asoka's empire. A Kushan line of kings , from the Indo-Scythians who were one tribe among the raiders , gave a sort of government to North India for a time, but it was not up to the former standard. During the fifth century, after Christ , the White Huns , or Epthalites , had the habit of raiding India during the winter, spending their summers in West ern Turkestan. They forced tribute from the lesser Indian 53


princes and kept the entire country in a state of constant terror. Toward the end of the 7th century China conquered Tibet's capital , Lhasa. In the next century Tibet recovered and became for a time one of the great military powers of Asia. The Tibetan empire on its western frontier had as neighbors Arabs and Turks, across the Pamirs. Turkestan and ~epal were subject to it. Its victorious armies overran the western part of China, and captured the capital. In alliance with the Nepalese, Tibet invaded India. The Tibetans called China the kingdom of Astrol.ogy and India, the kingdom of Religion. These mountaineers did not like the lowland climate and soon retired to their own lofty home. Perhaps their adoption of a religion of peace, Buddhism, aided in ending the warlike spirit. The Tibetan plateau is 16,000 feet above sea level and extends four or five hundred miles from north to south , and from east to west some fifteen hundred miles. Rivers rising in its vicinity have given easy access thence to Burma, Siam, China proper, Mongolia, and Chinese Turkestan. PRE- CH R I STI AN

EUROPE

AND

A.SIA

CONTRA STED

Christianity , that religion of progress which advanced the backward Europeans beyond the more cultured Asiatics , did not make its influence noticeable till the fifth century. In the second century, both China and Rome had been afflicted by similar misfortunes that left them 54


less able to defend themselves. The terrible pestilence that broke out in China during the H an dynasty, lasted eleven years. So disorganized was all society, that the dynasty fell. Once more there was a division and confusion, that did not disappear till the rise of the great T'ang dynasty in the seventh century after Christ. The plague crossed Asia into Europe and decimated the population of the Roman Empire from A.D . 164 to A.D. 180. Earlier than in the lands under Roman influence, China had coined money and organized commerce . Many more persons were independent of church and state for their livelihood , property rights were better respected and the taxes , or tribute, for the support of the government were more fairly regulated. Throughout the Malay region the rulers were really merchant princes and their states much resembled Venice at her best period. The agriculture of China was on a more scientific scale than in Europe and already the best products of n eighboring lands had . been sought out and were distributed among Chinese farmers. Particularly had the F ar E ast availed itself of a knowledge of irrigation known to the ancient people of Mesopotamia and perhaps learned there. The population had grown and filled the fertile lands around the mouths of wide spreading rivers and the great plains, as in Luzon , Mindanao and Java, of the coast islands. Terracing of hill slopes also had made productive the highlands. This t erracing is at its best m southern-most China j ust across from Luzon , and on Luzon exactly SS


resembles the mainland type. To the North and toward the South from Luzon the art grows less important, to Japan and to Java. So the presumption is that the practice came from China directly to the Philippines , and it was then distributed northward and southward. Until after the discoveries of Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and Magellan , conditions of life for most of the people were more comfortable in the East than in the West. Oriental cotton and silk were superior clothing to Occidental wool and linen. Dyeing had become a fine art and the East revelled in splendid colors while embroidery added its artistic touch. Fruit was in greater variety and fish was of more kinds. Rice, too, made a tastier cereal than wheat, barley and rye in the days of unleavened bread. EARLY AD V ANT AG ES O F

THE ORIENTALS

The oriental had usually the education of travel for he was not so fettered to his home as were the Europeans under their backward feudal system , that degrading form of human slavery which China abolished many centuries before Europe. Real slavery in Asia early came to be regulated so that in China the slave had rights that he knew and for which on occasion he could stand up without fear of punishment. On some of the Malayan islands, kings' slaves were appointed to act as rulers of conquered lands. Everywhere living in large communities had developed laws , or accepted customs , and these were superior to the rulers . That governments were of law rather than of men may be seen in how the chronicles hold up to execration 56


monarchs unfaithful to their royal duties. History tells of Chinese emperors who considered themselves disgraced when things went wrong in their dominions , and committed suicide. The Oriental ruler was an official with duties rather than an individual favored by birth. He had to be competent for his position, a mature, capable man , or woman. P articularly in the Asiatic archipelago was the European practice of kings who were infants , or idiots, or insane , unknown. That Rome and China were so far apart that either was beyond the other's influence, perhaps was fortunate for the Orient. Thus the Orientals knew only pure Greek culture, which many critics consider superior to the Latinized Greek civilization. Along with Greek influence there had spread from Alexandria some Egyptian ideas of religion which reached even into North India and Western China. As these later reappeared in Christian ceremonials in Europe, they may have made easier the introduction of European Christianity in the Far E ast. Outward observances of Christianity were not strange to Orientals and appealed as worship to those who before knew nothing of the religion. Candles burned on the altar, shaven priests vowed to celibacy and clad in imposing vestments , and beads and chantings were among these customs that temple and church had in common. Thus the way was made easy for the wholesale conversions by the Nestorians, by the earlier Friars , and by Saint Francis Xavier, respectively, in the 7th, 13th and 16th centuries. (Before A.D. 220 , two Syrian monks smuggled silkworm eggs out of China , and these may also h ave told something of Christianity). 57


THE BEGINNI NGS OF EA STERN AND W ESTERN A ssoc1ATION

In the second century the Chinese received an embassy or a message from a Western ruler whom they called " Antung". " Antung" was the philosopher emperor of Rome, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Chinese and Roman association has been made the subject of a life study, embodied in a thick volume, by the late Professor Friedrich Hirth , of Columbia University. Present interest indicates that soon the two parts of ancient history, Roman and Chinese, will be studied together, so much is there in common in the spheres of influence of Rome and China. In the 3d century of the Christian era , the Westerners had to think of the Eastern peoples , who were becoming troublesome neighbors. Mongolians came crowding into Europe. The Huns were exacting tribute and driving frontier tribes ¡ before them. In Persia had arisen a power that was breaking through the Roman lines in Asia. Of the Huns , Mr. Wells writes: Now there was coming into the European world the leas t kindred and mos t redoubtable of all these deva s tators, the Mongolian Hun s or Tartars, a yellow people, active and able, s uch as the western world never had before encountered. This appearance of a conquering Mongolian people in Europe may be taken to mark a new s tage in his tory. Three factors combined to bring about the European invasion at this time. China had consolidated its great empire and with increasing population was extending northward under the prospering Han 58


dynasty. A climate change in the border lands facilitated migration. And the decadent condition of R ome invited attack. The details of the Asiatic invasion need not be set forth but it must be pointed out, to combat a popular but unfounded prejudice, that Europe has literally millions of Eurasians among her most progressive peoples. The "marriage of the East and West," wh ich Alexander inaugurated on a small scale, during these centuries was going on wholesale. The invaders were not exterminated , but in large part they were absorbed. Children of mixed parentage are sometimes said to inherit all the vices and none of the virtues of their parents. The libel is answered by the tremendous experience of Europe. The invasion proved beneficial by introducing a new, vigorous stock. Conflicting social customs doubtless increase t h e chances of marital unhappiness in certain classes of unions. But certainly there is no blood reason against Eurasian mixed marriages nor any valid reason for calling them miscegenous. Attila's Huns were forerunners of other Orientals who from the 5th to the 8th century entered E urope. W hile influencing other lands , they founded nations of their own in Finland, Esthonia , Hungary and Bulgaria , or what are now nations. SOCIAL SUPERIORITY OF A S IA DURING THE MIDDLE AGES

Asia at this time was subject to the T urks from the Caspian Sea to China. There, in the 7th. 8th and and 9th centuries, was , to qu ote again Mr. Wells, 59


the most secure and civilized country in the world. After the Han dynasty extended her rule to the North , the Suy and T'ang dynasties extended it to the South. So China came to have substantially her present-day proportions. Her Central Asian possessions , bounded by Persia and the Caspian Sea , had tributary Turkish tribes. Europe's " Dark Ages" was a sort of continental amnesia, or forgetfulness of its past. During this era China achieved a new and sturdier literature and a great poetic revival, through the changes that Buddhism had wrought philosophically and in a religious way. Artistic work had improved , t-=chnical skill increased and the pleasanter side of life developed. Tea was being used, paper manufactured, and there was printing from wooden blocks , the last a development of the seal-cutting learned of the Sumerians. China's abundant population , orderly, comfortable and progressing, contrast with the lessened numbers in Europe and western Asia. The Europeans and their nearest neighbors were miserably housed and living in dread. They forgot all their past learning in a bigoted belief that worked more harm than did the fat alism attributed to orientalism. Mediaevilism held that the more miserable man was in this life the greater would be his reward in the spiritual life to come.

Knowledge of Christianity , but fortunately not of the pessimistic brand , cam,e to China in A.D. 645 . Then a party of Christian missionaries from Persia , 60


of the N estorian creed , explained their beliefs to E mperor T ai-t sing of the T 'ang dynasty. The tolerant ruler examined with interest a translation of t h e B ible into Chinese and granted p ermission for the est ablish m ent of a church a nd a monast ery . Seven years earlier Islam , too, appealed to this same emperor. M essengers from M uhamad came t o Canton on a trading ship, from Arabia by way of India. The Arabs, who had been known in the southern seaport b efore t he b eginning of the Christian era , were welcomed and authorized to build in Cant on a mosque, t h e oldest ext ant in the whole world. T RE B E G INNINGS O F MODERN L E ARNING OF O RIENTAL O RIG I N

A century after the Arabs had erected their Canton mosque, adherents of Islam dominat ed from the P y ren n ees in Spain to China. Four years lat er, however, the victorious M uham adan advance was checked in France. The Arabs had keen minds and while their sudden spread failed to endure b ecause of political clumsiness, they gathered t he wisdom of the world. Asia furnished Buddhism , originat ed in India and developed in China. From China , too, came material contributions , particularly p ap er, which made possible . p rinting books. India added mathematics and phil o sophy. ¡ The Arabs gave t o the new combined cult ure of E ast and W est, a knowledge of algebra, chemis try and astro nomy. The Arabs, too, acting as intermediaries in t he exchange of ideas brought about t h at collaboration in experiments which is the foundation of modern science. 61


Everywhere the Arabs were teachers , inspiring others with zeal for learning. In India , in the islands of the Indian archipelago and in southern China, their labors were widespread , effective and lasting. Wherever Islam reached , the ability to rea d its sacred book , the Koran , was urged. In the Philippines nature provided what the friars called banana parchment, and the bamboo thorn made a convenient stylus , or pen , for writing on it. With abundant, cheap and good materials and the Moro , or Islamic , influence putting a premium on it , writing was general when the Spaniards reached Manila. In 1580 a Franciscan Friar (Father Juan de Jesus Plascencia) recommended schools on the Filipino plan. In 1604 a Jesuit author (Father Chirino) expressed surprise that hardly a Filipino man , and much less a Flipino woman , was illiterate. Encouragement of learning was the Arabic influence throughout all Asia. Many countries, though, were less favored for "school supplies" (bamboo leaf " parchment" and bamboo thorn " pens" ) than the Philippines , and so did not get as good results. The Crusades, for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre from the infidels , must be noted, for crusaders returned from the E ast used to Oriental comforts. Thus was stimulated trade with Asia by demand for what before ha d been little-known luxuries. TH E

WORLD- C ONQUER I NG M ONGOLS

China now was divided. The great dynasty of T 'ang had become degenerate by the 10th century. The separated states warred among themselves. Finally 62


three groups were formed, the Kin Empire in the North , of which Peking was capital; the Sung, whose capital was Nanking, in the south; and lying between them was the Hsia empire. A Turkish people, the Mongols , had freed themselves from Chinese control and then had a military confederation of kindred tribes with their central camp at Karakorum , in Mongolia. The Mongol leader in 1214 was Jengis (or Genghis) Khan. He attacked the Kin Empire and captured its capital , Peking. Then , in a westward campaign, successively Western Turkestan , Persia, Armenia, India as far south as Lahore, and South Russia as far as Kieff, were occupied. At his death his empire reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Dneiper river in Western Russia. Ogdai Khan succeeded him and continued his career of conquest. His armies were highly efficient. They had gunpowder, a new Chinese discovery, for their artillery , small though these guns were. The rest of the Kin Empire came under Ogdai Khan's rule, and then he shifted operations to Russia. Five years later , with the fall of Kieff, practically all Russia was his. Then Poland was invaded a nd a combined German and Polish army was disastrously defeated in Lower Silesia. No longer is it popular to consider these Mongols savages. Late writers speak with admiration of their strategy and diplomacy. Among Bury's notes to Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the R oman Empire is this striking sentence on 63


the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241 , such a campaign was beyond the power of any European army of the time, and it was beyond the vision of any European commander. Though undefeated, the country to the westward was not to the Mongols' liking. This seems why they turned southward to settle in Hungary. Their kinsmen , the Magyars, they either killed off or absorbed , but the sudden death of the leader in 1242 brought dissensions among them over the succession. So they headed east again, through Hungary and Roumania. Thenceforward their conquests were in Asia. The Sung Empire in China was soon theirs. Manga Khan, in 1251 , had become great Khan, and he made his brother, Kublai Khan, governor of China. The governor became emperor of China formally in 1281. He founded the Yuan dynasty which continued to rule till 1368. Another brother, Hulagu, won an Empire for himself in Persia and Syria. He showed particular animosity toward the followers of Islam. The Mongols destroyed the fertility of Mesopotamia by destroying an irrigation system that had been in existence from Sumerian times. Since the recent world war Mesopotamia , or Iraq , is a British mandate and a modern irrigation system is being constructed to again make the region the granary of its neighbors. THE I N FLUENCE OF THE MONGOLS

With a defeat in Palestine, the Mongol tide of success ebbed. The Great Khan's empire fell apart into several separate states. The Eastern Mongols 64


beca me Buddhists like the Chinese. The Western Mongols accepted Islam. In 1368 the Chinese supplanted the Yuan dynasty with a native, Ming, dynasty which ruled till 1644. The Russians paid tribute to the T artars until 1480. Timurlane, a descendant of Jengis Kha n , in 1369 , in western Turkestan, proclaimed himself Great Khan , a nd conquered from Syria to D elhi , India. His fame rests on his cruelty, but his empire ended with him. As " T amburlane", Timur the Lame is the hero of the first of Christopher Marlowe's great dra mas. A descendant of Timur . B aber , invaded the plains of India and his grandson , Akbar, in the latter. half of the 16th century, completed the conquest. He and his descendants were called by the Arabs " Mogul" for Mongol. The Mogul dynasty ruled over the grea t er part of India until the 18th century. The M ongol conquest s had helped in the progress of both E ast a nd West. At the Great Khan's court at K a ra korum the representatives of the entire known world met and learned from , and taught, one a nother. Mr. Wells' estimate is that the Mongols' influence upon the world's history has been very great , for , though they were not an originative people, they were tran srnitters of knowledge and rnethod . He ranks both Jengis Khan and Kublai Khan a bove Alexander the Great and Charlemagne "as understanding and creative monarchs". ANCIENT

A s 1AT1c

Tot. ERANCE

AND

HosPtTALITY

CHANGED

av

EARLY PORTUGU ES E AND SP AN ISH ABUSES

Always associated in European minds with Kublai Khan are the three Venetians, the Polos, who were 65


his favorites. Best known of the three is the young Marco, whose book was Europe's introduction to the Far East. In a hall of fame that used to be in Canton were 600 ima ges of those whom the Chinese delighted to honor, and one image was of M arco Polo. Truly he deserved fame for his writings are being corroborated as new discoveries are made. His account, of the latter part of the 13th century, is coming more and more to be accepted as wholly trustworthy. Wanderers from Europe freely travelled through India and along the Asiatic Pacific Coast. They came and went without molestation till their countrymen arrived in great numbers and set a bad example. The ea rly Portuguese particularly were to blame for the change in sentiment of the Orientals toward foreigners . The Oriental attitude toward the religions of others also was tolerant till attempts to gain political advantages, through the missionaries and the Christian converts , compelled a change in policy. CH INESE ST AGNATION D URING M ODERN TIME S SUMMED

UP

BY

D OCTOR R E ICH

In China the alluvial plains deposited by the Hoang-Ho and the Yang-tse have yielded the same abundant crops time out of mind , yet for at least three hundred years we can trace no m ark of advance. In agriculture, by long experience, the Chinese have discovered the most expedient rotation of crops, the most advantageous means and material for manuring the land, where the land is not of the rich yellow earth which dispenses with all manure. By t hese methods they have arrived at considerable economic prosperity, without ever troubling themselves about the why and 66


wherefore of their success . All has been achieved in a groove of routine. Agricultural chemistry is not even a name for them. Travellers from Europe, impressed by the immense output of productions, have imagined that unbounded wisdom must be at the back of this measureless material welfare. The Jesuits, whose missions began to spread over China after 1582, had had no small share in circulating stories of the great mathematical achievements of the Chinese. Our miscon ceptions on this score have only been finally exploded within the last century by the labors of the eminent French Orientalist and mathematician , Emmanuel Sedillot. His researches prove conclusively that the Chinese were acquainted very early with several important geometrical and mechanical contrivances , such as compasses, the level , the square, and the wheel. Whence they p rocured these instruments is exceedingly debatable, but it is certain that they grossly neglected the opportunities thus afforded them. E xcept by purely empirical method, they were incapable of solving the most elementary geometrical problems ; and they h ad not the faintest notion of classifying and co-ordinating t heir observations. With the secret of the magnetic needle in their ha nds, they m ad e no progress in navigation, and though they had noticed the recurrence of certain celestial phenomena, their astronomy remained primitive. At t he time of the arrival of the pioneers of J esuit mission work, Ricci and Schall , themselves distinguished mathematicians, a few trigonometrical truths had no doubt filtered through from India and led to their great over-estimate of Chinese science . T HE J APANESE IN HI STORY

The Japanese we know were preceded by a savage race of dwarf white men , the hairy Ainus, now few in number and fast disappearing. Perhaps at one time the Ainus were also in the Philippines and their men killed off by invaders, who took the women as wives. To prevent the repetition of this experience the Ainus 67


in Japan when defeated used to kill their women-folk and children. A considerable Malay mixture is to be found in The inconsistent Japanese mythology is Japan. attributed to crude attempts to weave in the traditions of these new comers with the old beliefs of the earlier inhabitants. Japanese pride has led to exaggerating their antiquity, a mistake of some six centuries in their chronology being pointed out by foreign scholars. The rapid modernization that occurred after the American opening of the country now appears less startling as the great foreign influence in their past , and the J apanese susceptibility to it, is better understood. Korea was the great first teacher of Japan , and then came China. The pupil , however, eager to learn, always made the teachings his own, and adapted rather than copied. An example of Japanese scientific investigation appears in the way that they accepted Chinese medical knowledge. Dissection was used to check the facts about the human body. There are suggestions even that experiments (vivisection) were made with condemned criminals. The P ortuguese and then the Spaniards were in J apan for nearly a century and their contributions to knowledge were gladly accepted. Spanish greed working under the guise of religion however was recognized and then the Catholics were expelled. The so-called religious persecutions were because of the religious teachers mixing in politics. The 68


tortures inflicted reflected the spirit of the age, even in Europe where equal cruelty was practiced by law. The crucifixions were not so barbarous as the like punishments practiced by the Dutch in Java. Much of the "Christianizing" consisted in furnishing firearms to princes who led their folJowers to wholesale baptism. Rulers who did not take part in these mass conversions were refused the European weapons. The Manila massacre of 1588 was because the former trading rulers were selJing war material to the Japanese. Soap, bread and cake remain reminders of the early association with Europe. "Saban" and " pan" are the Japanese names , while " Kastura" , a corruption of " Cas tila" , designates sponge cake, in remembrance of the introducers of that favorite delicacy. The Dutch retained a trading post in Nagasaki after other foreigners were expelJed, and had an annual ship to visit it. Through them the Japanese gradualJy expanded and rounded out their European knowledge. Vaccination, for instance, came through their inquiries after shipwrecked sailors, returned from Siberia, told of its use among the Russians. The Nagasaki medical colJege has been teaching European healing ideas for a century now. A shipwrecked English sailor, who had been a pilot in the Dutch service, was early retained as an instructor in shipbuilding. An American sailor, before the date historicalJy assigned to the opening of J apan to foreign ideas, was a sort of general tutor in modern ways and the first teacher of English there. The American expedition und er Commodore P erry aroused Japanese curiosity by exhibiting a miniature 69


railway, a short-teleg raph line and the like. Then by patience the old ban against foreign intercourse , which had been in existence for two and a quarter centuries , was ended. The conservativ es , supporting the return to power of the Emperor (Mikado) who had been left only priestly duties for many centuries, attacked the Shogun, or military leader, who had usurped the sovereign power, for taking up foreign ideas. But in the civil war that followed they, too, made use of modern weapons and won because theirs were later models. Then the new Japan systematica lly took up modernizin g the land without their people losing their individuali ty. The successes in war against China and Russia proved how effectively the modernizat ion had been achieved. Economica lly equal progress has been made, but undue ambition has made the empire dreaded by its oriental neighbors . The so-called " socialists" that the Japanese government has been ruthlessly removing seem to be . those who want the present mockery of constitution al governmen t to become really representat ive. The country may perhaps be called a commercial despotism. It is a land of monopolies and special privileges, with imposts on the necessities of life. The people, though of heathen belief, are being compelled outwardly to conform to the standards of Christian civilization . There results a condition of chaos and the Japanese are called immoral when the trouble is that their morals differ from the Christian standard. They are taught " obedience" as the supreme virtue while Christianit y gives first place to " selfcontrol" . 70


Till recently belief in their country as specially protected by the Gods anq in their ruler as Heavendescended has made a strong organization. The destruction of the national capital by earthquake and the suffering of the late Emperor from wasting disease, which also impaired his mind , have shaken these superstitious beliefs. Instead of weakening the nation, change to more rational loyalty may be considered an improvement. CHINA

I N HI STORY

The prevalent notions of China need chiefly to be corrected by remembering that the isolation of Far East Asia came through Europe's dark ages. Then the Europeans forgot their earlier history. The Babylonian culture was like the Sumerian inheritance of the early comers to China. Greek influence , from Alexander the Great and later from the Museum at Alexandria, was absorbed through India. With Rome there was contact by the Caspian and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the philosopher, sent an embassy to the Chinese court and was known by the Chinese as Antung. Doctor Hirth , of Columbia University, pieced together widely scattered Chinese references to Rome into a notable work China and the Roman Orient. Then, as translator of Chau Ju-kua , he has shown that the world known to the Chinese in the 13th century included the Mediterranean shores. The study of the Nestorians , whose monument appears on the caravan route, from Europe to Asia , of twelve centuries ago, reveals Christian influence on China, and indirectly on Japan. Also the orthodox 71


Roman Catholic church had bishops at Peking and many adherents in China centuries before the days usually thought of in connection with knowledge of East Asia. Dr. Laufer, of the Chicago Museum , has further shown how the early Chinese ransacked the Orient for worth-while plants and transplanted them to their own land. Understanding the Chinese requires remembering that China is not like a nation but like a continent. Its fair parallel would be Europe rather than any single country. To compare its progress , one must liken it to a fifth of the world's population occupying adjacent territory, and no other fifth so situated has as even a development. China's political development has been a steady growth in educating the four hundred million Chinese through secret revolutionary societies that antedate by centuries Europe's similar efforts. China freed itself from human sacrifices centuries before Europe did. It got out of the feudal system many centuries earlier. Now it is likely to have a homogeneous political system before Europe achieves that distinction , though China is a seventh larger in area and has a little larger population than all Europe's. The political leaders have never been ambitious and work with patience for steady and sure improvement. A belief of Jong existence is that corrupt foreign rule is better than native corrupt rule, because in the former case the country is united in combating the evil. When the bad government is their own, the Chinese think, those who profit by its injustices naturally would seek to uphold it. 72


A common comparison says 'that the Chinese as a people have self-respect but no pride, while the Japa n ese have pride but no self-respect. If only the Chinese could impa rt to t he J a panese their own credita ble sense of self- respect and a bsorb from them a prop er sense of pride, E ast ern Asia wou ld b e decid edly im proved . WILL R u ss IA BE THE U N I TER oF E UROPE

AND A SI A?

D octor R eich 's prediction of 1904 is being realized , though now opposed as Bolsh evist expansion by European reactiona ries : The whole of Russia n policy point s towards the east. F or the last hundred years th e expansion of R ussia has always been away from Europe, and she has a n nexed vast tracts of land beyond t he Ural M ountains . Quite erroneous is the idea, very generally current , tha t these recent acquisitions consist o nly of ba rren a nd inhospit able st eppes. Much of these newly-won possessions offers t he b right est p rospect s to the agricultural colonist, a nd it is their d evelop ment and exploita tion which will monopolize all t he energies o f the Russia n na tion for generations t o com e. The Russi an peasant is cut out by nature for a colonist. H e has one great adva n tage over other European na tions. His generall y low st ate o f culture permits him to intermarry, wit hout any undue sense of debasem ent , with t he indigenous tribes o f the ultra-Ural districts. In times of peace he is prodigiously prolific , so that there is every prospect o f Russia , in t he end , really a bsorbing her Asia tic conquest s, with the result that t he whole of her immense dominion , from west t o east, will b e peopled with a Russian-speaking and Russian-thinking popula tion. I n t hi s she will stand in marked contrast with , a nd have a considerable advantage over, t he F rench, E nglish , a nd Dutch , who ha ve never been a ble to for m in Asia a ny oth er b ut " provincial" coloni es- that is to say, colonies of na tives with a European government o f offici als. 73


Thus, while other Europeans are hindered by climatic drawbacks and their superior culture from ever really Europeanizing their colonial acquisitions, the Russian, from his comparatively low state of culture, stands an excellent chance of completely Russifying the whole of his empire. But this is still the work of centuries. Whether Russia will also succeed in denationalizing Manchuria and North China is a question of the very far future, and on which it would be rash to risk an opinion. Our knowledge of the interior of China is too imperfect to permit of any serious prediction. THE BrsAYAN S IN HISTORY

The Bisayans have till recently had only a fragmentary history, b.ut this section aims to show what the real history was and why till now it has not been recognized as theirs. (Bisayan is properly the general name for the coast-dwellers of the Philippines, and the Bisayas of today get their name from having been the first place colonized. So in America , New Englanders are no more English than many who settled in other regions of the United States). Changed names make puzzles of the ancient narratives of the Far East and the identifications by modern " scholarship" have too often been careless. Java , and lately Borneo, for example, have scholars ambitious to claim for them any possible ancient notices not already assigned. One Chinese account of an island gives length and direction of the shadow cast by a gnomon of specified height at noon. The direction makes the island unquestionably north of the Equator, yet Java, in south latitude, appropriated the item for its history 74


till Borneo recently disputed it. Unless the data are wrong, the spot falls in the Philippines. Without reason attributing error to an old writer is also unwarrantably prevalent. Frequently one reads that some quoted author meant north, when he writes south, or confused east with west, or mislook the mainland for an island , according to the needs of a favored identification . The biggest mistake of all is corrected by Dr. Berthold Laufer , in his Sino-Iranica (Chicago 1919) , where twenty pages point out how the later Chinese have mixed mentions of a Malay people with Persian references , through these having similar names from the Chinese mispronunciation of them. The region was insular . though Dr. Laufer thinks perha ps the Indo-China peninsula was mea nt, and the na tural products mentioned . as well as the situation , fit th e home of th e a ncient Bisa ya ns. Bisayans at the time of the advent of the Portugu ese a nd the Spa nish were the Asiatic a rchipelago's dominant p eople. They ruled in the Molucca n group , (in fiv e degrees South latitude) , in Formosa (in 25 degrees North latitude) . and throughout the intervening isla nds. Thus their dominion extended over thirty-three hundred kilometers, or m ore tha n the north -a nd -south ext ension of continental United States. They a re of course recognized as a M a layan people but their a ncient history has not been sepa ra t ely known . The revelation is a nother death blow , though not n eeded , for the supposititious " history" of th e Philippines in th e Wood -Forbes Report. Notices of A.D. 860 say their region bordered on a la nd usually recognized as Burma. That would be 75


possible for Mon-Khmer (in Cambodia) , then in its grandeur. That mysterious power, according to tradition , had both mainland and island territory and in language remains is a close relative of the Philippine dialects. All known of its highly civilized people is that they were artistic and of Indian culture, like the Bisayans . The ancient land of the Mon -Khmer people was in the Siamreap and Batambang districts , t aken from Cambodia by Siam. There are Mount Krom 's pagoda . Angkor Wat T emple (five and a half kilometres in circumference) , and the more ancient pagoda on Mount Bakheng. Hidden under the tropica l verdure a re these massive sandstone st ructures , architectural triumphs upon which sculptures have been lavished by real artists . N ot far away is Ankor Thom, G reat Ankor, " once the capital of a mighty empire" . Sudden panic seems to ha¡v e caused their desertion. perhaps because of earthquakes , and the migration of the entire population , more highly civilized tha n the few and miserable present-day dwellers in the ¡ nearest villa ges. The sculptures show they were of Indian ancestry . T radition tells that they were also lords of sea-islands , but not where. The dates and conditions fit their having come to the Borneo-Philippine-Fo rmosa chain of islands about 1300, and that they were the Mal ayan carriers of commerce that the Chinese confus ed with the Persians whose trade was a ll overland. (A Chinese writer of the 14th century mentions " suttee" widow-burning in Manila while a writer of a century earlier did not note this Indian custom). 76


That islands so near as the Philippines were un known to the Chinese till 1400 seemed incredible. The finding of a dozen mentions of Philippine regions in Chinese records, from the third century to the 14th proved the old belief untrue. This present view explains satisfactorily all the mysteries without violence to any accepted facts , identifying the " Posse" seafarers whom Dr. Laufer separated from the P arsee, or P ersian , land traders , locating the vanished men of Mon-Khmer , and accounting for the lack of notice by careful China of neighboring islands known to have been in contact. The assumption is borne out by a ll conditions being met. Articles of commerce noted are correct , the natural products mentioned a re characteristic a nd even the one word quoted is readily recognizable as Filipino. RE PUBLI C AN

EASTERN A srA

Conspiring for a North-American-style Philippine Republic, of which he was to b e president, was the unproven charge for which Father Burgos was ordered garroted by a Spanish court-martial in 1872. The next republic was in Formosa, in 1895, when the residents th ere vainly objected to the transfer of their island from China to Japan after the war between those two countries. Then in 1896 there was a Katipunan Republic in Luzon , a nd in 1898 the more popular Philippine Republic followed America's overthrow of Spanish power. " On April 23, 1919, at a time when persecution was at its height, delegates from each of the thirteen provinces of Korea met in Seoul, framed 77


a constitution creating a Republic and elected its first ministry".- Dr. Henry Chung's " The Case of Corea " (New York 1921). The president, Dr. Syngman Rhee, studied at Harvard and Princeton universities , after the Japanese released him from prison for participation in the 1894 reform movement. The Japanese ridicule this opposition to their rule as a " paper republic" for its seat and most of the officials of the Government are outside of Korea. Still it has roused and purified the national spmt. It is Christian. The Japanese have only adopted the outward appearances of Christian civilization , so their colonial government outrages many Christian principles . Siberia since the World War has had several short-lived republics, but all of Russia in Asia now is democratic. A milJion or more Koreans are now living in Siberia , which is one reason why the Japanese government is so watchful against Bolshevism. ¡ In Japan those called " socialists" are for the most part advocates of a republic. The " Government of the Gods" has tried to retain its ancient rule of the favored few by disguising itself as a constitutional monarchy which in reality it is not, since its constitution is really an imperial charter without safeguards or effective guarantees for individual liberty. China is working into a great republic with less disturbance than France made. So it is with Russia. Holland's East Indian subjects , influenced by what they are hearing of the Philippines , are demanding that another advance take place in the modernizing of their colony that England wrought by her brief occupation during the Napoleonic wars. 78


The British and French possessions will doubtless get more rights as they prove worthy of them. Malays and Indians may become eventually self-governing British dominions, and Indo-China be a real part of the French Republic, whose only future is as a union of Europe , Asia and Africa because of her being free from race prejudice. Siam, an old ally of the Philippines , freed from French-British dominance, can then develop along the American lines for which she has been striving for nearly a century. A s 1A's GREAT MEN

Besides its religious teachers , for which Europe has no parallel , Asia can boast of Hideyoshi in Japan , Genghis Khan in China , and Akbar in India. The comparisons , in order , might be to Peter the Great of Russia, Napoleon , the Corsican who became Emperor of the French, and England's Alfred the Great. It is to Asia's credit that her great conquerors are rare because the Orient has been engaged in more honorable commercial development. THE AIM

OF THIS SURVEY

This brief glance at an important history that has been too much neglected seeks to create interest and to rouse the reader to study for himself. The marshalling of detail has been discarded , dates omitted , names avoided , but the principles are here. Repetition has been permitted occasionally where facts worth emphasizing bear upon more than one topic. The more direct connection of the Filipinos belongs in Philippine history. The story of the Malays is properly there , as well as the development of the Indian archipelago. 79


The present-day person needs to know the underlying causes of a people's development to the stage where now they are , what has handicapped and what has ~avored them. Only such general knowledge of the past is worth noting as explains and aids in underst anding the present, or may serve to forecast the probable future. Rizal expressed the modern attitude in the introduction to his The Philippines A Century Hen ce . By no means is our knowledge of our world's ancient history what it soon will be. Old inscriptions are yet to be deciphered , ancient sites must be further excavat ed , and unknown regions remain to be explored. The great body of literature in China and India should b e translated and studied, and then the results checked against other sources of informations, just as courts weigh the preponderance of conflicting t estimony. The more recent times are still in dispute, besides being in the period of Occidental influence. Their events are full y treated in the European-made histories but do not afford special lessons. For these reasons the modern occidentalized Orient has been disregarded, in our a ccount, as well as details , however customary in so-called histories, that are either insignificant or uncorroborated. It is better not to know so rnuch than to know so rnuch that is not so .

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Profile for Filipiniana Online

South and Eastern Asia from the earliest times to the present day : an epitome of forgotten chapters  

South and Eastern Asia from the earliest times to the present day : an epitome of forgotten chapters