Rizal's correspondence with fellow reformists, 1882-1896 (Part 2 of 2)

Page 1

142. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 23 Jnne 1889

Ponce sends a postcard to Rizal asking for his permission to issue reply to Barrantes in pamphlet form - Printing of Blumentritt's defense of NoLi 1'11ÂŁ tangere almost finished. :{.



POST CARD Barcelona, 23 June 1889

MR. JOSE RIZAL 10 Rue de Louvois Paris



I received your letter with Blumentritt's article enclosed . It shall appear in La Solidaridad of the 30th. We wish to issue reprints in pamphlet form of your reply to Barrantes. At least 500 copies. We are asking your permission. I received your last postal card; I shall answer you later. You will receive some copies of No.8. Panganiban is sick. He has already finished what he was translating into Spanish. He was just going to put .it in idiomatic Spanish but he had to stop due to his sickness. Now he is already well. Next week you will receiv~ Blumentritt's Noli. They are finishing it now. Yours, NANING


143. Rizal Paris, 1 July 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal regrets Panganiban's illness - He is a very useful man - Filipinos at Paris await impatiently La Solidaridad - Rizal cannot find his articles uEI Filibusterismo" and La opinion en Filipinas.

111 Rue de St. Lazare, Paris

1 July 1889

LMr. My

Mariano Ponce]


I am very sorry to know that Friend Panganiban is sick, and according to Blumentritt, with hemoptysis. It is necessary that he take very good care of himself, for, aside from humanitarian considerations and looking at the selfiish side, he is J very useful man and very necessary to our cause, for it is obVIOUS that he is very hard-working. Therefore, I would tell him to lay aside now all his work, take arsenic in very small doses, as I did in Berlin, take baths in the sea, etc. He is a man of very good inclinations and we would lose much if he becomes serious1y ill. As I shall be wandering for a few days, for the present address your correspondence to 45 Rue de Maubeuge where Ventura lives. Please tell this to our friends. Here they are waiting impatiently La Solidaridad for 30 June. Blumentritt is awaiting for his defense of the Noli. He


-357 wishes you to send him 25 copies. You already know that I pay for the postage. Tell me how the periodical La Solidaridad is getting along, for here we earnestly desire its progress. It seems that Roxas is coming to Paris. an interview with him.

I shall try to have

Tell Plaridel that however much I have looked for my articles, El Filibusterismo and La opinion en Filipinas I cannot find them. Llorente surely has the 1st and somebody in Barcelona the 2nd. How are things there? Regards to all. Yours, RIZAL



O. R. Serna (Pedro Serrano Laktaw), Manila, 1 July 1889

O. R. Serna, anagram of Serrano, Tagalog Exicographer, assumes a role to mislead the friars and Jesuits. :{.



Manila, 1 July 1889 To Mama/ Dose Rizal? J DEAR FRIEND,

I received your pleasing letter of 6 April together with Mr. Rizal's letter to Trini ad and hs orignal letter to Plaridel dated 15 May last. Informe of their co tents, I send you my "incere compliments and great amount of enthusiasm, expressing my complete agreement to what you tell me therein. I admire you from here and I applaud your worthy attitude. Not so Serrano. With his former glacial indifference, comparable only to the cold disappointment of an unfortunate man or the behavior of a bronze, he took the letters that I handed to him, read them sw inging on his two feet, and afterwards returned them to me smiling, and the more I showed eargerness to know his opinion the more he shut himself up in hi'> shell .......... shield that the "friar is the salvation of rhe country". What a base fellow he is! Let us see if his friends the Jesuits do not disappoint him soon. They are also fed up with him but they know how to dissimulate showing him their smile that they inherited from 1

A Tagalog term meaning "Mr."

-358 -

-359their father St. Ignatius. The other friars are availing themselves of the Jesuits to pump out secrets from him. For the pesent, the other friars are already intriguing against Serrano, and as he is dependent on the Dominicans, I believe that with this .... I have already said everything. Angered at him, I told him all this so that he will not merely smile at everything we tell him that he 'lhould keep away from the Jesuits, which is already being criticized by many. But what makes my blood boil is that his usual answer is a smile> and unconcern. It seems as if he has something that emboldens him, whereas he can only be sure of the help of his own comrades. Now he keeps repeating your saying that "the coconut that is tapped yields tuba which invigorates the blood." And then he adds that "for a weak body, only broth is suitable ......... . and if his strength improves, then it will be time for him to cat roasts pig." He is like a mad an sometirn s .. . ... . ......... I do not know if he has lost his mind .. . ..................... . ... . . . . . . J ud ge for yours.elf if this man should be taken seriously. But this comedy of his may bring good results, so that he has many friends who are increasing everyday. Only the Jesuits no longer believe him. In the next mail I shall write you what the Jesuits did to him once and if you do not get angry it is because you do not know how to rejoice. This is all and receive an embrace of O. R.


145. Rizal, London [July 1889?] To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Power of attorney in favor of Pedro de Govantes, a rracticing Spanish lawyer at Madrid with reference to the case 0 his brotherin-law Manuel Hidalgo deported without trial.

37 Chalcot Crescent, Primrose Hill, N. W . [Between 1 and 12 July 1889] [Mr. Marcelo H. de Pilar]



Enclosed I send you a power of attorney and a letter to be deli vered to Govantes. Read the power of attorney and tell him your opmlOn. I have given the power of attorney to Govantes because he is a registered lawyer there. You have enough to do with La Solid arid ad and your examinations, and moreover you are not registered there in the Supreme Court. In short I leave the business to your clear judgment; I am a layman. Regards to all our friends. I am very busy doing some work at the library. Yours, RIZAL


A pet name of Marcelo H. del Pilar.


146. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 9 July 1889

Panganiban improves - Lopez Jaena disheartened - Del Pilar bears all the work of the periodical - Panganiban's study of the University of Manila - Arrival of Sandico - Plinting of Blumentritt's defense of Noli me tangere - La Solidaridad association has lost some members.

2-30 Rambla Canaletas, Barcelona 9 July 1889 [Mr. Jose Rizal]



Panganiban has improved and is inclined to work occasionally. We always advise him of the desirability of resting while he has not completely recovered. F or the present, the periodical is getting along well; we make every sacrifice. Graciano is becoming disheartened; it costs us much effort to get an article from him, and Pilar bears the whole weight of the editorial staff. Fortunately we can count -on you and Blumentritt's collaboration. For number 15 we have a contribution of this good friend I do not know if Panganiban wll continue his article on the University f)ÂŁ Manila; he seems to be resentful that the Solidaridad did not mention his illness. We shall try to satisfy him, for we attribute his temper to his sickness. We do not permit you to pay for the copies of La Soberanta monacal that you have sent to Manila.


-362 La Solidaridad, aSSOClatIon, some have ceased to be members.


slowly . . . though

We have received the copies of the defense of Blumentritt. Tell me if 1 should send you all the copies. I do not konw if. being printed in Spain, you can ask for the copyright abroad. In any case, suggest to us what should be done about this matter. Teodoro Sandico 1 has arrived here.

I believe that the printing will cost less than 30 duros for 2,000 copies; I am referring to Blumentritt's Defense. Tell me at what price you want a copy to be sold. I cannot tell exactly the total cost of the binding, but all in all it will not be more than the amount indicated. Enclosed is a clipping of La Patria. An wer it if you think it proper. If it is not too burdensome, we ,:sk you to sene! us an article for every issue. Yours,

p. S.



Today I send Blumentritt a clipping of the Diario de Manila In which Quioquiap answers ....

I enclose another clipping answering the same article. 1 Teacher, general in the Philippine Revolution, governor of Bulacan and senator of the Philippines under the American regime , labor leader.

147. Rizal, Paris, 12 July 1889 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal writes del Pilar in Tagalog and sends him the Contribution of 200 pesetas of the Calambenos to La Solidaridad - Issues of the periodical for the Philippines - Regards to Sandico Regidor's article Diputado por Filipinas - For being Rizal's brother-in-law, Mariano Herbosa was allowed to be buried in Holy ground. :>£.



45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 12 July 1889 MR.

M. H.





I received your letter together with the translation, Defensa de Blumentritt. The printing is good and neat so that I thank very much all of you there. I carne from London so I did not recei ve your letter on time. Enclosed are two hundred pesetas which my fellow townsmen of Calamba are presenting to La Solidaridad. They sent more than this amount for me to use at my discretion. I am keeping the rest for a certain purpose. Keep these two hundred pesetas for the periodical La Solidaridad. Do not forget to send copies to Calamba, to Mr. Mateo Elejorde, druggist of the town. They have a great affection for our courageous Solidaridad. Likewise, always send copies to Pedro Ramos at London, 21 Billiter Street, together with the copy for Regidor, because Ramos has paid me today 1.25 for his quarter. He says he lacks number 8. Abarca

- 363--

-364lacks numbers 1 and 8, and I lack number 10 or the conclusion of my letter to Desbarrantes/ as you say. I would be pleased if you would always send me many copies because I am sending ,all to the Philippines. It is there that it ought to be read. Be careful with your remittance to Manila, because I am informed that the governor general burns all the copies that are recieved there. Wrap them well and hide them. Likewise, they are very much pleased there with the booklets and other articles. Beginning with the next issue I am going to send an article for every number. In order that it may not cost you too much sending copies to Paris this is what can be done. Two bundles, one to Luna and the Pardos, and one to me, Ventura, Abarca, Trinidad, etc., etc. Tell me if La Solidaridad is short of funds. I am going to send together Blumentritt's Memoricl' which I shall print at my expense. I am going to correct the proofs. T ell me how much one thousand copies will cost Greet Mr. Teodoro Sandico for me. I believe that he is an old acquaintance of mine there in Pandacan or at the Ateneo Municipal. He is a tal\ man with an oval face and nimble in his movements. In case he is not that one, nevertheless tell him to look upon me as a compatriot and friend and an admirer of all that he had done in Malolos. To study philosophy and letters is a very good plan and young men like him can go to Madrid and can be depended upon not to be spoiled by the ill wind that blows there. Only he ought to return to the Philippines. I have not yet spoken with Roxas, because I have iust arrived from London, and I am tired and slightly indisposed. Have the Desbarrantes printed quickly so that the booklets can be sent to Manila. I share the expenses. The same for Por Telefono. What is Graciano doing that he is not helping? Th~

article Diputado por Filz'pinas written by Regidor is good, but I told him that he should not stir up regionalism or or provincialism. If we have some good custom or virtue, it ought to be attributed to all provinces, to all the sons of the Philippines. 1 A play words on Barrantes; desbarrar means to throw an iron bar out taking aim. 2 Translated into Spanish by Rizal.


-365 I am enclosing with this Blumentritt's letter. Send him the reply to him and the same with the reply to me. I hope that you sent Blumentritt many copies of the translation' of his Defensa. Send many copies to Manila through the sailors who go there, through the mail, and through other means. Let us not forget that it is there where we ought to sow if we wish to harvest. I revealed to the people of my province your true name and purposes. I hope that your example and your writings will awaken many people. Now you cannot back out any more. A brother-in-law of mine3 died of cholera and because of his relationship to me they did not allow him to be buried in the cemetery. I do not resent this; you know my attitude towards this matter, so do my family, but it is the bad intention that I ought to investigate. This is all for the present and greet for me all our friends and compatriots. How is Panganiban?


Your Friend. RIZAL

I am pleased with your news that Rogers is going to cooperate. I guess that it is your example that has attracted him. Ther~ IS nothing like a good example. Canon should also cooperate. Let me know if you have received the money. The Same 3 Mariano Herbosa. Rizal's article, Una profanacion (A profanation) pub. lished in La Solidariddad, 31 Ju~y 1889, deals with his burial.

148. Rizal, Paris, 19 July 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal writes Ponce in Tagalog ordering more copies of Soberania and Defensa - He asks Ponce to send copies to Manila, Fr. Font, and Fr. Rodriguez.

Paris, 19 July 1889 [Mr. Mariano POQce] Comrade, I received the S olidaridad.. thamk you. There is a family of compatriots here who want to subscribe to the Solidaridad beginning with number one. The name is Mme. Boustead, 3 Rue de Bassins, Paris. Therefore, "end them all the issues together with the receipt. Blumentritt is asking for more copies of Defensa del Noli. Send me many copies of Defensa and a few Soberanta monacal. Send to Manila. You may take charge of the sale of Defensa at the price you want. Divide the proceeds into three parts: One part for the Solidaridad Association, one for Solidaridad periodical, and one for me. Send a copy each of Defensa to Font and Fr. Rodriguez. Or if not, I shall do it. This is all. LAONG LAAN.


149. Rizal, [Paris, 22 July 1889?]

A post card from Rizal giving instructions to Ponce 2bout the publication of his two articles in La Solidaridad.

[Postal stamp, Paris, 22 July 1889 J Monday



With this are two articles 1 that I am sending you. Please publish them in the issue of Solidaridad for 30th instant. If they cannot be published at the same time, publish first that one about my brother-in-law. Have the Memoricf printed. Put my name or not on the articles as you please. Strike out what you wish or add what may be lacking. Send many copies of Defensa to Madrid. You may fix the price; we divide the proceeds into three parts. I entrust you the article on my brother-in-law's buriaL This is all. RIZAL

The money I sent you came from his relatives. 1 "Verdades

nuevas" (New Truths)and

-tion) . 2

By Blumentritt.


"Una pTofanacion"

(A profana-

150. Rizal, Paris, 13 August 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal is very busy with many writings at the same time would like to correct the proofs of "Por telefono." ~




Paris, 13 August 1889 [Mr. Mariano Ponce] DEAR NANING,

I have received the booklet Por telefono and other things, and as the proofs were used as wrappers, I did not see them until this morning when it occurred to me to see what was in them.

There is much to correct, but I cannot do it unless you send me the manuscript. I received 9 reales from Puatu and 4 pesetas and 75 cents from Mme. Boustead for three quarters subscription and one Soberanta monacal. All amount to 7 pesetas. Please send me the manuscript with the proofs. Excuse me for not writing you longer, for I am very busy with many writings all at the same time. My head is like a hollow ball. Gratefully, Rizal I am waiting for Plaridel. I like to correct even the second proofs



151. Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Manila, 17 August 1889

Serrano writes in Tagalog in the third person - He sends Rizal P240 for El Filibusterismo.

Manila, 17 August 1889 [Mr. Jose Rizal] Dear Mama1, Serrano now no longer cares. He does not write you because he does not want to hear that you are angry. He says that you should not trust anyone except those you are sure of. Enclosed is a draft for two hnudred forty pesos sent to you by Mr. M. Alejandrino in payment for the second part2 , but you are at liberty to use it for your personal needs should you find it necessary. I would sincerely appreciate it if you would inform him of the receipt of this, as well as of the 18 pounds sterling. YOLl left the poor man in the cold by your letter from Paris which he could not understand at all. A thousand thanks for your condescension in calling me friend Serrano. An embrace from yours affectionately, S. L'Aktaw 1 Tagalog for 2 An admirer

Mr. of Rizal sends him advance payment f()lf the second part of Noli me tangere, El Filibasterismo.


152. Rizal. Paris, 8 September 1889 Mr. Mariano Ponce

Rizal sends his reply to an article against him published


La Patria.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 8 September 1889 DEAR FRIEND PONCE,

Excuse me for not having written you for a long time, but I have been so busy nd I have so much work that I was hoping to see here our Plari el in order to confer with him and get rid of many burdens. This morning, in opening a roll of paper that you sent me, I noticed that it contained an article against me. I answer it immediately and there it goes. 1 Tell Plaridel to come here before Thursday, to be here on Wednesday. When you send me a magazine with something important inside, write at the top Important. I am in a great hurry. Yours, RIZAL

1 Rizal was quick in answering articles. In the issue of La Solidaridad for 15 September 1889 appeared an article bf Rizal entitled Diferencias, a humorous reply to La Patria, anti-Filipino periodical.


153. Rizal, Paris, 9 September 1889

Rizal announces to Ponce in a post card Pedro Roxas' trip to Madrid - Call on him secretly - Angel Marcaida, a Filipino, would like to read Rizal's reply to Barrantes - Rizal IS about to finish his annotations to Morga.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris Saturday, 9 September 1889 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]



P. Roxas went there this morning. You take charge of reo cei ving him and calling on him. He said that you should not entertain him and also do not mention his name in La Solidaridad so that he would not be suspected by the tonsured menl. Call on him secretly and one by one. We have a fellow-countryman by the name caida2 who would like to read my letter against is arriving there at Barcelona and will stay at Oriente. Send him a copy and meet him. daughter. I leave the matter in your hands.

of Angel Mar 路 Barrantes. He the Hotel del He has single

I have not yet received Blumentritt's Memoria. I 'm finishing Morga; that is why I'm very busy. Your friend, RIZAL

I 2

Meaning the friars. Filipino, a Spanish mestizo belonging to a rich Manila family.


154. Rizal, Paris, 21 September 1889 To Jose Ma. Basa

Inconvenience of printing the signature of Isaac Fernando de los Rbs on articles written by Filipinos - A society for the propagation of useful information - Watchwords - Plaridel In Paris - Transfer of La Solidaridad to Madrid and its conversion into a weekly. ~



45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 21 September 1889

LMr. Jose Ma. BasaJ Hong Kong



We have received your letter and the papers May God Punish the Wz'cked and Here there are no Filibusteros and we have read them with pleasant surprise. They are very well written and we agree with the ideas expressed in them. They are the best that have been published there l . The only thing that displeased us, especially Plaridel and me, is that they are signed by Isaac Fernando de los Rlos2 and here are the inconveniences of following that policy:

1. It is not right for us to use false names, for it is desirable that what we say and write be serious and defensible. 2. If we use these wiles, our enemies can do the same to us and publish articles purporting to be signed by me or by Plaridel and then we shall have no right to complain and protest. 3. That the Hong Kong. Pseudonym of Jose Ma. Basa, Filipino exile residing at Hong Kong. was the name of II discredited Spanish wtriter. 1




-373 name of Isaac Fernando is very much discredited and our ideas lose their force when they appear under his name. 4. That we do not need either his authority or his name to give lustre to what we uphold, nor do we need to make him quarrel with the friars, for we do not want him in our party. We would consider ourselves dishonored by entertaining the same ideas as he does. 5. That our ideas dignify him in the eyes of our countrymen and he can thereby acquire prestige and thus we are ruined. Those who do not know him will take him for a great patriot and later he will utilize this reputation to hurt us, and those who know him will regard us as low and knavish as he is, which i~ nothing pleasant. 6. And lastly, that I am always in favor of a noble and open policy, for our cause is so and does not ne..:d to employ such methods to triumph. With a noble and courageous policy, each article coming out signed by the true name of its author, we shall raise the spirit of our timid countrymen who will see that we are not afraid but that we have confidence in our success. Thus our enemies wm become afraid upon encountering resolute and devoted men. This is with reference to those publications. Well now inspired by your zeal and activity, we have decided to establish a society whose only purpose is the diffusion in the Philippines of all useful knowledge, be it scientific, artistic, literary, etc. It imposes no other obligation on the members except to favor one another when it concerns the propagation of a useful knowledge. For example: If you receive a package, a book or a letter, on which you read the initials Rd. L. M., this is enough for you to take special care that it reaches its destination, because it is highly important. A box, for example, on which you read these characters ought to reach its destination through the safest and quickest way possible. When these initials are thus Rd. L. M., then it means to say that it needs more care because it is of the greatest importance. We make you our correspondent and you will continue acting as you have done until now, endeavoring to have: at your command Chinese, sailors, servants, etc. to further the purposes of our society which are the diffusion of education in our country. Neither religion nor politics has anything to do with it. You will be the Hong Kong correspondent just as we are yours. When you write something to Barcelona or to Madrid

-374ball with B in the middle, as sketched above. This is enough for your letter to receive special attention or your order to be carried out. You can write thus to Llorente in Madrid, Aguilera, Roxas, Del Pilar, Ponce, etc. Henceforth, any letter or writing from Hong Kong without the initials Rd. L. M. will be considered invalid. Neither quota nor contribution is required . Once you have read this letter, burn it and do not communicate its contents even to your subordinates, for only the principals in each department and persons who can be trusted ought to know this countersign. With regard to schools I will tell you that in England and France, one can stay in them for P'60 a month; in Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium 35 or 40 duros. For business course no other country is better than England; for science, Germany and France. Do not send to Spain. Plaridel is her~ now. La Solidaridad will transfer to Madrid and next year it will be a weekly. Henceforth it will carry the initials. You may depend on the members of Sociedad R. D. L. M.



, 155.

Indios Bravos, Madrid, 22 September 1889

Indios Bravos inform RizaI of their return to M adrid.

Madrid, 22 September 1889

MR. JosE





We arrived at Madrid on the 25th instant after a fairl y happy trip. F or the present we send you enclosed a draft for 40 francs with a million thanks, requesting you to excuse the delay of our remittance, for accidentally we left at Irun our traveling suitcases which contained precisely our money and we were not able to get them until four days later. We are very grateful to all the Filipinos and to you especially for everything and for many favors and we hope for an opportunity to prove to you our gratitude in deeds rather than m words. For lack of time we cannot write you a long letter, but Oil another occasion we shall be able to do so. In behalf of the Indios Bravos l please greet Mr. Ventura, Mr. and Mrs. Luna, Mrs. Tula and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Pardo and mother, Mr. and Mrs. Boustead, and Mr. Rocha and all our countrymen in general and you know you may command your friends and compatriots. Los Indios Bravos. 1 The name adopted by a group of Filipinos. "Indio" was the name the Spaniards applied to the natives of the Phi'l ippinesj "bravo" means "brave".


156. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 23 September 1889

Ponce inquires about the proofs of Menwria of Blumentritt - He asks Rizal for an article for La Solidaridad - Where can he obtain a copy of Pardo de Tavera's E1 sanscrito en La lengua Tagalog? ~



Barcelon, 23 September 1889 DEAR RIZAL,

Upon my ani val last night from an excurSIOn to the mountains of Montserrat, Manresa, and Cardona, I found this letter of L' Aktaw and the enclosed draft (972 francs) which I'm sendjng you together with he letter addressed to Mr. Pardo de Tavera and in a separate package the clippings and the issues of Ret/ista Cat6lica and Espana Oriental for this gentleman. I have received Plaridel's post card but I have not answered it yet, having received it only last night. He has registered letters at the post office which I have not asked to be forwarded there, for I am expecting his return any moment. However, may he tell me what to do. I have his other letters. And the proofs of Memoria of Blumentritt? I am waiting for some article of yours for the next issue and tell Plaridel that if he has no intention of coming back soon to write me so that I can send him his letters and to send me articles. But it will be better if he hastens his return to settle things here. Do you know where a copy can be ordered of Pardo de Tavera's El simscrito en el Tagalog? ..


.- 377I'm going to look for the collation that Arist6n is asking and will include it in the package of printed matter. Embraces for all. Yours, NANING



The lottery collation is for Arist6n Bautista. Tell Plaridel that the missing packages of Nos. 4 and 5 of La Solidaridad have arrived at last with the No. 10; this is what they tell us from Manila. The official letter of the post office here has had an effect on the post office there.



Mariano Ponce, [Barcelona] 24 September 1889

Ponce informs Rizal of the receipt of a telegram about a simulated revolution in order to have a pretext to shoot Filipinos At his country house at Malinta Governor Weyler is in frequent consultation with friars.

[Barcelona,] 24 September 1889 DEAR RIZAL,

Today I have just received a telegram from Hong Kong dated yesterday which I transcribe ~iterally: At Hacienda Malinta Weyler presides over meetings of friars who are planning a simulated revolution to have a pretext to shoot educated Filipinos. Hired criminals are set free to carry it out. Eugenio Sales, Peninsular Spaniard and other rowdies hired by the friars . Request the Minister for the suspensIOn of execution demanding motives. Tell as what should be done. I shall call a meeting of our countrymen to deliberate the question. Yesterday I sent you letters from Manila and a draft for the amount of 972 francs. Yours,





Rizal, 26 September 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal advices Ponce with regard to the telegram about th e simulated revolution.

26 September 1889 DEAR PONCE,

r received your letter together with what you sent me, letters, magazines, etc., etc. Many thanks; r will write you in time. With regard to the tdegram, r believe what can be done is to publish it merely as serious news, but without believing in it for various political reasons, etc., etc. Nothing official can be done for lack of sufficient evidence. They may laugh at us and demand proofs. They can say that we have no judgment of our own and we believe hearsay. Weyler may even demand for damages for calumny. Tell Canon to telegraph me upon arriving in France, giving the name of the station and the hour of arrival, for there are two stations and different hours of arrival. There are the Lyon Station and the Orleans Station. r

leave it to your discretion. LAONG LAAN.


159. Rizal, To the Indios Bravos, Paris, 5 October 1889

Rizal and other Filipino reformists in Spain adopt the name Indios Bravos literally Brave Indios - Rizal shows concern about unfavorable reports on an Indio Bravo - He is desirous of maintaining unsullied their reputation.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris S October 1889 TO THE INDIOS B AVOS



Sometime ago I received your letter together with the draft for the Credit Lyonnais. There was no hurry about it and the only thing that made me wait for your letters was my desire to know how you arrived there and what impression you had. Our friends are getting along well and they send you a thousand regard". As I have not paid a call until now on any of the Filipino families that used to visit, I have not been able to give them your regards; but as soon as I see them, I will comply with your request. More than a week ago I delivered the little package for Levi. Today goes the package for Mr. Simeon Luz. Albert arrived here from Madrid and through him I learn that many of those there are already infected with the virus of insolence. God grant we may not all be contaminated. It is very possible that one of these days I may call on the Luna Family. -380-

-3811 am very busy with the task that you already know. I hope that you will not forget the good purposes you have a~ opted. I should like to inform Lauro that there are very many bad news about him that those in Madrid are spreading or have spre1d already. so that it is very necessary that he change his behavior and defend his honor in order that the name Indio Bravo may not be tarnished and also that the feelings of . . . may not be hurt, in case the bad news reach her ears. M. H. del Pilar is going there within a few days. Ventura and Bautista send you regards. Come soon. Your friend ,

El 1. B. (The Indio Bravo)

160. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 9 October 1889

Luna writes Rizal there was no reason for coldness between them Encourage the Indios Bravos to take up target practice.

6 CIa vel, Madrid 9 October 1889



E RIZAL Your letter did not surpri e me, dear Rizal, for is was precisely what I wanted and was looking for. I confess that I wrote you so that you wou d not say I have a grudge. I cannot have any, nor do I think t~ere should e any between us, especially "" hen there is no reason for it.

You thought I was cold towards you and I thought you were towards me. It is the result of lack of understanding and of not speaking clearly. I said so to my companions upon our return to Madrid.. We were both mistaken. We have no reason to be somewhat cold to each other for many times I asked you if you were making love to Nellyl and you told me no, and you even encouraged me to court her. saying that you have commitments to fulfill, etc., etc. Consequent路 ly I was already sure of you, that your were my friend, the rest did not matter to me. This is all therefore, lad, we ought to continue as friends as I thought we never ceased to be. How is your work? Llorente has begun shooting at the house of the Zouave; I, at the house of CarboneL We should like to shoot together 1

Nelly Boustead.

Rizal mentions ~e. Boustead in letter No. 136 ante.


-383 at the same hall but we cannot do it this month. Encourage the lndz'os Bravos to do likewise. Aguilera, who enrolled with me, has not gone there even once and neither have the others. Llorente is very enthusiastic. An embrace from your friend, ANTONIO

Regards to Ventura and to the whole colony. I have learned that you have been in London and you have returned to Paris.


161. Julio Llorente, Madrid, 10 October 1889

Llorentes requests Rizal to speak to Juan Luna about Estenan Figueroa who received an offer to work at the Imprenta Ramirez in Manila.

3 Plaza S. Marcial, Madrid 10 October 1889 DEAR RIZAL,

I received your letter of October and being informed of its contents, I wish that the society you have founded prosper and count me at once as one of its members. Lad, I will do everything I can in favor of education, the foremost aim of the said associationl . I go everyday to the Hall of Arms of the Zouave (Mr. Nicolas). In the the course of the year or a year and months, I intend to return to our country and then, as I am planning to embark at Marseille, I shall pass through Paris .... Give my regards to Mr. Hyacinthus.... The Marquis de Heredia comes everyday to the Hall of Arms where I go. Now, another thing. Our compatriot Figueroa2 has received a letter from ] uan Luna offering him a position with a salary of P1,lOO in the printing establishment of his brother-in-law Ramirez of Manila. Figueroa likes to accept gladly the offer but he asks you to please tell Luna that he has no fund for a trip to Paris as Luna requires him to undertake to learn there the 1 See Rizal's letter to Jose Ma. Basa, No. 142 ante, wherein he explains the the purposes of the association. 2 Estevan Figueroa who became a noted engraver. He was then a government student.


-385new methods of engraving, etc., and moreover, as he is receiving a government pension, upon accepting the position offered by Ramirez, he has to renounce that pension. In view of this, Figueroa requests you to persuade Luna to begin his salary on the day he gives up his pension, which, between us, seems to me very fair. More clearly still: Figueroa's salary should begin the moment he takes the train for Paris. In short, lad, put yourself in our compatriot's place and do what you think most proper, bearing in mind only that he has no other means of livelihood except the monthly pension of P30. ,It is P40 but it is reduced to P30 because of the money order and the agent's commlSSlOn. When your work is published, send me a copy. Regards from Jesusa and kisses from the girls. Regards also from Teodora and my mother-in -law. Your sincere friend and compatriot, JULIO

P. S. Regards to Ventura and other friends.

162. Fernando Acevedo, Zaragoza, Spain, 25 October 1889

An admirer caBs Rizal "Model Filipino" - Notes his devotion to study and exceptional talents - Will order a copy of his book Noli me tangere - Offers to attend to the sale of Rizal's works. Rizal, the model Filipino - A printing press - Business in prospect :{.



Zaragoza, 25 October 1889




Four days ago our mutual friend Graciano l with various others passed through our capital city and my joy as you can very well undesrstand was great. We talked about an infinite number of things.... I wanted likewise to know something about you, your life there, and he came to relate to me your departure and vicissitudes from our separation in Madrid to the pr.esent. Having listened to this attentively - for you know that what relates to you interests me - I hasten to write you to express to you my present satisfaction and happiness in knowing that you are a model Filipino. Your devotion to study and your talents have placed you on a height that I respect and admire. You are the personification of Spanish Oceania. I know you have written a book which I shall order at Barcelona for I have already the bookstore's address. I shall read it with reverence because you have written it and therefore for me there should be no censorship. 1

Graciano Lopez

J aena,

Filipino reformist.


-387I have also learned that you are wfltmg the history of our native land. I shall rejoice on the day you finish it and count on me in this city and its neighboring provinces for its advertisement and sale. I offer my services to you if they can be of use to you. You know me, I do not beat about the bush and I speak plain language. I own a printing press and accept all kinds of printing and so that you may be better informed, I send you my prospectus and business card on which you will see that I style myselt Publisher's Representative, because military laws forbid us to engage in business except as representatives. I am glad to tell you that I have married.... My wife is a native of ... called ... Roldanes, young and . . . beautiful. I am well off, I tell you, for on my wife's side I own houses, orchards, vineyards, and olive groves; in short, dear Pepe, you will be glad that my status has changed and as a good friend you will congratulate me. I intend to engage in a business and I resort to your judgment, advice, and energy. In that city there is on L'Armaille Street, number 22, a manufacturer and inventor called Richard Schneider who proposes to me that I represent him in this city for the sale of his washing machines. I enclose his prospectus for your examination and I request you to see if the machines are perfect, if they will sell or not, and if you think they will be profitable. I hope you will enlighten me on this matter, giving me your opinion and advice. I wrote to that firm accepting its offer but asking for more advantages in the contract. I beg you to do something for me and give my personal antecedents so that they will favor me, for my premises cost me 3,000 reales a year in addition to taxes, lighting, .... I hope you will answer me. . . if you plan to return to Spain. A close embrace from your good friend and comrade who sincerely loves you, FERNANDO ACEVEDO

163. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 30 October 1889

Lopez Jaena, candidate for deputy - Would like Rizal to persuade other Filipinos to help him - Antonia Rodriguez de Ureta's article La Dinastia against Rizal.

* * Barcelona, *

30 October 1889


I received your letter from Marseille. I note in it that you are disgusted because I printed your name in my review of your book. Bear in mind that in all writings the name of the author is placed at the end of the citation. I beg you to entreat . . . in order that they may help me in the coming elections s that I can present my candidacy in the districts I named in my previous letter. I have endured hardships and I have not devoted myself to Republican political life since 1881 in vain. My personal ambition is to become a deputy and in the present circumstances I can succeed, if the Filipinos would help me. You know that the P'40 monthly that they allow me are not enough for me to arouse interest in my candidacy. Political questions are costly, so that I depend on you to persuade the people there to try to help me in my efforts. As to my political ideas with respect to the Philippines, I think we cannot expect anything from Spain. Nothing more for the present. I wish you will answer me by return mail. Ever yours, GRACIANO



P. S. Read La Disnastza that I am sending to the Association and you will see what Antonia Rodriguez de Vreta says about you.


164. S. Jugo Vidal, Madrid, 11 March 1889

Regrets the outrages against Rizal's family - But not all Spaniards think alike - Some Spanish newspapers, above all those of the republican press, do justice to Rizal - Every Filipino should contribute something toward the education of his compatriots - Asks Rizal for articles for his periodical, La Vanguardia. ".





I received your esteemed letter of the 7 instant. It has been a great pleasure for me to read its content, because, through it, I have learned the truth about present condition of our unfortunate country. What you write, feel, and the innumerable iniquities that you describe have touched my soul, especially the infamous conduct of the government towards your dear family. But do not beliieve that all Spaniards think alike, because I, who have followed avidly the manifestations of the Madrid and provincial press following the events in Manila, have read some well-written articles and I remember that in some of them especially in the republican press, they did you full justice. Can we expect some day that there would be a radical change of government here? I believe so, though I do not trust much Spanish politicians. If I write you this, it is not to tell you that I have hopes, no, but that we ought, as you say, to influence the education of our compatriots in order to prepare them for a better future. It is demonstrated that all of us should contribute our grain of sand to the education of the Filipino people and as it might


-390happen that some issues of our humble weekly may reach their hands, I hope you will give us some article of yours which, as the product of your fine pen will be favor to the columns of the periodical. Concerning what you say about the desire of many there to subscribe by the month, owing to their experience with other former periodicals which failed, I beli~ve they are right and as I like to respect the opinion of everyone, I therefore agree to your suggestion inasmuch as the enterprise gains from it. I thank you for your confidence in me and most sincerely for your active cooperation from which I expect good and profitable results for our periodical. My regards to our friends and command your friend who esteems you truly, S. JuGO


p. S. By today's mail I send you a package of 25 copies and you will excuse me for not sending from here the issues for the subscribers for lack of wrappers and addresses that I have ordered printed. At any rate, besides the issues I sent previously to the subscribers there, I shall send you regularly a package to cover the losses in the post office. The Same.

165. Rizal, Paris, 4 November 1889 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal requests Marcelo H. del Pilar to help a "secret brother in Rd. L .M." holding the rank of Second D egree

Paris, 4 November 1889 [Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar] Rd. L. M. DEAR SELO,

The bearer of this letter is a secret brother of ours in Rd. L. M. whose rank is 2nd degree. Nobody else except we two ought to know that he is our brother. He has some business there in Madrid on acount of an inIn order that in the future justice done him in Manila. he will not again be humiliated, he should like to obtain a high post in the Cathedral Church, a canonship, for instance. I offerred him help on his promise that he will help us secretly in every way he can. You and Llorente on account of your positions in your association, I believe can help him. He brings money to spend, but if possible, it will be better if he is not made to spend too much. What is saved can be given to La Solidaridad. I believe that you can win the goodwill of Moray tal and Becerra.2 Others who may turn a deaf ear may be made to hear the clink of gold. 1

Miguel Morayta, liberal Spaniard, president of Asociaci6n Hispano-Fil-

ipina. 2 Manuel Becerra, fanner minister of colonies, was responsible for some good reforms introduced in the Philippines.


-392It is necessary that it should not be mentioned in the presence of others that we are brothers. If you should speak to Llorente about him do not tell him who is, for I have promised him that only you and I should know, not that I have some doubt about Llorente for I have full confidence in him. I entrust to your intelligence and prudence the secret and the proper conduct of the business. Why is it that the I. B. of the Rd. L. M. do not write me? I have received La Solidaridad; it is the best of the best. Everything in it is good. Taga-ilog's3 article is excellent. This is all.



Rd. L. M. 3

Tag.ilog was Antonio Luna's pseudonym.


166. Rizal, Paris, 11 November 1889

Rizal intends to expand and improve as much as possible his essay entitled "Filipinas dentro de cien afios", (The Philippines a Century Hence) - Pardo de Tavera's El conscrito en La lengu,a Tagalog - Rizal's Morga coming out soon.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 11 . ~ovenaber 1889 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]



You will receive togther with this the proofs that I have corrected. I received thena only today. According to the Feria de las Mujeres, it seenas that it is true, so that you naay order it printed, but it is necessary to naention that it is drawn frona the Ateneo. If I were not so short of tinae, I would have gone to the library to investigate it; nevertheless, I shall send you a telegrana if it turns out untrue. You have asked nae long ago where El Sanscrito en la lengua Mgalog can be bought. Pardon nae for not having answered you at once on account of the great anaount of nay work. If you need only one copy, write nae, but if you need naany, have sonaeone look for it in Madrid where they can be found in the bookstore of Fernando Fe on Alcala Street or in that of Cuevas. I have no tinae now to send you an article. With regard to ''Filipinas dentro de cien alios" (The Philippines a Century Hence) I ana going to expand it and display nay ability. We will keep each other guessing and catch each other by sleight of hand.


-394I have already finished the work l and I am having it printed now. It can be expected to be out within some weeks; the correction of the proofs is finished. This is all and regards to all. Regards to Roxas. LAONG LAAN


Rizal refers to his

Morga edition, 1890.

) I




167. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 16 November 1889

An article in Pueblo Sobemno of Barcelona calls T aga-Ilog ( Antonio Luna) names - A. Luna goes to Barcelona to demand for reparation from its author - Ready to fight a duel - Tells Rizal about his love affairs.

6-30 Clavel, Madrid 16 ~ovember 1889 DEAR RIZAL,

I appreciate exceedingly all the news you gave me yesterday. Through them only I at last learned about that most unfortunate question which has exploded like a bomb in the midst of the respective families concerned. You will undrstand that here no serious crime has been committed, because to love is not a crime, and if we had any fault it was for having concealed. our love. On our part we have done the following: I answered calmly Juan's letter in which he gives me solemn reprimand. To Tula also I wrote apologizing; to Mme. Boustead, apologizing also and saying that I loved her daughter. In all these letters I asked for a thousand pardons and accused ourselves of being the only truly guilty ones. What do you think? I have made Dimayuga write also to Tula to give her a thousand explanations. I do believe that we have behaved valorously and saved absolutely our girls, though we are very sorry that these poor girls have suffered so much for us and that we are the cause of it all. For the rest, though we felt deeply what happened, I believe that the thing was not worth all the fuss that it aroused.


-396At any rate, perhaps they will be very benevolent if they would know that within a few days I may perchance disappear from the book of books. This is my secret that you will keep, above all let it not reach my brother's ears. Today at three o'clock, I am leaving on the express for Barcelona to ask for reparation by means of arms from the author l of the article To Taga-!log in Pueblo Sobenano. This gentleman thinks that Taga!log is Juan Luna and he accuses him of being an ingrate, filibustero, indecent, dirty, and quotes paragraphs from Caiiamaque which berate us Filipinos in the dirtiest manner. In short, the Filipino colony told me unanimously that I have no other remedy but to go and fight. Therefore I have no other alternative, and for that reason 1 am leaving immediately. I have consulted my fencing-master and he told me that, inasmuch as I have the choice of arms, I choose the sword for I am already dexterous and not to worry. He will give me a letter to Pardini in Barcelona so that he m:.Ly furnish me with everything necessary. Those here in general approve of my determination. I do not know if I am doing tight but I do not feel in my conscience the remorse of the offender. Goodbye, lad; I suppose you will keep from my brother everything. Should he know it, he is capable of going to Barcelona; but he has a family and he will have to lose more than I do. Moreover, I am the author of "Impresiones madrileiias" and 1 am the only one responsible for it. Goodbye; if some mishap occurs. I ask you as a favor to tell Nelly how much I have loved her. Receive a close embrace of your friend, ANTONIO

Our compatriots will furnish me with means. 1

Mir Deas, Spanish journalist.

168. Rizal, Paris, 18 November 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal tells once on a post card they have many enemies - They must stand united.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 18 ~ovennber 1889

LMr. Mariano Ponce] DEAR FRIEND,

I have sent you thct proofs long ago. If you did not receive thenn, they nnust have een lost. Send nne innnnediately other proofs; I have the nnanttscript. We have nnany enennies and they are furious. Let us face the fight so that we shall not be disunited. I ann going to the library. Your friend, Laong Laan

-397 -

169. Rizal, Paris, 22 November 1889 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal sends Marcelo H. del Pilar an article on Blumentritt - La Solidaridad at Madrid is good, but poorly printed - Continuation of his essay "The Philippines a Century Hence".

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris




[Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar] DEAR FRIEND,

I am sending in advance the article on Blunnentritt. If you prefer, put my nanne Laong Laam. or Dinnas Alang, but not RizaP Enclosed is a etter of Luna together with the notes that ought to come out. La Solidaridad at Madrid2 is good but it is poorly printed and the correction is not neat. You need to be assisted for you cannot attend to everything. I sent to ~aning the correction long ago, but he said it had been lost. The third part a will come out in the next nunnber; I sappose it will be the beginning of the fourth. What I wish is to go ahead and not to drop the weapon to show weaknes3. Greet for me all the Indios Bravos: Bautista, Aguilera and others. How is Llorente? LAONG LAAN



1 By signing wth his true name Rizal perhaps thought it might not produce the effect deshed. Hf' had already asked thE' Filipino writers to use their true names rather than pseudonyms. 2 It was formerly published at Barcelonn. 3 Rizal refers to his essay "The Philippines a Century Hence" published in four instalments: ~O Sept. 1&89. 31 Oct. 1889. 15 Dec. 1889, J Feb. 1890.


170. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 26 November 1889

Ponce writes llizal the Filipino colony is willing to support Luna's cause against Mir Deas.

Barcelona, 26 November 1889





You can read Luna's letter. The entire colony is willing to support this question and you should help us. I am wrong in saying that all here are willing. The others continue to keep aloof. I send you a clipping of the Remitido de Mir. Tomorrow I send you copies of Blumentritt's pamphlet. Yours, NANING


171. Antonio Luna, Barcelona, 26 November 1889

Luna writes Rizal about his encounter with Mir Deas - He spits on the bce of Mir Deas on account of an insulting article "Be it to death, to luck, whatever he likes, I will accept the duel." - It is necessary to give him a lesson if the name Filipino is to he maintained unsullied.

1-3째, Paz de la Enseiiailza, Barcelona 26 ~ovember 1889 DEAR RIZAL J

This afternoon I was obliged by imperative necessity to look for Mir Deas and spit on his face. The incident took place at the Cafe de la Pajarera (Siglo XIX) on account of another article sent to El Diluvio in reply to ours in which the minutes were. I went out to look for him. I asked him who he was (for I did not know him), I told him he was infamous, a coward, and a canaille, I spat on his face, and I threw my card to his face. The result: A great disturbance, much disorder, and now I wait tranquilly. The series of insults he has directed to us, without answering our assertions and conclusions, demands no other thing. Be it to death, to luck, as he would like, I will accept the duel. In this way I believe I will show that we Filipinos have more dignity, more courage, more honor than this cringing insulter and coward who has corne out on our way. I believe that I have avenged in this way our outraged dignity. What they can say now?


-401I beg you for contribution, contribution to finance the complaint that is planned to be brought against this gentleman. I cannot do more. Whether we fight or not, at any rate it is necessary to give him a lesson in another form. It is imperative, it is necessary, it is indispensable, if it is desired to maintain unsullied the name Filipino. . I greet all and spread the news among all our good compatriots. Your friend embraces you, ANTONIO


172. Rizal, Paris, 29 November 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal writes Ponce that all the Filipinos in Paris are ready to support Luna in every way in his dispute with Mir Deas - Ponce ought to go to Madrid because he is needed there by the newspaper, La Solidaridad.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 29 ~ovennber 1889 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]


In case you receive this before you start for Madrid, please tell our connpatriots there that all of us here will help Luna with our will, strength, nnoney, and other things, whatever nnay happen. We are going to send nnoney there. 1 received all that you wrote nne about. You go now to Madrid because you are needed there. The newspaper will not fare well without you. There you will receive Pardo's book. LAONG LAAN.


173. Rizal, Paris, 2 December 1889 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal presents two copies of Pardo de Taveras El sanscrito en la lengua tagalog to Ponce - Reiterates his suggestion that Ponce go to Madrid - Great demand for the Noli in Germany.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 2 I)ecember 1889 [Mr. Mariano Ponce] I)EAR FRIEND,

I am dropping in the mail together with this two copies .)f Pardo de Tavera's book. They are my gift to you, for I owe you so many favors. 1)0 not regard this as payment; rather it is just the interest on the debt I owe you. They are delayed because I have plenty of work. It is very necessary that you go to Madrid. Before you leave, please tell me how many more copies of Noli me tangere I have there. Please send to Hamburg, to C. Boysen, Buchhandlung 32, Grosse Bleichen, some twenty-five copies, because he is asking for many to fill the orders of many foreigners. Put the price at eight francs each, including the cost of remittance. Send them not as printed matter but as parcel post so that they would not cost much. Ask first an agent how much it would cost. Please send me 4 or 5. Your friend , LAONG LAAN.

-403 -

174. Rizal, Paris, 5 December 1889 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

1aterial for La Solidaridad - Two articles of Blumentritt - vVho is Ramiro Franco? - If he is a Spaniard, his praise of Quioquiap is sincere; if he is a Filipino, it is fine irony - Quioquil7.p's style is hollow like his head, but audacious, very bold - A suggestion for the end of the year: That Solidaridad put out an issue publishing the works, articles: thoughts of all the Filipinos, purely literary and instructive - Offer of the management of La Solidaridad to Llorente?

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 5 I}ecennber 1889 [Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar] My


There go for the press the continuation of ''Filipinas dentro de cien ailos," sonne poenns, and Blunnentritt's letters. I subnnit thenn all to the judgnnent of the directors of La Solidaridad and I ask only that they take good care of correcting the proofs. If possible, I should like reprints of Filipinas dentro de cien mos" so that they can be distributed in Manila and the provinces, if it is possible. The poenn, if is worthwhile, can be published, when articles are lacking, to fill space. I ann of the opinion that of the two letters of Blunnentritt, only the one addressed to Colonel Verdugo should be published in the periodical, nnentioning the other one, though Blunnentritt expressed to nne his desire that both be published. The letter for


-405the generaP can be published in a separate sheet to please our friend; the lines with red pencil should be replaced with dotted lines. Perhaps later on Blumentritt will be grateful to me. Now let us go to No. 20 of La SolÂŁdarz'dad. It is very well printed, very much better proof-read, though there was dropped the phrase decirlo a esos at the end of "Cos as de Manila"; it is peccata mz'nuta. !J Nevertheless, I congratulate those who published it. Blumentritt's article is the best our friend has written; I have already congratulated him. Murgas' article is also very good. With reference to Murgas, I enclose the letter I received from Pangasinan. It is necessary to consider appointing a correspondent in Dagupan or Lingayen.

On the Luna-Mir affair, the commentary says that La Solidaridad reprinted the minutes. The reader is left in the air. It is an oversight. In Art and Letters I note one Mr. Ramiro Franc03 whom I shall be much pleased to know. He is a very elegant and very pleasing writer and t at gentleman must be worthy, for, in spite of his admiration for the writings of Quz'oquiap (Pablo F eced) , the swollen and hallow phrases of this man, his inflated style that at first glance seems wonderful but upon the analysis turns out ridiculous and betrays ignorance and charlatanism, have not stuck to him. I have to believe upon seeing the beautiful, natural, and fine style of Mr. Franco that his praise of Quioquz'ap is merely courtesy, necessary in order to have later the right to whip him. I may be mistaken. If Mr. Franco is a Spaniard, I understand his admiration and I will believe it to be sincere, for it is common among Spanish writers to allow themselves to be seduced by rhetorical tricks. If he is a Filipino (Rosario? Aguirre?), I can almost affirm that there is a most refined irony at the bottom of his praise and a knavery that later will be known. Whoever he may be, I am sincerely glad of and I congratulate myself on the valuable cooperation of Mr. Franco. Tell me who he is, if it is possible, and if he is a friend and compatriot congratulate him warmly. What a great pity that I do not have here Quioquiap's EsbozOf y Pinceladas to quote to him the illusory and blistering phrases of this 1 General Valeriano Weyler, governor general. Blumentritt's letter is about the general's intervention in the Kalamba confHct. 2 Trivial sin. 3 Dominador Gomez.

-406gentleman. I only remember now two: "to have the head hanging from an abyss" and "el subsuelo donde germinan las patogenias" (the underground where pathogenic organisms germinate.) (la patogenia no puede germinar en ningun subsuelo; in entresuelo; la patogenia, 0 la genesis de enfermedad, no puede tener lugar sin un cuerpo vivo). Pathogenic organisms cannot germinate in any underground or entresol; pathogene or the virus of disease can only thrive in a living body.) Analyzing carefully his style, it can be seen that it is hollow like his head. One must admit that he has a lot of nerve, much boldness, boldness above all, and a facile pen. I reiterate my congratulations to Mr. Franco. If he is a Castila, do not tell him any thing from me or anybody and just tell him that I liked very much his style, for one muSt aknowledge the truth. In this case, be very careful of him. He may make of our periodical a periodical of Quioquiap. They would mock us and despise us all, for they will say that after Quioquiap had piled rubbish on the Indios, we still sing hosannas to him. So be a little careful. Be logical. Blumentritt has attacked him and rightly and he is not Filipino. Let them not say that we are afraid of that Quioquia and we implore his mercy. I have already written Indio Bravo but he has not replied yet. I should like to know why the Indio Bravos do not like to answer my letters. An idea occurs to me. There the Filipinos have the habit of eating together on 31 December. Instead of eating in a restaurant, they can eat in a private house more intimately. Well now, what do you think if La Solidaridad should publish a number or a separate supplement that would carry the works, writings, thoughts, etc. of all the Filipinos on condition that they should not be political, or polemical but purely literary and instructive? Could copies be printed to give away and to sell in the Philippines as a proof of the unity of the Filipinos? Sound the opinion of all there. Llorente told me before that they offered him the manage ment of La Solidaridad. I replied that he should accept it with your advice. What is there to this? Regards to all. Yours, RIZAL

175. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 10 December 1889

The Luna-Mir affair submitted to a court honor Antonio Luna is grateful to all the Filipinos.




6 Clavel, Madrid 10 I}ecember 1889

:DEAR RIZAL, I intend to write you yesterdy but it was impossible. Now I do it replying to all your letters. You already know what happened to the affair. Before 1 left I submitted it to the decision of a court of honor formed by the Press Syndicate of Barcelona. I believe it must have already decided it and soon we shall know it. It is necessary to file the complaint. You already know that, on account of Mir's denunciation, the court as searched Ponce. Consequently, it is necessary that we should not let him alone, so that he would not have imitators. I believe also that you ought to send immediately funds to Barcelona. F or correspondence alone from 40 to 50 pesetas had been spent and besides it is necessary to compliment the grateful stomachs who had taken part in the melee. In view of the refusal of El Dilutlio to publish the last article sent to it, as soon as we receive the decision, here we shall issue an extra number. I am very grateful to the colony here, Barcelona, and elsewhere. Though the question was a personal one only, they have taken an interest in it and had contributed with all their efforts. To those of Barcelona I owe much, very much - to Graciano your cousin, and to everybody. Yours who embraces you, ANTONIO

Regards from Lauro, Aguilera, and Roxas.


176. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 10 December 1889

Aftermath of the Luna-Mir Deas affair - Search in Ponce's house on account of Mir's information - Books without the printer's n ame - It is possible that complications may arise.

Barcelona, 10 December 1889 DEAR PEPE~

I received Pardo de Tavera's books. Many thanks. I am going to send immediately to Hamburg twenty-five Noli. Here we still have aBout 100 copies. That pig Mier-Da 1 has turned spy and has denounced that we publish books without the printer's name. My house was searched, but all they found were three or four Visi6n~ some Cuesti6n de sumo interes of Fr. Rodriguez, and some Dasalan. I requested the governor to endorse the case to the court so that I can file a complaint against the informer, as the little books as well as the newspaper numbers seized do not show that I am responsible for their printing. My declaration before the court was that I received those printed matters from the editorial staff of La Solidaridad and neither have I noted whether or not they had the printer's name nor did anything worried me as they contained nothing contrary to religion or the constitution. This is what delayed my departure. Now I am awaiting for the judge's decision and then I am going to file a complaint against that shameless person. 1 A play of words on Mir Deas. quially "excrement".

As written in the letter, it means collo-


-409We are waltmg for your pledged contribution ... . I have no reason to be afraid, but it is not impossible that in the course of the summary proceeding une~ected complications arise. Be on the alert for that reason. Atturney Emilio Junoy is in charge of Mr. J. Luna's case. In this afternoon's Dilut/ÂŁo came out the article that you will read. Tomorrow I am going to refute it. Yours, NANING.



Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 16 December 1889

The search of Ponce's house discussed in the press in Madrid and Barcelona - It reaches the senate, the congress, and the council of ministers - Asks for Rizal's advice - The decision of the court of honor buries Mir in the garbage can.

2-3째Rambla de Canaletas, Barcelona 16 l)ecember 1889 l)EAR PEPE,

Never have I imagined that the search of my house would arouse so much debate. The Madrid and Barcelona newspapers devoted to it many articles and the correspondents sent long telegrams. Fortunately, the sensible portion of the press defended us. Figure out for yourself our humiliation had it not been for ~his. Through the newspapers that I have sent you, you must have been able to follow step by step this question. Now the case depends upon the judge'S decision. I suppose it will be favorable to us inasmuch as they have nothing to hold on. Advise us what we ought to do. They have taken this up in the senate, the congress, and the council of ministers. I send you the enclosed clippings of El Dza and of a telegram we sent Becerra. In both cases public opinion is on our side. It points to Mier l)as as the informer. The decision of the court of honor lacks only two signatures which will be taken this afternoon. It will be published in the newspapers. With this, Mir will be buried in the garbage can. Galicano sends you regards. I send you the receipt of the box of 25 copies of Noli sent to Mr. C. Boysen, Hamburg. It goes on the ordinary train. Send him this receipt. An embrace from your, NANING.


178. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 27 December 1889

In view of the persecution of his family, it is not :>trange that Luna has sometimes wavered - Luna explains his actions - Eager to retain Rizal's good opinion of him -- Inquires about Miss Nelly Boustead.

6 Clave!, Madrid 27 December 1889 DEAR RIZAL,

I received your letter but I cou,ld not answer it in due time on account of dengue, or whatever the current sickness is called. First of all, I ought to congratulate you on your new book, though I already did it by tel~gram day before yesterday, d:S you must have seen. I have not yet been able to read your work but I am going to do it with the greatest pleasure when its owners, by special favor, will let me have it. However, on the sly, I have been able to pick up something which has pleased me immensely. About what you say in your letter, in truth it deserves to be answered. God save me from answering the charges you level against me; those do not exist and for that reason I pass them over. I never go back when I have begun a thing, but you will not fail to understand that after my case, when I saw that, acting as I did, rightly and justly, I was placing my brothers who are in Manila and my parents themselves in the alternative of being harassed savagely, you will not be surprised that I shoutd recover my senses and though not guilty, I should believe myself to be so for the misfortunes that might befall them. Is this


-412 to be dispirited? I, in my opinion, do not believe so. Will you deny that for having acted thus this time, as I should, I myself have written my name among the enemies of the friars and my whole family among their victims? I am not sorry for myself. It is enough that my conscience is tranquil for having acted with dignity. But, they? This is the dreadful dilemna which mak~s me despair. To live without honor, without dignity, name and race trampled on, or be the indirect cause of the misfortune of an entire family. I am not sorry for having done what I did; I will always act thus should I find myself again in the same situation, but they, what fault have they if they are later taken as anti-friars and are persecuted? Having expounded these reasons then I believe that you will not doubt that my spirit has wavered sometimes about what is done. I repeat that I never turn back, that I am convinced that I have acted rightly, and if they brand us for not having this or that, the best argument is the deed; against this, there cannot be any doubt. Moreover, I wish you would give me some news about Nelly. Your friend and compatriot is asking you. Does she still love me? Since 16 November I have not heard from her I wrote her a letter 20 days ago. Write me clearly, though this is secondary. But I should like to know if I am making myself ridiculous by believing candidly in a love that no longer exists. This is really ridiculous. I would not want this after what had occurred with her mother to whom I was exceedingly attentive. Wishing you happiness and congratulating you on your book, I embrace you. ANTONIO

Del Pilar is sick in bed.

179. Rizal, Paris, 28 December 1889 To Baldomero Roxas

Rizal sends four copies of his edition of Morga to the Philippines Will send more if the books is admitted without difficulty Don Florentino Torres has poor impression of the Filipino students at Madrid - Rizal enjoins his fellow Filipinos to be virtuous and industrious.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 28 December 1889




I received your precious letter and I thank you for all that you tell me in it. Your letter arrived ve~y timely, for I was quite worried for not having received letters from my family for a long time, since the month of July, and the cost of printing my book was embarrassing me. Today I sent to Lipa four copies of Morga. send some more.

Later I will

Dona Tula is not at all resentful of you, so much that at the party they gave here, they talked about you and Aguilera, and Paz told me before that when you come, you bring her toasted and salted almonds that she and Heloisa like very much. On the 4th or 5th of January I leave for London to get my things and from there I am going to Germany. From there I shall write you. When I find out that copies of Morga arrive there without difficulty, I shall send you three copies by parcel post.

-413 -

-414Those that I sent have not arrived apparently, for I have not received any acknowledgment. Please thank all good friends who telegraphed. Christmas and Happy New Year.


Don Florentino Torres leaves for Manila with very poor impressions of the Filipino colony at Madrid. He says that the Filipino youth at the capital city think only of amusing themselves and it is not because they lack either ability or talent (and he cited to me the names of Dimayuga, Abreu, and Alejandrino) but because they have too much money. He adds besides that Spaniards have given him the bad information. It seems that he goes there to influence his friends not to send their sons to Europe. Let us see if you can preach to them with your example. Precisely at the present moments, when we are engaged in a struggle, it is necessary to redouble all our efforts, it is necessary to sacrifice everything for the welfare of our native land. Without virtue there is no liberty. I try to address myself to all the Filipinos to interest them to reform the spirit of the colony, to create an industrious and studious colony. Thus I address myself to Aguilera, Llorente, Bautista. Only virtues can redeem the slave. It is the only way to make the tyrants respect us and foreigners to make a common cause with us. Please give my regards to all the I. B',f. You know you have a friend in me. RIZAL.

180. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 31 December 1889

Magnificent prologue to the Morga by Blumentritt - The book is a great blow to the enemies - Banquet in honor of the liberal press - Silent revolvers? - Projected book on the lives ot notable Filipinos - Ponce asks Rizal to send data.

Barcelona, 31 December 1889


I received the book Sucesos. 1 Many thanks. I have read only Blumentritt's prologue. Truly excellent. Please send me immediately about ten copies that I can send to the Philippines by the first mail that is going there. Until now the judge has not rendered his decision. This is the reason I cannot leave this place. By force your book will change the wrong ideas now prevailing about our country. It is a strong blow against the enemy.

On the second of next month we are going to invite to a banquet the liberal press that defended us against the false accusations hurled against us; like what the Associaci6n Hispanofilipina and the Filipinos of Madrid did. Some have written me inquiring about the appearance of revolvers which make no noise in firing. I have inquired here but no one can gIve me any information. Have you not heard anything there about this. Please make inquiries and write me about it. 1 Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, annotated by Rizal with prologue by F. Blumentritt. Published at Paris, 1889.



It has occurred to me to gather materials on the lives of Filipinos who had been oustanding in the past, as well as in the present time, to make a book of them. I do not know if I shall be able to carry out this project, though I hope that, with the help of all, I may see it realized in the end. I do not intend to do any thing more than write an essay on their lives. The value of this, if it can be realized, cannot escape you. It will show to the whole world that our race has also produced men worthy to be ranked among the great. Please send me data. Receive the close embrace of your NANING

P. S. Have you received the receipt of the box sent to Hamburg?

181. Guillermo Puatu, Madrid, 2 January 1890

Rizal's membership fee in Asociaci6n Hispano-Filipina End-of-the-year dinner with allusions to Rizal and Juan Luna as glories of the Philippines




13 principal, Carrera de San Geronimo, Madrid 2 January 1890







I received your letter of 26 December with a bill for 25 pesetas enclosed as your membership fee in the Associacion hispano-filipina. You will know that its new treasurer is Antonio Luna so that as soon as I received your 5 duros I delivered them to him, which I suppose he will tell you when he writes you. I believe its inauguration will be before the Three Kings. It would be a great pity if you would not be here at least on that day. I am very glad to know that the postal card I sent you reached your hands and at the outset I am exceedingly grateful to you for having accepted my sincere friendship. Night before last, the last day of the past year, the colony held the customary dinner. Though more modest than in former years, ft1aternity and enthusiasm prevailed at it. In the toasts they alluded to you and Luna as glories of the Philippines, which were received with a salvo of thundering applause. ofI wish you likewise Merry Christmas and I reiterate fers to you as compatriot and servant who kisses your hand,



Rizal at that time was in Paris.

-417 -

182. Rizal, Paris, 3 January 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal encourages Ponce to write - Forward and fear nothing; you have a good style.

45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris 3 January 1890 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]



I received your letter and immediately I sent the nine copies of Morga to Canon just in case you should leave before their arrival. But, if you are still there when they arrive, ask Canon for them; he will give them to you. I am going to London and then I am coming back here to go to Germany or Denmark. This is all. I will help you with everything you need for your book, especially in the field of history. Forward! Have no fear, your style is good, you write well. This is all. Greet everyone for me. Happy New Year! RIZAL


183. Guillermo Puatu, Madrid, 12 January 1890

Funds for the subscription to El Dia - Subsidy offered by Filipinos and turned down by the director.

Madrid, 12 January 1890




As Mr. Modesto Reyes is indisposed suffering from a severe cold which has compelled him to stay in bed for many days, he has asked me, as a friend and comrade, for together we attend to the subscriptions to El Dta~ to write you regarding the money we received from you through Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar for two subscriptions for one quarter to El Dia. As the subscription costs only 10 pesetas, your remittance of six duros is therefore two duros in excess. However, surmising that you might have known that our small group here gives the publication 25 pesos for subscriptions for the Philippines in gratitude for publishing articles in favor of the Philippines to counteract those published in the clerical periodicals that oppose every liberal reform for the Philippines, we consider the extra money as your contribution to our efforts. We have appealed to our countrymen to help us carry this burden that we have imposed on ourselves, but no one has responded. You may count on the profound gratitude of all the members of our group as you are helping us carry this burden for two or three months after which we expect our compatriots in the Philippines to help us also by taking over some of the subscriptions. Temporarily we have agreed that until the arrival of money from the Philippines, the subscription is from


-420two duros to 5 monthly for Madrid and abroad 6 reales more for postage. Any subscriber may publish his articles in the periodical provided he gives its editor the right to revise or correct them if necessary in order to make them conform to the periodical's style. The periodical has agreed to publish articles about the Philippines whenever there are not many articles of greater interest. After the arrival of extra money from the Philippines, eacb subscriber will carry only one subscription which costs one duro here in Madrid and 6 reales more abroad. Whatever money is left will be invested in reviving the old Circulo hispano-filipino or in subsidizing El Clabo or another periodical with identical purpose or any other thing of general usefulness to our compatriots. We hope you would like to associate with us in supporting the said patriotic enterprise. We await your reply.


Affectionately yours, GUILLERMO PUATU

P. S. Please send your letters to me under care of Mr. Modesto Reyes, 24 and 28 3rd left, Montera Street.

184. Fernando Acevedo, Zaragoza, Spain 25 January 1890

Rizal is surrounded by enthusiastic reformists: Luna and Ventura Acevedo is infantry lieutenant - In good standing in Zaragoza's high society - He owns a printing press - Sends Riz31 a book from his press - He is appointed counsel for a colonel to be tried by a military council composed of brigadier generals - There are no Filipinos in Zaragoza - A Filipino defends a Spaniard before the Council of War.

Zaragoza, 25 January 1890 DEAR FRIEND PEPE~

I received your affectionate letter as well as your card, which I appreciate infinitely. I have been sick of influenza or dengue and thank God 1 am now well. I am glad you are surrounded by our good, enthusiastic and dear friends and countrymen, Luna1 and Valentin.2 I beg you to give them a fraternal embrace on my behalf. I do not know of the existence of the periodical that you mention to me. I will do what you tell me and advise me. Therefore, tell me to whom I should send my subscription. In this capital city not a countryman of ours lives, so that I find myself isolated like an oas:s in the desert. I appreciate your offer concerning your books for sale and I have no inconvenience in accepting gladly your proposition. 1 The 2

celebrated Filipino painter from Pampamga reformist. Valentin Ventura, wealthy l<~l1ipino from Pampamga, reformist.


-422 As you suggested to me that I send you either a book already published or may be published in Spain, through this mail I send you one from my library which may serve your purpose. If you wish, I will send you whatever books are printed in my press and to begin with I send you the latest that was published this month. About my family I can only tell you that my brother Pedro has already finished pharmacy and he writes me that he has enrolled in first year medicine. My father is the chief of streetcars in Manila, a work which keeps him very busy. I am lieutenant of infantry; dressing me as captain. I am society of this capital city with owing to my good deportment I

do not make a mistake by advery well treated by the high which I mix with honor, and have influence in it.

Now I am very much harassed because I have been appointed defender of an accused army coloneL It is the first time in my military life that I am honored with such a difficult as well as delicate task, but I rust in my preparations in order to shine and establish my Filipino name. The defense is very difficult but there is place for an eloquent and lucid one, because my role is singular, being a Filipino son of the Mother Country, completely foreign to the legal profession, coming out to defend a Peninsular Spaniard. The Council is composed of generals, so that the members shall be brigadier generals presided over by the captain generaL Imagine, dear Pepe, if I would arrive at the court very much excited. Goodbye, Pepe. May you continue writing; don't forget me; and may you be happy. Receive an embrace as the kiss of peace of your good friend and countryman who loves you sincerely, FERNANDO (Acevedo)

185. Manuel Arias Y Rodriguez, Manila, 31 January

Directions for sending books to Manila - He is indignant at the deportation of Rizal's brother-in-law Manuel T. Hidalgo - Obstructions to Becerra's educational reforms - These are Peninsular Spaniards in favor of Philippine progress - He signs the post script with his masonic name and rank.

Manila, 31 January 1890

MR. JOSE RIZAL 45 Rue de Maubeuge, Paris



I received your letter of 14 December of last year to which I have the greatest pleasure to reply. At the outset, if you approve of it, I shall take charge of the sale on commission of /lustre espanol que fue T eniente de Gobt'rnador en Filipinas. 1 It is necessary that the copies in packages be sent from Barcelona or any other port of Spain to avoid the inspection of books in Spanish that come from abroad. They should be sent well packed by registered mail. By no means do I resent the omISSIOn of my name on the envelope for I in your piace would have done the same thing, if I did not remember the name. Besides, such an nmission does not constitute an offense. 1 This refers to Dr. Antonio de Morga who served as lieutenant governor of the Philippines from 1594 to 159b. dis Sucesos de las Islas FiIipinas was republished by Rizal with annotations.

-423 -

-424I have the greatest pleasure to remain your most affectionate and grateful servant who kisses your hand. MANUEL ARIAS y RODRIGUEZ

This is personal and confidential with regard to my name. I am sorry to communicate to you another outrage. Through the instigation of persons you can imagine, the beloved and honorable citizen of Calamba, Mr. Manuel Hidalgo, has been banished to Bohol. The governor of the province of Laguna gave excellent information on Mr. Hidalgo, but everything had been useless. Congratulate the author of the little volume number 2 of the Biblioteca La Solidaridad. He had the most felicitous idea of the choice of subject, developing it in such a way that does not admit any refutation. The said boolHet is little known here and it would be desirable to circulate it. They are working through all possible means so that the educational reforms of Becerra 2 would not be carried out. We are very indignant at this and at thousands and thousands of scandals and vexations that we witness besides. In my opinion, they are being provoked so that if the social order is disturbed, it can be shown to the government that the evil proceeds from the freedom (microscopic) that it has granted. Public hygiene, and with it prostitution, has been regulated, though badly. This has been opposed by certain elements who wish their fellowmen ill and the most complete ignorance. So that you may see that there are Peninsular Spaniards who desire the greatest prosperity and the largest amount of education for the Filipinos . . . and all the benefits enjoyed by those who reside in Metropolis, I suggest that you read Cronicas de Filipinas which the Madrid daily EI Dza published beginning in No ..... for 24 November of last in its afternoon edition. Ever your sincere, grateful friend, and good brother. RONeES VALLES


2 Becerra's decree prescribed the compulsory teaching of the Spanish 'l anguage in the Philippines. Manuel Becerra was then minister of colonies. The A90ciacion Hispano-Filipina at Madrid gave a banquet to Becerra in appreciation of this decree.

186. Pedro de Govantes, Madrid, 2 February 1890

Returning to Manila he cannot take charge of the case of Rizal's brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo - Rizal's petition to the minister of colonies for an investigfltion is heeded.

Madrid, 2 February 1890





Having to leave fQr Manila within four days, it is impossible for me to take charge of your brother-in-Iaws's case, but I learned that at your request the minister has decreed that the governor general render a report, but it is not certain that the report has been received. I have communicated this to del Pilar so that, with the assistance of Quiroga, he may take the same steps that I took in the case of F abie. Until my return, keep yourself well, regards to our compatriots, and I am your affectionate friend who kisses your hand, PEDRO DE GOVANTES

1 Benigno Quiroga Ballest~ros, then director general of civil administration, was friend~y toward the Filipinos.


187. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 5 February 1890

He explains the disappointment of the Pardo de Tavera family at Rizal's departure - 'iVould like him to stay for a birthday dinner - Would Rizal want issues of La Solidaridad and El Dia sent to him?

Paris, 5 February 1890

MR. JOSE RIZAL My DEAR FRIEND, I have before me your postal card of 30 January and your letter of the 1st instant. I am glad that you have arrived there safely and that your first impression of that city has been favorable. I was afraid that after having lived eight months in Paris and with our great manliness you would be bored there. But I see that you really have the qualities of a traveler, on which I congratulate you, for these are very useful, so that you would not be married or be chased/ which is the same thing. I already told you not to worry about the seriousness or the peevishness of the Pardo family. The lady of the house did not "gossip", so far know of, but simply that they wanted you to stay until after Wednesday to eat with them on that day, being Eloisa's birthday. For this reason Eloisa is so resentful; truly the commitment is strong, worse than ................................... . On Wednesday morning I received a letter from Doiia Tula inviting me to dinner. I went and at the dinner I was told that it was Eloisa's birthday. Imagine my surprise for I knew nothing about it. 1 There is Ii play of words in the original Spanish: " . . . para que no se case V. 0 que Ie cazen que es 10 mismo." The word case is from the verb casar (to marry) and cazen from the verb cazar (to hunt, to chase).


-427Dona Tula and Eloisa were very resentful of you for not having stayed, but I told them you did not know about it, because had you known it, you would have certainly stayed. So that as far as this side is concerned there has been nothing of "having left on time", as you said. After what I am telling you, you will understand that the "anger" was rather a polite attention. At last I have collected the postal money order this morning. Tell me how you want me to send it to you. It seems to me that the simplest way is to send you a one-hundred-francs bill in a registered letter. They have come to get your trunks. Only on the day following your departure did they come to ask for your address and as at that time [ ............... . ........ ] I understand that your packages have been sent to the railroad station of that city, so that it may not be superfluous for you to go to the station to inquire. Ma ... will write you about the matter. I have received copies of La Solidaridad as well as of El Dza. Tell me if you want me to send them there. Enclosed are three letters for you. Finally I sign today the lease of the new house for two years - Rue Chateaudun 4 bis. I continue with my manly activities. At this moment they are knocking at the door. Regards to Alberto and you receive a close embrace of your true friend, V. VENTURA.

188. Juan Luna, Paris, 9 February 1890

The Filipino colony in Paris - Luna inquiries about the second part of Noli - Luna's new painting - Cover page of La Ilustmcion Filipina drawn by Luna. ~



Paris, 9 February 1890 DEAR RIZAL,

Through your letter I know that you live ,almost in a garden and you are pleased with the life there and the cheapness and spaciousness of your rooms. The colony is well. You know of what it is composed and its quality; I have n thing to say to you about it; you already know perfectly who they are. . I have begun a large painting ,whose modern and simple subject you already know. It is a Paris street where there is an orphanage. I have very little time to do it. and so I work steadily. And you, what are you doing? Have you begun the second part of N ali? I have just finished the title page of La Ilustraci6n Filipina 1 - it represents a young woman seated, beside her a basket of books, in the second row some little girls reading, and in the background the Mayon Volcano. My regards to Albert, in case he has not yet left for Berlin. Receive the kisses of my children, regards from Paz and Your most affectionate friend, LUNA 1

An illustrated magazine published in Manila.


189. Marcelo H. del Pilar, 10 February 1890

Rizal's petition submitted to Minister Capdepon - Pedro Serrano Laktaw in disgrace - Rizal should send copies of his books to Jose Ma. Basa at Hong Kong who can forward them to Manila. Contribution of 70 pesetas to the International association of Philippinists

10 February 1890 [Mr Jos& Rizal]



I received from Arist6n the 40 pesetas that you sent on behalf of Pardo and ot ers. My brother-in-law has asked me to contribute 70 pesetas to the International Association of Philippinists of Paris. To whom shall I send them? Tell me also to whom to send the money here for the purchase of or for ordering to be made a gift for Blumentritt. I have already told you that Govantes returned to me Maneng's power of attorney. Whom do you want to take charge of this case ? Your petition to Minister Capdepon resulted in a decree asking the governor general to render a report, but this report cannot be found; it seems that the governor general did not make a report. According to the last letters to me from Manila P. Dore has been removed and the father of Angel is in his place. His name is M. Montilla. His secretary to whom letters mut be addressed is Mr. Candido Conrado, 8 right entresol, Sagunto Street, Tondo. If you want to ' send many books, send them to our friend Pepe Basa and ask him to send them to Montilla, in accordance with their suggestion.


-430F or several months now I have been trying to prevent the removal of P. Dore but I failed. My supposition is that there is misunderstanding or else his enemies have influenced those who are against his administration. When Sandico arrived here, he was against him also, according to news. I did not mind it. What I do not understand is how it came to end that way. While I am writing this, I received some disturbing confidential news. Your first or second draft for P500, it is said, has been received here but two young men of the colony are tampering with it, which if true, will certainly send them to jail. I have written Aguilera right now so that the draft may be kept in safety immediately ; I do not know what is going to happen. I cannot go out because I have a cold and I am coughing. You ought to ask immediately for his draft. I have received your article; good, good; Blumentritt is also going to reply. Ariston showed me your letter; so you are going to stay there in Brussels. With regard to this matter, I remember that you said to me at Paris there was a reason for your departure from London. I say to myself there may be again a reason for your leaving Paris!2 This is all, receive the embrace of your friend,

M. H.


1 It refers to the dismissal of Pedro Serrano Laktaw from his teaching post at Manila. 2 M . H. del Pilau suspects that RizaJ is fleeing from some women to avoid entanglements.

190. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Madrid, 12 February 1890

Blumentritt is furious at Barrantes - Will write a series of articles The friars want to conclude a peace pact with Filipino young men - A programme for mutual rapprochement What Rizal's and del Pilar's attitude would be.

43 principal left, Atocha Street, Madrid 12 February 1890 [Mr Jose Rizal]



How many have I wished to send you the enclosed translation but I always forget. Its translation has been done stealthily, so that in to be used, be careful that the translator is not revealed.


it is

Our Austrian friend is very furious. He says he is going to answer Desbarrantes1 in a series of articles whoc;e titles ~re the following: 1. German Bismark; 2. Malayism; 3. Friars and Jesuits; -1. Barrantes' Confessions; 5. An Idea on the: ScpClfltion of Colon;e5. My news from our country is good. They say that the friars are very much disturbed because of the promulgation of the decree un fixed salaries. Oh, I have forgotten. When Antonio Regicl.or was h"re, we met, but as we could not tarry, he told me with :l wink that we have many things to talk about and to go tl) his br路)ther's 1 A play 10111 Vicente Bawantes' name. From the Spanish verb desbarra, meaning to err in what is said or done to go beyond limits, etc. He was a Spaniard who held high posts in the Phippine government and in whose writings manifested anti-Filipino sentiments.


-432house or else he would come to mine. He left without our meeting each other again. When I went to Govantes on account of your letter, he told me that there is a high political personatie who said to him that the friars, it seems, would like to enter into an understanding with Filipino young men and he said that we may take it into consideration. We separated without concluding our conversation. However, that very afternoon, I met Ricardo Regidor at the cafe Suizo who told me the same thing and that his brother Antonio suggests that we accept it, for it is difficult to go against the powerful. He also said that he is delegated by Font and Nozaleda to come to an agreement with us on their behalf. Here is the proposed programme: They are going to lead the movement to grant the Philippines a colonial council that the government will be compelled to consult with respect to any legislation it would like to enforce; the Filipinos will have a say on the budget, and this is my own proposal which according to him the friars would accept; and the governor general will be deprived of' the power to banish without the decision of the courts of justice. According to him they would establish a party and we should join it. They would also establish a daily newspaper and we would write for it. All that is asked of us, according to him, is that we do not oppose it. I replied that the purpose is beautiful; nay, it must be realized. I said we need to be in peace with them owing to their power. Ricardo, not satisfied with this reply, wanted me to give him a definite answer. This is what I said to him: That they publish a programme in accordance with our conversation signed not by just anybody but by the friars themselves and they invite the Filipinos under those promises. They can expect, I said, that all or many will be willing to be under their flag. "And you and Rizal, what would be your attitude?" "I cannot answer for him", I replied. "It seems to me that if the programme is published, we could not fight it without beig defeated ourselves." Receive an embrace from MARCELO.

191. Rizal, Brussels, 12 February 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal likes Ponce's articles - Pan day Pira - Collected articles of Ponce - Low cost of living in Brussels - A city more beautiful than Barcelona - Why do not more Filipinos corne to Brussels? :(.



38 Rue Philippe de Champagne, Brussels 12 February 1890



I was waiting for your letter written at Madrid in order to tell you where I am now living, but as you did not breathe, I thought to myself that you must be still in Barcelona. My address is at the head of this letter. I have read your articles and I liked them very much. The name of Pandapira, according to what Trinidad Pardo has suggester to me, can be Panday Pira. It would be very useful if your articles would be gathered and published in a little book How about my books? Have they arrived already? I am very well here in Brussels. The cost of living here is as low as in Barcelona; the city is more beautiful. I should like to see here the Filipinos who do not know what to do either with their time or money in Madrid. Why do you not to go to Madrid? Give my regards to all our friends. If Galicano is still there, tell him that it seems our grandmother Mrs. Basilia Bauson has died. Regards. Yours, RrZAL

-433 -

192. Rizal, Brussels, 16 February 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal cannot understand an article of Mir Deas - Biographies of notable Filipinos that ought to be published - There are many snakes in the ranks of the enemy - Ponce ought to go to Madrid to help in the editing of La SoLidaridad.

38 Rue Philippe de Champagne, Brussels 16 February 1890 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]



I received your po tal card, the Defensa del P. G./ and La Moral拢dad. I am grateful for your congratulatiop- and for that of Mr. Arejola2 whom I request you to greet on my behalf. 路 1 am thinking of having the Defensa published in La ' Solidaridad when articles are lacking. As to the article of Mir Deas, I will tell you frankly that after having read it twice~ I have not understood it. Neither do I know what that tao wants to say nor dot~ he demonstrate anything or deduce anything - I do not understand him. The only thing that I know is that he addresses me with tu, vos, and vosotros. Neither have 1 any desire to answer him, nor I can, nor I ought to, nor do I see why. I had a better idea of that man as a man and as a writer. With regard to the biographies, I believe that you ought to publish that of Mr. Francisco de San Juan who saved 111,000 pesos 1 Fat'her Vicente Garcia's defense of Rizal's Noli me tangere. He was a Filipino clergyman. 2 Tomas Arej.oll a who became a political figure in Camarines Sur. He served in the first Philippine Assembly(1907).


-435in the war with British, of Francisco Baltazar3 ; Cruz Bagay 4. Rajah Matanda6 , and others. There is much perversity, much wickedness, in the rank of our enemIes. I see that we have to reckon not with lions but with snakes. We have then to be armed with valor and put on gloves before catching them. There are many snakes! I believe that you should go to Madrid as soon as possible to help in the editing of the periodicaL I see that Marcelo is not enough, for Blumentritt's article is full of mistakes in style and they have not corrected it. Number 25 satisfies me but little, on account of the carelessness of its editing. I will continue living here in Brussels. Regards to all. Yours, RIZAL



I have just read the news about your uncle's death. I give you my condolence. It seems that he was highly appreciated by his acquaintances because Mr. Roxas spoke well about him to me. One good man less! 3 Tagalog poet (1788-1862) author IOIf Florante at Laura, a romance in Tagalog verse considered a classic and read religiously by RizaI. 4 Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay. famous Filipino engraver of the XVIII centurY. He engraved Fr. MuriIIo Velarde's map of the Ph~lippines with admirable artistry. ( 6 Ruler of Tondo, an independent city-state when the Spaniards arrived at Maynila (Manila to the Spaniards). Manifestly Rizal was anxilQus to make known to the world the notable figures in Philippine history.

193. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 24 February 1890

Cost of living in Brussels compared to that of Paris is after all not ~o cheap - Ventura offers Rizal his apartment at Paris and money if he needs any.

Paris, 24 February 1890 DEAR FRIEND PEPE,

I have two unanswered letters from you, one dated 13th and the other 22nd received yesterday. I have read them both and I am glad that you are well. I see by the budget that you sent me in your first letter that it is not so cheap there as you thought at the beginning, for, according to that note, your monthly necessary expenses amount to thirty-one pesos. With an equal amount, without paying for house and service, you could live in Paris, a city far more important than that and which suits you much more under any consideration. I say "without paying for house and service", because I hope you have not been punished for living with me, and always whenever it may occur to you to come to Paris, you must stay at my house. You will thus do me a favor for I shall be accompanied, without taxing my budget, as I am spending the same amount now as when you were here. In short, it is up to you, V. cuz'dado, as we say over there. You know that this house is at your complete disposal. With regard to the house, in my letter of the 5th of this month, I wrote you my new address: 4 bis Rue de Chateaudun


-437 and I hope there will be no trouble in your mail. If it is convenient and more secure, put your letters in double envelopes, one with my name and address and the other with your own. Do not worry about money for, as Monsieur says, I have never been so well off. Two days ago I gave him the first draft for 200 pesos. Tell me what you need and I will send it to you by return mail. I have thanked Monsieur Raulin on your behalf and told him to charge me for what he has paid for you. Next Saturday I shall go to see Luna and at the same time I will take along the copy of Morga for Don Pablo. You have not told me if you have received a letter from Hong Kong that I sent you last week. With this goes a paper which was received for you, in case it is of use to you. I have not received El Dza for a long time. I hope would make up his mind to spend a few days with you. He will divert you from your ordinary routine and remind you of happy days in Paris. On the other hand I have almost broken with my brunette. The other night I went to the theater with her and I do not know if it is by accident or because she gave him an appointment, the fact is that in the middle of the performance someone came and wished to stay. Politely I made him understand that he was a bother until he finally went away. As a result of this, she became serious and then with the frankness that characterizes us I told her clearly that when she was with me I did not want anybody to come to the lodge. We separated very much disgusted and for a week now we have not seen each other. These people do not want to understand that a Filipino will not play a ridiculous role. For the present I have only my blonde and I am glad because I can now devote myself to her, which she well deserves, for the poor one is very amiable. Until the next, receive a close embrace of your sincere friend who esteems you, V. VENTURA

194. Manuel Arias y Rodriguez, Manila, 25 February 1890

He received the bill of lading of a box of copies of Rizal's edition of Morga - Because of strict censorship he does not know when the books will be released and whether thev will be allowed to circulate - Some copies of it are already ' circulating secretly - If difficulties arise, he will send the books to Hong Kong and they will be sent back to him in packages - His letters to Rizal will be posted at Madrid or Barcelona to prevent their confiscation - Rizal should keep secret their friendly relations.

Manila, 25 February 1890 MR.






With your letter dated 10 January last I found the bill of lading of a box of books consigned to me, shipped on the steamship Melbourne of Messageries. Until this date that box containing, according to you, the History of the Philippin~s written by Dr. Morga1 former lieutenant governor general of this Archipelago" has not arrived at this port. You have not indicated the number of copies the box contains and its net weight, two facts that must be known in order to w~thdraw the box from the customs without inspection. 1 Th~t

is, Rizal's edition of Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas with his



-439I am sorry that you did not wait for my reply to your previous letter as in that letter of last month I informed you of the need of sending the books by mail in registered packages or in a box shipped from Barcelona. Everything coming from abroad is inspected very minutely at the customs in examining it for appraisal, so that I cannot be responsible for the manner and date that I can withdraw the box, the severity being great at present. I do not know how I shall evade the censorship, for by no means will they permit the circulation of the book, inasmuch as already some copies are going from hand to hand and what IS published under the signature of Mr. Fernando Blumentritt IS being commented on very much. In case some trouble should arise I shall send the box to Hong Kong and from there I shall receive the books in packages as printed matter. Although postage is much higher than freight, it is desirable that the books be sent to me in registered, sealed packages. wrapped in special cloth paper for packing. The cost of all this will be added to the price of the book which those who want to get it will gladly pay. If you still have copies of the Noli, let me know, as well as its price, for sometimes they ask for it. My present letter as well as the following ones will be posted in Madrid or Barcelona, because if I mail them in the post office here, they run the risk of not reaching your hands. Your sincere, affectionate, and grateful servant who kisses your hand, MANUEL ARIAS y


P. S. It is to be desired that nobody absolutely should know of our friendly relations, for many of your countrymen residing on that continent write here what they should keep to themselves. I do not know why tongues here lengthen -and relate and enlarge things in such a way that redounds to the detriment of everyone.

195. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Madrid, 28 February 1890

Biographical data of Filipinos who are in Europe - Rizal is asked to send his - La Solidaridad is read in the Philippines Welrer's dismissal? - Antagonism between Becerra and Weyler.

43 principal left, Atocha, Madrid 28 February 1890 [Mr





It is Antonio l who is looking for biographical data on our countrymen who are studying here in Europe. He says that he will use them for the periodical. If possible, please send yours, and whether he uses them or not, I want to remind you that at this time your name no longer belongs to you; do not protest any more. Our periodical has suceeded to enter our country. Those who confiscated them in the post office, according to inform'ation, are selling them from twenty-five to fifty cents each. This shows the great desire of our compatriots to read La Solidaridad. It is true that others are getting the money, but at any rate we profit from their avarice. If we kill now the Solidaridad, many ideals would be bereaved. Nevertheless, I shall go with the majority. If it is necessary to kill it, I cannot prevent it. 1

Antonio Luna.


-441It seems that Weyler will be dismissed. 2 It seems that his successor will be General Burgos, uncle of Padpyoh. There is great antagonism between Becerra and Weyler. Weyler disobeys every order of Becerra and Becerra denies every petition of Weyler. 2 Va1eriano Weyler was succeeded by General Eulogio Despujol who served f.rom 1891-1893. Note of the CUTator of Manuscripts, National Library: This letter has no ending and therefore unsigned, but by its content and handwriting it is Marcelo H. del Pilar's Copied from the Copy Book, 1889-1890, page 350, Ponce Colil ection.


196. Guillermo Puatu, Madrid, 1 April 1890

Puatu asks Rizal to write an article for El Clamor, formerly LaRegencia. - Another for El Dia, organ of Romero Robledo. - He prefers Rizal's writings - "Don't discuss the question of representation in Cortes."

Madrid" 1st April 1890 MR.



Today ends your subscription to El Dza; that is to say your aid and collaboration with us. I have been in charge of sending you the paper lately because of the absence from Madrid of Mr Modesto Reyes who had gone to Rome and Jerusalem with F ather Chanco to spend the Holy Week in those cities. What a pity, to my way of thinking, that you have not published any article in the journal. I received your last letter from that beautiful city of Brussels (as you told me) which I have not answered on time, I do not know if it is on account of the innate laziness attributed to us, 1 or to the indolent atmosphere that I breathe in this country, so peculiar and characteristic of it, or both. But in this case (as you see) it is the same. The will may overcome the unfavorable circumstances that surround a person suffering from this malady of our country. What else can be expected but inaction from the sinful indolence of bodies abandoned to their own weight and drifting towards. the center of the earth. Believing then that the answer is extemporaneous, 1

Attributed by the Spaniards.


-443 in spite of these reasons, I write this letter to request you as a good Tagalog and good patriot, as a friend and as a favor, for a little article about our country for EI Clamor (formerly La Regenda). Please bear in mind in writing it that this publication has always judged Phtlippine questions with a conservative eye, or better said, with both eyes (characteristic of a good Castila) so that, if the article tends to favor liberal reforms, try to make it appear conservative, or better, do not attack the ideas of this party. Better address the higher authorities. You can pretend to have a letter from them, as your friend Lepore? generally does in La Correspondencia Militar. Well, do what seems to you best. It is a pity to let go these opportunities. I have not yet told you my reason for what I am asking you. It is nothing more, I believe, than the favorable intervention in our Philippine affairs of the goddess of destiny. A castila friend of mine from whom I considered it useless to ask favors, even if he has always offered his services to me, is a member of the staff and an owner; that is to say, he is one of the proprietors and writers of the journaL Taking advantage of this, I begged him to change the paper's adverse attitude toward the Philippines, which had been its policy since the beginning, and he has asked me for an article. This is my reason. Although there are Filipinos here - some are very busy (according to themselves) and others whom I do not want to approach - I prefer your writings, especially for this kind of publication in which one must follow somewhat the old molds. I will ask you another for EI Dia, but I cannot publish it until the return of Modesto Reyes from his trip, as I do not happen to know its publisher or editor. Lastly I warn you not to deal with the question of representation in the Cortes in order not to agree in it with the opinions of Romero Robledo whose organ is this paper. Enclosed with the issues of EI Dia, I am sending you EI Clamor so that you can see that they are the same. I stopped sending you the Philippine articles of your friend Edilberto de Leporel (Lete or Hermana, Santiago?) as I have learned that our friend Ariston was doing the same thing. My cordial congratulations on your Morga. I regret that I cannot send you Lete' s because at this hour of writing, 4:00 o'clock in the afternoon, he 2 Edilberto de Leporel,

nom de plume of Eduardo de Lete.

-444is still paying his customary tribute to Morpheus of whom he is ardent worshipper; but I dare say that he holds the same opinion as I do. I should like to spend summer with you anywhere except here in Castille.

An embrace, PUATU

197. Rizal, Brussels, 4 April 1890 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal would like del Pilar to sign his articles with his true name to prepare him to take his place - When Philippine representation is secured, Rizal will retire to devote himself to teaching. - Our brains are our only redemption. - Indifference of Filipinos - Who is Hector Hartfield? - We or they.

38 Rue PhiL de Champagne Brussels, 4 April 1890 [Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar]



I will return to you immediately the proofsl you have sent me. I have changed all that you have marked red. From now on I leave to your decision to change whatever will likely offend much, provided my ideas are not altered or the unity of the article destroyed. It would please me if you would always sign your name because I want to withdraw little by little. I should like you, rather than somebody else, to succeed me. F or this reason, I wish you would always sign the articles and I will withdraw gradually. If we succeed to have a representative (in Cortes), I am going home and I will devote myself to teaching. I cannot accept the position, although two of my ancestors on my mother's side had 1 The proofs of Rizal's article Seamos Justos appeared in La Solidaridad, 15 April 1890.


(Let Us Be Just)


- 446-been representatives: Mr. Jose Florentin02 and Mr. Lorenzo Albert0 3 • I am aloof from such matters. Ther~fore, I wish you get ready, in case we shall have representation. If we get that, then I have achieved my aspiration. What is happening? Naning and Gomez have not written. I am assiduously studying the happenings in our country. I believe that nothing can redeem us except our brains: materialit~ vel idealit~ sumptum (materially or ideally considered). I still have faith in this belief of mine. Representation will bind the Philippines (to Spain) for a long time. If our compatriots are of a different mind, we should decline representation, but as we are now, with the indifference of our fellow countrymen, it is good enough. At least it is better to have the feet tied than the elbows. What can we do! Who is Hector Hartfield? I join you in regretting the burning of your house¡. Charge them for every piece of nipa, flooring, and nail. Consider it good for them to pay you with at least one convent. We are already like ants; we can no longer hope for peace: We or they! For the next issue I am going to write the article on "Justice", about the killing in Iloilo. This is all. Greeting to all. Your friend, RIZAL A cousin of Rizal's mother. An un1ce of Rizal's mother. "It was popularly believed that behind this case of aJ1lllJIrl were the friars who hated del Pi'l ar for his anti-friar writings. 2


198. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 16 April 1890

Good aim of Rizal -

Some news - Unable to get better price for Rizal's furniture.

Paris, 16 April 1890




I have on hand your two last letters dated respectively 27 March and 14th instant, and I am glad to learn that you are in good health and that every day you are making progress in your target practice. The card you sent me is beautiful, showing that you have control of your pulse, for although you have not hit many times the bullseye, all the holes are on one side of the card. I do not know at what distance you hit the card, because if you have done: it at twenty-five paces, I will not be the one to challenge you to a pistol duel. With reference to the duel, do you know who of the Madrid suyas (Filipinos) almost challenged a Madrid aristocrat to a duel? So that you may be informed I enclose two clippings from El Imparcial which speak of the matter ...... . . . ...... . .. (Portion destroyed by termites. Cannot be reconstructed) .

I congratualte you on having been jilted by your little lassie because it saves you various things: money, time, and .... Providence. -447-

-448The Japanese of Maria, the Swiss girl, has left. 1ÂŁ you write her, please give her my condolence, because it seems that he was very good to her. Yesterday I received a letter from Albert and he tells me that he has written you a long time ago and is surprised that he has not received a reply. Also he says that he has sent you a list of the numbers which won in the raffle. For this reason I am returning your ticket so that you can check it, for here they do not sell lists. Look at it; for the first prize has not yet been collected and it is possible that your number has won it, although I do not believe it because Providence protects you and as winning........ (portion destroyed by termites) .... , however, check it. Although I have done everything possible, I was not able to sell your furniture for more than 550 francs and to do so I have had to give away many little things of my own and take advantage of the fact that Monsieur Raulin, Ramirez' partner, wanted to furnish a house. In the stores they offered me for all only from 350 to 400 francs. Therefore, you still owe me 250 francs of the 800 that you borrowed. Enclosed in your letter of yesterday, I received the order for 750 francs and, in accordance with your letter, I am returning with this 250 francs, leaving with me 500 for our account. If you need more, write, as I am well off at this moment. An embrace of your friend who esteems you. V. VENTURA

199. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 3 May 1890

.. Duels between Filipinos and Spaniards - Result favorable to Filipinos - New technique in the use of foil - What does Rizal think of Luna's article, "The Teacher"? - Luna asks Rizal for more complete biographical data. 짜-



Madrid 3 May '90 6 Clavel, 20

DEARRIZAL: Excuse me for not having written you, for I have not had any free time to do so. Who gave you the news about our Peninsular battles? Truly we have had an admirable luck this time: G6mez received an apology and a letter from the Count of Asmir. They believe that G6mez is a shooter who kills flies with shots. Captain Urbina also gave Garcia all kinds of apologies in writing after having received a thrashing. In short we cannot ask for more. The affair turned out to the satisfaction of everyone and we have been convinced there was much idle talk but little action. But this will not go on as it is and not all will be equaL As it seems that a kind of hostility has already been declared between them and us, we must prepare for the future. Some one may get an undeserved punishment and we must not be caught unprepared. In the Carbonel and Sanz Hall are four Filipinos: Ponce, Galicano, Puatu, and 1. Llorente with Zouave and Lete who, according to him, is a born shooter but who does not even know how to guard. They shoot in the military center where no one knows anything.


-450I have had a terrible anxiety because of these past questions, as I knew the con seq uences to one who does not know how to handle a saber or a foiL They remember St. Barbara when it thunders. Thus, I suffered as much as, or more than, the interested parties. But the question was resolved in a manner most favorable to our fellow countrymen. I will start my saber lessons as soon as t can. The bout turned out to be fairly good. In the first match I made a very violent attack, for we did not tally. The second turned out welL With the first, we were about equaL I had some advantage over the second. I changed completely. I hardly moved and the blows I tried to deal were the straight blow and the thrust. The press took notice of it. Candidly and impartially, what do you think of my little article, La Maestra} etc.} leaving out the doors? You have to give me more data about yourself. In the more interesting part you leave me in the dark, especially in the more salient phase about which I have vague information. I beg you and I hope you will furnish me with more data and the full name of your mother. Goodbye, chap; I gave your books to Marcelo as I have written you. He will dispose of them as he must have disposed of them already, for I gave them to him some months ago. An embrace of your constant friend, ANTONIO

Regards from Galicano who is staying with me.

200. Juan Luna, Paris, 5 May 1890

New paintings of Luna - Exhibition of the "Independents" Arrival of Felipe Roxas and the young painter Asuncion, pensioned by Agustin Medel - The Filipinos of Madrid are gamblers. :(.



Paris, 5 May 1890 DEAR RIZAL:

I have had to work hard to finish some paintings: One for the Salon de Champ de Mars and another of little importance for Madrid (here I have presented a picture as a matter of pure obligation). All this is to you that I have not lacked the desire to answer your letter of 22 February. Concerning the Philippine biographies, I have given you only my opinion. I have not prohibited their publication in La Solidaridad for I have never pretended to have any influen:ce on the paper's management; and I am sorry that you have sent my letter to del Pilar because I have no familiarity and friendship with him, as I do with you, and he could interpret my letter as a presumptuous and by a meddlesome person. Here also we have an exhibition of the "Independents". There are some pictures which are entirely mosaic with the purest colors of the rainbow. Others are worse in form and drawing tlun the grotesque banners in the friars; and in others which rep~路e.scnt landscapes you can see all the details you can imagine; in short, some of the painters are crazy, others incompetent. But it is fortunate that the Salon has opened and we can console ourselves with that, although it is only average. I belong to the dissident salon and F. Hidalgo to the old and routinary one. He has ex 路


-452hibited a picture of Mme. Boustead. The dissident Salon has rejected many works, so that there are few good pictures. Felipe Roxas with his wife and children has arrived from Manila. He has come for a stay of eight years to educate his children and to paint a little. With him came a young Filipino, surnamed Asunci6n, who is going to study painting, pensioned by Agustina MedeP ... ... (This portion is destroyed). Regards from the family. Yours, LUNA

P. S. The fame of the Madrid Filipinos as gamblers has reached the Philippines. TJle news is a real calamity to Filipino fathers. 1 Wealthy Filipino woman of ;Manila. She was said to be the prototype of "Dona Vi ctorina", an ultra-Hispanized Filipino woman character in Rizal's novel, Noli me tangere.

201. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 6 May 1890

More on the gambling Filipinos in Madrid - Juan Luna wants to know if his brother Antonio is one of them. - Ventura asks kizal _ to write to those Filipinos and counsel them.

Paris, 6 May 1890




Enclosed is a letter for you that I received this morning. We do not understand what is happening this time to the Philippine postal service. The boat arrived W<>dnesday of last week at Marseille and only this morning was the mail delivered. For more than a month I have not received issues of La Solidaridad, but I am not surprised for I am not even a subscriber. Tell me to whom to send the subscription. You would do me a favor if you would write to Madrid giving my new address. Another favor. A week ago I received a letter from Juan Luna in which he asked me to please write to Madrid to find out if his brother Antonio was gambling. As I have not corresponded for a long time with any of our fellow countrymen in Madrid, I appeal to you to furnish me with the necessary information.

It seems that in the Philippines it is believed that our fellow countrymen in Madrid do nothing else but gamble. As you have some influence on our youth, please write to some of them telling them to devote themselves to something more useful and to understand that what they are doing is not only prejudicial to


-454themselves but also to our other fellow countrymen, for many fathers would like to send their sons abroad if it were not for the bad name they have earned in Madrid. They say that Felipe Roxas has arrived, but I have not seen him nor do I know if it is true. It seems that he has brought his entire family. This is all. An embrace of your friend who esteems you. V. VENTURA

P. D. I received your post card of 17 ApriL I shoot frequently and I hope that when I go there about July we can shoot together.


Valentin Ventura, Paris, 15 May . 1890

Ventura receives from Rizal a little clay figure - He is not sure for whom it is - Planning a trip to Germany with Rizal.

Paris, 15 May 1890




Five days ago I received by parcel post a box containing a clay figure, which by the signatUlTe, I found out to be yours. Immediately I wrote you a letter, selilding you a million thanks for the fine remembrance. Eh! after writing the letter, I thought that the little figure might not be for me and that you have addressed it to me to be given to somebody, and writing you a letter of thanks might embarrass you. I thought it prudent to wait for your letter and I tore my letter. Five days have already elapsed since, then and you have not written me anything about the matter, so much worse for you: but I don't want to remain impolite and ill-bred any longer and I write you now to give you million thanks. Tell me frankly if the model you used lives in Brussels, because truly, if she lives there, it will be worthwhile to make a trip to that city to admire her and make her acquaintance.

If the little figure is for another person, tell me so frankly, because between us there need not be any compliments, complementos, as some one said.


-456Have you received my letter with another for you inside which I received from the Philippines? What about a trip? In accordance with my previous plan I will leave Paris on 14 July, spend fifteen days there with you, and afterwards we go together to Germany. I will received the packet of La Solidaridad which you have sent me. Tell me to whom I should send the subscription price. An embrace of your friend who esteems you. V. VENTURA


203. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 19 May 1890

Ventura is worried about Rizal's silence - Has received no reply to his letters - Forwarding a letter and newspapers from Hong Kong.

Paris, 19 May 1890




I have not recei ed a letter from you for a century. What is happening to you? Are you sick? Let me know. I have sent you two registered letters, one with the bill of lading of your books for Iloilo and another with one hundred francs enclosed. Have you received them'? Also, a registered letter for you, whose sender I do not know, has been received here. The servant has given your address to the postman; I suppose you have received it. Next Saturday I move to the new house, 4 bis rue de Chateaudum. If you will write me after that date you may send your letters to the new address. I am mailing, at the same time as this, a letter with Hong Kong stamps and two newspapers. I will not write more because I am in the midst of moving. Yours, V. VENTURA


204. Rizal, Saturday, [1890?J To Mariano Ponce

Some subscriptions to La SoUdaridad - What is happening to Ponce is no cause for worry to an Indio.

Saturday (no date) [Mr. Mariano Ponce J DEAR NANING:

I am sending you the enclosed 166.50 pesetas which are the subscriptions we have collected here. I have not been able to send them to you sooner for lack of money, for I am not very rich. The subscriptions are the following: Mr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera .............. 50.00 Mr. F. Pardo de Tavera . ....... .... ... . 20.00 Mr. Valentin Ventura ........... ....... 50.00 Mr. Ramon Abarca .................... 20.00 Mr. ] ose Rizal ................ . . ........ 20.00 I am sorry for what has happened to you, but it seems to me it is nothing that an Indio should worry about. Keep your composure and peace. Rarely can one get into a fight and come out of it unhurt. l Go to Madrid as soon as possible. 1 Rizal may refer tIot the search of Ponce's house by the Bareelona police following the denunciation of Mir Deas.


-459Tell Luna when you write him that were unable to send the subscription sooner for lack of money. Send me some Barrantes and the T eatro tagalog, and all the Visiones that remain there. Regards to all. Yours,


205. Juan Luna, Paris, 26 May 1890

Publications which do not reach La Union. -

The province suffers

from so many reforms. - Favors a contest of "Chinese" sharpshooters in Madrid. - Luna's brother in La Union is anti-friar and reformist.

Paris, 26 May 1890




According to a letter that I have just received from La Uni6n, my brother, who resides in that province, has not received Blumentritt's pamphlet, Consideraciones del Estado de Filipinas and issues of La Solidaridad which I have sent him by registered maiL The pamphlets were with other prospectuses which the administrator of the post office in Agool said had been bundled together in the Manila post office, showing that in Manila they take care of the cleaning of registered mail. My brother wishes to subscribe to La Solidaridad. Tell me if he will receive it in Agoo, because through me, it is impossible. I have tried to send him three times and he did not receive any one of them. In his letter he tells me that the province suffers from so many reforms, not because they are bad but because they arc badly implemented by people who are against our progress. The exhorbitant taxes and still more the fines. That there are very many abuses .... 1

A town in La Union Province.


-461Rumors are circulating in Manila that the Governor of Barcelona has circulating several packages and pamphlets of ....... . Painter Luna (destroyed portion). Boy, what people, what a rabble! Tell me what you know about the Filipino duels in Madrid. It seems that they are behaving with dignity. A contest of "Chinese" (Filipino) marksmen in Madrid in the course of the year would not be bad, for example, so that we would be respected and the kastilas de entremes (farcial Spaniards) would know us better. Regards from Paz, kisses of Luling and Bibi, and an embrace of your affectionate JUAN LUNA

P. D.: My brother is on friendly terms with the friars and other personages of his province, and he can be useful to us, for he is on our side and anti-friar.


206. Rizal, Brussels, 26 May 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Tagalog books written in the new orthography - Case vs. Ponce dropped by the Barcelona judge - The Agencia Editorial at Manila orders copies of the Noli. 짜-



38 Rue PhiL de Champagne Brussels, 26 May 1890 [Mr. Mariano Ponce]



I received the books you sent me and I have noted they are written according to the new orthography. It seems that we have already resolved this question. Anybody can say now that we have our own orthography. The translation into Tagalog of Arancel is good; that translation should be praised and imitated. . I thank you also for the issues of La Publiddad1 which you sent me. I do not believe it is wise to reply, because La Publicidad is our friend; what I say is transeat (let it pass). I am glad that the judge has decided or dropped your case. If you have nothing more to do in Barcelona, please go to Madrid now, for they need you there in the staff of La Solidaridad. Your absence is noticeable. Give my regards to friends and acquaintances. Your friend, RIZAL 1

Miguel Morayta's


published at Barcelona.



P. D. Mr. Manuel Arias y Rodriguez of La Agencia EditoriaF is asking me for copies of Noli. You might send them to his agent in Barcelona, but request him to wrap them well and take good care of them. You may give him as many c.opies as he wants. This is all, and thanks. 2

A bookstore on Calle Carriedo that sold secretly Rizal's books.


207. Rizal, Brussels, 28 May 1890 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal writes del Pilar, "I'm not sending you articles so that our other fellow countrymen might write and be known." - Ramira Franco is one of the few who have dared to express publicly his ideas about the Noli - A vigorous novel by Franco - The Filipino does not come to Europe to gamble, for in the Philippines there is aL ready much gambling.

Brussels, 28 May 1890 38 Rue Philippe de Champagne [Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar]



I have purposely refrained from sending you any article for La Solidaridad so that the readers can rest and our other fellow countrymen who should be known by all can write. We have many hidden pearls or uncut diamonds who only need to step out into the light to be seen by all. It is for this reason that I wish to stay in the shade so that others might emerge into the light. Give my sincerest thanks to Mr. Ramiro Franco (Dominador Gomez) for the kind words he dedicates to me his P6nganle titulo. He is one of our few compatriots, who, like you and Ponce, have dared come out openly to express their ideas on Noli me tangere: "I look forward eagerly to reading the continuation of your novel." If you would allow me to make a friendly remark, which I pray you not to take ill, I should say that in your writings the


-465aristocratic-sportsmanlike note is very noticeable, as when you describe the details of the carriage and house or the scenes, and reproduce the dialogues of your personages. I do not wish to say th,at, this is a .-defect,. no; it . is ' ev:en a virtue -.if the: one writing it were 'not a Filipino. But in our present condition, when we are writing to enlighten the poor masses of ' our country and lift up their spirit, to speak of gilt, the reflection of the mirrors and the groom and luxuri<;>~s carriages in preferences to our social and political status is 'like' telling one suffering from eye-trouble of paintings, sculpture, and spectacles, and panoramas. Undoubtedly the continuation -will be worthy of the beginning, for the novel begins with much vigor and promises to be a critical study of the life of the Filipinos in Europe. It would be desirable that these articles be reprinted in the form of booklets and sold in the Philippines. Our fellow cOW1trymen in Paris are complaining because they are not receiving copies of La Solidaridad. Whenever I receive copies, I send them there. Send the paper to Mme. Boustead, 3 Rue des Bassins. When Calvo Munoz! introduces his bill, send me copies of the newspaper which report the sessions of Congress. Luna, in Paris, complains about the gambling of the Filipinos in Madrid; so does Ventura. They say that, according to news from the Philippines, parents are very dissatisfied. It seems that it is Mr. Felipe Roxas who has informed them of the gambling. t f~ar that we are playing into the hands of the friars. Is there nothing there that can remind them that a Filpino comes to Europe, not to gamble and amuse himself, but to work for his liberty and the dignity of his race? It is not necessary to leave the Philippines to gamble for there is already too much gambling there. If we who are called upon to do something, we, in whom our people place their modest hopes, spend our time in these things, precisely when youthful years should be utilized in something noble and lofty - for youth 1 Francisoo Calvo Munoz, a Spaniard who filled a high post in the depart ment of finance in the Philippines and on returning to Spain was elected deputy in the Cortes Liberal-minded he introduced Q bill providing for Philippine representation in the Cortes.

-466is noble and generous - I fear that we are not struggling for a vain illusion and instead of being worthy of liberty, we would only be worthy of slavery. I appeal to the patriotism of all the Filipinos to prove to the Spanish people that we are superior to our misfortune and that we cannot be brutalized nor can our noble sentiments be corrupted. Yours, RIZAL



208. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 2 June 1890

We now have a rule on which to base Tagalog orthography Copies of Noli sent to the Agencia Editorial of Arias - More copies of Morga - Ponce's son wants a picture of Rizal Ramon Riego de Dios, a progressive compatriot, wishes to be counted among Rizal's friends. :to



Barcelona, 2 June 1890 R. Canaletas 2-39






I have received your letter of the 26th of last month. In the Tagalog orthography of Arancel some errors have escaped us because we were not yet well versed in it. We have now a rule to guide us; it will not cost us much to get accustomed to it. Little by little we can popularize it in our country. I expect that within this month I can go to Madrid. First, I will send little by little this pile of books that I have to Hong Kong. I have spoken to Arias' agent here. Through the mail that left from here on the 30th of last month I could not send more than a dozen copies of the Noli. Let us see if I can send more via the next maiL Please send me three or four coopies of Morga. Send me also your photograph. Several times already my son has written me asking for your photograph.


-468One of my house companions is Ram6n Riego de Dios, Tagalog, a native of Maragongdong, who is sending you respectful greetings and wishes to be counted among your friends. He is a stud~nt of medicine and a painter, winner of a medal in Amsterdam and of a diploma or honorable mention in Madrid. He is a good compatriot; he loves our country greatly. Your friend, NANING


, " . Ii

209. Rizal Brussels, 4 June 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal writes Ponce in Tagalog - Returning Ram6n Riego .de Dios' greetings - Rizal is very friendly towards those who kn~w . how to love their native country - He esteems those of Kawit or Maragondong - "May the flowers from the Philippines not wither in Spain." - May Riego de Dios excel Rizal - "Great J is : my hope that the rising generation will , surpas~ that 路 of the past and of the future."

Brussels, 4 June 1890 38 Rue PhiL de Champagne MR. MARIANO PONCE

Barcelona, Espana My FAVORITE FRIEND:

So that this letter will overtake you r am answering immediately your letter, which r have just received today, and also r am sending you two copies of Morga by parcel post. r enclose my photograph taken in Paris when r was printing Morga. r consider your article published in La Solidaridad very good. It shows that you think and observe well and it is a pity that you do not write a longer book. Please return for me the greetngs of our compatriot Ramon Riego de Dios. Tell him that r am a friend of all our compatriots, Note:The original letter is written partly in Tagalog and partly in Spanish.


-470whether they are sympathizers or enemies, and still more of our fellow countrymen who know how to love their land. Besides this, I esteem much the people of Kawit where I have many friends as I do also in Maragongdong. May the flowers from the Philippines not wither in Spain. There are many promising young men who, when they get to Madrid, are led astray and are spoiled. I hope that our friend Riego will greatly surpass Rizal who formerly was also a student of medicine and a painter, although he never won a medal in Amsterdam and Madrid. Great is my hope that the rising generation will surpass that of the past and of the future. I have learned that Roxas' son has died. 1 How and of what did he die? May you finally take that "trip to Madrid. Awaken there the goodwill of the chaps. Those of Paris have many complaints against our compatriots in Madrid who are devoting their time to gambling. They say that they know it already in Manila and the heads of families are disgusted. This is all. Regards to all.



Jose Roxas, son of the wealthy Filipino Pedro Roxas, who died of measles.


210. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Madrid, 8 June 1890

Del Pilar wants Rizal to continue writing for La Solidaridad - Rizal's collaboration is very much appreciated - Filipinos now abstain from gambling on account of Rizal's advice - Villalva -Hervas will speak to the Republican and Conservatives to favor La Solidaridad's bill - They are waiting for Rizal's reply concerning the case of his exiled brotherin-law.

Madrid, 8 June 1890 [Mr J Qse Rizal] My



I have received your letter of 28 May and your statement in it that you have purposely refrained from sending us any article and that you will stop helping La S olidaridad is worrying me. If I have failed you in something - a thing which I would not do intentionally - please explain it to me so that I could repent. Meanwhile, believe me that amid the mounting misfortunes that embitter my life, I cannot accept your desertion. Enclosed is Dominador's letter to me. Our young compatriots listened to your advice on gambling. It seems your advice has borne good fruits Tell those in Paris to write here if they lack copies of the paper, for we never fail to send some there. If not for your letter, I would be thinking all along that they were receiving it. As Calvo Mufioz has not returned yet since he went to Alhama, the bill has not been introduced until now.


-472The substance of the bill is published in La SolÂŁdarÂŁdad, though the number of deputies is only sixteen and the tax is ~30. Villalva Hervas (republican deputy) promises to get the support not only of his own party but also of the conservatives. He is depending on Silvela. Kunanan will take care of Gamazo. Juan Luna has arrived here; when are you coming? We are waiting for you. I asked Kunanan about Maneng'sl case and he said that he has wr~tten you and is waiting for your reply.

M. H.


1 Manuel T. Hidalgo, a brother-in-law of Rizal, who had been deported without triad.


211. ,Rizal, Brussels, 11 June 1890 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal is not seceding; he wishes only to rest and let' oth~r peris shine - Gloomy presentiments and sad dreams - Earnestly wishes to finish the 2nd volume of the Noli and be ready for any eventuality. - Will send articles Filipino youth's duty is to redeem the native land.

Brussels, 11 June 1890 [Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar]



I have just received your letter which I am answering at once out of regard for your feelings. Your supposition that I am leaving La S olidaridad because of personal resentment is too far from the truth. It does seem that you do not know me yet. I am not sensitive and even if I had any resentment, I would tell you the truth and I would not stop helping and fighting for our cause. What I like is for others to rise and other names to become familiar to the readers. I am assailed by gloomy presentiments, though I do not entirely believe them. In my childhood, it was my firm belief that I would not reach thirty and I do not know why I felt like that. Almost every night for two months now I dream of nothing else but of dead friends and relatives. One time I dreamed that I was going down a trail which led to the bottom of the earth and there I found myself with a multitude of persons who were seated, dressed in white, with white faces, silent,


-474and surrounded with white lights. There I saw two of my brothers, one already dead and the other still living. Though I do not believe in these things, though my body is very strong and I have no ailment whatsoever, nevertheless, I am preparing myself for death, I put in order what I am going to leave behind, and I get ready for any eventuality. Laong Laan is my true name. For this reason, I like to finish at any cost the second volume of the Noli and if it is possible, I do not like to leave unfinished what I have begun without anyone who could continue it. That is why I like new writers to be known and to shine. Do not think that I feel sad or I am grieving. Every other day I do gymnastic exercises and practice fencing and shooting; but who can forsee the mishaps that may befall us? Now and then I will also send you articles of some significance. May our compatriots there obey the voice of their heart and devote the precious time of their youth to something great, which is worthy of them. We do not have the good luck of other young men who can dispose of their time and their future. We have upon us a duty: To redeem our mother from her captivity; our mother is pawned; we must redeem her before we amuse ourselves. This is all. RIZAL

212. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 24 Jnne 1890

Our unlucky star in Barcelona - Jose Roxas, a prOlTIlSmg compatriot, died of measles, an untimely death - Jaena, abandoned by the one who promised to support him - He persists in going to Cuba - Panganiban in disgrace for an indiscretion.

R'. Canaletas 2-30 Barcelona, 24 June 1890






I received on time your letter and forgive me for not having answered you at once. Many thanks for your photograph and the three copies of Morga which I have also received. I have not gone to Madrid because Marcelo said that he was planning to come here. I wrote him that I would wait so that we could go together on his return to Madrid. On 19 May Jose Roxas died of measles here at the Fonda de Oriente where you stayed when you came here. When Roxas left for Madrid, he left his small son in a school here. At the beginning of May he got the measles in the schooL When the parents were informed of this by Roces, the mother and Pepe immediately came. They transferred the patient to the Fonda and he soon recovered. While the little one was convalescing, Pepe contracted the same sickness and after five days in bed, he died. The parents did not allow us, their compatriots, to attend the funeral for fear of being associated with us. Don Pedro visited me several times when he first came. N ow he is in Madrid.


-476How unlucky we are. A promising brother of ours is in bad luck. A cousin of Graciano who came here last year, through our earnest pleas, agreed to pension him to enable him to finish his studies. Upon his return to the Philippines, he wrote hacking out of his promise. Graciano is now insisting on going to Cuba under any condition. A contribution has been started to help defray his traveling expenses. Pepe Panganiban is in hot water for meddling with a married woman. The husband caught them. Pepe committed a very serious error of giving to the woman papers pertaining to his studies and of writing her an indiscreet letter. He h(!.d been hiding for a long time in Canon's house, but one Saturday night, the husband, accompanied by a friend met him at Plaza de Cataluiia. The two beat him and though he was able to knock down one of them, he got a blow on the head which bled. Now the wound has healed. This affair did not reach the courts. What we want is to recover the papers and separate the lovers. We are keeping this affair a secret; if I am telling you about it, it is just to let you know about our bad luck. We are waiting here for J. Luna. Send me six copies of Morga because there are many compatriots who are ordering. Address them to Santiago Y casiano - Xuela 25, 3째 _ I 2D. 'for they might not overtake me. Regards from Riego and everybody. Yours, NANING



'. l' •


213. Rizal, Brussels, 3 July 1890 To Antonio Luna



•• _ I

• ••


, .

The handling of a weapon gives 'moral strength to the individu'~l Rizal's doings in Brussels - Shooting exercises - Possible trip to Germany.

38 Rue Phil. de Champagne Brussels, 3 July 1890 Mr. Antonio Luna



I felicitate cordially all of you and especially you for the happy and brilliant fencing about you held in the studio of your brother. It is good for the youth to devote themselves to something more serious and noble than the game of cards; and as Marco Espada says very well, the handling of a weapon gives moral str~?-gth to the individual, making him prudent and moderate.


congratulate you also on your Amorzos (Love Affaz·r,f).l I only suggest that you take great care not to hurt the susceptibilities of women's: You already understand me. Aside from this, your articles are written in an easy, flowing, lively style. Your Laksamana, despite the good things you say about him, turns out to be a poor devil. One cannot tell where the father's letter ends. Pardon me for making these little observations. My mother is called Mrs. Teodora Alonso de Quintos, of the family of Mr. Jose Florentin0 2 , granddaughter, if I remember correctly. 1

A published article by Antonio Luna.

- .. 477-

-478Here I continue working and studying. I go to the clinic, I read, I write, I go to the gymnasium and the fencing hall. As to shooting, with this I am sending you a card board with ten bullet holes. The board is seven and a half meters away from me. At a distance of twenty-five meters I put 20 shots inside a board 20 centimeters high and 20 centimeters wide. I go slowly, but through perseverance, I will be able to shoot fairly well and I will supplement with my will the few qualities of a shooter that nature has given me. When you write, tell me what the brave and not brave Indios (Filipinos are doing there and what are their projects. As I am short of funds, I should like to know if the A10rga hi:ls yielded something, if some pesetas have been collected. For this purpose, I would beg you to find out from those who have rectived packages of Morga. I remember having sent you three copies, one of which is for you. Take good care of yourself and continue making progress in your studies.


Your friend, RIZAL

P. S. It seems that Ventura and I are going on a trip to Germany next month. 2 A native of Viga~ Ilocos Sur, lawyer. deputy at the Cortes, Madrid. He was a cousin of Rizal's mother.

214. Rizal, Brussels, 9 July 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Thinking of returning to the Philippines - Lopez Jaena also should go back to the Philippines instead of going to Cuba - Better return to the Philippines and be killed for his ideas. "We die only once . . ."

38 Rue Phil. de Champagne Brussels, 9 July 1890 [Mr. Mariano Ponce] Barcelona, Spain



I received your letter and informed of its contents, I sent you 6 copies to the address of our friend !casiano. I regret very much what had happened to our friend Panganiban. I wish he .would get over his trouble and afterward his life, which is precious to our country, will no longer be menaced by similar evils. I do not know how much lowe you, but you should have an exact account of everything. If there is something in my favor and you do not need it, I would appreciate it if you would send it to me, for I am badly off financially; I have not received anything from the Philippines for many months. That is why I am thinking of returning there as soon as possible and leave to what has to happen. Graciano ought to do the same thing. Instead of going to Cuba to catch yellow fever, he should go to the Philippines and get killed for his ideas. We die only once and if we do not die well, we lose a good opportunity which will never come up again.


-480Let him challenge danger resolutely and the danger will flee, or at least, he will be a martyr to his ideas. I am opposed to his going to Cuba; it is useless; Cuba is exhausted; it is a nutshell. If one has to die, at one must die in his own country, by his country, and for his c~untry. Yours, RIZAL

.' " j)

215. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 11 July 1960

Ventura abandons his proposed trip with Rizal to Germany and Switzerland ~



Paris, 11 July 1890




I change my mind. I am glvmg up this year my trip to Germany and Switzerland for reasons which I will tell you when we meet.

If you are remaining there, I am thinking of paying you a VISIt; I do not know when, because I do not want to pb.n anymore so that I will not be called a "man of projects". I helieve it might be the 22nd, but I will write you, because my trip depends on the mail that I would receive from Manila, which should arrive on the 20th. With regard to the room, there is no need to hurry. cannot have one in the same house as yours, I believe that in a hotel will not be lacking in Brussels.

If I ro()m~

I do not know if you are already informed that Trinidad Pardo is father of a boy for the second time. Tomorrow is the baptism.

Your friend who esteems you,




216. Mariano Ponce, Barcelona, 14 July 1890

Order for P25 for Rizal from sale of his booK - Ponce is opposed to Rizal's return to the Philippines - His life is in danger It would be better if he should go to Spain joining del Pilar and Ponce in Madrid - Serrano is in Europe to meet Rizal - Jaena granted free passage to Cuba by the Ministry of Colonies. :(.

Barcelona, 14 July 1890



Enclosed is an order for P25. I have not yet completed the statement, for until now I have not heard about the books I sent to Manila. I am sending ahead this small amount which is the only money I have on hand. If I should have more, I will send it to you at once. Think over well before deciding to return to the Philippines. Besides, there you would not be able to move about freely and your life would be in danger. Graciano insists on going to La Habana. The Ministry of Colonies gave him free passage. He promises that from there, he will do everything possible for the welfare of our country. P. Serrano is here now in Europe, according to Manila newspapers. I suppose he will see you. If you can stay in Europe, it is nOt wise for you to go home. I even think it would be better fou you to come to Spain and join Selong (del Pilar) and me in Madrid. A close embrace of your NANING

P.D. Please answer this letter upon receiving it as I have not been able to register it for lack of time. I have received the six copies of Morga.


217. Rizal, Brussels, 18 July 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Short of money - Desire to return to the Philippines even if that is rashness - "As we are not doing well on the path of _.prudence. I am going to look for another." - It is better to die in the Philippines than to do badly in Europe. .




38 Rue de Champagne Brussels, 18 July 1890 [Mr. Mariano Ponce] Barcelona, Spain



1 -

I receive your valuable letter on time with 125 francs enclosed which are equivalent to 166 francs because you are entitled to 25%; that is to say, 17 copies of Morga. In short, it is I who owe you. Deduct it from the Noli which had been sent to Manila. I said on time, because I had only one franc left when I received your help. Serrano sent me 100 francs for my trip to Paris, but I returned them. So; many thanks. -- . - _ If you think it worthwhile to publish my letter to the- Malolos women, publish it in my name. - Only I want to -improve my Tagalog so that I should like to read the proofs and _you take care of polishing it, for I consider you better versed in Tagalog, as you have many there with whom to talk in it. The Arancel is a proof of what I am saying. If Graciano insists on going to La Habana, let him go and may he have a happy trip. Perhaps his fortune is there. I say,


-484however, that if his hopes are not realized, he should turn again his eyes toward his country, and if I am there or in some neighboring colony, however insignificant my position might be, he could come to me anc;l we can live together. I want to return to the Philippines and though this might be rashness or an imprudence, what does it matter? The Filipinos are all too prudent and that is why our country is thus, and as it seems to me that we are not getting along well on the path of prudence, I am going to look for another. Who knows if the Philippines is really a special country which should be governed by special laws? The only thing that can dissuade me is my parents' opposition. It is my duty not to disturb their last days. In that case, I hope to work to earn my living 10 any other part of the world. Pedro Serrano is in Paris; I do not know yet why he has come. When my finances improve, I will go to see him. I appreciate your generosity in inviting me to live with you and del Pilar and if it were possible, with Serrano also. The four of us could organize the entire Filipino colony in Europe". We four could be the four musketeers better than those of Dumas, but, my friend, I do not want to be a burden on anyone, nor do I want to get into more debts. Regards t<? all. Yours~ RIZAL

P. S. At this moment I received a letter of my brother telling me to attend to the case against the Hacienda in Madrid. If you are going to Madrid, perhaps I might decide to go. Write- me. Is Serrano going also? Is Marcelo_remaining there? ..

218. Rizal, Brussels, 18 July [1890 J To Marcelo H. del Pilar

The case against the Hacienda de Kalamba in the Supreme Court, Madrid.

Brussels, 18 July [1890J Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar 43 Calle de Atocha Madrid My


I have received a letter concerning our case against the fria~s which is now in the Supreme Court. I will send you the power of attorney.l If you think that my presence is necessary, I am going there; but if not, I am going back to our country. I am leaving this place before the end of the month. My brother says that inasmuch as it was our fight against the satsat (curate) that has brought you to Europ~,2 we must defeat them, because if they are defeated, they will weaken much. The case should be presented to the Supreme Court before the end of the month. Answer me upon the receipt of this letter. RIZAL

1 To authorize del Pi'lar, lawyer, to represent the Kalamba tenants at the Supreme Court. . 2 Rizal alludes to the reason for del Pilar's hurried departure from .t he Phiilippines-persecution by the friars.

- 485 -

.219. Riza.l, Brussels, 20 July 1890 . To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Continuation of the "Indolencia de los Filipinos" - , Petition to the Supreme Court, Madrid, re the case "of the Hacienda de Calamba.

38 Rue PhiL de Champagne Brussels, 20 July 1890 . (Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar 43 Atocha, Madrid, ESRaiia)




Enclosed you will receive the continuation of the "Indolence of the Filipinos" including the power of attorney brought by our friend Serrano concerning the petition for quashing to the Supreme Court. I am enclosing my brother's letter 1• Read them . all well and perhaps I may go there within this month. Do not show to others my brother's letter. Just let me know -if I am needed there at once. They say that the term is 60 days beginning 2 June. Pre" sent it then immediately-, and I will relieve you afterward. I enclose also the corrected proofs of "Indolencia". Can we publish it like Barrantes? Only I request you to take care of the correction; it seems that the compositors are a little careless. I help you when I got there.



Rizal's brother Paciano.


-487Do not tell any body that I am coming; I do not want any one to meet me. I hope I will find N aning there. It would not be surprising if Serrano come with me. Reap carefully my brother's letter. Is there some place ~h~re I can stay? This is all. Rizal Your article on politics is good.


220. Juan Luna, Benzeval-Houlgate, France, 24 July 1890

From Trouville to Benzeval - Juan Luna VISItS Madrid - The Filipino colony: all like before - Through the influence of Antonio Luna the Filipinos have taken up fencing - The fame of being brave and strong - A position for Antonio in La Solidaridad - Painting landscapes or catching shrimps and talanka - Biblioteca - Museo de Ultramar would like copies of Rizal's works.

Benzeval-Houlgate, 24 July 1889 MR.




Here you have me with my family. It is a bathing phce, pretty and not too boisterous as Trouville, which is about 13 kilo meters away. I spent the month of June in Madrid; I saw almost the entire Filipino colony; all as before, some are studious and others, gamblers and loafers. The good thing is that all of them have take:1 up fencing through the influence of Antonio, and the Filipinos now enjoy the fame of being brave and strong in the hanJting of weapons. Antonio has asked me to write you, knowing that you ha \'e great influence in La Solidaridad, if you could employ him there for 8 or 10 pesos a month which he needs for his fencing and other trifles, as he scarcely has any funds. You see that even here we resort to influence and recommendation just not to forget the


-489custom in our native land. I did not wish to speak to del Pilar about it because I do not have enough familiarity with him. You already know that I am supporting Antonio and his monthly allowance is only 35 duros, so that the position would be of great help to him. As to the work, you konw that he can do much! Very soon Trinidad and his family, Tula and family will b~ there. We plan to do target shooting with pistol and rifle. They have written me that you are going to Manila; true?



Here I paint landscapes and when I am not, I go on an excursion, hiking to the nearby towns. Sometimes I catch shrimps and talanctl and my inseparable companion is Luling who now talks like a Frenchman. Regards from Paz, kisses from Luling and Bibi, and an embrace of your friend LUNA

P S. Vigil\ director of the Biblioteca-Museo de Ultramar, asks me to tell you that if you would be kind enough to send to the Biblioteca copies of your works, he would appreciate it very much. Let me know your answer. I was in Toledo with several Filipinos; the excursion was good and instructive. My address: Maison Guillemete, Benzeval-Houlgate (Calvados). 1 Francisco de P. Vigil, a Spaniard who sympathized and fraternized wid. the Filipinos.

221. Rizal, Brussels, 29 July 1890 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal announces in a post card in Tagalog his trip to Madrid.

Brussels, 29 July 1890 MR. MARIANO PONCE

Rambla de Canaletas 2_3 Barcelona, Spain




I am leaving from here for Madrid at the beginning of next month. I hope I would find you and del Pilar there. Serrano IS also going there. I will arrive at Madrid about 3 or 4. This is alL RIZAL

- 490-

222. Jose Ma. Basa, Hongkong, 4 August 1890

Letter to the Propaganda! of Manila - Basa promises to pension Rizal with PIOO monthly - Opposes his return to Manila - In_ vites him to settle in Hong Kong and practice his profession - Basa complains about the irregular receipt of La Solidaridad.

Hong Kong, 4 August 1890


Yesterday I received your letter of 11 July and I am glad to know you are in good health. I received your letter for your family and I shall be glad to forward it through the first boat that leaves for Manila. I will send a copy of your letter to the Propaganda of Manila through the first boat. I am going to work to see if something can be done about your monthly pension of PlOO in Madrid, as you wish. For the time being you may count on my little contribution and I will let you know the reply of our compatriots. Do not bother about Dr. Pardo's book, which does not interest me much. For the present do not think of going to Manila; leave that for another occasion; later we are going together. Instead of going to Manila, come to Hong Kong, as I have said to you before and I have no doubt that you will succeed in the practice of your profession. 1 Filipino I1eformists in the Philippines had a Committee of Propaganda that managed the campaign for reforms.


-492As to your Morga, to date I have sent 170 copies to the Propaganda. As soon as they send me the payment, I will forward it to you. Those in Madrid do not write me. La Solidaridad comes irregularly and in somebody else's name. I do not know why. With the new ministry in Spain we have gone fifteen years backward. I wish you to keep well for the good of our country and do not think of going to Manila, but in any case come to Hong Kong, and command your friend and compatriot.

J. M.


P . S. 1ÂŁ you write to Pilar, please tell him that Mr. Panis to whom h~ sends La Solidaridad is no longer here. He went to Bombay a long time ago. Just accidentally I received the bundles of this paper. I do not understand why they do not send them to me. I have written them about it a long time ago and they have not answered me.

223. Juan Luna) Houlgate, France, 13 August 1890

Even the son of Barrantes is against him - Requests the payment of his brother's boarding-house expenses - On Rizal's projected return to the Philippines - And the second part of the celebrated Noli? - Luna offers to illustrate it - Make of the Filipino youth a bunch of ready combatants for the honor of the race - How delightful is country life!

Houlgate, 13 August 1890 DEAR RIZAL:

Through the letter which Trinidad has received I have learned that you are at Madrid. It is funny that the very son of Barrantes protests against his father and it might be good for you to take advantage of this son. A million thanks for all that you have done for Antonio, whom I suppose you have already informed. Enclosed 1 send you 100 francs with which I should like to ask you the favor of paying the matron of Antonio's boardinghouse at No.6, Clavel Street. She is charging me 250 pesetas for Antonio's back accounts. If he is still living in the same house, pay the matron 100 francs on account and ask her for a receipt. Tell her that I will send the balance about the middle of September when I expect a letter from Manila. If Antonio is not living there anymore, do not give it to her but to Antonio. Pardon the trouble and a million thanks.


-494I see that you are ready to go the Philippines and settle in that paradise which is unknown to me. As for me, despite my great desire to return and embrace my parents, I believe that for the present I cannot fulfill it. And the second part of your celebrated Noli? I suppose that you will print it in Madrid. You know that if you need an illustrator, you can count on me as I did for Antonio's book, as an anonymous illustrator. You must have noticed among our compatriots much fondness for arms and it might be desirable for you to hold another bout so that this kind of sport would make of the Filipino youth a bunch of ready fighters for the honor of the much reviled Egyptian race, as our immortal poet Mr. Pedro (P. A. Paterno) said. Tell me if you plan to stay there a long time, for I believe that I will have to go there in October. Country life is agreeable to all of us and now under the direction of . .. (illeg路ble) one lives here as in Tondo or Antipolo; Patts, tuyu, and other victuals are made. From our vegetable garden we get the prosaic cabbage, string beans, s拢buls, agurons, etc. ; we also have apricots, apples, and a magnificent grapevine. Bathing in the sea is delightful, and my favorite sport is flying a kite which I have made and is admired by the boys in the house as well as outsiders. Greet for del Pilar, Roxas, Apacible, Bautista, and in general all my good friends and compartiots with whom I have spent some pleasant moments in Madrid. Regards from Paz and Dona Juliana, kisses from my children, and an embrace from your affectionate friend LUNA


224. Juan Luna, Benzeval-Houlgate, France, 26 August 1890

Unpleasant incident because of wine - Antonio Luna has strong character and amaur propre - Tie him if he gets drunk again Will Rizal please advise him as a good friend - T. H. Pardo de Tavera is also learning fencing.

Benzeval-Houlgate 26 August 1890

I have received your letter of the 23rd with the receipt of Antonio's boarding-house matron. I regret deeply the incident between you and Antonio and between him and other friends, because, in the final analysis, though he was drunk, these incidents are very unpleasant and the Manila Spaniards must have rubbed their hands with contentment upon hearing about it. I suppose that this incidents will not be the cause of any resentment between the Filipinos and Antonio, for, having taken back what he had said and gave them permission to tie him if he got drunk again, he showed that he was repentant of the evil he had caused the gathering and his friends.

It is true that Antonio has a strong character and he is very sensitive. This is very good if the cause is just. That is why I abstain from saying anything to him, as you suggest, hoping thJt some intimate friend of his give him counsel that I myself could give him. I beg you not to let him get drunk again on Thursday when you hold your next meeting.


-496I am sorry I cannot attend your reunions and enjoy the sati ~faction of seeing gathered together our friends and compCltriots. J ~ray you to please tell them on my behalf that their remembrance is very pleasant to me and from this corner of France, far from them, I greet them and drink with them to the Philippines and for the Philippines, wishing that Spanish wine would not poison the~n. Do you know that it would be painful if the fondness for arms should be used to destroy ourselves, there being over there Batangueno 1 Indios and others of the kind? Trinidad is also learning fencing. His professor is Gamoty of Paris who has two halls, one on Rue Balzac and the other on Boulevard Haussmann. Regards from the family, from Trinidad, Tula and family. Yours, LUNA 1 Men of Batangas Province Balanguenos and readiness to use arms if they feel l>lighted.

are noted for theirr bravery

225. Catalino Dimayuga, Villa de Lipa, 8 October 1890

Thanks to Lauro's tutor - Advises his son to be a useful man Uneasiness about scrofula - If a change of climate is necessary, go abroad and study beside Rizal - Dimayuga esteems Rizal - Order for 500 pesos as the contribution of several Lipa friends toward the campaign La Solidaridad advances in Batangas.

Villa de Lipa, 8 October 1890






With the greatest pleasure I reply to your very welcome letter of 5 August and I appreciate very sincerely the Wlse counsel you give Lauro and the attention you show me. In almost all my letters, as you know, I have tried to convince Lauro of the advantages of preparing for a career, whatever it might be, so that he would become a useful man in society. He can pursue it there in Madrid or else abroad. I am glad now of your good decision which coincides with my wishes, though I am disturbed and uneasy about the disease, incipient scrofula, which you have noticed In him, even if it is not senous.

If you think that his health will improve with a change of climate, you may please tell him that he can go immediately abroad l and study there any course which he likes. 1 At that time Filipinos did not regard Spain as a foreign country. "Abroad" meant to them countries outside of Spain.


-498As I believe that your permanent residence is abroad and you stay there only for short periods of time, I should like him to study where you live so that you can advise him concerning his studies and in matters affecting his health. Pardon this egoism which is natural in a father like me whose son is far from home and is exposed to all kinds of risks. I have to seek a support for him and no one else but you could do, because of your worth, disinterestedness, and thousand qualities that you possess, as well as my very special esteems for you which I am pleaased to express now and always. I am a little sickly as a result of myoId ailment- - rheumatism; but as soon as I get over it, I will go to Manila to arrange Lauro's pension, depositing it ip Liege or in any other city in Europe which you will choose for your reSIdence. Bernardo and I have received your affectionate regards and he asks me to reiterate to you his offer of his services, sending you at the same time a million thanks for having remembered him. Have you received from Aguilera in Madrid a 'draft for five hundred pesos on Paris in your favor, the amount representing the contribution of some citizens of this town to your noble campaign? We do not know whether or not you have already received it. I have the pleasure to. enclose then the third draft, in case you have not received either the first or the second. I cannot say anything more to you except to express my gratitude and together we send you a thousand regards from this far away land. I have forgotten to tell you that almost all towns in this pro路 vince support the patriotic campaign which - La Solidaridad has been waging in the interest of this unhappy country. Wishing you all kinds of happiness, I have pleasure to remain your attentive and affectionnate servant, CATALINO DIMAYUGA

226. Juan Luna, Paris, 12 October 1890

Matriculation fee of Antonio - Our detractors believe that the best , painters in the world are of their race.

26 Villa Dupont, 42 rue Pergolese Paris, 12 October 1890 DEAR RIZAL:

I received your letter day before yesterday and today that of Antonio. His matriculation fees amount to 162 pesetas. Enclosed are 100 and the rest I hope you would advance, because today is Sunday and I cannot send a draft, and I have not found bills of 50 to enclose in this letter, which must get there quickly because Antonio says that the matriculation closes on the 16th. Please give him at once 162 pesetas and tomorrow I am going to send you a draft to cover the balance. Pardon a thousand times these troubles; but, chap, I could spare you all this by sending the money directly to Antonio. However, I sent him the payment for his diploma, which had come from Manila, and until now I do not know whether he has spent all of it or part of it, inasmuch as he has not written me yet if he has already the diploma. I am making this confession to show you why I am obliged to trouble you in this manner. Tell Antonio then that I have asked you this special favor, and if he does not like to accept the money, please matriculate for him and send him the papers. -499-


Dona Juliana is asking if all the works of St. Augustine are in Latin. If that is so, then she has no use for them, as you well understand. I ant very busy with the house. What a mean and narrow criterion! It is true that ignorant people believe that the best painters in the world come from their race. Regards from Paz, Dona Juliana, and kisses from my childreno Yours affectionately, .)



227. Guillermo Puatu, Pontevedra, Spain, 1 November 1890'

Rizal, "titular head of the Filipinos" - Amicable settlement of the question between the Puatu family and M. H. del Pilar Prajses Rizal's ability to settle amicably discords between compatriots.

Ponte vedra, 2 November 1890 DEARRIZAL:




As you are what can be rightly called "the titular head of the Filipinos", possessing the power of soothing irritated minds, settling amicably discords and bitter enmities, and bringing together in social gatherings men do not even want to look at each other in the street, I write you as a friend to entreat you to take care of the enclosed letter of my brother. I believe that my family has never been very fond of the friars - not one of them has been - and does not deserve to be treated in that way. And I, though I am nobody have always been an enthusiast for the noble and legitimate cause that you are pursuing. Really I do not see the reason for this quarrel between brothers - because we all belong to the same party. My brother never leased stolen land (Hacienda land), though he has been offered one, and he has always praised you and del Pilar for the cause you defend, which is also ours. I do not know the truth of what had happened. It might be a regrettable mistake

-501 -

-502of the rival party who did not notice that the other one bore the same independent badge. Though unfortunately you have known me in Paris as fickle, I have never been so in regard to my affection for you, . despite the fact that I have seen the strong winds of envy blow around your statue. Of course these have favored you more than any other thing; for, unstable at first on the shaky pedestal on which you have been placed by the warmth of popular enthusiasm, you have more and more strengthened your hold, rocked by the very same winds. I believe that through an amicable settlement of this question we shall all be the gainers, all of 路us who路 belong to your party. Besides, as you well know, all of us in this world, are useful in some thing; for that we have been born. There is no greatness, however high it may seem, that we cannot attain with our will power and constancy. Following this rule, I did not hesitate to trouble you. At any time in the future that you shall need me, you T:1ay command me with full confidence. You will understand by the enclosed letter that the person I am referring to who is at your side is our esteemed compatriot and friend del Pilar. Affectionately yours, GUILLERMO PUATU

P. S. I cannnot give you any other address except the general delivery in the post office of Santiago (Galicia) because I am only in Pontevedra en route to that city. ' I felicitate you on the order for the release of your relatives gi ven by the Minister.

228. Juan Llfna, Paris, 8 November 1890

Concerning "A Reply to 1. de los Reyes" - Isabelo made a mistake III refuting Anotaciones a la Historia d~ Morga - . Luna dedicates to Rizal a sketch of the death of MagellanA more appropriate title would be "Victory of Lapulapu and Flight of the Spaniards".

Paris, 26 Villa Dupont, 48 Rue Pergolese 8 ~ovember 1890 DEAR RIZAL:

A thousand thanks for _your very detailed report. You are priceless as a proxy, but I also realize that it is bothersome, so that you are really doing me a great favor. Enclosed is a draft for 120 pesetas which together with the 40, the balance of the first, make 160. Please give to Antonio'~ boarding-house matron one hundred fifty, asking her for . a receipt, and the remaining 10 to Antonio, which together with the 40 he receives from La Solidaridad will be enough for his pocket money. I congratulate you on the campaign being waged in the newspapers of that city and may they attend to your complaints for the welfare of your family and of our country. I am sorry about your article"A Reply to I. de los Reyes, because, though you have very many reasons in your favor, this discord will make the Spaniards in Manila burst with joy. Isabelo (who i~ also my friend) has done harm, but a great harm, in refuting your "Annotations", perhaps exaggerated, because of your excessive patriotism, but ~his does not detract anything from your merit and you should have


-504let pass one of these espanoladas, if one can call thus the cheek that some writers have to contradict facts for the simple reason that they z'magine differently. Chap, I do not know what makes me say these things to you, but I am saying this as I have said before because the castÂŁlas ( Spaniards) of Manila will celebrate it. I have made a sketch of the death of Magellan according to the description of Pigafetta; it is a very important event in our history. If I g~ve it the title of "Death of Magellan," it is a tribute of admiration for this great man (A Portuguese to boot. as Blumentritt would say); but if I make it, as it should he, ''Victory of Lapulapu and Flight of the Spaniards" instead of "Death of Magellan," every ridiculous fellow will criticize it, and the painter will be finished and the poor citizen will find himself against the wall. At any rate, I am dedicating this sketch to you if you like it. Regards from everybody in my home and Pardo's family. Kisses of Luling and Bibi. An embrace of your friend, LUNA

P. S. Do you know Osorio of Resumen? He is very good man and tell Antonio to introduce you to him, or if you prefer, I will send you a letter

229. Raimundo de Perio, Paris 9 November 1890

I uphold and will uphold our political ideas, but without money I will have to ask favors from persons who perhaps entertain opposite ideas.

Paris, 9 November 1890



With my greetings I am sending you a million thanks for the favors you have done me. Concerning the political ideas that we have talked about, I uphold and will uphold them always; but while I have no money, I will have to ask favors from persons to get me a job, who perhaps entertain ideas opposite mine, but discretely I will do whatever I can for the realization of our ideas. On Friday of this week I will depart from here for Marseille. Goodbye.


P. S. Many regards to Don Marcelo and all our countrymen.


230. Eduardo Lete, [1890?J

A savage act of a Spaniard angers Lete - A fellow countrywoman was the victim - An attorney and prosecutor should be ap-. pointed to file case against the offender.





Before I return home I have had to come back for personal reasons. I w.ish you would suggest to our friends and countrymen to gather at your house to discuss a proposal of mine, which for being mine perhaps might be considered bad, but it is not, for it is accompanied by something which all hold in high esteem. I am sorry I cannot expla!n it personally, for I have much to do and I wish to leave on Monday. Moreover, I do not meet our compatriots as you do in your classes. Speaking then excathedra, tell them that I have read this morning in El Liberal, which made me very indignant, an incident reported under the title of "A Savage Act." The criminal assault committed by a Spaniard of Alazar deserves our energetic condemnation because it hurts our human sentiments, our decorum and dignity, which I urge we must protect. Even were it not so, after all it concerns an unfortunate countrywoman, the victim of the savagery of those who ironically are civilizing us. Let us give an example of vitality and energy by prosecuting the criminal publicly as the law concedes to us as citizens.


-507Let us get our own attorney and prosecutor, paid by ourselves, who will see to it that justice is done, demanding on our behalf from the public power exemplary punishment.

If my suggestion is acceptable, please support it before the others. If you think differently, then . . . I say nothing. What I will say is that I am at your command as a fellow countryman and affectionate friend. Eduardo Today, the 5th What happened to the Retana affair?


And ... ?

231. Juan Luna, Paris, 17 December 1890

A draft for the boarding-house expenses of Antonio Luna.

Paris 26, Villa Dupont 48 Rue Pergolese 17 December 1890 D EAR RIZAL:

Enclosed is a dra ft for 175 pesetas. Please give 165 to Antonio's boarding-house matron and the rest to him, as well as well as the enclosed letter. I have been informed about the money you have advanced to Antonio, which, as you say, was necessary. A million thanks to you. It's horribly cold here. The Seine is almost frozen! On another day I am going to write more. I am writing this at the Credit Lyonnais. Merry Christmas, happy New Year, and regards from this family and your affectionate friend, Luna

P. S. I see that I have made a mistake in the draft. I have put it in Antonio's name inadvertently. Tell him to givve 165 pesetas to his boarding-house matron and to send me the receipt.

- 508 -

232. Juan Luna, Paris, 21 December 1890

Blumentritt's pictures are well received - Rizal's dispute with Retana - Did not go beyond rectification - Retana talks disparagingly of Luna's paintings - Will Rizal please counsel his brother Antonio - Students ought to inspired by Rizal's example.

Paris 26 Villa Dupont 48 Rue Pergolese 21 December 1890 DEAR FRIEND RIZAL:

According to Blumentritt, it seems that the sale of his photographs in the Philippines has yielded a pretty good sum and it has been sent to him. This pleases me, because I see that our countrymen are not too ind~fferent towards who defend us and are humanitarian. As regards your dispute with Retana, I am sorry it did not go beyond rectification, because those reptiles deserve to be trampled, and if you had reached the ground .... (illegible) at least. They have sent me a clipping of La Voz de Espana. It is also written by Retana. He says that I am not known in Spain and that he has seen all my paintings, except one, and according to those who know, I do not occupy any notable place among Spanish painters, but on the contrary, I am a painter of the fifth or sixth class! Tell me now what inanities this man says about me and what his judgment is that I should get offended. All this is written to make our countrymen understand that we are . . as always of an inferior race and we are always at the tail end.


-510I am sorry that your family's case has not been decided yet. This will bring serious troubles to the poor exiles. I congratulate you on your last article in La Solidaridad. Antonio writes me that he is so very much discouraged, that he wishes to give up studying. Please advise him and encourage him. That he lacks money to satisfy some comforts should not be the cause of such a general discouragement as he tells me. He does not lack the most essential, nor will he lack it. As for me and our brothers, Pepe and Joaquin, we have done all that we can. Now, it is his turn to do the rest and not to get discouraged about so little. Advise him to study constantly, and not as some of our countrymen do, who study only when examinations are approaching. In short, you know what it IS to be a student and all our countrymen students should be inspired by your example, as they are the hope of our people. A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. Regards from Paz and Dona Juliana, kisses from the children. and an embrace of your friend,





Regards and Merry Christmas to all our friends and countrymen there. And when are you coming back here? Do you know something about Ventura? I believe he is there or in Barcelona.

233. Esteban Villanueva, Gij6n, Spain, 2 December 1890

Christmas Greetings :(.



Gij6n Spain 2 December 1890






I am sending you these few lines to wish you all, countrymen, friends, and companions, a Merry Christmas. Regards to all and Messrs, Arist6n Bautista, Cunanan, Reyes, Abella, Abreu, Tuason, Aguilera, Sucgang, del Pilar, and other friends residing there, whom I cannot recall at this moment. Your affectionate friend and countryman, ESTEBAN VILLANUEVA


234. Esteban Villanueva, Gij6n, Spain, 1890

Dinner of the Asociaci6n Hispano-Filipina in honor of Becerra The situation of the country will be taken up - Success and greetings.

24 Perseguido Street Gi j 6n, [December] 1890



I have had the plea ure of reading in the newspaper El Liberrd that the Asociaci6n Hispan-Filipina is giving a dinner in honor, as I see it, of Mr. Becerra, former minister of colonies. I suppose you will talk about our country and the success of the affair is sllle. For this reason, I am congratulating you in advance, as I do also all our compatriots, for the welfare of our dear country. I reiterate my regards to all our friends and countrymen. wish them Merry Christmas, to spend little, and enjoy much. Your friend and countryman who likes you much, ESTEBAN VILLANUEVA



235. Rizal, Madrid, 7 January 1891 To Fr. Vicente Garcia

Defense of the truth, humanity, and justice is undeserved if it's to be thanked for - We need the experience and the applause of the old. - Let us turn our eyes towards our elders - Leave us in writing our thoughts and the fruits of your experience Many have died without bequeathing to us nothing more than the fame of their name - There's individual progress, but not national - A tear and a just word when one succumbs "I've suffered harsh eath for saving men. What have you done for your brothers?" :(.


Madrid, Principe 7 January UN 1 FATHER VICENTE GARciA




I have long wished to write you, not to thank you for the just defense that you, before anybody else, dared to write aboat my first book, but to seek light for the uncertain road of the fUture. I say that I have no intention to thank you because that would offend you, and because the steps that you have taken in defens.e of the truth, of humanity, and of justice would loose their value if they are to ~e thanked for. MaY' God reward them and mel?- content themselves in admiring and imitating them! I who belong to the young generation, anxious to do something for their country and uneasy about the mysterious future.


-514I need to come to men who have seen much and studied more Sf) that with their experience they may supplement our youth and limited knowledge. We need besides the applause and the blessing of the old to encourage us in the colossal struggle and the gigantic campaign that we have thrown over our dwarfish shoulders. However great is our enthusiasm, however confident is our youth. however promising are our illusions, we hesitate nevertheless in cert:1in moments, especially when we find ourselves alene and ~Iban足 doned. In the titanic task of common regeneration, without stopping in our forward march, from time to time we:. turn our eyes toward our elders to read on their faces their judgment of our actJI)f1s. For this thrist of understanding the pas~, of knowledge, to enter into the future, we go to persons like you. Leave u:) in wliting your thoughts and the fruits of your long experi~llce so that condensed in a book, we may not have to study again what you have already studied and that we may increase the heritage that we receive from you either expanding it or adding to it our own harvest. The smallness of the advancement that the Filipinos have made in three centuries of Hispanism is all due, in my opinion, to the fact that our talented men have died without bequeathing to us nothing more than the fame of their name. We have had very great intellects; we have had a Pinpin, a Dr. Pilapil, a Father Pelaez, a Father Mariano Garda, a Dr. Joson, and others. We have still a Benedicto Luna, a Lorenzo Francisco. and more. Nevertheless, all that these men have studied, learned, and discovered will die with them and end in them, and shall go back to recommence the study of life. There is then individual progress or improvement in the Philippines, but there is no national, general progress. Here you have the individual as the only one who -improves and not the species. In the twilight of life, when in the fresh afternoon breeze one reflects on the struggles and weariness of the day, how sweet would it be to communicate your thoughts to those who are preparing for the battles of the following dayl The beautiful and immaculate career of your life, ending in the sublime work of the redemption of the wretched and the suffering, would be the most beautiful sanction of our sacrifices and

-515a holy blessing to encourage us in the struggle. I do not wish to flatter you telling you that you will still live long. May you live longer than I for the glory of your native country and my satisfaction, for surely you will have a tear and a just word when I succumb for the cause I am defending! But, by the natural order of things, it seems that you are to die before me in a more or less distant time. What shall you say to your God, you a priest of a religion that has declared all men equal? What shall you say to God who has hated tyranny and has made human intellect free when He asks you, ''What have you done for the unfortunate and the oppressed? In what have you employed your extraordinary intelligence and your enlightenment? Why have you not followed the impulses of your heart which has shuddered at seeing everywhere injustice, ignorance, objectness, and sufferings?" What shall you reply to that God when He tells you: "I have suffered harsh death for saving men. What have you done for your brothers?" Pardon this frankness of my heart for there is no censure in it. Who am I? A ymmgster who is not yet a man, who has no other merit but to think according to his convictions and afterwards to express them frankly. Admiring you always and wishing that you impart to us a part of your learning, I close this long letter of mine wishing you to enjoy good h~alth . . Your affectionate servant who kisses your hand.


236. Luis Habafia, Kalamba, 11 January 1891

Mr. Felipe Buencamino attorney of the defendants in the Hacienda de Kalamba case - Displays his talent in the defense of the poor tenants - Mr. Doroteo Cortes and those of Sta. Cruz l and Pagsanjan are helping him - The dispossessed of Kalamba are not afraid of any adverse judicial action - They will fight for their rights until the end - 'We feel encouraged whenever we receive a letter of Rizal and read the name of Blumentritt."

Calamba, 11 January 1891 MESSRS. JOSE RIZAL AND MARCELO



Madrid SIRS,

We wish to inform you that the lawyer of the defendants in the case of the Calamba Estate is Mr. Felipe Buencamino.2 Though we are aware of his former attacks against us, we have been assured by him that he is now on our side and he is thoroughly repentant of what he had done. He said he pitied himself after that incident for no one would even speak to him. We have also observed that he is working indefatigably, even far into the night, preparing the papers for the defense of the twelve defendants . . . (illegible). One of those who took pity on us was the procurator Mr. Mariano Buenaventura. We noticed no1 Capital town of the Province of Laguna. It is also the name of one of the districts ,of the City of Manila. 2 Filipino lawyer who used to take the side of the f.riars seemed to have changed his attitude.

- 516 -

-517thing undesirable in both of them. Mr. Doroteo Cortes is also helping us greatly, as well as those of Sta. Cruz and Pagsanjan. The people here are not in the least afraid of this case. They are going to fight to the end. In addition to all this, we are very much satisfied and encouraged whenever we receive a letter from you, especially when we read the name of Mr. Fernando Blumentritt ...... (illegible). This is all. Please greet on our behalf Mr. Fernando Blumentritt and regards and thanks to all the Filipinos. We shall let you know about the outcome of this case.

237. Nicasio Eigasani, Kalamba, 11 January 1891

The Hacienda de Calamba case - Copy of the brief presented to the Supreme Tribunal - Long account of the ejection of the tenants Cruelties and abuses - Scenes of desolation - Payment of rent as the only remedy - They spread the information that Blutritt has been won by the friars - Rizal, defeated, was not allowed to appeal to the Supreme Court - Appointment of friar partisans to discourage the people and compel payment - Another 13 defendants - The same sword hangs over those of Sta. Cruz - Rizal's father ejected from his house for questioning the payment of urban taxes. :to

Calamba, 14 January 1891 MESSF.S. JOSE RIZAL AND MARCELO




We have received the copy of the brief and we are very grateful for your great interest in this trouble. We are letting you know what the Dominicans, and including the justice of the peace, are doing here. On 14 August they carried out the order of eviction and we were ejected from our respective houses. They listed our sugar cane and machinery and other implements. They didn't give us time to mill the cane, thus resulting in the loss of about one-half of the harvest. The entire crop should yield more than one thousand loaves of sugar but less than five hundred loaves were realized. The friar manager and the justice of the peace didn't allow me to ~ill the cane, so that I was unable to recover the capital I invested in the purchase of the carabaos, the loans to the tenants, and other expenses. My ricefield suffered the same fate.


-519When it was being planted no officer of justice or of the Estate stopped the workers, but when harvests by order of the friar manager and were accused of stealing before the judge of the court of first instance. Even my three servants who harvested were accused by the friar of stealing four cavanes1 of palay. The entire harvest was sent to the Estate and the tenants were not given their share, which made them cry. Then when the friars took a couple of Civil Guards there and confiscated all the palay, supervised the rest of the harvest, and collected as taxes seven cavanes for each cavan of seed. Many of the workers didn't harvest enough and they begged the friars telling them that the Civil Guards would take car~ of them. The poor workers couldn't do anything but cry. Our acting curate Father Domingo is going around the tenants urging them to pay their dues to the Estate and telling them that they can't do anything with the Dominicans because they are the owners of the land and that Mr. Fernando Borromeo is already on the side of t.he friars and your Don Jose, whatever he: can do, is already defeated, having been denied the right of appeal by the Supreme Court. Every Sl!lnday he preaches that we should pay our dues to the Estate and that the town is becoming poor because of our disobedience to the friars and our failure to give for masses or to light candles. Another threat is that we shall all die in exile, like the five who were deported to Mindoro who cannot come back to Calamba. The justice of the peace assigned here is Mr. Vicente Roque who is a teacher from Tanawan, chosen not by the town but by the Dominicans. E very case of eviction brought to him by the Dominicans. was decided against the tenant, even if the tenant is right, and he denies all petitions for appeal, saying that his decisions cannot be reversed by any court. This is because the Dominicans give him money, a ricefield of twenty cavanes, and a piece of pasture land taken from the poor people. He tells the tenants that whoever is brought to him by the friars will loose. We should not go against the friars for we would be impoverished. Our brothers and fellow townsmen are also regretting that the mayor appointed here is Mr. Lucas Quintero, who is favored by the Dominicans, because he promised that he would make the tenants pay their dues by force. He sends for the tenants and

-520drives them to the Estate. He also promises that if he is asked for a report on this estate, he would testify that this land belongs to the Dominicans. He favors the Estate. When the ditch . in San Cristobal River broke down - which should be repaired at the expense of the Dominicans - be ordered more than one hundred laborers working on the ricefields to do the work gratis, which took them about a month. He scolds all who complain against the Dominicans. What he wants is for all of them saying that they will fight knowing that nothing would come out of it. And the Dominicans are now suing at the court of first instance in Sta. Cruz. Sued for eviction are thirteen tenants: Mr. Luis Havania, Mrs. Petrona Quintero, Mrs. Fernanda Casanias Petronila Alviar, Mrs. Isabel Habacon, Mr. Pascual Alcaras, Ponciano Alviar, Vicente Ruvio, Victor Albiar, Narciso Abacon, Dionisio Alasegui, Santos Alcaras. All of them are fighting' the Domi?icans for having been evicted from their land. The next batch will be thirty tenants also to be sued at Sta. Cruz. The Dominicans say that when all these cases are decided and our land is taken away from us, we shall be reduced to extreme poverty, and even if five hundred tenants are evicted, three thousand five hundred will be left. The fact is that four hundred workers on on the land of the evicted tenants are now unemployed. The house of your father has been confiscated. When the order was received here, your father was ordered to pay the urban tax but he questioned it and he was ejected by court order. This is all. We are strengthening our spirit in our fight against the friars, come what may. Greet on our behalf our supporters there in this case and command us. NICASIO EIGASANI

238. Rizal, Madrid, 21 January 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Conspiracy against Rizal - Del Pilar, the tool - The Propaganda against Rizal's return - Project of establishing a school in Hong Kong with Rizal as director - To teach languages, science, and arts - Kunanan will be the manager and will leave for Hong Kong to choose a site and an adequate building.


Madrid, 21 January 1891 [Mr. Jose Ma. Basa]



Happy New Year and better luck! Through the enclosed you will learn about the plot against me, using as a tool our friend del Pilar who allowed himself to be used unknowingly. I won however, but the incident disgusted me very much. As the Propaganda did not want to go home, we have conceived here the idea of establishing a school or college: in Hong Kong, directed by me, to teach languages, science, and arts, in the style of the Jesuit colleges. What do you think of the idea? On 8th February my friend Kunanan 1 will leave for Hong Kong and study on the spot the project with respect to the selection of a site, building, and the ilke. He will be the manager and will invest part of his capital in it. 1 Mariano Kunanan

(cunanan) , wealthy Pampango capitalislt, promised Rizal dI1afted the regulations of the proposed

"40,000 to start the school. school.


-522I am leaving Madrid soon. This is all for now. I beg you to do me the favor of forwarding the enclosed to the Propaganda. Yours affectionately, RIZAL


239. Eduardo de Lete, Madrid, 27 January 1891

In order to dispel doubts and bitterness - Interest in their removal Lete justifies himself - Meanness - Spirit of rivalry and envy? - Concerning the appointment of "one who would direct our work and our life" - Lete did not vote for Rizal to maintain his prestige - He entrusts himself to the good judgment of Rizal - His no intention of overthrowing him - Nor did he ridicule his laudable project Lete's act of vindication.

Madrid, 27 January 1891 DEAR PEPE~

So that certain statements of mine would not appear now untimely, I have preferred to keep silent. However, I wish my attitude to be well defined. A good friend of mine has suggested to me the desirability of dispelling certain doubts or bitterness that you harbor and I am going to do it because I am more interested in their removal than in their retention. As there is some one who is discrediting me, let there also someone who will tell about my good faith. Concerning the desirability of appointing one from among us to direct our work and our life, logically I decided against voting for you. Why? Let us see. If I had recognized your leadership,I would have told you: ''Your name is being questioned and this is not good. We recognize you morally as our chief and it is necessary that you be appointed legally so that henceforth you will not be questioned." According to you, this would have been logical, that I should have supported your can-


-524didacy, inasmuch as if someone else win, the grumblings or the discussion of your name or your acts could not be avoided. I belive so and I am going to prove it. Whoever had been elected, would the purpose be attained? How? First, because the elected one would endeavored to avoid any kind of discussion, backbiting, or dissent in trying to perform his duties. Second, no act of yours would be considered authoritative nor would they bother were it a command until you are invested with authority with the right to legislate. Third, you, knowing your true position. though you might feel impelled (which I do not believe) to express an opinion that be interpreted as authoritative, you would have carefully avoided it, because you know how to fulfill strictly your duties and engagements. Is my conduct logical? I am waiting for your impartial opinion. That I did not endorse your candidacy? That is true. Why did I do it? I have already stated it more than once; because I did not consider your character the most appropriate to fit into the manner of being of the colony and because you have expressed your determination to leave ... (missing). I am not accustomed to doubt your words and so I did not wish to nullify my vote. This is all. But let us go to another paint, for it seems to me that this is clearly stated. I am surprised that I, being of very little worth and my "personal equation", as the Germans say, being so insignificant they should pay attention to my words or my acts, interpreting them maliciously. It has been said that I have no other purpose but to overthrow you. I ought not to object to this assertion; I leave it to the consideration and the judgment of those who know how to think loftily and to feel deeply. In order to venerate or to like anyone, I do not use pedestals. or this reason, overthrowing is necessary. Besides, I have learned that however high is the head, the feet are always on the same level as mine are. For what then should I think of irrelevant downfall? But there is still more. My plan to enter the contest has been attributed to mockery, supposing that I was ridiculing your laudable project. If my denial is not more than enough, I invoke the testimony of my friends Luna, Reyes, Rosario, and others to evaulate my affirmation.

-525Upon my arrival not many days ago, I was surprised ~till more by another statement which, if anything, reveals a very bau intention. The saying attributed to me that t he Noli is "written with the feet"l has been revived. What is the purpose of this; I do not know nor do I care; but I pity the defamers whom I detest. But I am very sorry because they attribute to me a sentiment that nev '~r have I harbored - envy. If I comider my self an opaque body, how am I to pretend to radiate light that I do not possess? Other people's laurels ought not to hurt me, much less when I esteem the persons who deserve them. Moreover, my acts and words were always a faithful reflection of my opinions and thoughts and I always stand by whatever I say, so I regret that they attribute to me things I have not said. On my honor I swore at a former occasion that I had not expressed such a coarse opinion. Should I spend my life in perpetually giving the lie? Now more, I challenge the one who attributes to me such a statement to defend it in the field of honor as he had done it in the field of calumny to show him that I can defend my convictions and I know how to tell him that he lies ... (missing) the same to the one who invented the phrase who is equally responsible. Perhaps in this way I may succeed to seal for all time my complete denial; perhaps thus such a thing may not be revived with such wretched intentions; perhaps thus peace of mind may be achieved. Add this Act of vindication to the many I have already made and to the one who is compelling me to do it, to my regret, who believes that he shows better his affection for you by reviling me. Render your verdict in the last instance and tell me if I am right. To others perhaps all this would seem impertinent; to you, I believe, it will not seem so. I did not wish to keep this all to myself, because I wish to spare us asperities that are unjustified and not conducive to making more sincere the ties of affection between us. 1 Liteml translation of escrito con los pies meaning lthat a work is very badly written.

-526I lay aside these wretched things. It is your turn to make all this clear to your friends, since at every relapse into error, I am obliged to issue statements daily. Command me as a friend and countryman who does not cackle any of these ideas because he trusts in time as the best proof. Yours,




240. Mariano Ponce, Madrid, 4 February 1891

Llorente is leaving Plaridel elected Responsable 1 - Waiting for a Rizalian article "Everything the same as when you were here" - Souvenir of Chambery - Everybody is asking for Rizal

Madrid, 4 February 1891 DEAR FRIEND,

I received your letter of the 30th of last month and evervbody is glad of your safe arrival there. Some issues of our newspaper are going with this. Llorente is leaving ip. the evening. Perhaps they have already written you that Plaridel was elected Resp. (Responsable). Tomorrow is the oathtaking. Selong is hoping that you will send an article for the issue for the 15th. Here it is the same as when you left. At the gathering at Chambery at Felisa's house your absence was conspicuous. Everybody was asking for you. My friendship with Pep a continues. All are eagerly awaiting the contnuation of the Noli. Alejandrin02 gave me the enclosed draft and card for you. There are no changes here that should be reported to you. Receive a close embrace of your



1 The title given to the director of the Filipino colony at Madrid. 2Jose Alejandrino was then studying chemical and industrial. Larter he became a general in the Philippine Revolution of 1896 and senator of the Philippines under the Commonwealth (1935.1946).



P. S. In the continuation of the Noli the a may be changed into E. Be very careful not to let that happen or may it be so. Please greet mother and daughter for me, especially the E in Noli. Selong1

241. Felipe Buencamino, Kalamba, 7 February 1891

Attorney of the defendants - Convinced of the justice of the case Interesting account of the case - The technique of the defense - Incidents which excited the authorities - Most lamentable condition of the property of the Rizal famil y The Governor offers his help - Suspension of judgment for six months For a conciliatory formula Bases of a settlement - Power of attorney given to Mr. Yriarte.

Calamba, 7 February 1891

MR. JOSE RIZAL I am writing you in the house of your good sister Sisa after conferring with your very dear and respectable parents and also ' after hearing the opinion of your good fellow townsmen, worthy of a beiler lot, to whom lowe the honor of staying in this house for the defense of the lawsuit with the Dominicans. The incidents that occurred complicated the case and I had to come here to see for myself the situation and talk with the persons involved in so difficult as well as delicate question. Your fellow townsmen requested me towards the end of December to defend twelve men indicted for dispossession. Convinced of the justness of their plea, I accepted their defense with the proper frankness :md loyalty of mY .profession. I was also counting, on the sup~rt of the Audiencia because this is now fUllctioning as 1 Selong is Marcelo H. del Pilar's pet name. His post script 路alludes to 路 Nelly Boustad, one of the girls I"Omantically associated with Riza!.


-530the Supreme Court, and I had called the attention of the justices that Mrs. Petrona Quintero and Mrs. Petronila Albiar have been summoned and indicted without marital consent, being, as you know, married women. At the trial my' clients were attended by Mr. Juan P. Tagle, my friend, and the only man with courage to face the danger that you do not have there, but which we all have here in abundance, making many men timorous and unfortunate those who rush against it. Tagle brought with him my written instructions and was going to read them during the trial, but at the request of the opposing party, the judge denied Mr. Tagle that form of exposition, because he pays that everything must be in spoken word in an oral trial, as if reading what is to be said is not to speak orally. The law prohibits the presentation of briefs in due form but not oral exposition for reading as it necessarily had to be done for a referee who is not a lawyer. Through the procurator Arquiza I presented in an opportune time a petition for the nullity of the summons to the married women mentioned above for lack of marital permission. The judge rejected the briefs alleging that he had already decided the matter before their presentation. This is false because the oppo 路 site is recorded in the notes of presentation and can be proved also by the receipts issued by the clerk of court. At once he made known the decision through the court room<; the accused not being absent. For this reason I presented again a petition for the nullity of the decision for the error in its publication, because it is proven by the date of the presentation of the first brief for nullity on 8th January. As the nullity has a previous and special character, the judge'S decision could not have been published on the 9th, because the principal proceedings have been suspended since the said day of the 8th. I asked for the restoration of the decree denying the brief of null i t y, and after g rea t distress ~nd extraordinary efforts and exhausting all resources with the efficacious cooperaion of Mr. Gobantes (Pedro), I succeeded in convincing the judge not to reject again this new petition and I delivered the writ of proceedings to Mr. Vicente Reyes so that he may take note of the sentence.

-531I breathed freely on the 22 January ... for on that date the judge handed down the sentence confirming the new petitions. The opposing side used two extraneous happenings to stir the minds of the authorities. I refer to the fatal coincidence of the crime committed in the Pto'citraci6n of the Franciscans "with the unfavorable nullification in the Supreme Court of the case of Nicasio Esagani. The Dominicans spread the news of their victory throughout the town and their partisans, the Lucas and Eusebio, frightened your fellow townsmen. The same men took to the Hacienda house Mr. Vega, the director general, who lost no time in recommending to the governor-and other officials who called on him a greater zeal for the cause of the Dominicans. With these circumstances and without waiting for the decision on the pending complaints, t?ey summoned thirty-one otherpersons for the 3rd of this month. Your fellow townsmen brought them also to me and I accepted likewise their defense. I note that despite the care exercised by the opposing side in including in the citation the husbands of the women, they committed again their former "error in the" case of Martina Alcaraz, wife of one Agapito and sister of Pascual Alcaraz. . Perchance it may occur to you to ask why, as a lawyer, I give more attention the question of form rather than to that of substance This is a natural curiousity and I am going to satisfy h now rather than later because it is better to do so for a complet~ understanding of my conduct. . . . ' The "question of substance .in this litigation is a l"egal chao~ . The friars cannot justify their ownership of the lands ~n Calamba, but neither can your fellow townsmen prove their right to them. What is true is the historical fact of the lease and the narrow patterns of the common laws allow the opposing side to petition the judge, first, for the implementation of the order of dispossession and second, or "afterwards for the- dec re"e s of ownership: This is my private opinion, not yet deCisive; be"cause there is clear law on my opinion nor on the contrary. In view of this, I have attended more to the weapons of form because with them I can forestall for many months the course of the principal proceedings, gaining time ,so that my clients can harvest their crops,


-532so that the oppressive atmosphere already alluded to may be di<;pelled, so that over there they may have a change of government, and so that slowly I can be informed of so complicated a case and gather historical data of convincing probatory force that I can usc in replying to the complaints. As I have said before, and going back to the principal purpose of this letter, on the 3rd, the day designated for the trial, I petitioned the judge for the suspension of the trial already begun by a reading of the complaint, after an understanding with my clients, Arquiza, and Vicente Reyes. I asked for it not in behalf of my clients but in my own, offering myself to search within six months for a solution useful and practical to all. I wished to show through my attitude that I and my clients were not the promoters of the litigation - the principal charge that the friars had imbued in the minds of the authorities -and that on the contrary we desire nothing more than peace within the law. I succeeded to create in th minds of all the desired effect. I have come to this town to explain the new turn of the lawsuit to my clients and also with the object of feeling at close hand the real and true state of things. My impressions are the saddest. I should like to spare you the bitterness of knowing them, but the need on one hand for you to know the true situation and on the other the demand of your estimable family and fellow townsmen compel me to report to you all th:lt I have seen and heard without comment, leaving to your good judgment to make it. Your old parents, sisters, and nephews are all in good health. The first received me tearfully for they already knew me as a friend in youth of your brother Paciano, my unfortunate and most dear Paciano. Tears also welled in my eyes, and this brief but intense moment having passed, we began our intimate conference. I say nothing about your brother-in-law who with Paciano, are in exile in Mindoro. They are all well, according to the latest news brought by your cousin Ticio. I have already written three letters to my friend and received one from him, which I am enclosing. I say nothing about the loneliness of your parents and sisters, though I must say your sisters are courageous, strong, and most worthy sisters of you.

-533But I must tell you about the condition of your property which is most lamentable, for your parents being old, your dear sisters having their own interests, the loyal ones to Paciano being constantly excited, these sources of wealth and well-being are completely abandoned and soon will turn into forests and parasitic brambles because of their own fertility Your fellow townsmen, broken by fatigue and penniless, intimidated besides by the new incident that occurred at the provincial capital in the afternoon of the trial which ended in the imprisonment of one Fausto, clerk of the notary, who, becoming enthusiastic about the insignificant speech that I delivered during the trial, went out announcing it through the streets and squares of the town. The opposing party took advantage of his act and denounced him as a filibustero to the governor and all of us were almost thrown into jail had it not been for Mr. Yriarte who placed himself unconditionally on our side and thanks also (pardon my lack of modesty) to my energetic attitude denying the suspicions of the governor and offering to give myself up as prisoner wearing my toga and soliciting at once the drawing up administrative proceedings or a military council as suggested by the commandant of Civil Guard who came here to watch me on the 4th when I called on your parents for the first time. As your fellow townsmen, I repeat, were already weakened, withour strength, and without money, I decided at once to seek the postponement of the trial. In order to win the opposing party to our side, I proposed a settlement through the mediation of Mr. Francisco Yriarte who offered to us his services generously and unconditionally which I accepted because I knew that he did nothing without the advice of Mr. Vicente Reyes. The governor was extremely pleased with such an attitude and offered his cooperation. Your parents and fellow townsmen, after three days, approved the enclosed bases and also a copy of the power of attorney granted in favor of Mr. Y riarte. After you have read them, you will be convinced, in my opinion, of the little advantage that I can get as a lawyer, considering the facts already stated. I have no hope of getting anything. On the contrary I believe the lawsuits will come soon. Whether the intervening period be 15 or 30 days, it will always be a respite during which my clients

-534can devote their time to harvesting the crops (the evil-intentioned opposing side had precisely timed the filing 0f the order for dispossession with the harvest season)- and rest and renew their strength for the coming struggle. (Though by what I see and observe, they are already completely exhausted.) As for me I also need to rest, for I have spent more than a month working alone on this case, so difficult not only for the questions of law involved but for the ease with which it is complicated with other matt<;rs and the malice of the opposing side which -keeps us on the alert for all kinds of details and circumstances that may arisee. It is indispensable to have considerable tact to guide this affair. Thanks to my prudent precautions (pardon again this new lack of modesty) I have already achie,ved two principal objects: 1st. To change the attitude of the governor and othe officials towards my client. They have already removed Captain LUCJs, replacing him with First Lieutenant Procopio Pabalan and ordering the Civil Guard to refrain from 'taking harsh measures and ordering the court to furnish me wi h 'all kinds of aid as its agent to seek an agreement with the dissidents of the neighborhood. Here at the stairway of the house of your sister Sisa a ' lieutenant has been placed at my disposal, but whom all my clients utilize except me, for I have not asked one for myself but for them in order to reestablish their prestige in the town that had been lost and destroyed by the iniquities of Monpeon, Lucas, Eusebio, and A viles. May God punish them all. I have' found Mr. Leopoldo 'Molano, who is governor of this province, very noble, loyal, a gentleman, and lover besides of the peeople when they ar~ right and just, impressionable as a newcomer, but easy to undeceive, because he listens. I say this because all the Spaniards here tell me that had it been Monpeon, I would now be in jail for my, energetic attitude on the 4th, ':tn attitude which cleared the atmosphere created by the Fausto incident. He aslo saved immediately this man from the danger facing him. It is needless w tell you about the panic that spread through out the provincial capital and this town, but- everything now is calm, and it can be said that since yesterday, the 6th, when I came for the second time, we breathe ,. peace and quietude. I have

-535taken advantage of these few moments of rest to write this troublesome letter, written hurriedly to reach Manila on time for the mailboat sailing on the 10th. Summary: 1. Susupension of all the lawsuits. 2. The clients are rested. 3. Atmosphere cleared. 4. Your parents and my clients are satisfied with removal of Lucas from the court. ). Yriarte with power to deal with the Dominic:::ms subject to the bases attached to the power of attorney. Ah! I have forgotten to tell you that Mr. Molano has made a special statement that he would not follow the harsh measures used by his predecessor without proven facts and due process of law; that he offers his services to your parents whenever they may need them; that he has tried to appease the minds of the officials to undo the impression created by the news of disloyalty against your family; and that he offers you all kinds of security from there to here if you wish to come to your country. He has also promised to pay your parents a visit on the day that I shall tell him. Here is all that I have accomplished in one month's work in favor of my clients, your parents, and fellow townsmen. This is still little for what the unhappy ones deserve in justice and for what lowe them for their affectionate attitu4e towards me, and for .how well they pay me. But I have already used all my resources and the little intelligence that God has g:ven me in handling lawsuits. I conclude praying you to forgive the trouble I am giving you for my poor penmanship and hurried writing, and accept the highest distinction and sincere friendship that I offer you. FELIPE BUENCAMINO

Pardon me that for lack of time this letter should have amendments. On another occasion I will write you better. A favor. An embrace for my brother-in-law Abreu and may he study hard to avoid the mockery of returning here just as he left.

-536Bases 1. Liberation of the center of the town, recognizing each one as owner of the lots occupied by their houses, warehouses, and orchard. 2 Examination of the titles of property and unconditional acceptance of the unanimous opinion of three lawyers appointed with the approval of both parties. In case of disagreement, 'Ulother three will be appointed and the opmlOn of two of them will be deciding. 3. Authorization ...... (missing) so that they can occupy temporarily their houses and lands, agreeing to give them up immediately if the negotiation should fail. 4. Equitable conditions of lease if the titles should be found legal. 5. Settlement of accounts until the date of the negotiations. 6. The costs will be di vided equally between both parties. Calamba, 6 February 1891. Special Power of Attorney In Calamba, a town of this province, 6 February 1891: Before me Mr. Procopio Pabal拢m, First Lieutenant of the same and accidental gobernadorcillo by permission of the landlord, acting with my witnesses who are listed below, appeared the principalel Mr. Francisco Rizal Mercado, Mr. Luis Habaiia, and Mr. Nicolas Lia路 mas, all ex-gobernadorcillos, Mr. Maximo Ustaris, Mr. Basilio Aguilar, and Mr. Aquilino Gecolea, all present Heads of Barangay,2 each with personal certificate, expounded: That they as principales know their neighbors and originators of their summons, that those present are involved some in pendirig lawsuit.s and others obstructed in the Court of First Instance of the province, and administrative reclamation before the Civil Governor of the same province concerning dispossession, property, and ownership of all the lands and lots within the jurisdiction of Calamba with the representation of the religious corporation of the Dominican fathers of the Most Holy Rosary of Manila, and counselled and admonished in the first place by the Civil Governor 1 A principal was a Filipino who had held some .public office under the Spanish regime. 2 Balangay in Tagalog, barangay to the Spaniards, was a group 0If families, an ancient social unit preserved during the Sapnish .regime.

-537of this province Mr. Leopoldo Molano and in the second place by other respectable persons to bring about a reasonable and equitable compromise betweeen both parties, and taking advantage of the generous intervention offered them by His Excellency Mr. Francisco de Yriarte,3 inspired by true Christian charity which has always characterized before and now the actuations of His Exceliency, for themselves and in the name of all their fellow townsmen grant him ample and sufficient powers and whatever is necessary by law so that in conformity with the bases attached hereto he may bring action, negotiate, and conclude the desired compromise with the representatives of the Dominican fathers expressly and specially authorizing him to submit the said compromise for approval to Mr. Leopoldo Molano, Civil Governor of this province, that he may proceed fO its registration and implementation. They also authorize him to transfer this special power to the person or pers ns he may choose and as many times as he wishes to do it. They bind themselves life and heart to His Excellency Mr. Francisco Yriarte for his fatherly intervention in this difficult case, as much for the importance of the litigants as for the magnitude of the subject involved, not doubting that the said gentleman will work in their favor with the love, zeal, and charity charactristic of the Spaniards, as he has demonstrated during the eleven years that he was the beloved chief and governor of this province, binding himself to adhere to the clauses of this power of attorney. They ratified the contents of this public instrument after Attorney Felipe Buencamino has explained it literally and wholly to them, all signing it after the Gobernadorcillo, which we herebv certify. ' 3 Then A:Jcalde Mayor (Governor) of Laguna Province.

242. Tomas Arejola, Madrid, 9 February 1891

Rizal's moral influence on the Filipinos - Regrets for Rizal's absence from Madrid - The path of glory means sacrifices - They support Rizal's ideas - Suggests that Rizal marry the beautiful Adelina Boustead and live in Europe.

Madrid, 9 February 1891

MR. JosE My



Thanking you for the regards you send me in your letter to Pablico, I take pleasure in writing you not only to fulfill my promise when I took leave of you but for the special pleasure that it gives me to correspond with one for whom I have great sympathy and profess a profound admiration. Here are my impressions. Scarcely have you turned your back, we missed you very much in our gatherings, especially at Chambery, It is needless to tell you who is the soul of those Friday gatherings. In our dinners . . . (missing) we always talk about you, and there are some who say: "If the good Rizal were only here." Others, remembering you, say: "With greater pleasure we would eat beside our illutrious countryman Rizal." The rest, we observe, find special pleasure in honoring . . . (missing) the mother country and your countrymen . . . (missing) all kinds of consideration. In short, in the Filipino colony in general and at the house of B ... in particular, you, have left behind most pleasant and undying memories.


-539I say in the colony in general in the sense that not all are in accord with you on account of some old resentments, the effect of an unreasonable pride; others, for antipathy, which can only be explained by the spirit of envy which has taken hold of their hearts; and many others have been deceived by your rivals who attributed to you a certain sternness . . . (missing). The path to glory always involves sacrifices. Suffer them for the sake of the native country; ignore the grudges and resentments; after all we who admire you and adhere heartily to your ideas and convictions, who recognize your worth, are ready to support your principles concerning the Philippine question. The truth is this: Your moral influence on us is indisputable. Thee first meeting we held after your departure was inaugurated with an unpleasant incident. We met to elect the Responsable, and I don't know why Kanoyl and Modesto had a verbal tiff and M. Rosario joined in until he came to blows with Kanoy. In spite of Chief Tetoi being Responsable and of Lete being counsellor by majority vote, they were unable to maintain order or to endow the colony with the seriousness it should have. The tact and persuasiveness of a Rizal is necessary in order that what we want to do for the common welfare of our motherland should confrom to our desires. We are confessing all this to you and as time goes on some three or four others may do the same. Your cousin Pablo is an unhappy man, in the good sense of the word. He felt your departure so deeply that scarcely have we reached home coming from the station he began crying like a child until supper time. We ad vised him to go to bed and sleep quietly. Another day, joking with Ruiz, he ended crying bitterly. Day before yeslerday, piqued by some jokes of mine, he tried to throw a tumbler at my face, and later he made peace with me, embracing me and asking my forgiveness in tears. A man in this condition is truly unfortunate and so I like him more. In your letter you talk repeatedly of Boustead who can be a madame or a mademoiselle. Several times here since last year 1 have been told about this young woman who, according to your letter, is also a Filipino. They told me that she is highly commendable for her very thorough education, her very beautiful moral and physical qualities, and in addition, for being a Filipino. On 1 Galicano Apacible, Rizal's 2 M. H. del Pilar's pet name.


-540this occasion and all the time you are there 3 exposed to the warmth of the treatment and attentions of that family, may I take the liberty of making the following reflections. Through you yourself, I know that you are now free from your engagement in the Philippines. 4 On the other hand, while conditions there are not altered, your permanence in our country is not advisable; and even if it were so, they would never leave you in peace at your home. Consequently by marrying there, I fear that instead of happiness, you would only find bitterness and troubles. And what is the remedy? What is the proper solution m the face of such well-founded fears? See if Mlle. Boustead suits you, court her, and marry her, and we are here to applaud such a good act. Lauro left on the 6th instant and Llorente three or four days lateer. D ... P ... escaped from Madrid; nobody knows his whereabouts; he has left many debts amounting to 500 pesos. We are ashamed of such behavior which impairs the prestige of this colony. Until another letter. sion of your friend,

Count always on the esteem and adhe-

TOMAS 3 Rizal was then sojourning at Biarritz. The Bousted family was alse. there. 4 Rizal's fiancee Leoillor Rivera had broken her engagement to Rizal to marry an English engineer, Charles H. Kipping.

243. Rizal, Biarritz, 11 February 1891 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal cannot send cessary - He He believes has to be

articles for the present - Will write again if ne_ hopes he may no longer be indispensable in their ability to handle all the work that done - at Biarritz his health is improving.

Villa Eliada, Biarritz 11 February 1891 MR. MARIANO PONCE DEAR FRIEND,

I received your letter togetther with copies of Ia Solidaridad. Thanks. Do not ask me yet for articles for the Soli because I am still very busy. In case there is something to be answered that Selong, Luna, and others cannot attend to - which is unlikely to happen - then I will try to do it. Thank God that my ardent hope that I may not be needed seems to be on the way to fulfillment, for I believe that all of you are capable of doing all the work there. I am withdr-f-wing little by little, but I will do what I can. Greet all my friends and acquaintances who may inquire about me. Go ahead with your friendship with my namesake. Ony do not fake the mistake of substituting a for e in my name when you write me. Selong is lucky that, though he may make a mistake, he will remain as bright as day or dawn.


-542I have put on much weight since I arrived here; my cheeks are nll longer c;unken as before for the reason that I go to bed early and I have no cares. If Mamang Piro l has already arrived please greet him on my behalf and tell him that I am sorry that I had left without seeing him. That is alL

JOSE RIZAL 1 Mamang is a Tagalog term of address for men. Mama means man; 1I~ is added for the sake of euphony. PiTO is a common Tagalog pet name for Pedro. Rizal refers to Pedro Serrano Laktaw



Rizal, [Paris, April 1891] To Eduardo de Lete

Rizal sends Lete his visiting card with felicitations on his patriotic articles.

[Paris, April 1891] [Mr. Eduardo de Lete Madrid]

JOSE RIZAL (Philippine Islands) felicitates his friend pondenda Militar in he may continue in taking. Needless to to his pen.

Lete for his active campaign in La Corresfavor of our country and wishes sincerely that such a noble as well as disinterested undersay, the columns of La Solidaridad are open

-543- -

245. Eduardo de Lete, [1891?]

Lete appreciates Rizal's congratulations - He is on the staff of La Reforma - Continues his patriotic labors - The task is common, the goal only one - "May fortune guide us!

Ed uardo de Lete esteems very much the congratulations of his friend Rizal, so much more as they seem to him undeserved, for if his writings can win some esteem for their author, it is because they are d most faithful portrayal of the tortures or the hatred in which his mind nourishes. He did not expect any applause nor did he try to break the isolation in which fatality or his dullness has placed him to his regret, and therefore he esteems them much more. He fulfilled and fulfills a sacred duty, in the penumbra, indeeed, but it is what always animated his decisions and he was and is satisfied. And he would have done more had he more chance. He did not merit the applause therefore, because it will belittle him more than flatter him. Applause is bestowed on the exception or on merit, but not on one who never learned to love the native country exceptionally or occasionally nor valued it as a singular virtue. This is not a stroke of haughtiness; he knows full well that his friend Rizal never harbored such purposes; quite on the contrary, he believes without reservation that his congratulations are a reflection of friendship and of patriotic enthusiasm. But he will agree that they could be interpreted by that epigramatic applause that he received on another occasion expressed in ingenous


-545but precise words: "I didn't expect such a thing from you" with which he wished to say undoubtedly that he did not expect less .... As for the rest, he is grateful also for the offer of the columns of La Solidar~4a..d,!. ~l;l,~ : JH:o~ab~y.::t\r:~ca~~9t< ;: ~ho~gJ:r with regret, avail himself of the gel!~rosity,}o{ he. ~s ve.ry: busy and in addition, he is on the editorial staff of another newspaper, Le Reforma. The task is common and if the routes are diverse, the goal is only one where the good ones will inevitably meet on the day of the triumph or defeat, all the forces being joined together in one common effort. May fortune guide us! or disdainful!

May it not alw:ays be antagonistic

Friendship is also the samt and when it is deep knows how to overcome the miseries of reality. Receive a fraternal embrace from one whom you know loves you like a brother.



. ! I



. ",

246. Rizal, Paris, 4 April 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Rizal detennined to join the patriot Basa in Hong Kong - He is detained in P aris for lack of traveling expenses - If Basa would be so good as to advance him the passage money - He plans LO practice opthalmology there and earn his living through it. ~



4 April 1891 Grand Hotel Boulevard des Capucines, 12 Paris MR.

JosE M.


Hong Kong



In reply to your letter, I wish to tell you that I would very much like to join you there as soon as possible. Only the lack of traveling expenses keeps me here. If you could kindly advance me the amount through an order to the Messageries Maritimes for one first class ticket until Hong Kong, I could realize my idea. The truth is that I ~hall not be Cl:ble to reimburse you until after a few months in Hong Kong, for I have to earn the money. If this will hurt your interests or cause you great trouble, I beg you not to do it. In case it may be possible, you may send it to me at Paris, 4 bi~ Rue de Chateaudun (chez Mr. Ventura). The letter should be a kind of order payable there for only the amount of the passage in case I embark, because, as I may die or something may happen to me and I cannot embark or my trip is delayed, I do not want you to lose anything.

- 546 -

- 547 Enclosed is a letter for my family with a photograph inside which I beg you to please see that it reaches its destination. Please remember to put this condition of "if I embark", because I fear that something may happen and the trip is postponed. At Hong Kong I plan to practic ophthalmology and earn my living through it. Wishing that you are well and healthy in the company of your whole family, I take leave until the next.


247. Juan Zulueta, Manila, 6 April 1891

Proposal to the Propaganda to place La SoIidaridad under the direction of the Filipino colony - Conciliatory solution without hurting any one , - Save unity at any cost - A solution that will not slight Dimas Alang! nor offend Brother Carmelo2 - Avoid a schism.

Manila, 6 April 1891


The Propaganda in a plenary meeting held on the 16th of last month was informed of your letter addressed to Brother Conrado, announcing the organization of the Filipino Colony in Madrid and your election as its responsible chief, and as such, proposing, as one of the provisions of its bylaws, the placing of La Solz'daridad with regard to political matters, under the direction of the Colony. I view of this, the Propaganda decided to appoint an arbiter, and the present writer was chosen, to study the matter in all its phases and propose and draft a tentative reply which will resolve the question in a conciliatory way without hurting anyone and in order to preserve unity at any cost. The task of an arbiter seems simple, but it is really difficult, in my opinion, because he has to conciliate the dignity of two dear persons, both indispensable to the cause we are pursuing. Should he adopt a concrete solution, he has to solve a problem or Dimas Alang is a Rizal nom de plume. Carmela: Anagram of Marcelo (Marcelo H. del Pilar). 3 Hermandad de San Patricio. 1


- -548 -

-- 549 create a conflict, the more difficult as the very dignity of the Propaganda will be at stake, which is against his own feelings. According to what is deduced from the proposal, if I am not mistaken, the principle is laid 路down that once the .'Solidaridad is placed under the Colony its director likewise becomes subject to it. And in this sense, has the Propaganda powers to compel the said director to accept that subordination, however much patriotism was the principal motive of the creation of that newspaper? Besides, has not the director, by reason of his position, his own exclusive responsibilities before the law which in no way can be transferred to any specific office? This is the problem that we are trying to resolve and in truth we have not yet found a conciliatory solution to it. It.is true that the Propaganda has the right to relieve the director of the newspaper when he does not fulfill either the object or th ideal of its creation, but this arbiter does not consider it has the right to assign the dignity and responsibilities of the director to any' office of whatever kind. For this reason, in his opinion, the solution becomes more problematical the deeper one goes into it and in order to resolve it without hurting anyone as the Propaganda requires him to do, its greatest desire being to please you. Because of this situation and the alternative that in reso! ving the question you might consider yourself slighted or Brother Carmelo offended, this arbiter is obliged to appeal to your un路 doubted patriotism that, as author of the proposal, you please advise him as to what is the conciliatory solution, as the Propaganda desires. Save unity at any cost is the Propaganda's motto in this affair. and the arbiter, in his desire to second with all sincerity this noble purpose, in order to avoid a schism, has availed himself of this step to arrive at a conciliatory solution, certain that with yom superior intelligence you will know how to tackle it without h~lrt颅 ing anyone, making a sacrifce for the sake of our aspindons ,.md the realization of our ideals. With a kiss of peace. Your brother greets you, A.



Secretario 4

Juan Zulueta.

248. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 11 April 1891

Rizal's OpInIOn encourages Antonio Luna - His book lmpressiones is already published - Who will write the prologue? Pi y Margall? Morayta? - "I don't expect great success" - "I would be satisfied if I get one-fifth of that of your Noli" - "How is the second part?" - Between Nelly and Luna only pure friendship exists - She would bring happiness to Rizal - Studying chemical biology. J(.

14 & 16 Hortaleza, Madrid 11 April '91



I received your letter dated Brussels, the 8th; are you already there? I thought you were still at Paris. Thanks for your felicitations. Indeed, lad, your opinion encourages me; but do not think that it will make me swell with pride. I am giving you the news that Impresz'ones are already published. They form one 820 volume of 266 pages and pretty well printed. Now I have the question of the prologue. Who writes it? Or who'll write it? Until now I do not know. I thought of you, of Blumentritt, of Pilar, but all of you will appear partial to those who may read it. I thought of Pi y Margall, but he is sick. Finally, the last one will lJe Morayta, because, after all, it is a Spanish opinion. What do you think? I believe that though my book attacks no institution nor any official, it has the damned presumption of hurling down the idol, breaking the pedestal into smithereens, so that I imagine they will attack it in a barbarous manner. We shall see how I will get out of the labyrinth in which I have plunged my-


-551self. Success? I expect nothing great; I would be very much satisfied if I get one fifth of that of your Noli. And how is the second part of the Noli? Ah! I was going to ask you if you think it right if I keep my pseudonym, concealing my name, or the other way. With respect to Nelly, frankly, I think there is nothing between us more than one of those friendships enlivened by being fellow countrymen. It seems to me that there is nothing more. My word of honor. I had been her fiance, we wrote to each other. I liked her because I knew how worthy .she was, but circumstances beyond our control made all that happiness one cherished evaporate. She is good; she is naturally endowed with qualities admirable in a young woman and I believe that she will bring happiness not only to you but to any other man who is worthy of her. I have prolonged this letter, lad. I congratulate you as one congratulates a friend, not with those reservations I had with Atanasio Lacsamana. In your case it is all the contrary. Congratulations ! Now I am killing 路myself with chemical biology and other subjects for the doctorate. Regards from Galicano and receive an embrae of your friend,' ANTONIO

249. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 19 April 1891

Luna explains his biography of Rizal - It is incomplete - He intends to enlarge it - He refuses to grant Rizal's request to withdraw it.

Madrid, 19 April 1891




This same day I have just received your letter and it deserves a prompt reply. E,.verything you say in it was what I wanted to draw out from you through any means in order to acquaint myself with certain nebulosities which I wished to penetrate. Now the mystery is clarified and I have to make many, but many, corrections. I have treated you with a certain rudeness to obtain from you what in another way I would never have succeeded to get. I say more: A friend, who saw your biography, called my attention to what you call a light judgment. I said to that friend: "I write thus because I have a purpose and I may achieve it." Later on, Aguilera made the same or similar observation and I limited myself to replying that I had an objective. That desire is no other than to draw out certain facts that you could not tell me for being the interested party, or in order not to be immodest. Having obtained this, I am explaining it to you, because it is my duty to do so. But, if on one hand, I am pleased with all that you tell me, on the other I am saddened. You have introduced me, I have introduced myself to a subject whose veracity I did not like or feared to convince myself: The subject of rivalries. I have formed my opinion; under other circumstances, if you had read what I thought of you, you would be convinced


-553that it is very different from what you have read. I have saCrIficed your personality in view of the data furnished. You gave me nothing. At that time I was not in Manila; what I wanted was light, more light, and at last here I am with new information which, compared with that, is nearer to the truth, I believe. If you had more details than those found by me by dint of investigation or inquiry, what would you have done? What is written? Moreover, as I have told you, I was pricking you so that you would jump and "throw out of that mouth" as they say here abouts. Naturally, in great undertakings, leadership is always disputed, the highest posts, and only in this sense do I accept rivalries which, after all, is the patrimony of the human skin. I am going to explain to you another thing. To treat with some harshness people who are worthwhile is I believe the most desirable. To say beautiful phrases that mean nothing, splendid praises that dazzle the eyes, the ears, is a partial judgment, yOll will understand. You must have observed that there is not one biography that, like yours, give more ground for criticism. Deeds speak, not written phr ses. A work is criticized because there is something concrete, condensed, in it. If it is attacked, it is because there is something to attack; if opinions pro and con are expressed, it is because there is something that deserves the attention or the admiration of own people or foreigners. It would be doing you little favor if I had confined my ambition to writing your apotheosis. Don't you believe so? Don't you believe that there is some one who may say of you that you are a lofty talent for convenience? Well precisely, it is in order to condemn lhat opinion that I expose everything before the eyes of everyone. You do not believe that no one accuses you of being personal ? For that reason I wrote it, but it is evident that I could not make an ardent defense, because I lacked those-data that I now have. Your biography was a delicate subject for me. To write it I spent three months, almost half the time spent in writing half of the volume. Your biography is not entirely my own opinion. It expounded many things that have to be defended in a just and equitable manner. Obviously it is not complete, as the work is not complete.. If likes youMy way of thinking (and I am saying this as if I were talking to myself) is not to allow the withdrawal of your biography

-554under any pretext. I understand that for delicacy you suggest chis, but, lad, frankly, I cannot please you. Now, in view of the the fact that yo~r biography is not yet complete, I ask you to let me finish it. It is the same as if I had asked it before publishing those articles. I am very sorry indeed that I had no competitors; all my efforts to encourage our fellow countrymen were fruitless. What a pity, when I know that there were very splendid projects of this first contest that may show in some way the potential energies i.)f. our colony! Lad, undeceive yoursef! When a person is attacked, it is beca use he can li ve aloof from the vulgar midst. It is enough that one stays away from the common fog to become an object of study and I felicitate you because you have achieved that. My praises of you are deserved; now the isolated opinions or some inaCCuracies are no more than those due to lack of data. Finally, regards to Alejandrino, and you know that your friend some day it may be Rublished, I should like to enlarge it with more data. ANTONIO

P. s. You can't imagine my smile when I was reading your letter. It was like those that animate a face when an objects is achieved. Thanks for your opinion on my articles. If anything has come out of my hands that is more incomplete, more replete with gaps and loose ends, it is that selection of silhouettes, and it .is because materially, the time was short; and you know what this Madrid life is, so full of am usements and so devoid of constancy. Adieu. Hortaleza 14 and 16

250. Rizal, Brussels, 19 April 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Rizal decided to leave for Hong Kong as soon as he receives Basa's letter - !~othing now detains him in Europe.

38 Rue Phil. de Champagne Brussels, 19 April 1891 MR. JOSH BAS A

Hong Kong



In my previous letter I asked you if you could advance me the passage money to that colony via the Messageries Maritimes. Now I again insist on it; I am decided to leave as soon as I receive your letter, for nothing now detains me in Europe. As soon as I receive your letter, I will board the first boat; if I had the money now, I would embark at once. 1 Enclosed are one letter for Buencamino and another for my family. It seems that Buencamino has repented of his past and now is working again for his countrymen. I hope we meet soon. With this is my photo as a souvenir. Affectionately yours, RIZAL

You may address your letter to me to 38 Rue PhiL de Champagne, Brussels. 1 At this time Rizal was so depressed on account of the marriage of his fiancee Leonor Rivera to another man (Mr. Charles H. Kipping, an Englishman, engineer of the Manila Railroad) and of his disappointment with the Filipinos at Madrid that he wanted to leave Europe at once, even borrowing money from his friend Mr. Basa.


251. Tomas Arejola, Madrid, 22 April 1891

L6pez Jaena en route to the Philippines - Decided to face grave perils in the Philippines - "Willing to fight if need be, to die if necessary" - Because of his popularity they may respect him If not, "the blood of the victims will penetrate the tomb of the tyrants" - Rizal's return would displease the whole colony - It would be "an imprudence, a temerity."

Madrid, 22 April 1891

MR. JosE





I have received your letter and I am surprised that it did not mention my previous letters which together with Father Font's pamphlet I sent you in Biarritz. Have you received them? Compelled by necessity Graciano has decided to leave for the Philippines and is now on the way to that dear land. From Port said he has written me, regretting his fate that is dragging him to face such perils as the ones awaiting him in the Philippines. However, he is resigned, cherishing some hope of seeing us again. Here are his words: "If I escape jail, banishment, before seven months, I shall be back and I will always hail you as friends and countrymen. If I am sacrified I will be proud of being the first martyr of the Filipino people. I am not afraid, I am resigned to everything, ready for everything, to fight if need be, to die if necessary." As you see, Pepe, Graciano is going to the Philippines to hand over his skin to the enemy, so to speak; on the other hand,

- 556 -

-557as the situation in the Islands, our common motherland, is so diffeerent now, and L6pez Jaena's name being popular there, 1 am inclined to believe he will receive some consideration, for they would like a scandal, and any arbitrariness with him might worsen the cause they defend. In the Philippines will occur the same thing as in other countries: The blood of the victims will penetrate the tomb of the tyrants and precipitate their downfall.

In the face of the horrors of poverty and the sad contingencies of a precarious life, I am surprised by the departure of Graciano in search of another modus vivendi, perhaps better and more secure. In your case, F rien,d . Pepe, I don't believe, a decision ot that nature is prudent or' viable even, for 路 you 'are not in the same circumstances as 'J aena, who, in order to avoid a greater evil that held him fast in 0 b s cur i t y preferred the 1e sse r one in the open that may at least give him nam e and earn him ,he public gi-a itude of his fellow citizens. I think for that reaSO:l, that, just as I approve though with regre~, cf Graciano's departure, yours would give me, and specially this Colony, the gre'!-test displeasure, for we and some Manila friends believe that your return now to tho Philippines is an imprudence and more than an imprudenc.e a temerity. Only by ignorin~ .he advice of friends can you leave freely and in such a case our compatriots over there would tell you what General Prim said to General O'Donnell in Africa when the latter repaired to the most dangerous place: ''My General, here I give the orders; your life does not belong to yoq; it belongs to the ntion that has entrusted to you its fate. Save it!" At any rate, are you not well off abroad? D 路')n't you find that much desired tranquility that permits you to devote yourself to your ................................. . 1 1 The original letter as it was found in the Ponce Collection lacks the last page. For this reason it does not give the signature, but judging by its style and caUigraphy it can be said that it was written by Tomas Arejola. (Note of the Editoo- of the Epistolario RizaJino) .

252. Rizal, Brussels, 1 May 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Letter for the Propaganda - Rizal's insistence on joining Basa at Hong Kong a~ soon as possible or return soon to Manila - Requesting earnestly for passage-money.

Brussels, 1 May 1891



Enclosed is a letter for the Propaganda. I am longing to join you now or return soon to Manila. So that I insist on the passage-money, if it is possible, even though paying a low interest rate on the money.

I am well. You may read the letter. Affectionately yours, RIZAL

-558 -

253. Rizal, Brussels, 1 May 1891 To Deodato Arellano

Draft for PlOO of the Propaganda for January and February - Rizal refuses the pension in order to go horne and practice his profession - Philippines, Hong Kong, or Japan - Europe seems to him a place of exile - That the Propaganda defray the expenses of a student with his $50 pension - When he becomes independent he will again fight with more vigor.

Brussels, 1 May 1891 38 Rue Phil. de Champagne

MR. A. L.




My DEAR BROTHER, Through the kindness of J. A. I received your letter of 13 February with a draft for f?'100 that the Propaganca is sending me for the months of January and F~bruary and I tbank you for such attention. In order to avoid increasing its attentions I believe my retirement is necessary. I will establish myself and earn my living. My chosen place is either the Philippines, Hong Kong, or Japan, because Europe seems to me a place of exile and I am hereby notifying the Propaganda of my intention so that it may make its decision. With the $50 that it sends me monthly it codd do som(:;thing better, whch is to defray the cost of the educationo of another young m:m who is not in the same situation as I am Though 1 Deodato Arel~ano. A. L. Lorena is one of the pseudonyms of Arellano. (Note of the Editor of Epistolario.)


-560such an amount is sufficient to live on in any place in Europe, it is not enough for one who wishes to accomplish something and to carry out the plans that he may cherish. Consequenily, ',. l: have. a$k'edÂŁriciid . Basa,' to fiirrlish me with the funds for my return, so. :that.Lcan :starf earning a small fortune. If at last, after the end of a few years, I become financially independent, I shall be able to undertake a more vigorous and effective campaign than I have been doing until now. In the enclosed letter to the assistant director I go into more detaiL Please infom the Propaganda and express to it my profound gratitude. :' . '. ' L."

Your attentive servant,


A pseudonym of Jose Rizal.


. :1

. . ., ~

':..... "


, .

254. Juan Luna, Paris, 13 May 1891

The bagoong1 ordered by Luna - Kock's lymph - Exhibiting paintings at Champ de Mars - Les Ignores, painting of the humble a~ the disinherited - Inspiration of socialist themes - To combat crude materialism, the exploitation of the poor, the struggle between the rich and the poor - Reading Le 50cialismo Contemporain - Luna's impressions of an iron foundry.

Paris, 13 May 1891 DEAR RIZAL, We have not yet tried the bagoong. Are you planning to come back? Friend Albert has left for Manila and carries the famous Kock's lymph. Here we are well and the weather is better. Tomorrow is the opening of the exhibition at the Champ de Mars. It is the first time that I have two paintings hung on the socle. I should be satisfied now, for you konw how I sell my paintings, like potatoes at the market. To my painting of the funeral I gave the little Les Ignores and as you must noted I now give attention to the humble and disinterested. 2 What book would advise me to read to inspire me? By someone who had written against this naked materialism and this in famous exploitation of the poor, the struggle of the rich with the wretched! 1 Bagoong, a Philippine sauCe made of fish cured with salt and sometimes wine relished by the Filipinos. 2 A humanitarian movement had been sweeping Europe since the 1880's and poverty and human misery brought by the Industrial Revolution were very much in the minds of social and political reformers, among whom were artists and literary men.

- 561-

-562I am looking for a subject worthy to be developed on a canvas of eight meters. I am reading Le Socialismo Contemporain by E de Laveleye" which is a compilation of the theories of Karl Marx, Lasalle, etc; Catholic socialism, the conservative, the evangelical, etc. I find it most interesting, but what 1 would like is a book which stresses the miseries of our contemporary society, a kind of Divine Comedy, a Dante who would take a walk through the shops where one can hardly breathe and where he would see men, children, and women in the most wretched condition imaginable. Lad, I myself have gone to see an iron foundry. I spent there five hours and believe me that however hard-hearted one may be, the spectacle that I saw there has impressed me very greatly. Our compatriots, despite all the evils that the friars are doing to them, are happier by comparison with this wretcedness and death. There was a shop where sand and Goal were being milled. As they become converted into the finest powder, they rise into huge clouds. and the whole place seemed to be enveloped in smoke. There everything was full of dust, and the ten or twelve workers engaged in refilling the mill with their shovels looked like corpses. Such was the wretched appearance of the poor! I was there three or four minutes and it seemed to me that I had swallowed sand and dust my whole life. They penetrated my nose, mouth, eyes . . . and to think that those wretched ones breathed coal and dust twelve hours. I believe that they are infallibly condemned to death and it is a crime to abandon thus such poor people. A thousand regards of Paz, Dona Juliana, kisses from the children, and an embrace of Yours affectionately, LUNA

P. S. I remind you of what you have promised the Oriente de Manila for my brother Jose, who, by the way, has been appointed physician at San Juan de Dios.

255. Rizal, Brussels, 30 May 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

El Filihusterfsma is finished and ready to go to press - It will be ready within two months if there is money - More profound and perfect and written with more ardor th an the N ali - Has not received a single word from Basa for two months - Money for the printing of the work .

Brussels, 30 M ay 1891 38 Rue PhiL de Champagne FRIEND BASA,

My work is ready to go to press. The first twenty chapters are already corrected and can be printed, and I am recopying the remainder. If I receive money, you will surely have it in July. I write it with more ardor than the Noli and though it is not so cheerful, at least it is more profound and more perfect.! Through the enclosed letter, which you may read , you will know what I tell my family. I enjoin you and I beg you earnestly to see to it that it reaches its destination safely and quickly. I am surprised not to receive a word from you. It has been two months that you do not breathe. Are you sick r Love and regards to alL In case I do not receive money, will you ask them to send me money for the printing of my work? If not, I will be leaving this place and I join you. Affectionately yours; JosE. 1

The title is El Filibusterismo, Rizal's second novel.

- 563 -


256. Rizal, Brussels, 13 June 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Basa sends Rizal passage-money - Orders second part of the Noli If the book is not published in Europe, Rizal will send it to him Bigger than the Noli - If something happens to ~im, Luna will take care of its publication.

38 Rue Phil. de Champagne Brussels, 13 June 1891

MR. JosE M. Hong Kong



A few days ago I received a telegram which says: money sent, bring Noli, gtrame imparte.


I believe that this girame imparte means that I send you [the second] part of theN olio I am negotiating with a firm and as 1 do not know if it will be printed here or in Spain, I cannot send it there yet. In case it is not published here, I will send it there in the next maiL Only some three chapters remain to be corrected. It is bigg~r than the Noli, first part. It will be finished before the 16th of this month. If by chance anything happens to me, I leave the care of its publication to Antonio Luna with regard to the correction. Do not send me again telegrams for my sake, because I am sorry to think of so much money wasted. I appreciate your kindness, but it is too much kindness, and I know how to wait and to have patience.


- 565 If my N 01ÂŁ1 is not published, on the following day that I receive your letter with the passage-money, I am going to take the train; if my work is published, I shall have to wait until its publication is finished. Without anything more for now, regards to all, and until shortly. Affectionately yours, RIZAL 1 Rizal means "the second part of his Noli, or EI Filibusterismo.

257. Rizal, Ghent, 9 July 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Rizal receives ~he passage-money from Basa - Publishes El Filibusterismo, the second part of his Noli, before leaving Europe - Three months without receiving even a cent - To print his work, Rizal pawned his jewels - Disheartened - Forsaken by those who have promised to finance the publication of his book - Sends Basa page-proofs but asks him to burn them - The friars ma y scent the book - He sends also books and personal effects to Hong Kong. J(.

MR. JosE M.

B .'\SA



32 Rue de Flandre Ghent, 9 July 1891

Hong Kong



I received your letter of 3rd June together with the one addressed to the director of Messageries Maritimes, and if I do not embark immediately, it is because at the moment I am printing the second part of NolÂŁ me t!mgere, as you can see by the enclosed pages. I have preferred to publish it in any manner before leaving Europe, because it seems to me a pity not to do it. As I have not received a cent for three months, I have pawned all I have in order to print this work and I will continue printing it :IS long as I can, and when I no longer have anything to pawn, then I will stop, and I will return to your side. I am tired of believing in our countrymen; they all seem to have joined together to embitter my life; they have been preventing my return, promising to send me an allowance, and after having done it one


-567month, they have not remembered me again. Lately I received from the Propaganda at the beginning of April another letter sending me 100 pesos for the months of January and February and promising to send me regularly every month, and we are now in July and I have not received a cent again! Some rich men have been promising and offering me money for the publication of my work; now that I accept it, they do not send even a cent. All my jewels are now pawned; I live in a small room; I eat in a very modest restaurant to economze and be able to pubilsh my work. Shortly I will have to stop it if I do nut receive any money .... Ah! I tell you that if it were not for you, if I did not believe that there are still good Filipinos, I feel like sending to the devil, countrymen and everything! For whom have they taken me? Precisely when one needs to have his mind at peace and his imagination free, he gets deceit and meanness! I do not konw. If the funds I am expecting do not arrive by the next mail, I will give up book and all, and I will embark to live and work for myself .... At times I feel like burning my Inanuscript, but I think of you, and I know that tJJtre are many good men, many who truly love their country.

Thanking you for your kindness for having sent me passagemoney, I send you a fraternal embrace. Yours, RIZAL

P. S. I have se.at there my four boxes of books and other effects, freight payable on arrivaL If anything should happen to me, you can sell all my books and objects and keep the money from the sale as indemnity. The value of the books and other things is 600 pesos at least.

The same. Keep my work absolutely secret; the friars may scent it. and prepare. Burn immediately the pages I'm sending you.

258. Rizal, Ghent, 29 July 1891 To Eduardo de Lete

Reports on agricultural colonies at Hoogstraten and Bruges - Rizal obtained the information from the ministry of justice at Brussels.

Ghent, (Belgium) 9 Rue du Hainaut 29 July 1891






I received your letter, informed of its contents, I went to Brussels to gather the information about the matter in the government offices. This is what I was told in the Ministry of Justice: There are two agricultural colonies in Belgium: One in Hoogstraten for men and another in Buges for women. All vagabonds, beggars, unemployed persons above 18 years are sent there. Tho<; r~ below 18 years are sent not to the argricultural celonies but to agricultural schools in order to inculcate in them habits of work. There they stay until they reach the age of 20. Those in the agricultral colonies are employed in the cultivation of virgin lands under the direction of a chief. They earn at most 25 cents daily. They are also employed by private landowners. Their earnings are accumulated and given to them when they leave the colonies at the end of their terms, which may last from three, six, to nine months, two years being the maximum and depending on whether they are recidivists. Many, upon being released, spend their money in an orgy and afterwards they return to their old vices


-569and are sentenced again. According to what an employee told me, there are vagabonds and beggars who return eight or fifteen times. During their stay at the colony, their maintenance is charged to the town or commune in which they have last resided for five years, which is easily determined here. The town pays 65 cents daily each for those who can work, and 85 cents for the invalids. Those who are sent to these colonies are not criminals but vagabonds, beggars, and those engaged in selling foolish things in the streets. The criminals go to prison where they earn more, because in general, they are persons who know some kind of work. The vagabonds do not learn much in the colonies. Their work is very crude and often they are lazy, idlers, etc. In winter, their number reaches to about 4,000 and in summer, about 3,000, the number of men being ten times that of women. The food given them does not amount too much. Here are all the data that I have been able to gather from the employee of the ministry. If you can use them, well and good; if not, write me what it is that you wish to know. My compliments to those who inquire about me. Yours, RIZAL

259. Rizal, Ghent, 6 August 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Rizal's books valued at P600 sent to Basa - Macao postage stamps for Blumentritt, "the one who works most for the Philippines" Printing of E1 Filihusterismo advances - "But, if I do not get money, I will have to suspend it" - 'With 2,500 francs a good printing press can be put up and the two of us can exploit it.'

9 Rue de Hainaut Ghent, 6 August 1891





Hong Kong



Enclosed is the bill of lading of the four boxes of books I am sending there; as I have already told you the charges are payable there. If anything should happen to me, all those books become your property, in case my family does not pay you the amount lowe you. The books alone are worth more than 600 pesos. Friend Blumentritt wishes to have some Macao po~tage stamps. A Filipino resldent in Macao will do well to write Lim, sending him the stamps. Do it to please him for he is the one who works most for the Philippines. As you will see in the enclosed clipping, the printihg of the I)econd part is advancing, and I am now on page 112. But, if I do not receive money and lowe everybody and I'm pawned, I shall have to suspend the publication and leave the work in the


-571middle. It is a pity, because it seems to me that this second PClrt is more important than the first, and if I do not finish it here, it will never be finished. But the fault will not be mine or yours; the fault will be of the others. You cannot do more for me than what you have done, and I cannot write, study, and earn my living.... My Morga did not yield me more than what you sent me and the 200 pesos from Arias Rodriguez; my Noli, nothing, and it is all the contrary. With the proceeds of this work I hoped to pay you and my other creditors. Here are for sale printing presses for 1,800 francs which can print eight pages like the Noli and one man can operate it. The types, like these of my new work, cost 3 francs a kilo. I believe that with 2,500 francs we can put up a good printing press and the two of us can exploit it. This is all, many regards and love to your children.


Yours, RIZAL

260. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Madrid, 7 August 1891

The order for Graciano will be carried out - Also what refers to the prize for Luna - The voice of Manila is "reconciliation" There is really no resentment between Rizal and del Pilar Appreciating Rizal's congratulations to La Solidaridad - Invites Rizal to write again for it - would defeat friars intrigue in the Philippines.

Madrid, 7 August 1891





I have on hand your letter of the 4th instant and through it I have learned who has won the prize you proposed to Manila. I have yet to carry out the order you gave me as soon as I receive it. What I have received refers to Graciano, who is returning. Perhaps what refers to Luna may come by the next mail. In that case rest assured that our T aga-ilog1 will not wait too long. What they tell me from Manila is that we get reconciled; and as I understand that there is no resentment between us, I do not know how to begin. Many times I have wished to write you about this, but as many times I have had to desist, sorrowful and even dismayed at disagreeing with my best friend, "without eating it or drinking it", as it is often said. In short, if you have any resentment, I beg you to put it aside; if you consider me at fault, and this fault is pardonable, forgive me.

- 572-

-573I appreciate your felicitation to La Solidaridad, and I endorse it to the authors of the beautiful articles and the pungent hash. Our newspaper would have more worthy of congratulation had you not deprived it of your articles. We would much like that you resume writing for it; not only would we strengthen La Solidart'dad but we would defeat the friar intrigue in the Philippines, according to which complete disagreement reigns among us and Mr. Miguel Morayta has abandoned us. Regards to Alejandrino and command your friend PILAR

[Marcelo H. del Pilar 1 1

Antonio Luna's pseudonym.

261. Juan Luna, Paris, 8 August 1891

Thanks for the prize for his brother Antonio - Philippine biograrhies for a contest for Igorrote 1 writers - The lone contestant - Riza did not allow the inclusion of his biograph y - Juan Luna also wants his to be dropped - The biographies in La Solidaridad are contraproducentum - Juan Luna, member of La Societe Nationale de Beaux-Arts - The stay of Filipino students in Madrid should not be unnecessarily prolonged - Our artists - M. Zaragoza, director of the Escuela de Pintura.

Paris, 8 August 1891

MR. JosE



I have received your letter and the prospectus of the School of Arts of Ghent. A thousand thanks. I am also thanking you for the prize of Antonio. He told me that he has written biographies of Filipinos for a contest for I garrote (?) writers and upon submitting them on the day fixed, it turned out that there was no other work but his. So that there was no fun at all in awarding him the prize and for that reason I thank you, because he does need the 50 pesos. What I regret is that you ha ve proposed and made it a condition that your biography be dropped. In case it is printed, I on my part would also have my biography omitted, for it is written by a brother, that is, by a member of my family. 11~rot, meaning Fi!lipino. It is the name of a cultural minority living in the mountains of northern Luzon.

- 574 -

-575I believe that you should not object that yours be published, for, in my understanding, a biography has nothing fictitious and false and the merits should be expounded such as they are. I believe that the cause is not what at one time we, that is, I in behalf of Trinidad, wrote you that the biographies in La Solidaridad are contraproducbltum, for they were like self-praise, and if it is for what you say in your letter, I have more reason to have mine dropped. It is true that they have made me a member of La Societe Nationale de Beaux-Arts, an appointment which I did not expect and which gives me the advantage of exhibiting as many as 10 pictures at the Champ de Mars, without going through the jury, which is very strict in admission. A thousand thanks for your congratulations. E very morning I go to the Abbey of St. Denis ; it is very pretty and has very fantastic effects, the effect of the glasswindows. I am waiting for my parents' reJ;>ly so that Antonio may come to Paris or go to Brussels. You know already that I am of the opinion that the Filipinos should not stay in Madrid longer than is necessary for their university studies and this is because they cannot practice in Manila with French or German degrees. With regard to the artists, you see already what happened to Villanueva and Sugan 2 ; what is regret is that the same thing may happen to V. Francisco and Asunci6n. M. Zaragoza has been appointed Director of the Escuela de Pintura in Manila. I bet that they have taken into account his stay in Rome. LUNA

2 Telesforo Sucgang, Filipino painter, whose best known wO<rk is an oil portrait of Rizal, which, at the time of writing(1961), is the property of Mrs. paz Zamora Mascunana, daughter of Dr. Felipe Zamora, a contemporary of Rizal.

262. Rizal Ghent, 12 August 1891 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Resentments and disagreements? - It is to talk of the non-existent - Reasons why Rizal stopped writing for La Solidaridad "I fight for the nation, the Philippines." - Alejandrino and Evangelista are studying - On Sunday they eat together in Philippine style and talk about Philippine problems.




[Madrid] My DEAR FRIEND,

I am extremely surprised at your letter, telling me about resentments, disagreements, and reconciliations, etc. I believe it is useless to talk about what does not exist, and if it has existed,-rt ought to have evaporated in the past. I think like you do, that there being nothing, one ought not to waste time talking about it.

1拢 I stopped writing for La Solidaridad, it was because of several reasons: 1st, I need time to work on my book; 2nd, I wanted other Filipinos to work also; 3rd, I considered it very import路 ant to the party that there be unity in the work; and as you are already at the top and I also have my own ideas, it is better to leave you alone to direct the policy such as you understand it and I do not meddle in it. This has two advantages: It leaves both of us free, and it increases your prestige, which is very necessary, inasmuch as men of prestige are needed in our country. This does not mean to say that I need not work and follow the course of your work. I am like an army corps who, at a needed moment, you will see arrive to descend upon the flanks of the


-577 enemy before you. Only I ask God to give me the means to do it. Besides, frankly I do not want to waste time attacking and fighting private enterprises like that of Fr. Font, Quioquiap, and others. I fight for the nation, the Philippines. If Ponce still has copies of the Noli, I beg him to send one with the enclosed letter to Mr. VigiP; and if this gentleman asks for one more copy, please send him without asking for payment. In case he has no more, do me the favor of informing my cousin Rianzares who ought to have still some copies. Here we are all well. Alejandrino and Evangelista2 are working and studying. On Sunday afternoons we foregather and eat in Filipino style and we spend the evening talking and discussing Philippine problems, mathematics, and political principles. Until now it has not occurred to us to buy playing cards or play chess. This IS all, regards to all our friends there, and command your friend,



1 The director O!f hhe Biblioteca-Museo de Ultramar. See Juan Luna's letter. No.220. 2 Edilberto Evangelista (1862-1897) was born in Santa Cruz, Manila; studied at San Juan de Letran College and Santo Tomas University, then at the University of Ghent" graduating in 1895 as civil engineer. Returning to Manila in September 1896 he was arrested and detained for 'several days on account of copies of Noli me tan~ere and El Filibusterismo found in his luggage. Immediately after his release he iojned the KATIPUNAN and eIl!listed in the revo:utionary army. Assigned to the engineering corps as director-general he was the buildler of remarkable fortifications In Cavite and Muntinglupa. He died in action in the Batte of Zapoote Bridge, 17 February 1897.

263. Rizal, Europe, 14 August 1891 To Juan Zulueta

Concerning the chief of the Filipino colony in Madrid and the administration of La Solidaridad - Rizal explain his attitude from a lofty level - Everything is settled with his retirement from the co' lony -- His admirable spirit of sacrifice - His patriotic moral discipline - His abnegation and disinterestedness tested - He submits to the will of the Propaganda Committee of Manila.

Europe, 14 Augusl 18()1

A. Manila






In reply to your letter of 5th April, received three days ago through the kindness of Brother Carmelo [Marcelo H. del Pilar]. in which you tell me about the question raised concerning the chief of the Filipino colony in Madrid and the administration of La Solidaridad, I have the honor to inform you of the following: That everything is settled with my withdrawal from the Filipino colony of Madrid and the election of the same editor of the newspaper to the post of chief of the colony. That it was never my intention to provoke conflicts; that the idea did not corne from me but from other persons; that I never had the desire to place under my direction either La Solidaridad or its editor. I understood only that if I were to be the responsible chief of the acts of the colony in political as well in moral affairs, it was natural that I should also have powers to prevent any act which might involve the peace of the colony, and


-579in this sense I understood that La Solidaridad, being its organ, should be under the colony with regard to its policy. Friend Carmelo then told me that La Solidaridad was a private enterprise and for this reason I submitted the question to your supreme deCISIOn. It is useless to continue talking about the affair, for, as I have already said, everything is settled with my withdrawal. I forego giving more details or speaking about remembrances thr1t are painful to me and are immaterial to you. Let it be or record that between Brother Carmelo and my humble person there has never been serious conflict. I do not know if he has complaints against me; on my part, I can only say that if I have resented something it was the distrust he showed in my intervention in the political administration of La Solidaridad, but I understand it very well that since the moment you appointed him, he has no right to cede the smallest portion of his powers without consulting you. Thus, everything has vanished. I have learned from other sources that in that center my attitude has been criticized and someone there has said that I was disuniting the colony. If this is true, I regret it indeed, but I forego explaining and justifying myself. My conscience tells me that I can rest in peace about the matter. What was united before my intervention? Who was united before my intervention? Who is the power in the colony that I wanted to overthrow? During the entire election period, I had always wished to withdraw my candidacy and I did not stop until I withdrew and nevertheless I had the majority vote. Is this to disunite? In view of this then, and it is not enough that one has good intentions and good will to be free from accusations, I believe I am taking the prudent step of withdrawing from politics so that, buried in oblivion, I would not be a shadow on our party. La Solidaridad is getting along very well; I will work alone, drawing inspiration from the general progress of the campaign and the needs of the country, for I want to be everything except to be a disturber of the union which since childhood I have wished for my countrymen. The evidence is my whole past, witnesses are my writings. I beg the Propaganda to accept my proposition, because 1 need to enjoy some peace in order to think calmly of the interests of the Philippines without being blinded by the impressions of the moment. I have enough enemies outside and I do not want

-580to have them inside. And as my' ambition is not to have honors or hold positions but to see that the just, the exact, the convenient is done in political ma:tters, and as the attacks of friends hurt me more than the entire force of the enemies, it is clear that if I expose myself to such risks, I expose myself also to lose my little serenity. I will conclude this letter giving thanks to the Propaganda for its kindness and courtesy to me, wishing it genuine success, assuring it always of my complete submission to it~ will that I wish to interpret as the will of my country. I have the satisfaction to remember that at this epoch, fatal for personalities, mine the most diminutive and the one who has done the least, is the most happy because he still retains your sympathy. And in order to erase somewhat bitter memories, I am going to tell you that Bismark, after founding and unifying an empire, powerful like none, is now abandoned and forgotten; why? For nothing- Parnell, the one who unified the Irish is now discredited and starts a civil war, why? For a woman. Boulanger, after nearly getting an imperial crown and spending fourteen millions, lives here in obscurity and forgotten. Why? For having been too prudent. On the other hand, I who have not created more than a Father Damaso and a Capitan Tiago, who, beside the German Empire, the Irish League, the imperial crown of France of Belvedere, are less than dwarfs, and the Apollo and I have escaped from this torment and I am happy with the friendship you bestow on me. I beg you then to present my respects to the Director of the Propaganda whose commands I always await; and trusting that shortly we are going to meet, I send you the kiss of peace.

Dimas Alang



1 Juan Zulueta was the secretary of ti:le Propaganda Committee at Manila.

264. Galicano Apacible, Madrid, 19 August 1891

Greatness is in direct proportion to the number of enemies - The pin has not been lost - Ap:kible will return also imd wants to be Rizal's fellow passenger - Filipinos who are leaving Madrid.

Madrid, 19 August 1891 Hortaleza 14 and 16, 2ud






I received your letter of me 12th instant which for its pessimistic content I cannot call pleasant, as I wish, following the rules of Letter Styles that my teacher used to make me copy when I was a child to answer the letters from my family. I do not kow if you refer to what occurred to you in your last days in this crowned Villa when you speak of numeroull friends and admirers that you have had or to another matter that 1 I believe that you are I do not know. If it is for that practical enough to forget it and not to mind some who ... , as you yourself would qualify, have provoked that incident and this will not soil in the least your fame among sensible people. On the contrary, it increases further your importance for the reason that greatness is in direct proportion to the number of enemie~ ... so much control have passions over humankind. On the engagement of eleven years, I do not dare comment, because in passing judgment on a feeling, that personality of the 1

The blanks indicate words in the damaged letter.


-582judge influences much and ... I do not know where I will end should I judge what has happened to you, for surely with jour especial talent, and this should not lengthen your nose more u'an one tiara, you see much better than r do. Pardon me then If r have gone beyond the limit in something. You may at,:,'ibute to my great esteem of you my regret for what is happening to you. The pin has not been lost; yesterday Father Chanco redeer.led it. He requests me to write you so. Morada told me (helt when he receives money, he will get it from Father Chanco in order to send it to you. Needless to tell you that if I get money ahead of Morada, r will do that.


am also going back soon to the Philippines. In the last letters I have received from my family, my mother tells mt: that she will send me money within two or three months for my r{'turn. She is sickly as a result of the influenza. I will write you before I leave. Write me also about the date of your d!:p:trture for I shall be very glad to be your fellow passenger. Today Vicente Francisco leaves for the Philippines. \Vithin this week Abella a d Ariston will leave for Pans and Abreu for that city to study engineering with Alejandrino. I hardly leave the house there days, because for almost a week r had conatus of indigestion accompanied by frequent and copie'Lls nosebleeding; so that the sun hurts me, summer in Madrid being much warmer than that in the Philippines. When will your new work be published? to read it.

Already I wish

Though it is almost six months that I have not received Ittters from Trozo, r know, through my family's letters, that they are all well and in good health. Regards to Alejandrino and Edilberto. Your cousm, Kanoy Ask Alejandrino for me if he is competent to build roads good for the paragus1 of my .................................. . .. 1

A Philpipnie cart without whee:s, generally carabao-drawn.

265. Juan Luna, Paris, 21 August 1891

He will do the drawings for the second edition of Noli - More interesting with illustrations that will appeal to the masses They will meet in Paris before Rizal's trip - About the power of attorney given to Govantes. J(.



Paris, 21 August 1891 JosE Ghent MR.



A thousand thanks for the prospectuses of Ghent and Brussels that I have received. I will make the illustrations that you like for the second edition of the Noli. It seems to me that you have a good idea, for, if it will not cost you much, it will be more interesting with illustrations that will move the masses when they see some drawing depicting an assassination or something sensational. It will be glad to see you in Paris in September and especially if you are going to the Philippines. Is it true that your family has given a power of attorney to Pedro Govantes in order to look after the lifting up of the banishment of some of your relatives? I was told so by Mr. Antonio Marcaida who is here in Paris, with his wife, Chuidian's sister. Tell me if he has achieved something, now that he is a deputy and nephew of your uncle. Regards from Paz, kisses from the children and an embrace of Yours affectionatdy, LUNA


266. Rizal, Ghent, 24 August 1891 To Mariano Ponce

Rizal informs Ponce of what he wrote the Propaganda mortified by what is imputed to him by it. ~


He is


9 Rue du Hainaut Ghent, 24 August 1891




Enclosed are two letters that you may read and you may tell Selo about should find in them something you do not approve of. I leave it to you. I wrote them both and I will not conceal from you that I am deeply hurt by what those in Manila are imputing to me. Have you sent the book to Vigil? Please let me know if I still have some Noli there. I want to take home some. Do not suppose that I am holding aloof from you, I am still with you; I just wish to let the tempest pass away. This is all and command me. Your friend -, , ... " l


P. S. The enclosed letter is for the Propaganda. Inasmuch as the letter was sent through seto, the reply ought to go through him also. 1

Marcelo H . de l Pilar.

- 584 --

267. Rizal Ghent, 26 August 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Rizal will leave for Hong Kong with his work already printed - How to send copies of it to Manila.

9 Rue de Hainaut Ghent, 26 August 1891




I write you hurriedly to tell you that my work 1 is progressing. Within one month you will have it, and me with it. I am studying the way of introducing it in Manila. Graciano has arrived. Affectionately yours, RIZAL


El Filibusterismo.


268. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 26 August 1891

On the alleged conflict between Selo and Rizal - The members of the Hermada de San Patricio regret the incident - Selo's letter which twists the facts - Lopez Jaena and Moises Salvador defend Rizal Meetino of Basilio Teodoro and Jaena - "Nothing from Spain" To o~tain redemption - Proposal to Rizal - Basa's explanations - Jaena with P40 allowance - His impressions of the Propaganda Committee - Order for his "arrest - Jaena in favor of the publication of a revolutionary newspaper, El Baguio - Only through revolution - He is studying English. ~

Barcelona, 26 August 1891 MR. JosE Ghent



I received your letter of the 20th instant. I am answenng it to explain the purpose of the conference. The conflict between you and Marcelo has caused deep sensation in Manila and within the committee of the Hermandad de s. Patricio it was regretted. They asked me for the cause and motive of the conflict, but, as I did not know it, I could only tell them conjectures and what I have heard from others. The majority in the committee, being influenced by Marcelo, blamed you. I defended you. In Marilao, at the Doroteo Jose's daughter-inlaw, where I attended a meeting to which I was invited, a very long letter of Marcelo addressed to the committee was read. It gave an account of the origin of the displeasures tbat arose between you and him and the Filipino colony of Madrid. The facts


-587were so twisted by him in his favor that my companion at the meeting, Moises Salvador, intervened and defended you warmly. But this was not the only object of the meeting. On the one of my four unlucky days stay in Manila, Mr. Basilio Teodoro requested a secret interview with me and for that purpose we went in a vehicle to the Luneta at night. There he asked me what I thought of the attitude of the Spanish Government toward the Philippines. I answered him that nothing can be expected from Spain or from its government, that if the Philippines wishes to enjoy rights and liberties, she herself must work for her redemption. And speaking about you, he entreated me to explain to you the following proposition: For you to stay in Europe and America traveling to find out the opinion of the governments of other nations on the Philippines and their idea of her. For this they will give you two hundred pesos monthly in addition to your traveling expenses. Such was the purpose of the interview. If you are agreeable. write Basilio Teodoro secretly, for nhis gentleman says that he is is doing this at his own and some friends' iniative and not in behalf of the committee. Another thing. Basa asked me to tell you his relation to this new committee. The old committee took from him all the copies of Morga you sent him and the new committee seems to evade their payment. Until now Mr. Basa has not received a cent for the Morgas in spite of the many letters he has sent the committee asking it for an accounting. It replied that it will investigvate the matter and will send him the money as soon as it can collect from a gentleman, former member of the committee, now out of it, in whose possession is the money from the Morgas. He also requested me to tell you the idea of the telegram sent you at the beginning of June and drafted by me: That for the printing expenses of the second part of the Noli you may get money from a commercial firm of Brussels which has relations with op.e in Hong Kong and charge it against him. He did not send yon a draft because he had the impression that you would immediJtely be on the way home.

-588The committee, without my request, is glvmg me an allowance of PAD monthly. It is little, very little, for the work I am engaged in, politics, because you know very well that to move among distinguished personages and to be in politics entail much expe rlse. This allowance is also uncertain, for to tell you the truth, I distrust greatly that committee as it has neither base nor foundation; it \s moreover as a whole, the image of Marcelo and considering Basa's experience with it. If I accepted this modest allowance, it was because, while at Manila, it was the first offered to me and in order to get out as soon as possible from that life of perils and sudden assaults in which I was found. Within 24 hours of my stay in Manila, everybody knew about my presence and despite my precautions, the members of the same committee who hid me and tried to conceal me were the san1e ones who told their friends Jotto [)oce that I had arrived so that it was an open secret, and everybody wanted to see me, greet me, and shake my hand. While still in Manila, I was sought extra- officially by the Government and hardly had I left, an order for my arrest was issued. If I could have sttayed a couple of weeks at Manila, and had not the committee spontaneously made the offer to me, I could have obtained a little more, for the father of Moises, Capitfm Ambrosio, with other friends planned to gi ve me an allowance. I am still negotiating so that Capitan Ambrosio and other friends may carry out that plan, because I foresee that the committee would fail to fulfill its comitments with me. Already I have observed its first failure. While I was at Manila, it promised to send me funds at Hong Kong for traveling expenses from Marseille to Brussels to see you confer with you and from Brussels to Madrid to see Marcelo in order to pacify both of you. And it has not fulfilled it and other things besides; for this reason, I am uneasy about my future. And those people want me write a book, but they do not understand that without tranquility and without freedom, one cannot produce a meritorious work. I do not know what is their idea of writing a book; they fancy that writing a book is like drinking a glass of water. So that, if you can convince them that I need more than the allowance in order to travel and to search libraries and to write a book.

-589 Captain Beltran of the steamer Don Juan whose boat I boarded wrapped up, sends you regards and embraces. He tells me that he remembers you very well. Thanks to this good tao! I escaped the danger. The committee, in its letter to Basa, says that in its letter of June it sent you four or five hundred pesos which Marcelo will deliver to you and it w,ill continue giving you one hundred pesos provided you do not go to Hong Kong or Japan. I do not know if you have received the money. With regard to the Philippines, I observe that there is more fear there than anything else. The friars are emboldened before such timorous attitude of those who are said to be the guides of the future of the Philippines. A proof by the side: I requested the committee to send three or four of its members to Hong Kong for a conference of notables in order to guide the campaign and put a base to that committee, and they did not dare do it for fear. Chairman Cortes2 was the first to be filled with fear. What do you think of the enclosed two works of mine? They did not dare allow to circulate in Manila one of them, the small one, for excessive fear. With regard to what I think, I have proposed to Basa that he negotiate with the rich in Manila, outside of the committee, about the maintenance of a newspaper that I plan to establish here or abroad 3 with the name El Baguio under the suspices of the revolutionary party, because, according to my criterion, the Phillippines cannot get anything except through revolution. Also I have noted that our names and above all yours are being exploited by some, since they have told Basa, Olaguivel, Lozada, and others that those of Batanges are giving you much money in Manila but those sums do not appear. Basa will tell you about it when you get to Hong Kong. If you can, before you leave, pass through Barcelona. If I can. I will bid you farewell at Marseille. I beg you to keep secret all that I have written. Let it be only for guidance, so that I will not be discredited before the eyes of the committee. 1

Tao in this sentence means man.

It is a Taga:og term tthet also means

people. 2 3

Doroteo Cortes, chairman of the Propaganda Committee. Outside of Spain. He was writing from Barcelona.

-590Moises has asked me to tell you that the M orgas are in the Ci viI Government and he will write you. I am now studying English, for if things go badly with me here, perhaps I may return to Hong Kong.

13asa with the enti,re colony in Hong Kong and also Lecaroz send you regards. Answer me. Yours GRACIANO

269. Antonio Luna, Madrid, 12 September 1891

Regrettable situation of the staff writers of La Solidaridad - " ~an's exploitation of man" - Luna is indignant. - Reports many mjustices and anomalies - There's money but there's none On the other hand, a lot of waste, useless trips, no initiative, dead campaign - Complaints sent to the Propaganda through Rizal against the administrators of the newspapers.

Hortaleza 14 & 16, 2nd floor Madrid, 12 September 1891




Today I have learned that you are leaving for Manila this coming month of October for very sad reasons, according to information I have gathered. The prize for this work of ours is the destruction of our future and speaking jestingly and seriously, we serve as a screen so that others may able to pillage in the shadow. In short, man's exploitation of man, synthetically speaking. I refer particularly to the situation of the staff writers of La Solidarid'Od, I being one of them. They say that the society has money and sends much money to Spain to pay those who work and write. Letters they r~ad to me say so. Consequently, if this is true, it seems that we :lre playing the part of simpletons, inasmuch as in the Philippines they give in the belief that La S olidaridad pays and remunerates. And it is not worthwhile to talk here of patriotism, for what happens here is the following: Personal enthmiasm and activity are exploited for the simple reason that what is assigned -591-

-592to one is taken away from him. All this has made me rebel, for here I am told that I am playing a rather sad role, according to the news received from Manila. As a special favor that come from you, they assigned me 8 duros a month. It is exactly one year that, despite my fulfillment of my duties and working more than is required, I have not yet received any promotion that will encourage me to continue. I write two, three, or more articles for each issue, as you will see, and nevertheless, despite stealing time from school duties, I find myself with the salary of a carromata driver (as I call him) without hope of rising further. If it is true that they are sending thousands of duros, on what are they spent, where are they invested? My book is dying of laughter, neither books nor pamphlets are being printed, the pay is wretched . . . what is this? On the other hand, great waste of money, useless trips, complete abandon, no initiative, dead campaign. This is complete suicide. This very day the fortnightly is in my hands and the two issues published while I am here have only one articles by Naning. Here in it true light is all the work of the laborers of the Propaganda. Today it has been truly scandalous. There was almost no material and I have had to write on one day four articles, because both del Pilar and Naning are doing absolutely nothing. This is a blessing. The question of the prizes would not have been stirred up if it were not for your letter and all those projcts for encouragements would have evaporated in the midst of this passive resistance that is the best rampart. What is more natural, correct, and pleasant than for me to have been initiated in the mysteries of the Propaganda, if it has mysteries. Well no. Complete monopoly, so that we may remain in the lucky doubt about money, boasting that we count on large funds to say later (our Director's words): "There's money, but to whom is it going to be given? Is anyone doing any work? Anybody understands this zambra. 1 This absolutist administration is worse than that of the State: It wants employees to work and sacrifice and it does not find a person to pay. Tableau! In view of all these anomalies, it will become necessary to resolve the present situation in one way or the other, and we have almost agreed to go on a friendly strike, but a strike nonetheless. Now that we encounter passive resistance we will quit work as friend and each 1

A Moorish festival with dancing and music.

-593one goes his own way and it will not be strange that one day you will be surprised 'w ith the following news: Mr': So and .So, " I, and others have ceased to be members of theeditbrials staff. We shall then see the monopoly and the gratuitous exploitation. Letters from Manila say that the Asociaci6n H. P. -ought to receive funds from there, for they owe the treasurer some money and they are not paid and there they blissfully believe that here we work faithfully, diligently patriotically, disinterestedly and .. . . monopolistically. If our campaign will consist of this, if the ideals I believe in and have believed to be holy and sacred have impious worshippers in the style of the Chinese clistianos,2 I prefer to diavow completely my opinions, because, before such a great enormity, it is necessary to remove one's shirt and pull out the last hair. Pity the efforts, the rights, the liberties, to my regret, that we are not worthy either of liberty or of anything. We will live a long time as an enslaved people, being the humble servant of our masters who ill hack our faces with the whip. It is sad, but is is true. I am anxiously awaiting the corning of Graciano in order to examine things together and when we are informed and we are loaded with arguments, we will begin our general attack along the entire line. We shall see how they will defend themselves. I am ready to give up writing in La Solidaridad, for if I should continue, it would be to consent in good faith and knowingly that they continue to treat us like servants. Synthesis: 'Work, corne patriotism, intellectual work; expose your skin, put yourself in front, that from time to time I will give you something with which to buy biscuits and with these I shut your mouth." Man of God, by the nails of Christ, this is not funny and it is very insulting! Biscuits for the patriots? What will be for those who work? EnsaÂŁmadas. 3 With butter or without it? I do not know yet how this affair will turn out, but it is taking on such large proportions that its limits cannot be defined. Enough for today; if the Philippine Propaganda has an interview with you, you may read these lines I am writing you line by line, with a smile on your lips, but with sorrow in your heart and disabuse in your mind. 2

Cristianos pronounced c1istianos by the ordinary Chinese.

3 Sweet, light rol:s, common delicacy in Spanish speaking oountries.

-- 594'In short, lad, until the next. I suppose you will write me before you leave. I have received your last letter; I will try to leave as soop as possible. Regards to Alejandrino, Evangelista, and Abreu. An embrace from your friend, ANTONIO


270. Rizal, Ghent, 18 September 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

Going to Hong Kong with 800 copies of Filibusterismo as soon as he receives money - Advanced copies for Basa and Sixto L6pez - They must not make noise so that the books' entry in Manila will not be prohibited - Rizal declines the offer of the Propaganda of a monthly pension of PlOO. It comes so irregularly, that is to say, it does not come at all. "I prefer to work and live on my own."

9 Rue du H~inaut Ghent, 18 September 1891



By this mail you will receive two copies of my Fdi} one for you and the other for friend Sixto Lopez, l in case he is still there.

If by the folllowing mail I receive passage-money, I will sail on 4 October and will arrive there on the 4th or 5th of November, bringing with me some 800 copies. It is fitting then for you there to read these two volumes without making much noise in order that they may not be able to prevent the entry of the remainder into Manila. I thank my friend Sixto and you and I hope that we see each other soon. I cannot accept the offer to me of the Propaganda to give me 100 pesos monthly, because they come so irregularly, that is to say that they don't come at all, and as you 1

A patriot, a wealthy man from Balayan, Batangas.


- 596well know I can't live on hopes or promises. Despite what they have promised me, until now I have received only three hundred pesos for the months of February, March, and April. They owe me for months of May, June, July, August, and September. I prefer to work and live on my own. I am very sorry that business is going badly. In case you lack money the copies of my Morga and my FÂŁlÂŁ will answer for what lowe you. Friends Ariston Bautista and Abella have been here and have gone to Germany.

If I receive some 100 pesos, I will surely leave on the 4th of October. This is all for now. Receive an embrace of Yours affectionately, RIZAL

Regards to my fnend Sixto.


271. Rizal, Ghent, 22 September 1891 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

EI Filibusterismo of parallel tendency to La Solidaridad different to any criticism of his work - Notice from send Luna the prize of P50, transmitted by Rizal Pilar - Rizal retires completely from politics Manila or Hong Kong he will write.

- Rizal inManila to to Del In

9 Rue du Hainaut Ghent, 22 September 1891 MR. MARCELO






Now we are sending there some copies of my work EI Filtbusterismo. I inscribe to you one copy. If you want more, you only have to write me. I do not need to give you explanations, because you yourself will understand the purpose of the work whose tendency is parallel that of La Solidaridad. Needless to tell you, I do not want La SolZ"daridad to praise it or take notice of it. You can have it judged by one who may find it worse or not judge it at alL That depends on you. Once a work is published it belong to the public domain. It is even desirable that my work attacked in La S olidaridad so that it will appear :IS opposed to revolutionary ideas and achieve its purposes. I have received a notice from Manila dated 10 July which repeats the notice to send Luna 50 pesos.! If you have received 1

Prize to Antonio Luna, suggested by Rizal, for his work in La Solidaridad.

- 597-

-598it, I request YOll to send it to me because I have already notified Manila that I have received from you PZOO, and as La Solidaridad has made it known that the prize is not mine, it is good that things be in their proper places. I am leaving next month, the 4th, I believe; if you have some路路 thing to send along, prepare it. La Solidaridad mayor may not announce my departure but it is better for it not to announce it. for, as it does interest anyone, it is useless. I am retiring completely from politics, as I have already an nounced to you, and I belive I am doing right. I need peace and tranquility, and as you are already doing well, and nothing 1S lacking, why should I interfere? In Manila or Hong Kong 1 write my works and I will never lose sight of your progress 1:0 keep up with you. This is all, receive an embrace of your friend who cherishes you and wishes you sucess in all your undertakings. Affectionately yours, RIZAL

272. Juan Luna, Paris, 23 September 1891

The Fili touches the Filipino wounds of his first novel - Exposing the social cancer - Rizal cre~tor of The Philippine novel - tJis writings should be sent to the Philippines - But he himself must remain in Europe for the good of the native land - The friars will remove treacherously a man with "noble and lofty ideas".

Paris, 23 September 1891

MR. JosE.



lliAR RIZAL, . Ventura brought me your new book and the copies for T rinidad and Felix which I have already delivered to them. I congratulate you on your new masterpiece, for in my poor opinion, you continue touching the Filipino wounds of your first novel that describes the state of our poor Philippines and in your ideas are assimilated thousands and thousands of unfortunate,;. In short, you are the creator of our novel who will establish with his writings freedom of thought, which is the foremost liberty, if not the only one that man possesses. Now I hope and I augur that so much writings done by you go to the Philippines and you remain in Europe to work for the welfare of tht millions of Filipinos that we are. With the new law on banditry, they will hit you with four shots in a quarter of an hour of bad humor and vengeance of the sergeant-major of the Civil Guard, and what is done is done. In short, you think it over well. One cannot go there with noble


-600and lofty ideas, because the friars do not have them and they will remove a nuisance treacherously in order to continue their iniquities.

If you come here, save one or two copIes for me, inasmuch as you are so kind as to offer it to me. Dona Juliana is one of your admirers, in her own way, and I believe you ought to inscribe one for her. I tell you this because she said that you had presented her a copy of your first book. Do not say that I have told you about it. Antonio is commg soon. Regards to our countrymen there and congratulations to the engineers for their studiousness. Yours, LUNA

273. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Paris, 23 September 1891

Sincere congratulations - When is the third part coming? Barrantes may again say that the work is printed in Germany.

Paris, 23 September 1891




Yesterday I receive~ your book; today I have just devoured it. Hardly have you begun sending out copies of it and I am already asking you when the third part is coming out. Please accept my congratulations, my sincere and moving felicitations, and as God has given you talent and energy for it, continue on the path that He has traced for you. Receive an embrace of your friend and countryman, TRINIDAD

P. S. I cannot walk well yet. What do you bet that Barrantes or somebody else will deduce that your book is again printed In Germany?

-601 -

274. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 26 September 1891

Offers Rizal funds - EI Filibusterismo is perfect, vigorous, poetic, and with feeling - He likes Isagani best - Basilio is not bad - He can identify Juanita Pelaez and Ben-Zayb Grateful for the rough draft inscribed to him.

MR. JosE



At this moment I receive your letter of yesterday and without losing time I am answering it, so that you can do what seems to you best, without thinking of the question of funds. Yesterday I sent you two hundred francs and in the letter I wrote you, I told you to let me know if you needed more. You can count then on one hundred fifty pesos and some more, if you need it, without ha'ling resort to anyone. Precisely I am well of now with funds that I do not need. Telegraph me if you want to send there the one hundred fifty pesos or part of it only. Do not bother about the amount you have already taken, because I do not need it. Concerning your turn to Manila or Hong Kong, come over and let us talk about it. Without doubt it must have shocked you that I have not told you my impression of your work EI Filibustertsmo. Frankly, T read it once and I am thinking of reading it again to see if I find something which will permit me to make a little observations; because to tell you onlly that I have found it perfect, good, correct, vigorous, poetic, and with feeling, as you must have already been told , is not worthwhile. Knowing our friendship, it

- 602-

- 603 must be supposed that though these are my impressions, it unnecessary to tell them to you.


Of all your personages or characters, the one I like best is Isagani, who is gentle and poetic when dealing with Paulita, energetic and consistent when he talks with his enemies and for his country. Neither is Basilio bad, only it seems to me that he deserves everything that happened to him for being so indifferent to the things pertaining to his country. Juanito Pelaez and BenZayb are two characters whose originals, it seems to me, are two countrymen of ours; one that we knew in Barcelona, then was with us in Madrid and presently is in the Philippines; the other we met here during the Exposition. Do you recognize them? I appreciate very much your having inscribed to me the rough draft, but you already know that we are like two brothers and for that reason I ought to be he last; so that if you have any other commitment, you may dispose of it without any ... . When you come, bring three or four copies. Do not you think you ought to inscribe a copy for Ramirez? Your affectioante friend , V. VENTURA

275. Juan Luna, Paris, 30 September 1891

A postal card from Antonio Luna informing Rizal that he has received the P50 prize from del Pilar - Acknowledge receipt of complimentary copies of Rizal's works - Sends paintings, image of the Virgin of Lourdes, fans, and photographs to Manila through Rizal.

Paris, 30 September 1891




At this moment I receive a postal card of Antonio for you, which I am not forwa ding to you, not knowing if you are still there. It says: Dear Rizal: Though the kindness of Marcelo I Feceived da.y before yesterday a draft in my name for the value of 50 pesos. It is the prize they have given me, accompanied with a letter. I endorsed the draft to Marcelo so that he may send it to you. I do not know if he will do it immediately. You may, therefore, telegraph him so that he may send it to you wherever you are for you will need it for your trip. Happy trip and a.n embrace from ANTONiO

Madrid, 28 Sept. '91

I have telegraphed Ventura asking him if you are III Paris. I have just received the books for Doiia Juliana and Tula and the three you are sending me for which I give you a million thanks. Doiia Juliana asks me to thank you affectionately. j will give the book to Tula when she comes back from Bered:-, which will be in two or three days. Tell me when you are go-

- 604 -

-605ing to sail. I am going to bother you by sending through you a little thing for my family in Manila. Regards from the Family, kisses from the children, and an embrace from your affectionate friend, LUNA

Luna's instruction to Rizal concerning the objects for Manila Enclosed is the invoice of the fans for the customs. Collect the customs duties and other expenses from Mrs. Trinidad de Zobel. Invoice of the paintings that you are taking along and those that you will get from Urbano's house. These prices are for the braggarts and the reduced prices are for the genuine amateurs. Colllect all the expenses for the image of the Virgin of Lourdes from Jose Luna. Value of the image is 12 duros . Freight paid until Marseille. I beg you to collect all expenses, for this is a little business that we have with Trinidad Zobel and Jose Luna. You get 10% of the sale of my paintings. If you do not get it, I will never again send through you anything for sale. Give the photos to my brother Pepe. If you are not going to Manila, you may forward the box of the Virgin to Pepe and the fans to Trinidad. There is no hurrp about any of these requests. A million thanks. Yours, LUNA

Pay a visit to myoid captain. He is a true Filipino and he knows many Portuguese from Macao in Hong Kong. He was my captain in the Brig Rivadavia; the pilot J. Margques. and a second pilot. They told me he is an agent of the Compafiia Tabacalera in Singapore and agent of other cigar factories.

276. Juan Luna, Paris, 2 October 1891

Luna asks Rizal to do some errands for him.

Paris, 2 October 1891 MR.




When you co e tomorrow, Saturday, please pass by my house of gunsmith and pick up the French foil that Antonio left there to have a new leaf put on. Pay him what it costs. If you can, ano it is not roo heary for YOll, pleas.e pick up also the Italian foils. Please tell Valentin Ventura that if he can come with me to the Consulate tomorrow, Saturday, we will meet at the Cafe Durand at 2:00 o'clock; if he cannot, would he send me a telegram. Affectionately yours, LUNA


-606 -

277. Filipino Colony of Barcelona, 2 October 1891

The Filipino colony of Barcelona congratulates Rizal on his novel EZ Filibusterismo. - A gem of Spanish literature. - Decalogue of political redemption and human dignification - If your precepts are followed, they will make an enslaved people master of its destinies. J(.

Barcelona, 2 October 1891

MR. JosE



The Filipino Colony of Barcelona has read with unusual enthusiasm your new work whose style, being original, is comparable only to the sublime style of Alexander Dumas, senior. It can be presented as a model and precious gem in the now decadent Sp:mish literature. The novel has vigorous and energetic passages which recall to memory the impetousity of the . ... 1 Its pages are a torrent of lofty as well as redeeming thoughts. Like a new Moses, with your immortal work you have endowed the Philippines with the Decalogue for her political redemption and human dignification.

If the Philippines would know how to follow the commandments, precepts, and counsels beautifully transcribed in your novel, she would quickly make of an abject, enslaved people, a people free, great, prosperous, and master of its destinies. Consequently this Colony has the greatest pleasure in congratulating you, wishing El Filibuster'tsmo a flattering success in 1 Words



-608all its varied manifestations, trusting that our common mother, the Philippines, will support the efforts and respond gallantly to the lofty purposes of its author. Your most affectionate friends, countrymen, and admirers: Santiago Barcelona Enrique Magalona Isidoro de Santos Raymundo Andres Emiliano Camacho Bernabe Bustamante

Graciano Lopez J aena Santiago Ycasiano Jose Gustilo Ramon Riego Felino Cajukom Vicente Reyes


278. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 2 October 1891

A critical appraisal of E1 Filihusterismo superior to the Noli. Exquisite style, sublime thoughts. At the beginning "light, alluring hopes; at the end shadows of doubt and despair" - Simoun ought to have succumbed like a hero, shot with bullets, or like Porthos or Bern ardo el Carpio - Another work which solves the problems and hastens the day of our redemption - Those of the M adrid Colony do not understand one another Luna at the point of rebelling against del Pilar - E1 Bagu io is not yet published.

Barceelona, 2 October 1891 MR. ] OSE. RIZAL




I have received from Vicente Reyes a copy of your new work inscribed to me. I thank you for the present and I congratulate you sincerely. Candour and frankness prevailing among friends and countrymen, my impartial, personal, especially my own opinion of your recent production, inasmuch as you ask me for it in your letter to Vicente, is the following: El Filibustertsmo is a superior novel to your Noli me tangere in its exquisite, delicate literary style, its easy and correct dialogue, its clean, vigorous, and elegant phraseology, as much as for its profound ideas and sublime thoughts. The development is magnificent and of original effects. I am charmed by the whole, having surpassed my expectations.


-610However, you begin the novel very alluringly like Dumas and you conclude it dryly like Sue. 1 Here is the defect, if it is a defect, of your great work. Your heginning in your recent production is sublime, poetic like the red clouds of dawn that spread on the horizon, brilliant, clear, announcing a good and beautiful day; however, your conclusion is like the evening twilight, saturated with heavy mist. You begin by encouraging heroic passions, infusing, inspiring, alluring, beautiful hopes, golden illusions, dragging the masses towards glory, and you end by filling the mind with black shdows. making the heart overflow with cruel anguish. Your beginning, like Dumas', is light, much light, magnificence, hope, gay dawn of day, rose-colored future, glory, immortality; but your ending, like Sue's. shrivels the heart. plunging the mind into the nebulous abyss of despair. In my opion, I believe that, as you present to the eyes of the Filipino people Simoun, attractive, great, generous, though depraved in certain stages, but behind his depravity and feigned, conventional wickedness, you endow him with a brave heart, full of noble desires, you ought to have killed him at the end of the novel, converted into a hero, either killed in some battle or in the flames of a formidable fire, or wounded by a thunderbolt, or crushed by the cataclysm of an imposing earthquake, and you would have suceeded to give your work a magnificent crown. You have left the problem unsolved. As a political novel, your ending is not a worthy conclusion of so beautiful a work. I would have liked to see Simoun succumb magnanimously, if not shot by the bullets of the invading enemy, as you rightly call the Kastila, under an immense mass like that Porthos of the immortal Dumas, preserving until death his iron energy and Herculean strength; or like Bernardo el Carpio, according to Philippine folklore, pressed between the cleft of two mountains that are drawing to each other, prevents with his strong arms the violent clash of both, but shouting upon seeing the approach of death with head high and the face serene: "I haven't come to fight 1

Eugene Sue (1804-1857), French novelist.

of Paris was widely read by educated Filipinos.

His lengthy novel, Mystery

-611nature's commotions; I've risen, I've wished to fight not the thunderbolt or the lightning, but the imbecile and stupid Spanish Government, the friar debased by his vices, the tyrant and oppressor of my people; but nature crushes me, annihilates me! Let it be! I submit to its inscrutable design! " I should like to see your novel end thus for having sustained, encouraged the Filipino people's mettle that can still be developed. But now I understand that you wished to leave to the Filipino people the solution of their social and political problems. Besides, in your magnificent work you have closed the doors, the exit, with your ingenious resort to confusing argumentation, sowing, at the conclusion, anxiety in the hearts, darkness, doubt, and incredulity in the minds, easy of being dissipated, clarified, and comprehended by brains accustomed to think, but impossible of being understood by minds which have just opened to th~ light, like those of our people. I am afraid that our countrymen over there may not be able to guess right or hit upon the solution of the enigma and they may languish in their despair. It is desirable, and this is How I feel, that you write another book, solving quickly the problem in order to hasten with it the advent of the beautiful day of our redemption. Such is my personal and friendly opinion, sincerely expressed, on your new work whose end plunges its readers into despairing skepticism. As to the book review that I am going to publish in the Spanish press, I will stress the beauties of the book. If I have not yet published it, it is because some countrymen friends, your admirers, advise me to hold over its publication until after a large number of copies of the work has been introduced in Manila. Now, I am awaiting your decision and advice so that I can publish it in La Publicidad. I should like another copy to present to Corominas. This colony has drafted and signed a congratulatory letter to you. Le me know in advance your departure for Hong Kong so that I can go to see you at Marseille. From Madrid I have heard that the Filipinos there do not understand one another. Luna is at the point of revealing against Marcelo.

-612El Baguio is not yet published, because I am awaiting orders from Hong Kong and Manila. I am entirely in accord with your ideas expressed in your work. Regards to Alejandrino and Evangelista. Always your friend, GRACIANO


279. Rizal, Paris, 3 October 1891 To Jose Ma. Basa

En route to Hon g Kong with 600 copies of El FilibusterismoWill practice his profession and earn a small capital. Hopes to be financially independent.

4 bis Rue Chateaudun P aris, 3 October 1891

MR. JosE M.


Hong Kong




I cannot sail on this mail boat because the boxes of books that I have forwarded from Ghent do not arrive at Marseille until after a few days. I have already my ticket for the Melbourne, so that without failure I will arrive there aboard the following mail boat. I will bring wth me 600 copies of the work. I have sent you via the previous mail two copies. I will practice my profession until I shall have earned a smail capital to live on, free and not dependent on chance. Very probably in the first months I will earn very little until I get to be known. In short, there we will see. Enclosed is a letter for the Propaganda. Until within fifteen days. Affectionately yours, RIZAL


280. Rizal, Paris, 7 October 1891 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

He will respect any cntlClsm of his work El Filibusterismo - Reasons why Rizal stopped writing for La Solidaridad - It is a private enterprise - it has published ideas contrary to Rizal'sH e hopes La Solidaridad will live under del Pilar's leadership - He regrets the attitude of some Filipinos at Madrid toward him.

4 bis Rue Chateaudun Paris, 7 October 1891 [ MR MARCE LO




I recei ved your letter with me the 230.50 francs that me, the balance of the 1,000 pesetas that they ought me. I thank you for everything. With this the sum I cei ved from the Propaganda since the month of February to three hundred pesos.

you sent to send have reamounts

I appreciate the benevolence with which you treat my work, and by this time you have already formed your opinion of it. Whatever it may be, I must respect it, because one who publishes must endure patiently all the criticisms that are made of him. I appreciate also the rant that La Solidaridad dedicates to me, such as, "distinguished Filipino literary man", and "author of various works on the Archipelago that have merited general applause." It is good to be known that Jose Rizal writes also about the Archipelago, in case it may not be known in the Philippines among the people who know Spanish.

-- 614-

-615You talk to me of writing again for La Solidaridad. I appreciate your invitation, but frankly I am going to confess to you that I have not the least desire to do so and you must have guessed the reason. I have written for more than a year for the fortnightly when I beileved it was a Filipino organ and with this idea in mind I have not even wanted to inquire how it lives nor why it lives. I believe in a national enterprise and I hore resignedly the silence of the fortnightly over its mysteries, in so far as I was concerned. Now you tell me that La Solidaridad is a private enterprise and you will understand that I cannot work under these conditions for a private enterprise. I do not know whom I serve or how I serve him or how he takes my services. Here is the reason that you must have quessed without any doubt. Moreover, in La Solidaridad have been expressed not only ideas but also whole articles against my opinions and convictions and I cannot introduce duality in that fortnightly. I prefer to remain in solitude and isolation rather than to disturb the harmony and peace of its staff writers. I will do everything I can, except writing, in order that fortnightly may continue its existence. You will probably find me very susceptible; I confess that I am, but when one has harbored only good will, love, and abnegation towards his friends and in return he encounters recriminations and attacks, believe me, he ought to alter his behavior and modify his manner of working. The scratches of a friend hurt more than the wounds inflicted by the enemy. I have outlined for myself a norm of conduct and that is to let the Filipinos of Madirid direct the policy that they know and understand so welL What can I do with my impatience and despotic pretensions? I understand the desire of every Filipino to do as he pleases and I give up my idea of forming with my countrymen the tight fagot of which I was dreaming. Perhaps the iron of compressed molecules. I have made a mistake and I present my resignation. You continue there, and inasmuch as you are already at the top, use your power to put into practice your ideas so that nothing will remain to be probed. Since the beginning, I have wished to introduce scrupulousness in political practices: I present my resignation at the first sign of discontent.

-616You will receive a copy of the Morga that I inscribe to you. As I believe that this will be the last that I will write' you, for I leave on the 18th, I bid you farewell, sending you an embrace in memory of our old friendship. Yours, RIZAL

P. S. I sent Naning some open letters for Manila to be delivered to you. Haven't you received them? He has not deigned to answer me.


Mariano Ponce, Madrid, 11 October 1891

Rizal's letters sent to the Propaganda - Ponce informed del Pilar of its contents - Ponce has answered Rizal's letter to him - EL Filibusterismo, an excellent book, like all the products of Rizal's brilliant pen - "It will wound the enemy deeply" - "May you reach safely our unfortunate country ..... . "

Rubio, 13 praL Madrid 11 October 1391

MR. JOSE Paris





I have learned that you are already in Paris en route to our beloved country. May you arrive there without any mishap is my vehement desire. You told Selong that I have not acknowledged your letter with two open letters for Manila. When I received those letters, Selong was not here. In order that they would not be delayed I sent along those :-tddressed to the Propaganda and I wrote Selong only, informing llim more or less about their contents. With respect to your letter to me, I remember that I asked Cor to enclose my reply n his letter to Alejandrino, so that I was fully confident that you have received it through this friend. In it I informed you of the sending of your letters to the Propaganda in Manila. I have already read once the Filibuster't.smo and now I am reading it again. It is truly excellent; I cannot find any other


-618praise but to say this: It is really excellent, like those that come from your brilliant pen. It is a very worthy sister of Noli. Acceept my heartfelt praise. I am sure that your new book will wound deeply our enemy, already wounded thanks to the publication of the Noli. This is all. May you reach safely our unfortunate country, and you know that you will always find me a true friend and an admirer of your brilliant writings. A close embrace of NANING.

Our house now is at Rubio, 13 principal floor. are keeping house. Lete is with us.

Selong and I

282. Rizal, Paris, 13 October, 1891 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Rizal knows about del Pilar's ambition to outshine him and knock him down so that he would become sole leader - But he is not resentful- He withdraws to leave the ground free for del Pilar - He considers this decision a blessing to him - His esteem for del Pilar undimmed - He agTees with del Pilar's opinion that El Filibusterismo is inferior as a novel to Noli Me Tangere.

4 bis Rue de Chateaudun Paris, 13 October 1891 MR. MARCELO




I have just received your letter, I have read it, and I am going to answer it in order to put things in their proper places before I leave Europe. Between us two we can explain ourselves clearly because fortunately our relations date far back and our displeasures are of recent date, perhaps a product of that Madrid atmosphere. Let us explain ourselves then. You were the one who said that the review SolÂŁdaridad belonged to a private enterprise, which dealt with you alone. You said this when I wanted to give the Responsable the power to prevent the publication of this or that article. I told you then that I believed it was a national enterprise. Witnesses are tthe Filipinos present at the discussion of the by-law. Whether it is a national


-620or private enterprise, you fear that my active and rightful interference in is policy will outshine yours. If this is not little confidence in my polit拢cal leadership, then I do not know to what to attribute it. I prefer to give this explanation rather search for another, offensive to the feelings of both. You say : It's not thil, it's not this. I answer you: Let it be that, because it is not desirable to look for another reason, in my opinion at least. I am not offended that, impelled by others, you have wanted to overthrow m~. It is natural for everyone to seek his glory, precisely we were in a country where everyone dissents in order to make himself head of a party or a group. Before, the way you allowed yourself to be used to overthrow me hurt me; but now. when I am more calm, I smile and I consider that your opposition to me has been for my own good, because, if they had elected me unanimously, I would have remained, and in what hardships I would be afterwards! My power being curtailed due to systematic opposition, with so many cares and duties incompatible with the few rights that they wished to leave me, with advisers hostile at -bottom, what would have become of me? I would have conflicts and I would be completely discredited. Today I give thanks to Providence who has sought my welfare, and I am grateful still to those who continued voting against me until the last moment in order not to give me the unanimous vote that I was wishing! You are right in saying that time makes one see clearly many things. Today I see clear and what I considered bad, now I consider a benefit. Well, I would have had not a few conflicts with the students who had been suspended from their schools, with debts, gambling, and pawn! With my firm and impatient character I would have broken with everybody before allowing any regulation to be ignored! What a pity that the work we two have undertaken has been cracked! I understand that at bottom you esteem me and I es路 teem you always, even more than you perhaps believe, because with all feelings, all affection, hate, or grudges are lasting, I do not say eternal! I have this defect, I forgive but I forget with difficulty and no, as I do not forget that you had been my best defender and my best champion, likewise I remember that you had been the first man whom they have wished to use to knock me down. What a pity that we have not been able to continue

-621side by side, and though I repersented until a certain point the head of the Filipino colony, you have wished to beat me down and raise yourself and become the first leader! But this is nat路 ural in human condition. My policy, if the life I lead has a policy, is to withdraw gradually from Philippine politics and leave you at its head. So that I would write again for La Solidaridad it is necessary for the representatives of the Filipino people to order me and tell me that I submit my policy to yours. Otherwise, no. By my own will, no. I cannot, I ought not to commit suicide, I await my execution. La Solidaridad in these last months has treated me like a stranger. I cannot therefore go to it and humble myself. I await orders from Manila. I appreciate what you say about my work and I value highly your opinion that considers my Filibuster:smo inferior to the Noli. I, too, frankly, without irony or words with a double meaning, share your opinion. For me the Fili as a novel is inferior to the Noli, so that I eceive cum grano salis l the opinion of those who tell me that the Pili is superior to the Noli. Blumentritt, all those at Paris and Barcelona, for their benevolence towards me, say it is superior. I attribute it only to their benevolence. You are the first one to tell me the truth and you coincide with my manner of thinking. This flatters me as it proves that I still know how to judge myself. Well, now with respect to unity, ideas, depth, etc., it is another thing. I understand that you find it strongly written. I have done it on purpose, so that the objectives of La Solidaridad may stand out and appear less red: I believed that I would not need to give you these explanations, but this gives you the key. So that I believed it might even be desirable that you attack it. For this reason, I say that I work along parallel lines with La Solidaridad. Reflect on it well. I am not abandoning you or leaving you alone; on the contrary, I believe that you are now better accompanied than ever before. The clay idol that a bottle of champagne has melted, if it is really of clay, what does it matter if it disappears? Time will tell who is right. I want to make it of record that never do I oppose the rise of anyone, even though it may cause my 1

With a grain of salt.

-路 622 downfall. I leave the ground free to all those who want to triumph and I withdraw. May this currishness that seems like the quarrels of slaves disputing among themselves about the relative merit of their chains not erase altogether the remembrance of past years when we had not yet met under the sky of Madrid! I will continue keeping my esteem and friendship for you, rather friendly than indifferent to La Solidaridad, and you rest assured that never will I join any plot or conspiracy to overthrow you or to kill your periodicaL For me to withdraw is not to wage war against you. I will write N aning from Marseille. An embrace, and let there be peace among old friends . Yours, RIZAL


283. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 15 October 1891

The Filipinos at Barcelona wish Rizal "Happy trip!". - Both Rizal and Lopez Jaena are victims of their envious compatriots - "Let us join together to knock down those who exploit patriotism for their own benefit" - Recommends to Rizal the Asociaci6n Filipina at Hong Kong, founded by him - Luna has separated from La Solidaridad - Jaena, candidate for deputy of a district in Catalufia - The Philippines must win with blood her rights as well as her independence. :y.


Barcelona, 15 October 1891

MR. JosE


Marseille DEAR RIZAL,

I have received your letter for the Filipino colony of Barcelona and your letter to me in particular. Everyone appreciates your courtesy, wishing you a happy trip and prosperity. With regard to what you tell me about the displeasures :lnd disappointments you have been reciveing from the Filipinos I, like you, have experienced and experience them, as you well know. I, who have done nothing but good, you and I who have done nothing else but give everything, the little that we are worth, to those who envy you and envy me, we are a sustaining los~. You have lost everything for them, and I am misery. I am not an optimist as you say; I, like you, am a pessimist.

Well then, you know those envious ones who now are heap路 mg Ignomlrues on you, have done the same thing to me. I was


-624everything to them when they arrived here in Spain; I have done something for them; I have introduced them to the associltions. to political personages, and when they believed they could frisk about by themselves, they abandoned me to whom they owe everything, even their worth in Spain. They starved me to death; they declined to give me lodging where I could take shelter. You well remember that you sent me twenty pesos on behalf of Basa through Mariano Ponce by means of a postal card. Well, Marcelo and Mariano hid it from me. Six months later T saw your card and I felt ashamed for not having written Basa to thank him. You must have been told about it by your cousin Galicano and others. I was the founder and editor of La Solidaridad in Barcelona, but I was treated like a criminal, an editor in name responsible to the law rather than editor in fact. And I did not know that a Committee of Propaganda existed in Manila until I got there. In Manila these envious men have divulged that I was dissolute, a gambler, I ho never had any liking for gambling. And so I write ou in the month of the Paris Exposition asking you for money to go there, because here in Barcelona I was considered their servant, despite the fact that I was then editor of La Solidaridad. So then you and I join together to knock down those pseudo-patriots who exploit patriotism for their own benefit. Before, I kept quiet because I was alone. Today, you, like me, experience the disappointments, the anguish produced by envy. Let us then vow to impede by all means the triumph of pseudo-apostles of the redemption of the Philippines. Having said this, I have nothing more to tell you. Until another letter I cannot give you my views of your new work. You will receive that in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong you wll find a handful of enthusiastic young men, not yet contaminated by mean passions that divide us in Europe. I founded for them the Asociaci6n Filipina, which is working well. Develop their enthusiasm, guide their ideals along the right path. With your exquisite tact you will get out of them much good for the Philippines. Above all prevent Kastilas and foreigners from joining the Association as members. The members should be pure and genuine

-625Filipinos, so that our lofty purposes may be realized. I recommend to you strongly that Association in Hong Kong; may it not fail. Make of those young and old men in that Association a Pleiades of heroes. I have already written them and they will receive you at Hong Kong as teacher and counselor. Before you leave, answer me if you have received this letter. I have transmitted your request to Vicente. Luna tells me that he has separated from La Solidaridad. Well done. As I live here in Spain, I have joined a revolutionary party which is in consonance with my learnings and convictions for the Philippine as well as for here. Well then, the republican parties of Barcelona have agreed to make me select one of three electoral districts for deputy to Cortes so that when the general elections come I may present my candidacy. You know that in these things one has to work beforehand and spend something. Certainly, if I want to be deputy in Spain, it is only to satisfy personal ambitions, nothing more; I do not pretend, once invested as deputy, to give the Philippines rights or liberties. She has to win them her blood, the same as our independence. If I want to be a deputy, it is just to enable me to say proudly that a Filipino has been elected by the Kastilas themselves in a Spanish district, as a district in Cataluiia is. Such is my personal ambition, very personal. For this reason, encourage the Filipinos there to help me in some way, to see to it that I become a deputy and I can say to my envious enemies with the face elated with pride that the time I have spent in Spain has not been in vain; that I am not a lost man, nor am I depraved as they are spreading, but a man who has won with his own efforts the place that I am going to fill in the Cortes, if I would be lucky. N ever believe that I connect the fate of the Philippines with my election as deputy. That would be madness. I always think that the Philippines would obtain her separation by means of an uprising. Tell that to everybody, that I wish to be Spanish deputy to satisfy personal ambitions, nothing more. I write you at night and at a late hour. Pardon my handwriting, if it is not too legible. Answer me before you sail.

-626Regards and an embrace for Basa, his son Emilio, and compliments to his other sons and daughters. An embrace for E. R. de Luzuriaga and for Y. R. Laurel of your province who has dismissed from the Procuraci6n because of you. Embraces for all the members of the Asociad6n Filipina and Beltran, captain of the steamer Don Juan. And to you, I wish you happy trip, prosperity, and riches. Yours, GRACIANO


284. Rizal to Baldomero Roxas, Marseille, 18 October 1891

Rizal knows his name is being exploited in the PhilippinesHe regards the Filipinos at Madrid as his friends -He is not resentful- He is sailing for the Philippines.

Hotel de Castille, Marseille 18 October 1891




At last I receive a letter from you and I give you a thousand thanks for what you tell me in it. I am very sorry for what is happening to you, but what can we do? I advise everyone to be very prudent, to avoid scandal. I too knew that my name was being exploited in the Philippines, but I hope things will be placed in their proper places. I am going to look into this also. It is not that I am resentful of the (Filipino) colony of Madrid, no, very much the contrary. I owe it very many courtesies that I shall never forget . I disregard completely its policy, but never its members. They are always my friends. I pay no attention to its policy because I foresee that it is leading us to our perdition, and frankly I do not want to be ruined by a foolishness. I want to save what remains. I ignore its policy and its present organization, but my friends, never. Please tell my dear cousin Rianzares that I am sorry that he is resentful because I have not thanked him for the bogoong. When I received it, I was told only by Alejandro that Tomas was sending it to me. Afterward, when Abreu came, I learned

- 627 -

-628that Ruiz was also sending it, and I wrote to the latter thanking him for it. Now I learn that Pablito also is one of the donors, but only now? and I hasten to thank him likewise. Just in case, I thank Sucgang also. Please tell Mamang Tetoy that I received the books and that Cord de Cruz will pay for them. Gratzas agimus. 1 This afternoon I embark for our country. Regards to Aguilera and tell him that I received what they had promised me only that, on account of the exchange fees at Barcelona and from Barcelona to Paris, the 500 pesos were reduced to 360 pesos, more or less. What a pity to waste such money on bankers. Many regards to Dona Matilde, Elenita, Mme. and Mlle. Angele, also to our orator, the future judge, and to H omero dorm itanti.2 Goodbycs:!

) 1 2

We give thanks. Literally, sleeping Homer ; inactive poet.

Affectionately yours, RIZAL

285. Rizal, Europe, October 1891

Fragment of a letter in Tagalog signed "Laong Laan", a Rizal pseudonym - Written in metaphorical language: "It is true that the times are bad, the ground is not fertile, there are man y locusts, frequent typhoons, and the wind blows away the seeds; but with devoted care there will always be found there some fish , as D. M. says" - Expresses loss of confidence in the campaign for reforms in Europe - The fight should be in the Philippines

Europe, October 1891 (? ) of the plants that may grow. In case I shall no longer be living when the seed yields its fruit, perhaps those who will inherit it will have it harvested. It is true that times are bad, the land is unfertile, there are many locusts, frequent typhoons, and the wind blows away the seeds, but with devoted care there will be found there some fish, as D. M. says. You who will have hope of the palay that has been wet by the rain, it is good for you to hope, just in case; I, whose eyes have become dim for reading the writings on the sky, am no longer very credulous. My purpose j.s only to use the rain, the locusts, the typhoon to fertilize the ground; the stones that are scattered are to harden the mire, the heat of the sun is to dry the mud. If our countrymen are counting on us here in Europe, they are very much mistaken. I do not want to deceive anyone. If there is no money, we cannot do much: We can help them wz"th our lzfe in our country. That general error that we help here in this distant country is very, very wrong. Medicine should


-630be brought near to the patient. If I did not only wish to shorten my parent's lives, I would not have left the Philippines whatever might happen. Those five months that I spent there were a vivid example, a book very much better than Noli me tangere. The battlefield is the Philippines: There is where we should meet. God will that my parents may not die and you will see me then again in our native land. There we will help one another, there together we will suffer on triumph perhaps. The majority of our compatriots in Europe are afraid, they flee from the fire, and they are brave only so long as they are far from danger and they are in a peaceful country! The Philippines should not count on them; she should depend on her own strength. LAONG LAAN

[J ose Rizal]


286. Moises E. Salvador, Manila, 1 November 1891

Transmitting resolutions of the new Committee of Propaganda - Creation of a new organ under Rizal- Reiterates full confidence in Rizal - Orders del Pilar to deliver to Rizal certain funds.

Manila, 1 November 1891




I transmit to you literally the decisions of the Board of Directors which met in a plenary session: "In view of the letter of Brother Dimas Alang of 14 August last, this Committee has agreed on the following: (1) To give satisfaction to the sa.id Brother Dimas Alang stating that the country had never doubted his patriotism, much less condemn his conduct in Madrid and that the news to which he refers in his above-mentioned letter were completely unknown to the majority of the Board. "(2) That for his complete satisfaction and as proof of the veracity of what is stated in the first paragraph, this Committee, separated from the old one, is functioning independently from now on with its priva.te funds and is creating another organ with its own editors, "31 This Committee, using its right, unanimously appoint Editor-in-Chief of the new fortnightly the said Brother Dimas Alang, Assistant Editor, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and authorizes the first to name his associates. "4. The sum of PI00 monthly is approriated for the Editorin-Chief, P40 for the Assistant Editor, and P77 for the Associates, printing expenses, and other contingent expenses. "5. It leaves to the decision of Brother Dimas Alang the establishment of the fortnightly, as well as the choice of a name for it.

- 631 -

-632"6. The sum appropriated in paragraph 4 will be sent in advance quarterly to the Editor-in-Chief and to place he may designate. "7. This Committee, being separate from the old one, withdraws from it funds contributed for representation expenses which are in the possession of Brother Carmelo. 2 An orderletter will be sent him through the first mailboat so that he may hand over to Brother Dimas Alang the sum of P700 and a draft to London for ÂŁ18.7.3 to be applied to the monthly salaries provided in the previous paragraphs. "8. That a copy of this letter be kept by the Board. "The undersigned brothers have made this painful decision to vindicate Hrother Dimas Alang who was ignored by the old Committee, entreating him to accept this satisfaction that his brothers are giving him ",ho cherish him and are very grateful to him." For the Brethen, Copa 3

1 Jose Rizal. 2 Marce:o H.

del Pilar. 3 Moises E. Salvador, Lodge Simb. Araw, 3 0


287. Moises E. Salvador, Manila, 3 November 1891

Del Pilar's brother-in-law ( Deodato Arellano) fru strates the resolutions, making use of Cortes, opponent - Collection of new funds The only supporter of del Pilar is his brother-in-law.

Manila, 3 November 1891




As a continuation of my former letter dated 1st instant I must tell you that the things that are happening here are unspeakable. As I told you in my first letter an order was being given to Marcelo to deliver to you P700. That was agreed upon and ordered by the members of the Board of Directors as a result of the petition presented by the donors of those funds; but Marcelo's brother-in-law has placed obstacles, using Cortes, who has nothing to do with the Propaganda; but as they hold the money, they employ brute force, and we cannot do anythng. I say so, because after the resolutions, Cortes meddled and opposed and for fear that he might be displeased and things reach unpleasant extremes, we have preferred to collect new funds, which will be at your disposal as soon as we know the exact place where you are. All were disgusted with what they have just done. It can be said that the only one who remained on Marcelo's side was his brother-in-law.


- 634 Again I entreat you in this letter to approve what we have done, for they have already made us suffer considerablly in times past. Your attentive and affectionate friend and servant who kisses. your hand.

M. E.


Simb. Araw, gr. 3

p. S. The enclosed official letter is very deficient, because apparently it appoints you only Editor-in-Chief of the newspaper, when in reality you are also Chief of the party. The same


288. Moises E. Salvador, Manila 17 November 1891

Rizal's admirers and supporters in Manila form a Rizal Party - They want to prevent Rizal's separation from Philippine politics - If he is going to Japan, let Jaena establish the fortnightl y in Barcelona with Rizal's name as editor-in-chief.

Manila, 17 November 1891


I am the first to a mit that my previous letters were deficient and until a certain poipt incongruous for having been written under nervous excitement. So I beg you not to mind the defects of its style but the good intentions that animated us, for we were obliged to do what we did as we were not entirely agreeable to your isolation nor to your sepration from Philippine politics, however relative it may be. Moreover, we have taken the liberty to form ourselves into your party, because we cannot agree with the procedure used against you by some members of the old Board of Directors. For this reason, I beg you again in this letter to approve all that we have done and accept our proposition in the understanding that you are willing to submit to the will of your country, as stated in your letters.

If you are thinking of spending some time in Japan, you may authorize Friend J aena to establish immediately the fortnightly in Barcelona without forgetting to place your name as editor-in-chief and without prejudice of sending him your articles.


-636Please notify him that we are very much under obligation to publish the said fortnightly. For the present our constitution is unknown to the members of the former Board of Directors and thus, in case you plan to answer the letters they have sent you, say nothing about our proposition. I beg you also that in approving our manner of procedure to authorize us to come to an understanding with persons who are unconditionally attached to you, sending us in writing the said authorization. You may address our mail


this manner.

Inside envelope Mr. Timoteo Paez Manila Thru the kindness of Messrs. J. M. Tuason & Co. Outside envelope Islas Filipinas Messrs. J. M. Tuason & Co. Manila As to the money-orders, you may indicate to us the manner and form of sending them. Our plan is to remit to that city in your name and form there you can make the withdrawals that you believe are necessary for the expenses of the fortnightly . Your attentive and affectionate friend who kisses your hand,

M. E.


P. S. The enclosed are copies of the letters written by this Partido Rizalino since its organization. Only the letter addressed to Mr. Luzuriaga is missing among them, for Friend Paez had no more time to make a copy at the time the originals were sent. The same

289. Rizal, Hongkong, 26 November 1891 To Manuel Camus

Arrival at Hong Kong - Luna's letter - Remittance of 20 Filis, 6 Margas, and 4 Nalis at 25 % commission - If C amus could send copies to M anila .. . . J(.

Remedios T errace, Hong Kong 26 ~o ve mb er 1891 MR. MANU EL CAM U S



We arrived here without any trouble on the 20th of this month and here you have me at your disposal. Enclosed is a letter to you of our friend Luna, a letter that I did not know I had among my papers. You will excuse me then if there is anything in it requiring prompt action. I am sending you also the receipt for a package that I am sending you by parcel post. Inside are 20 Fz'lt's, 6 Morgas, and 4 NoZz路s.. To make up for the loss in exchange, here they sell the Fili at two dollars a copy. It is understood that you get 25 per cent commission, a condition sine qua men, if it does not bother you. If from there you can send copies to Manila. I would appreciate it. Jose Basa sends you his compliments. He command your servant and friends. JOSE RIZAL 1 Manuel de Camus, Filipino patriot, was the leader of the Filipinos at Singapore who met Rizal when, en route to Cuba via Spain, he stopped there. These Filipinos tried in vain to persuade Rizal to remain and give up his plan of continuing his trip. Camus was 'the nephew of the captain of the steamer Tabo in El FiJibusterismo. See Camus' letter No.290 infra.



Manuel de Camus, Singapore, 5 December 1891

Acknowledgment of the letters and books of Rizal- Will try to mtroduce them in the Philippines - El Filibusterismo will regenerate the Philippines - Hopes that it will foment hatred of the friars and the pro-friar~.

Singapore, 5 December 1891




I have before me ypur letter of 26 November and I am very glad that you have arrived safely at that Colony. I thank you for forwarding the letter of our mutual friend Luna. There is nothing in it that demands prompt action. In my possession are 20 Filis, 6 M orgas, and 4 N olis, and I will try to sell them or introduce them in the Philippines. But you give me only the price of the Filis . . . . At what price shall I sell the others? I have read your last work, that is, El Filibustertsmo. Although the opinion that I have formed of it would not augment nor detract from its merit, permit me to tell you that it h:ls pleased me very much, and as a good Filipino, I am very grateful to you for your book that will regenerate that unfortunate country (Philippines), fomenting in some of its inhabitants and making germinate in others hatred of the friars and the defenders of their policy.

- 638-

-639I must also thank you for the accuracy of the portrayal of the captain of the steamer T abo. He was my uncle! Begging you to give my compliments to Mr. Basa, I remain. Your servant and friend,





Sixto Lopez, Emuy, 11 December 1891

What Fr. Francisco said about Rizal- The friars fear that upon his return the people of Kalamba would agitate - Rizal has the "'face of a rascal' associated with other rascals who are in M adrid writing for L a Solidaridad."

Emuy, 11 December 1891



Hong Kong



Though of very little value, I will tell you what my fellow passenger Montero learned from Father Francisco when he went to the convent or Procuraci6n to bid him goodbye. Vicent (Vicente) promptly informed the friars that he wanted to annoy you because you did not like to go personally to the Consulate, and Father Francisco was alarmed believing that should you come to Manila the people of Calamba would again agitate; for they have been losing 40 thousand pesos annually since the litigation began. Father Francisco told this to Montero as he inquired about you, if you were already here or if he had seen you on the boat, and Montero replied, out of fear, that he did not know you even by name. He told me many more things; that Father Francisco has seen you several times on the street, that you have the face of a rascal and that you are associated with other rascals in Madrid who are writing for La Solidaridad unless things that altogether form a comical scene, and in short many Filipino subscribers are being deceived.

- 640 -

- 641 -

It was at three o'clock when he told it to me; and I wanted to write you this letter, though it is full of blots for being hastily written, so that I can leave it here in Emuy. From there to here I stayed in the berth and ate in bed. Regards to all, especially to your parents and brother and command your affectionate friend , SIXTO




292. Lorenzo Miclat y Castro, San Nicolas, Manila, 30 December 1891

An unknown admirer, Cabeza de Barangay of Binondo, offers to help Rizal with a monthly quota - Asks \ for his address.

San Nicolas, [Manila J 30 I>ecember 1891



Hong Kong




Without any claim to your friendship except our mutual love for our native country, for whose liberty you are fighting spiritedly with legal weapons, I take the liberty to greet you availing myself of the' propitious occasion of your presence in that neighboring port, hoping that you are exceedingly well in the fuB sense of the word. Without doubt the present letter will surprise you and will disturb the tranquility that you are enjoying there, but I hope you will understand that the one greeting you is a humble son of the country and therefore your brother, who, without knowing you, has for a long time distinguished you with his admiration and esteem, which become more intense each time your illustrious name is mentioned in the gatherings of respectable persons praising our deeds for the benefit of the native country. Carried away by the enthusiasm for the laudable patriotic labor that you are doing for our welfare, I offer myself as one of your humble servants, aiding you with a monthly or annual quota and hoping


- - 643that you will deign to gl ve me your address for the remittance: of my quota. Should you wish to honor me with your friendship I would esteem it highly, and of course I am at your command. In case you deign to answer me, please address your letter to the Tribunal of Natives of the district of Binondo. I am at present Cabeza de Barangay having been so since the time of Gobernadorcillo Lanuza. Or if not, you can send it to my humble little house, which is yours too, at No. 40, letter B., Barcelona Street, Binondo. Let it be of record that my firm and loyal desire is to be your subordinate who kisses your hand. LORENZO MICLAT Y CASTRO


Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 6 Juanary 1892

Work of the Filipino colony of Barcelona in favor of Kalamba - Reply of the Minister of Colonies - Send letter to the unfortunate exiles - "I make much noise here .... " - Jaena wants to edit a newspaper affiliated with the Progressive P arty - A fortnightly is useless - His financial problem - He is asking D eputies Muro and Ballesteros to interpellate the Government on the events in Kalamba.

Barcelona, 6 January 1892

MR. JosE


Hong Kong





I received your letter on 2 December last. Here is the work done until now by the Filipino Colony of this city in favor of Kalamba. In La Publicidad is published the text of the telegram to the Minister of Colonies. I am sending you a copy of his reply. I have written an articles on the affair for La Publicidad and when it is published I will send you a clipping of it by the next maiL See .to it that the enclosed letter reach the hands of the Ullfortunate ones who are groaning in exile. I make a lot of noise here and if I could go to Madrid, I would make much noise there too. The colony here has planned to collect funds to send me to Madrid, but nothing can be done as all are out of funds. Because of these events, an association has been organized here whose aims I will describe to you in detail in the next maiL

- 644 -

In spite of the fact that I have received the fifty pesos that the Filipino colony in Hong Kong has kindly sent me and the forty pesos that the new committee has sent me, I am nevertheless in a bad financial condition, full of debts, for you know how one lives here. And as they have already suspended my pension since two months ago, I am here suffering privations atrociousy. So I have already asked Mr. Pepe Basa for passage-money to return to that port. Here I have nothing more to do on account of the scarcity of my resources nor can I realize my personal aspirations. As to the proposal that I edit a fortnightly, I cannot accept it. Considering my position in the Progressive Republican Party, to edit a fortnightly is ridiculous, in addition to the fact that such a review cannot lead to anything useful. I like to edit a daily or bi-weekly that is eminently political, affiliated with the Progressive Party in order that we, the Filipinos, can utilize it in favor of the chiefs, deputies, and senators of the party. This is my project, described in a plan in the possession of Luzuriaga; you may read it. It is a shame to offer a fortnightly to a political party. You know well the great expense that a daily, or even a bi-weekly, entails, so that if the Filipinos like to deposit the sum stated in my prospectus, I will establish and edit the newspaper. Because of the unbecoming treatment that the old committee has dealt me, I have lost faith and confidence in committees. Fcr this reason and also because my situation is becoming worse from day to day, I want to leave this place and go to that port. You know me already and I believe that you will know how to appreciate my resolution. I have endured nine year of misery; but now, considering my rank in the Revolutionary Party, it is no longer possible for me to endure poverty. You know what it is to live in Spain. Today I am writing to Deputies Muro and Ballesteros to interpellate the Government on the events in Kalamaba. I will give you an account of the result in the next mail. Regards to all. Yours, GRACIANO

- 645-

294. Jose Alejandrino, Brussels, 8 January 1892

The Rizal Party in the Philippines would like Rizal to return to Europe and be the leader of the Filipinos there - His pension will be sent regularly - offers condolence for the out.rages in Kalamba - Convinced that nothing could be expected from Spain - Vicente Reyes and the sale of the Fili.

Brussels, 8 January 1892




Today I am writing you in Spainsh because I am quite in a hurry and moreover I am afraid that I may not make myself well understood in French concerning the important things that I have to tell you. In the first place, my father has written me saying that many of your friends there have formed a society whose object is to counteract the disastrous policy of del Pilar. This society wishes you to accept the leadership and to come to Europe and establish a more reasonable policy. I believe of course that even for nothing else but for love of our unfortunate country you should accept this proposition and it would honor you greatly not to disappoint a whole people who hope to find in you the remedy for the ills they are at present suffering. Besides, this time I believe the pension they will assign to you will come more regularly, taking into account what my father says in his letter. This, without prejudice of increasing your budget

- 646 -

-647(au fur et a mesure 1 as the society increases Its membership and business there improves. In short, I will not try to convince you, for I believe that with your clear judgment you will understand the usefulness of such a proposition. I give you my condolence for the outrages committed by the Kastilas in your town and more especially on the persons of your relatives. When shall we avenge them? Shall we remain eternally with arms folded? Very nearly I am getting convinced that we could not expect anything from Spain, these continuous outrages having completely dispelled my few remaining doubts and I believe like you do that we cannot depend on anyone except on our own strength. Of the PlOO that lowe you I have already paid P85 to Mr. Valentin Ventura and I hope that before this counrtyman returns to Manila I shall have fully settled our account. Mr. Reyes (Vicente) has not behaved very decently towards me (passez moi le mot.) Well, he asked me for 12 copies of the Fili which I sent him by return mail. Then he wrote me that the price of 7.50 pesetas was too dear, as if doubting my honesty. Besides, he told me that the bookseller asked 35 per cent commission. I replied that under these conditions I could not sell the books, inasmuch as I have to send you 5 pesetas for each copy and with the expenses of mailing, money order, and other things, I realized that I could not comply with the only condition you imposed upon me when you left me the copies of your book. He wrote me again saying that he had sold 6 copies and he would send you the money. To this I replied that you have given orders to deliver the money to Mr. Ventura, but if he had a contrary order from you, I agreeable. To this the said gentleman did not deign reply. My studies are going on well; I have pretty good grades, for the lowest I have obtained is 10 in some subjects and in the rest 17. The inspector has written my family saying that the result of my studies during the term is satisfactory. It seems that Abreu will begin to study also, which makes me very glad, for I am sorry to tell you that until now he has done nothing. The situation of friend Evangelista has improved and he studies with much eagerness and profit. 1

In proportion to the quantity.

-648I am here at Brussels taking advantage of the two or three days remaining of our vacation. Abreu may come today or tomorrow. I have not yet called on the family of Suzanne but I am thinking of doing so tomorrow. Mr. Almeida tells me that he will write you as soon as possible. Without anything more for today, receive our good wishes for happier year than the past. You know that you can command your friend ,



Edilberto Evangelista, Ghent, 8 January 1892

Sympathy with the people of Kalamba - they are a credit to the native land - The outrage affects the whole country - Those of the Propaganda have vindicated Rizal by entrusting to him the management of La Solidaridad and our policy in EuropeLife in Ghent is very dul!-Evangelista is devoted to his studies.

Ghent, 8 January 1892 ~R. JOSEPH FUZAL



First, I wish you a Happy New Year with all the comrades who are around you who desire the prosperity and success of the .campaign of liberal ideas which ought to bring to the Philippines the most beautiful day that I am dreaming of. We have learned here of the incredible conduct of the Spainsh Government towards the Kalamba people who are a credit to the native land for their passive but imposing attitude. We regret this misfortune of the Kalamba people which every Filipino ought to deplore, because it is a thing which affects the whole country. But, we are pleased with such despotic behavior as it will undoubtedly help to hasten the march of events. We have learned nothing about the circulation of your Fz"Zibuster1.smo over there, whether it is free or prohibited; but we have learned with pleasure that those of the Propaganda have supported you in the question of the Filipino colony in Madrid by offering you the management of SolÂŁdaridad with excellent conditions, as well as the formulation of the policy of the Philippine Islands in Europe.


-650, At the beginning of December I received money and I was able to matriculate at the University. The courses are not difficult and we can follow them fairly well. The work at times is entertaining; the internal administration is very excellent; the courses are more practical than theoretical; and the professors are amiable and clever. Influenza has spread these days in this city; many people are sick brought about by the humidity of the south wind, but winter is very mild this year . . .; the rate of mortality has increased a little but not in an alarming manner because those in the official list of deaths are aged people, children, and the sickly. At present the university classes are suspended for the death of a professor of pharmacy, but he was already sickly when he was attacked by influenza. I have not been able yet to remit any amount to Mr. Ventura in payment of my principal debt like my university matriculation fee, but without fail I will send him some money at the first opportunity. Life in Ghent is very dull and for that reason I can devote myself completely to my studies. Without anything more to tell you, my dear friend, a thousand regards to the Filipinos who are there and I am Sincerely yours, EVANGELISTA

296. Ariston Bautista, Paris, 27 January 1892

A post card from Ariston Bautista - Interest in Rizal's Borneo project - If life becomes unbearable in Manila, he may join Rizal in Borneo - A society in Paris for the welfare of the country

10 Tour d' Auvergnie Paris, 27 January 1892




Althongh I have not received any letter from you, I have learned all about what is happening to your relatives as well as about your plan to go to Borneo and establish there an agricultural colony. Perhaps, in life in Manila becomes unbearable, we shall meet there in Borneo. We in Paris have a plan of a society also for the welfare of our country. Do not forget to inform us (J. Luna) about Borneo and other things. Regards from

I am not yet returning to our country. 1 Dr. Ariston Bautista Lim (1863-1928) of Manila physician and phil an-



Juan Luna, Paris, 30 January 1892

At Manila things consigned to Rizal are closely watched at the customs - A popular meeting in a Paris theater in protest against the outrages in Kalamba - He is not optimistic about its effectSpain, always "on the side of her men of the s\Nord" - 21 drawings of Luna for the Noli - Offers to illustrate also El Filibusterismo" - Booklets with drawings for popular education - Inquires about the Borneo colonization project.

Paris, 30 January 1892 DEAR RIZAL,

They have written me from Manila that they have received the box containing the Lourdes, but they say nothing about having reimbursed you for the expenses. For this reason, I beg you to collect from my family in Manila, as we have agreed. They tell me that they will send you the paintings through the mediation of anothter person for everything consigned to you is closely watched. Today they will hold a meeting at the Martin Theater on account of the events in Kalamaba. Responsible and very famous personages will speak, but I am afraid that after the protests of the Spaniards of the opposition, everything would remain as protests and nothing more. The outrages committed against your family will go down in history, but no justice can be expected from the Mother Country, who nearly always places herself on the side of the men of the sword to maintain the accursed prestige rather than justice.

- 652-

-653I am sending you the enclosed 21 drawings for the N 01ÂŁ. I am sending them to you so that you can make use of them JS you wish without waiting for those of the others to whom I have already given your order. One is of what they call aqua forti's. I am also doing the same drawing according to this process, which I will send you, if it turns out well; of making use of it for other things of Philippine interest. Give me some news about the new Borneo Colony, for I, as well as the majority of those residing here, desire to know if your project is already a success. What I am sorry about is that I am not in a position, as in other times, to help you materially.

If you 'like, I will also illustrate El Filibusterzsmo and if you like, give me a brief subject for propaganda, so that with ten or fifteen drawings in aqua fortis, a little book can be made in the the style of children's stories that are made here, sometimes in the form of caricature, sometimes in more serious style. I believe that some booklets in Japanese style with Spanish or Tagalog text will serve to educate the people who do not know how to read. My work will be gratis and the only expense is for ordinary printing. Nothing more; may your enterprise be a success and with regards to that valiant colony, I remain Affectionately yours,



P. S. Regards from Paz, Mrs. Juliana, and Antonio; kisses from the children. Will you tell me if Antonio Marcaida is a Filipino? He talks a lot about Philippine questions and of his brother-in-law Chuidian.

298. Antonio Luna, [Madrid, January 1892]

Ready to defend our right without abandoning the campaign in Madrid - Spaniards give a political character to the events in KalambaSpanish policy is to reign by terror - "We ought to work together for independence" - Win partisans of independence - "Borneo will be a keystone for us." - Luna may also join Rizal in Borneo.

[Madrid, January 1892]



We have learned about the Kalamba question and all the happenings that occurred there and here goes what I think of it. It is necessary that the Filipinos organize themselves now in another form to be ready to assert their rights in case they are attacked by force without abandoning therefore the campaign in Madrid. What happened in Kalamba is a specific case, but the Spaniards in the Peninsula and the Philippines have given it a very notable political character. Why? Because Spanish policy before, now and always is to reign by terror and in order to attain it, distrust in the colony will always be the first means. So certain in this that with that distrust they made Novales rise in rebellion and with that same method arose that of Cavite. They say thJt at the third the vanguished goes and the blow has to be well thought out, studied, and prepared in time, unfolding it when the noble and glorious Spain would become a righter of wrongs, with another nation or with one of her daughters, in the arrangement of her household. The assimilation propaganda is necesarry and the separatist one should even be mor~ active, because, if we do not attain the first

- 654 -

-655and if we do not attain it (which will be almost impossible), we shall be worse off; the practical way will be to look for followers in order to shake off the yoke. I am expounding then what I think, that is to say, that we ought to work together for independence, converting ourselves into apostles, to win followers and to get funds. For all this, much study, great tact, prudence will be needed and no boasting of our being strong. We shall achieve more by making them believe that we are inactive and that we have forgotten our duties than by showing a strength that we do not possess. With constancy and silence we shall be some Jesuits in order to erect a house where we can drive a naiL I offer, then, in this sense, my cooperation, but with the sole condition that J shall disentangle myself from the active campaign should 1 find out that it will only be a mutiny. It is not that I am dreaming of success, but I am dreaming of demonstrating a resistance about which can be said ; "You are a virile nation". I believe that you understand me perfectly; if we are vanguished, it would be at the cost of much blood. I will go then to Manila and in all my actions I will always bear in mind my duty as a separatist. None of distrusts. If circumstances place me on the side of the Spaniards in Manila, wrote for them. I will earn my living and I will dig the ground at their expense until the fruit ripens. You have here already then a satellite (if these ideas are yours) who will work with steadfastness. With regard to your coming over to manage a newspapaer: 1st, if it is like La Solidaridad, it is not necessary; 2nd, if it is revolutionary paper, let it ask for independence, good and this latter one can be published anywhere, including Hong Kong. For this one, count me as one of its editors. If it is pro-assimilation, I would accept (if they would ask me for assistance) writing for it in order not to displease my fellow countrymen, but better in a revolutionary sense that will call the Spaniards canaille, traitors, and all that they deserve. In this case I am uncondition::tl editor who will attack even SolÂŁdaridad. Write me; well in my turn I will write you on all important questions.

-656Borneo will be a keystone for us, and very probably I may also be one of its inhabitants, if circumstances compel me. We have toasted your father, brother, and family who have escaped, Borneo, etc. etc., where we shall have a new asylum. Nothing more for today. Your good friend , ANTONIO


s. Greetings to all our fellow counntrymen and friends.

299. Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Manila, 9 February 1892

A masonic document making Rizal Honorary Venerable of Logia Nilao for outstanding services to his native country - Masonic reorganization - Signed by Pan day Pira, masonic name of Pedro Serrano Laktaw.

AIGDGADU Univesal Masonry

Filipino Family

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. The Grand Lodge Central Nilad of A L and A masons in federation of Gr Or Esp.: (office in Madrid) sends SFU tto dear brother Dimasalang; and informs him that at a meeting held on 31 January last it was resolved to appoint Honorary Venerable of this Respectable Grand Lodge the said brother to whom the un dersigned Secretary G S addresses himself, as a prize for his outstanding services to his native country. Likewise he notifies him that an appropriate time he will informed of the plan of masonic reorganization that the undersigned presented to the Gr. Ord. Esp. for which full powers had been requested to constitute ourselves into a separate family, and in fact we raise columns on 6 Jan uary last. I transcribe this for your information. Receive, dear brother, the kiss of peace that the workers of this workshop are sending you. ValL de Manila, 9 February 1892 (e. v.) PAN DAY PlRA

- 657-

300. Pedro de Govantes, Madrid, 17 February 1892

Regretting the moral and material disaster which has befallen the Rizal family - Confidence in Linares' efforts.




Madrid, 17 February 1892

MR. My


You understand how much I regret the hardships that your family is suffering. I did not have to do anything, for through Castro, I learned what Mr. Linares had obtained, which I would not have surely succeeded to get. Thus, confining myself to applauding the good attitude of Mr. Linares and to deploring the deep sorrow you must have felt upon seeing your aged father banished, I remain. Your affectionate friend who kisses your hand, PEDRO DE GOVANTES

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301. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 18 February 1892

Lopez Jaena in difficulties - Full of dread, without hope of help - The new committee does not exist, the old one is agonizing - They asked him to return to his post and now they abandon him - Coincidence in the name of La Liga - Copies of El Filibusterismo for his brother at Iloilo.

Barcelona, 18 February 1892



I am like a soul in purgatory here, full of dread, of restlessness and anguish, without knowing what to do, for Paez tells me in his letter that the new committee does not exist and the former one is agonizing. As you see, I do not know where 1 will end in the midst of this painful situation. I do not understand certainly how I, without meddling in the internal struggles of the committees, nevertheless have always to pay for the broken dishes. I would not have returned here if that same committee had not begged to do so.

lt seems incredible that without previous agreement we have coincided in the name La Lz'ga which should be given to the association that you are founding there and to the one here which also has begun functioning since the beginning of January, and it is eminently political. When its bylaw is printed, I will send you a copy.

- 659 -

-660 Do me the favor of sending three copies of El Filibustertsmo to my brother. Wrap them up and label them in this manner. Iloilo Mr. Domingo Lopez J aena 7 Fajardo Street Jaro Through the kindness of Mr. Timoteo Paez Send this package though a messenger to Paez and he will forward it to my brother. Paez will remit to you the expenses. Thanks in advance. Regards to your father, mother, brother, and the whole Filipino colony in Hong Kong. Yours, GRACIANO


302. Rizal, Hongkong, 17 March 1892 To La Solidaridad and Asociaci6n Hispano-Filipina

Grateful to La Solidaridad for its support of the Kalambenos -Rizal Rizal wrote on the happenings for English papers - Not an echo in the Spanish press - Linares Rivas promises redress for the grievances - Some pardoned - Difficulty of sending La Solidaridad to Manila - If comrades for the struggle are lacking, there are avengers - Would like "to go to Manila to see the bull at close hand" " ""

2 "Rednale Terrace Hongkong, 17 March 1892 To the Director and Editorial Staff of La Solidaridad and to the Asodad6n Hispano- Filipina.



I have read in the newspaper about the campaign you have waged on account of the events in Kalamba and I feel profoundly grateful, as all Kalambeiios must be, for so patriotic a conduct. Though I do not believe that you had any other purpose but to show that there is solidarity, if not active, at least latent, throughout the Philippines when one part of her is in danger, nevertheless I wish to express to you on my own and on behalf of my family our gratitude, for, as I have for sometimes written for its columns and worked with you, I consider that I have a right to deserve your help when I try to defend something. Here I have also written in English for some newspaper, but it is rather for record purposes and information and nothing more. Without desiring to counsel either the newspaper or the Asocia-

-661 -


cion, I believe that at present little can be expected from public opinion in Spain; there the water is up to the neck and it cannot pay much attention to the Philippines. In a letter of 17 January that Linares Rivas l has written me he admits the outrage and promises repeatedly timely redress. Already they have pardoned some. As a conservative, Linares Rivas wants to look after the prestige of the government and wants to fix things little by little. Here we encounter very great difficulty in sending La 50lidaridad to Manila. Through the mail none can be sent except one or two at the most. I should like to systematize the remittance, but those in Manila refuse to give money and those whu formerly took charge of it do nor want to do it gratis. I believe that you over there ought to think of introducing it in another way. The Manila committee no longer writes me. The cam paign turns out to be useless. Our sincere gratitude to the Director, Morayta, Lete, Cajig:ls (Tomas) and all those who has given attention to the Kalamba question. The Filipinos will see that if they lack comrades for the struggle, at least there are avengers. This is already something. Several times I have wanted to go to Manila to see the bull at close hand, but in view of repeated and panicky opposition, if it can be called so, I have had to desist at present. The committee has a truly panicky terror each time I say that I am going. I have always thought that only with great fear one goes to the corners. I should be grateful to Mr. Tomas Cajigas if he would send me the Mas, should he not need it any more. With regard to J ugo and Lete, prize-winners, I will write to Manila. I reiterate my compliments to the first and my very courteous congratulations to the second, because I believe he justly deserves them. I will do everything I can so that the prizes would be awarded to them; the bad thing is that I no longer have my former prestige. Whatever depends upon me will , be done. Here you have me at your command. JOSE RIZAL

1 Linares Rivas was a S'panish lawyer and politician who symphatized with the Philippine cause.


Sixto Lopez, Manila, 18 March 1892


from S. Lopez to settle accounts in Hong Kong; the balance to pay for copies of Filib'Usterismo - All refuse to accept the 25 % commission offered by Rizal- Rizal's circular will be taken to Balayan - Mrs. Trinidad Zobel advises Rizal not to return to the Philippines for he would be killed - Many Batanguefias are awaiting Rizal's report on Borneo.

Manila, 18 March 1892

MR. J .RIZAL Hong Kong



You will recive the enclosed draft for the value of 130 pesos in the name of Basa with the request that you please settle my account with Mr. Robinson and the balance is in payment for the copies of FÂŁlÂŁ in my possession. No one of the many who helped me in selling it would accept the 25% commission you offer, so that if you will give it to me, I would be embarrassed and would get some money without having taken any trouble at all to eJrn it. In the next trip I will send you the list of persons who helpf.J me for your sake. I have your circular and I will take it to the province tomorrow afternoon. I hope to be able to dispose of it in one day or else I will go there to visit you in the second trip instead CJf spending the Holy Week here. I have taken the fan to Dona Trinidad. When she saw me downstairs, she shouted, asking me what it was, for whom it was, and from it was. I answered all her questions and afterwards she asked why you are there. I replied that you are coming here.


-664She demonstrated upon hearing this and she told me to change: you not to come because they will kill yo,u here. My sisters Clemencia and Juliana wish to be remembered to Trining, if she has not forgotten them yet. Solls is also sending you regards and says he is going to write you when he gets back to Lipa. Regards to your family and command your friend who kisses your hand. S.


P. S. Send me 12 copies of Fili through the majordomo, and a dozen and a half through Ciriaco and the boatswain, because I need them. Buy me also dril, any kind that you think is good. one has asked me to order it.


I consider it acrvisable for you to go to Borneo inasmuch as you wish to see it. Here in Batangas many are waiting for your report on it. The draft for P35 is for Basa, value of the chest of drawers. I will write him when another boat sails. Tell Robinson that I am always sick, so that I have not been able to write him. This is true. I am often sick when I am in Balayan and so I have done nothing or little for the country as I have promised you.

304. Arist6n Bautista, Paris, 24 March 1892

A post card from Bautista inquires about General Despujol's treatment of Rizal - Del Pilar suggests congratulations to Despujol - Fee, for the issue of Rizal's diploma by the Ministry of fomento. Presents Rizal with a book on diagnostic pathology by H. Virchon

10 Tour d'Auvergne, P aris 24 March 1892

MR. J.





Hong Kong



I am not in favor of congratulating you at once on account of the good news that we have received concerning General Despujol's behavior towards you. It is said that you had some co[respondence with him and that it has given good result. We have received here Marcelo del Pilar's telegram in which he suggests that we felicitate Despujol on the 11th instant in accordance with an order-telegram from Hong Kong. At first we hesitated whether to do it or not, for fear of making a mistake, but as the order came from there and you are there, all of us here dea"ded to send it along. We are impatient to know something about this matter. I have written M. Pilar telling him to advance the amount of 35 pesetas which the Ministry of Fomento Development is asking for the issuance of your diploma, and I believe it will be sent there by this mail.

- 665-

-666As I have learned with great pleasure that you have established yourself there for the practice of your profession, I believe it is timely to send you as my contribution a work on diagnostic pathology which will be useful to you, and above all because it is very good. It is by H. Virchow. It is probable that I will go home by June. J. Luna's daughter has died. I will be glad if you get along well there with your dear family whom you 路 please greet in my name. I embrace you, ARISTON BAUTISTA


305. Edilberto Evangelista, Ghent, 31 March 1892

Disappointed at the conservative ideas of our old folks - Dismal legacy of slavery - Family interests and patriotic ideas and liberty - T o die for the country is a duty - Against the stupid expression : 'What a waste of blood!" -- May those conservative ideas not infect our youth - Voice of encouragementFriends keep aloof because of his poverty.

Ghent, 31 March 1892 MR. JOSEPH RIZAL

Hong Kong



How distressed I am to learn from your letter that over there you are surrounded by opposition which prevents you from carrying out your ideas, instead of finding around you the solid support of those who seem to love their native land. But in this regard you ought not to be discouraged; on the contrary, your zeal and your efforts should multiply. In short, this effete generation that precedes us and which ought to pass away soon, still wants to leave us this dismal legacy of slavery. It is because their ideas of patriotism and liberty are not clear, being influenceU by the abominable consideration of interest and family. In Europe an approaching war is incomparably frightful; everybody fears a massacre unprecedented in history, but at the word "N ati ve Country", no one would ever dare to retreat, for everyone realizes that it is his duty to die for his country. You see that to a patriotic man there is no sense in this stupid expression, "what a waste of blood". In short, I repeat your timely phrase: "


-668 to the animals in their torpor."

Now, it only remains for us to prevent that such conservative ideas which are never patriotic, spread among the youth and the next generation, for otherwise the salvation of our native land would become an insoluble problem. I thank you, dear friend, for your compliments on my progress in the study of French and though I find that you flatter me a little, I appreciate your good intention to awaken in me the desire to learn more. My scholastic record is not brilliant as you suppose but I study regularly, like Alejandrino and Abreu, and I am satisfied and proud of it. The map of the Island of Luzon is yours from the moment I had the honor of offering it to you. And I will try to send you the cartouches that you are asking for, but at this moment I am in a great financial difficulty due to the inexplicable neglect of my brother to send me money. The allowance he sends me is never enough to pay my debts to Egermont and the cost of my studies. Since two months ago, Abreu and Alejandrino have moved to another boarding house. They want to be as far away as possible from my poverty, afraid perhaps to lose their prestige as rich men among the women of Ghent; but it does no matter. I have written my brother to try to send you at Hong Kong the $15 tliat lowe you. My dear friend, yours truly, EDILBERTO

306. Jose Alejandrino, Ghent, 13 April 1892

Favorable conditions for patriotic campaign - Confidence in Rizal's ability to work for our liberty - He will know how to overcome obstacles to such a noble cause - We, cannot expect anything from Spain - Less from Spanish charlatans - Rizal purchasing some revolvers - He will send the Flobert cartridges ordered by Rizal.

9 Rue du Hainaut Ghent, 13 April 1892



Hong Kong



I informed immediately Manila about the reasonable conditions that you demand in order to come here, and I believe that our friends there will do what is possible considering the confidence they have in your ability to undertake the difficult task of working for our liberty. Would you refuse to return to Europe in case the result of the negotiations is favorable? I do not believe so, for you love our country very much to refuse to render her so great a service that she expects from you. Why don't you rise above certain trifles when it concerns a cause so great and noble as liberty ? My friend, I believe it is perfectly useless to insist now on it. I ask you humbly to follow your aspiration and patriotic sentiments. As to the rest, they will tell you what you ought to do. As for me, I have lost long ago my confidence in those who are at present directing our political affairs (you also, I am sure)

-669 -

-670and for that reason, we ought to work so that things will march differently. As to the rest, I feel like you do, that we have nothing more to expect from Spain and less from some Spanish charlatans, and that the destiny of a county should not be the object of stupid words, and everything should be done with good intentions .......................................... the Fanotte firm of Liege as well as the American firm, Smith, that I am sending you, so that you may able to choose the weapons that suit you. The wholesale prices are marked and they are the last prices. As to the manner of payment, they want payment at Brussels before the remittance of the goods. Consequetnly, if you wish to buy the revolvers, all you have to do is to send me the money at your convenience and I will take charge of the purchase. I would have liked to send you the Flobert cartridges that you have ordered through Mr. Ariston Bautista, who is returning horne at the end of this month, but he sent me word through Mr. Abreu that, as he was not planning to pass by Hong Kong, it would be impossible for him to please us. Tl;le same thing happened to me in the case of Mr. Ve tura. While waiting for the departure ot another compatriot, I will inquire at the Messageries Maritimes about the best way of sending you what you are ordering. As to your books, I must tell you that after the sale of twelve copies to Vicente Reyes, I have not been able to sell even one copy. As you konw, this gentleman told me that he would pay you directly and so I cannot settle my account with you until you have received the money from this irregular sale. We are now on vacation for 15 days until Christmas. I take advantage of these days ..................................... . My studies are going well and my grades last month are satisfactory. The Horti and Waem families wish me to give you their compliments. Your devoted friend embraces you, JOSE ALE JANDRO

307. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 15 April 1892

Struggling with poverty and the gloomy future - His letter to Basa will tell him about his life - "What should I do? - Recommend the association in Hong Kong from which something good for the country will emerge.

Barcelona, 15 April 1892



Hong Kong




I have not received a letter from you for sometim~ . I know nothing your life or about your work. I'm here struggling with poverty and a gloom y future. Read my letter to Mr. Basa and you will find out what is happening to me. I ask you to advise me what I should do in my dubious and nebulous situation. I recommend to you the Association, develop it, and I believe that it will be the center from which something good for our dear Philippines will emerge. With regards to your family, Laurel, and Mr. Sixto L6pez, your friend who embraces you, GRACIANO

- 671-

308. Arist6n Bautista, Paris, 16 April 1892

Returns to Manila summoned by his mother - Presentiment of a great disaster - Awaiting Rizal's instructions for the triumph of good aspirations - Unity of the divided party at home - Let us maintain our ideal - Trained in French boxing and wielding a sword, he will not allow the Kastilas to mock him.

Paris, 16 April 1892 MR. JOSE M. BASA FOR




I received your letter dated 7th March. I am going home to our dear country. I wiil embark on the Caledonien on 1st May at Marseille. My mother has summoned me by telegram. I have a presentiment of a great disaster. I request you to give me instru,:tions on what I should do, so that our good aspirations may triumph. We hope and we will endeavor to unite the parties at home that are said to be divided. This division will endanger our aspirations. We must maintain the ideal that can never be erased from our hearts. If you are going to write me with an enclosure, address it to Messrs. Baer, Senior, Manila. I offer my services to you at Botica de Sta. Cruz, 10 Manila. F or three months I studied and practiced French boxing, swift blows, and also the handling of the sword at the Ecole Pratiqu~ de Baudoy, 108 Richelieu. It seems that I will not permit the Kastila to mock this face of mine. In the last mail I sent you a copy of T raite Diagnostique Metznikoff. Have you received it? Give my greetings to your family. Command your sincere friend,

A. - 672 -


309. Edilberto Evangelista, Ghent, 29 April 1892

In the clutches of poverty - Encouraging words for Rizal - Organize a Revolutionary Club in Hong Kong as do the Separatistas of Cuba, the Progresistas of Spain - Nostalgia .

Ghent, 29 April 1892




Without any news from my family, my situation tod ay is unbelievable. My embarrassment increase in proportion to th e necessities of life. So pardon me for not being able to comply with your little request; I will do it at the first opportunity. I have heard nothing for a long time about the happenings in the Philippine Islands, especially what concerns you. Believe me, I have a great desire to know something. What has become of the cause of our adored motherland, overwhelmed with so much ill-luck! Are the incredible vexations which she has sufferred these last days not yet enough to awaken her heart, asleep and brutalized during three centuries, that today they should try to amuse her like a child with vain promises and sweet words? When shall I have the happiness of admiring with eyes bathed in tears our valiant youth like true sons of the motherland, with their bosoms gasping at the gust of a sacred love, gathered together around their flag and sincerely ready to shed their blood for her, since this is the price we ought to pay for our liberty! Oh, dear friend, pardon this unbosoming of my heart!

- 673-

路- 674Why don't you make an effort to find out how many share your ideas and are moved by the same impulse? I mean to say that we must give form to your thought, organizing, in defiance of the Government, a Revolutionary Club whose headquarte9 you can establish in Hong Kong or any other place. Don't the Separatistas in Cuba 1 have it? Don't the Progresistas in Spain have it? In short, you are better informed than I, but I am sure that the principal and only obstacle that you would have to overcome in such an undertaking would be the opposition of our elders and of our rich men who tremble at the thought of seeing their mterests threatened by government reprisals. The rich and the powerful in our country will always be the principal tool in sowing fear and distrust in the most courageous hearts. Think of the manner of winning them. You would give a terrible blow to our enemies, which, if it would not have an immediate success, would at least alter the present situa60n. I should not be the one to give you this advice as you 路 might have already thought of it. Remember what you said to us at our gatherings in your rooms at Hainaut Street: "The best and most modern policy is that which is evolved in the full light of the sun" and "Power is not in the government but in the people." About Ghent little ,can be said. It is always a dead city, just as when you left it after your sojourn, so pleasant for me. Winter is over, and spring is beginning to unfold its splendid panorama, letting us admire the charms of nature outside of the city, in the open fields. Believe me, dear friend, never have I been so impressed by nature as now, after having been accustomed to look at her sad aspect during winter. I admire it with the heart and imagination filled with faraway remembrances of the tropics and something resembling nostalgia transports my soul into reveries of the infinite in the midst of the verdure of the leaves, of the fragrance and delightful colors of the flowers. Oh, what memories make my eyes sometimes moist when I plough in a canoe the tranquil waters of the Lys, enchanting river that bathes the land of Ghent, similar to our lovable Pasig! Many regards to your family, Ever yours, EDlLBERTo 1


Cuba was also under Spain.

The Separatistas were for Cuban independ-

310. Mariano Ponce, Madrid, 11 May 1892

Ponce sends Rizal and his family greetings - H ow sad it is not to be able to return to the motherland! - Let us ·help one another until the day of vengeance,. ~ome,~ I



Madrid, 11 May 1892

MR. ].



This has no other purpose but to greet · you and also your family. I hope that little by little tranquility is returning to you all. Now you are saved from the greed and fierceness of the beasts. It is very painful indeed that we cannot set foot in our own country. But the day of vengeance is coming. Now our duty is to help one another while the day of vengeance has not arrived yet. Give my deep respect to your family. You know that this friend and compatriot of yours is always at your service. With a close embrace, NANING

- 675 -

311. Antonino Vergel de Dios, Paris, 14 May 1892

Wishes him a large clientele in Hong Kong - His brother Eugenio Vergel inquire where Rizal's books can be obtained in the Philippines. - Strick customs regulations prevent him from sending Rizal's book to the Philippines - offers his services to Rizal.

Paris, 10 Rue de la Tour'd Auvergne 14 May 1892




I return to you the affectionate greetings that you are sending me in the letter that I have received from Dr. A. Bautista. [ wish you a large clientele to make up for the mishaps that have befallen your family, which we deeply deplore. On 5 March last I wrote you requesting you to write my brother Eugenio Vergel de Dios at San Rafael, Bulakan, telling him where your books can be purchased in the Philippines, because he was asking me for some copies and I have not been able to send him on account of the difficulty of the entry of books there. At the same time I asked you to give him your address so that he can write you when he wants. I have not received any reply to that letter and I suppose you may not have received it. I placed it in two envelopes: On the first the name of Mr. Jose Maria Basa, Hong Kong, without street-name or number. Mr. Ventura could not give them to me as he did not know his address.

- 676 -

-677If you need some things from here, whether books or instruments and others, write me and I will take care of sending them over to you at once. Think then of how I can be useful to you. It will be a pleasure for me to do for you whatever I can, and always count me as a true friend and servant. ANTONIO




312. Rizal, Hong Kong, 17 May 1892 To Baldomero Roxas

At last Rizal receives a duplicate of his diploma - Licentiate in Medicine ang Surgery - the original diploma sent to the governor general of the Philippines in 1887 having been lost - Rizal graduated in 1884 and began negotiating for the delivery of his diploma in 1887 - The Committee on Propaganda at Manila has not written Rizal - Blumentritt informs him that La Solidaridad will cease publication - At Hong Kong Rizal wntes - The Noli is out of print - He asks for the return of unsold copies.

Rednaxele Terrace, Hong Kong 17 May 1892




In reply to your affectionate letter that I have just received, I have the pleasure to inform you that I received my diploma and I keeping your letter as a remembrance of the indifference of the employees over there who dispatch so well the business of their offices. I am only sorry that I do not have now on hand the 35 pesetas with which to refund you. Here they do not sell drafts of that amount for Spain, but I will send money at the first opportunity. Please announce to Lete that through the kindness of a private person I suceeded to get 15 pesos for his prize, a sum that neither can I send directly from here, for there is no money order. I have given orders at Manila. The person who advances this amount for the prize is Mr. Eulalio Villavicencio of Taal. The Propaganda of Manila has not written me since December, which

- 678 -

-679makes me believe that it ignores me. I am sorry, but I am not worried, and until a certain degree I am glad, for it proves to me that things get along well without me, a thing I have always wished. Blumentritt has written me that La S olidaridad would be discontinued and it would be a pity, etc. etc. I also believe that it would be a pity, but I cannot vent it. For years, either for good or ill, I have not interferred in the policy of Madrid or of La Solidaridad. I believe having told you that I ought not to meddle in that private enterprise. I have done enough by not accepting the management of any publication that might be the rival of or even supplement La Solidaridad. I believe that those in charge of it should have the responsibility. I absolutely refrain from interferring in it, not even to help myself. I believe you were present when Pilar said that La Solidaridad was a private enterprise and that he alone was responsible for it. Here we work and write booklets. The T agalog translation of Noli is about finished. Now the 3rd chapter of Morga is being translated. Please tell cousin Rianzares, if you see him, to send me here all the N olt's he has in his possession for the edition is out of print. If some had been sold, will he please give the money to Pilar in payment of the loan of 35 pesetas. I know that Lauro is now at Lipa and they tell me that he has had already a dispute with the captain of the Civil Guard. The father-in-law, it seems, is returning. Lauro does not write me. This is short for I received your letter at 9 and now at eleven o'clock the mail leaves. Regards to all my friends and command yours, RIZAL

Regards to Dona Matilde, Elenita, etc.

313. Rizal, Hong Kong, 23 May 1892 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Disgusted by the article of Lete in La SoUdaridad - Rizal believed he was alluded - "What animal has bitten you that you attack me?" - "I am not meddling in politics and I work only to prepare a place for refuge." - "I made Simoun a dark figure so that those of Solidaridad would not appear as filibusteros". - An article on Borneo ready - Ayvaiting sa tisfactory explana tion.

Hong Kong, 2 Rednaxele Terrace 23 May 1892 MR. MARCELO





I have just written a letter to Naning and I am not satisfied unless I write you too. I have read Lete's article against mel. I have reflected much on the purpose you might have in attacking me and in truth I am lost in conjectures. There are moments when I believe that you act following a most profound policy which is useless to explain, and there are moments when it seems to me that you operate with earnestness and on your own account. I screw my wits uselessly, as they say, je donne ma langue aux chiens, and I do not know what to think. If you act according to a refined policy, why not write me personally? And if you act on your own account, why do you do it? Had I not told you before leaving Europe that I would never undertake anything against 1 Lete's article is entitled "Iluso" (Visionary). Rizal beIlieved Ihimself aluded, but he did not object to it because of the personal feelings, rathler of the effect it might have, that there was a schism among the Filipino reformists, which naturally would weaken their campaign and hurt the cause.

- 680 -

-681you? What animal has bitten you that you attack me when here I do not meddle at all in politics and I work only to prepare a free place for refuge for the Filipinos, devoting the rest of my time to writing some books? Have I not told you that I was leaving you in politics so that you may earn much prestige? Do you need to attack me for that? I cannot explain myself. So that J say to myself: If you have acted for political reasons, I applaud you and I should like you to continue, for it seems to me that you are on the right road. That was my purpose in making Simoun a dark figure in order to show that those of La SolÂŁdaridad are not filibusteros. I thought you had understood my ideas, only that in executing it you have played your role with such naturalness that you strike even me. But then, why do you not name me at once so that the Spaniards who are not well informed about our affairs and may not know how to read the allusions may have no doubt that yOll are attacking me? Why do you do it under so much cover? Are the Filipinos going to say that there is hatred in the attack, real hatred, only that the author does not want to do it face to face? If the attack has a political purpose, I confess that it is rash and imprudent, and I fear that La Solidaridad has staked in it its last cent. May God grant that attack may be understood by my friends in the Philippines so that differences may not be exacerbated. If I were sure that you do it for political reasons, I would now write to Manila to tell them not to take it ill. But I am afraid to commit a mistake, for as I have said, I doubt and doubt. Blumentritt writes me that you fear that La Solidaridad may die, and this also makes me believe that you might have written the article in a moment of bad humor. I do not know yet the consequences that that article may produce, but as it has been a long time that I do not pay attention to politics, nor do I know the state of things in Manila, I cannot prejudge anything. Let the responsibility fall on those who have premeditated it without warning me. If I were sure that it is a political trick, I would write now to Manila telling them not to take it ill, that only a personal question is involved in it, and that politics has nothing to do with it. Nevertheless, I will write my friends and those who are not friends that I have written you and not to adopt any resolution until you answer me.

-682This is not to say that I ask you for an explanation of the article; neither is it to say to you that I despise it; on the contrary, it attracts my attention very greatly and I esteem the courage of Lete in attacking me with so much fierceness and courage and above all with so much confidence. I like determined men. Give me an explanation if you wish; I warn you only that the step taken is most delicate and of great importance. I wash my hands. I had already prepared an article for La Solidaridad, telling about Borneo and its colonization, and now I abstain from sending it. The Governor of Borneo grants us 100,000 acres, porr, government, and the like, all free for a period of 999 years. I am anxious to receive satisfactory explanations for it seems to me that we are now entering a crisis. To my regret you are making me enter again politics and I shall have to write again letters these days to Manila and to other places in order to prevent the schism. More and more I am getting convinced that in writing that article Le e has been too precipitate and you have allowed yourself to be dragged along. Friend or enemy, if the article could hurt me, .t will hurt more the interests of the Philippines. Who knows, however, if after all it is a blessing. It awakens me and after a long silence, I enter the campaign again. And here again I want to assure you: I enter the campaign but I will not attack you or any other Filipino. I will reactivate the campaign and strengthen the Liga. You can read this letter to Lete and you will tell him that. at the worse, I will consider his article an unbosoming in his moments of ill humor. Yours, RIZAL

I note that in the article, Edilberto de Leporel denounces himelf by confessing his revolutionary plans, and it seems that he wants the mantle of asimilismo now only to prepare better the revolution. This makes me think that he did not have all with him when he wrote the article; why say this? Why sell one's self jf nobody buys?

-683Lete's Explanation of his Article Lete's Comment on the above letter of Rizal He denies having attacked Rizal - He is not the character criticized in his article - He caricatured the Iluso in La Solidaridad at the request of Plaridel - "A type of a revolutionary dreamer, without practical means for action", damaging to the cause in the metropolis. This letter deserves a very long and minute commentary, giv路路 ing a history of the facts since the beginning, which will explain its content without great effort. We in Madrid who directed the political campaign in a serene manner, without stepping out of the possibilities that the reality of the situation permitted us, within the bosom of the Asociacion Hispano-Fil拢pina as well as the Logia Solidaridad, and the review Solidaridad itself, we, saw with a certain misgiving, fearing its damaging effects, the violence of some of our comrades, seemingly partisans of force, revolutionaries, among them the never sufficiently lauded L6pez-l aena; and in order to check in part the said tendencies, which did not seem to us prudent to make public in the very seat of the government of the metropolis, the manager of the Soli, Marcelo H. del Pilar - the supreme talent, serenity itself, prudence personified, illustrious diplomat, eminent politician, kindhearted man, loyal friend, the abandoned martyr who died in misery, who sacrified his life on the altar of the Motherland - personally and with his own lips entrusted to me the drafting of the article which under the title of lluso was published in one of the issues of La Solz'daridad. He explained to me his wish; he suggested that I stress the comical aspect (as I did later on in another work of the same kind in defense of Blumentritt, which the hated Retanan denounced to the Spanish government) , and so I made it thus, caricaturing a type of revolutionary dreamer who had no practical means for action, without the living figure of anyone crossing our imagination. And we said so successively in copious letters, as Marcelo and I swear by our honor. So then, this letter that I am commenting on, became stale from that very moment when the inspirer of that work, whose honorable word no one has a right to doubt, belied it explicitly and categorically. And that is explained by itself. Do not we all know that Rizal never made any declaration in favor of violence? Could

-684we attribute to him any of this? How, knowing him intimately, loving him dearly, the three having pursued the same policy publicly, could we justly and logically attack him in that sense? In the same manner I had to express it to my dear friend Ariston Bautista (fondly we called each other cousins) when from Paris he sent me some observations on the misunderstood article. This letter of Rizal reveals once more in clear manner the innate something that illuminated his soul as leader, apostle, redeemer, the visible head of the patriotic movement. Why, who gave him that appointment? When the people manifested in that manner their intentions? Who appointed him with the attributes of power that are inferred from the writing of his letter? His genius, destiny, God himself certainly. In no other way can be explained his protest against the impersonJI, the unnamable, what seems to be so removed from his known procedure. His letter created a most profound impression on us and we deeply regret his error that we hasten to remove. And I thinl~ that at the end we had the luck to achieve it through a letter of later date that he sent to Marcelo H. del Pilar. Luckily, our conscience was clean, we were at peace knowing the absolute honesty of our purpose. And an extraordinary fact: None of the Ilusos (perhaps only one) considered himself alluded to. Afterwards, events rushed headlong. Rizal, back in the Phil路路 ippines, was banished. Towards 1895 La Solidaridad lacked funds. In the lodges and outside of them work was intensified, until an insignificant and fortuitous discovery, disclosed by a fanatical woman through the friar confessor, unexpectedly led to the outbreak of the Revolution, hatched in the lap of patriotic love and in the ardent desire for liberty. Such was the origin of that article inspired with the best intention by our sublime politician and which was so unfortunately interpreted by our national hero. Thus then, in order to do honor to the glorious memory of the most illustrious and self-denying public man, this commentary should be joined always to the letter that I comment on. The death of our beloved colleague Mariano Ponce deprives us now of our most important and only witness.

-685I beg the Filipinos, my countrymen, in charge of preserving these relics, to please perpetuate this desire of the only survivor of that triumvirate of La Solidaridad, who perhaps not for long will also pay his tribute to death. EDUARDO DE LETE

Madrid, June 1929.

314. Rizal, Hong Kong, 23 May 1892 To Mariano Ponce

Unexpected attack of Lete - Why did del Pilar allow its publication? - They will think there is schism among the Filipinos - Rizal would not take offence so that things would not become worse - Do they pretend to attack him in order to show that they are partisans of assimilation? - "I w.ill pursue my policy and will try to gues~ your purposes". Attacks improve he who wishes to improve himself.

Hong Kong, 2 Rednaxele Terrace 23 May 1892 MR. MARIANO PONCE My DEAR FRIEND PONCE,

Today I have received an issue of Solidaridad of 15 April and I have read its articles, including that of Lete attacking me. I cannot express either contempt or indifference upon reading such an article, for after all, he is a Filipino and among the good ones, inasmuch as he has been awarded the prize of patriotism. Neither can I show indignation nor dismay, for, as I have not told anyone for sometime what I am doing or what my political thoughts are, it is possible that Lete may not know what I am doing. Moreover, I take into account the state of your minds there and of the Madrid atmosphere. Judging by what Blumentritt writes me, it seems that some believe that I am the cause why Solidaridad lacks funds or is about to die. There is nothing in this, for I always bear in mind that I have promiseJ Pilar that never will I join any conspiracy against him or against the publication and until now I have fulfilled and will fulfill

- 686-

-687my promise. I am very sorry that Pilar has allowed the artide to be published, for this will make many believe that there is a schism among us. I believe that we can well have little dis路 pleasures and personal differences among us without the necessity of making them extend to the party. We should keep them. to ourselves and respect one another. This is what I believe, but Pilar and Lete can believe otherwise, and I admit that there is liberty for alL I do not know the effect of this article on the Filipinos in the Philippines. I, on my part, will not consider myself offended so that matters will not become worse and I will not write a single word as I have not done for a long time. I do not write either Pilar or Lete for reasons you can understand, as they are the persons directly interested in the matter and because a letter of mine can protest against this procedure, and then they have to give me explanations, or it can advise and then I would appear as a counselor or semi-protector. Tell them only that I am very sorry, but neither do I despise it nor I indignant at it. What fault have they if they have not understood me better? Perhaps I am to blame for havihg supposed they would understand my purposes without the necessity of explaining them. However, for the: ends I am pursuing, I prefer not to give explanations. Perhaps also they are pursuing a more profound policy, and they are pretending to go against me and attack me furiously in order to play better the role of pro-assimilation partisans. In this regard I prais~ them, but in this case, I believe they ought to attack me strongly mentioning my name, because many Spaniards who are not well informed about our inside affairs do not understand Lete's allusions and the article does not achieve its purpose. I only warn them that the idea is somewhat risky, but if it were thus, they may believe that I sincerely applaud them and they can increase the attacks with my secret congratulations. Only I observe that in following that policy Lete sells himself and sells us. In making my enraged Simoun speak, I have wanted to pursue the same end, setting a darker background so that the Filipinos of Madrid may ap pear white, but in doing so, I did not sell any secret. In short, you may say whether my conjectures are false or true. Whether true or not, I will pursue my policy and will try to guess the purpose of your movements in order to adjust my step to that of yours and achieve the best end.

-688As I have heard that you and Selong are thinking of with 路 drawing, I do not understand that policy .. . . As I have announced before to Friend Roxas so that he may inform Lete, a friend of mine, Mr. Eulalio Villavicencio, is sending him PIS, which I do not know how much they will be with this blessed drafts. As here they do not send drafts to Spain, I send the draft to Paris to Friend Luna so that he in turn will send it to Lete. Also PS from Friend Basa for Solidaridad will be sent along. Friend Basa says that you send him five or six copies each time of your Solidaridad. As for me, if that of Lete really goes, you need not send me copies each issue; only when there is some article against me, for I am interested to know what they write against me, because at times they contain truth that is beneficial. I have always wanted to hear attacks against me -because they improve he who wants to improve himself. Against wind aod tide I will always be the same with regard to the friars affair of the Philippines. The interests of the Philippines is above me. Ever yours, RIZAL

315. Rizal, Hong Kong, 24 May 1892 To Juan Zulueta

Rizal informs the secretary of the Commit~ee of Propaganda at Manila about Lete's article, Iluso - It is indiscreet.


Manila, Philippines Rizal, after censuring an article of Lete in La S olidaridad that he found offensive and whose apology he leaves to the discretion of the Committee, adds: "I repeat once more: I do not understand the reason for the attack, inasmuch as I devote myself now to prepare our countrymen for a secure refuge in case of persecution (the agricultural colony of North Borneo) and to writing some propaganda works which will shortly be published. Besides, the article is highly indiscreet and prejudicial to the Philippines. Why say that the first thing we need is money? What is known need not be said and dirty linen is not washed in public. Fraternal greetings to all. Affectionately yours, DIMASALANG


316. Graciano Lopez Jaena, Barcelona, 26 May 1892

Rizal's post card from Borneo - Congratulations on the foundation of the Filipino colony - Lopez Jaena wishes to move there and cultivate sugarcane - Filipino colony at Madrid in lamentable state - La Solidaridad is languishing.

Barcellona, 26 May 1892





I received your post card which you sent me from Borneo. I congratulate you on the attainment of the purposes that have brought you there, and the Filipino colony congratulates you also, the same as I do. All are congratulating themselves and congratulate you on your idea of founding in that new colony a town of Filipinos, th center from which later will spring the redemption of our Achipelago. I wish very much to join you there. Prepare for me a piece of land where I can plant sugarcane, for I will go there when you advise men in order to devote myself to the cultivation of cane and the manufacture of sugar. Give me detailed information about everything. The Madrid colony is in a worse state than before, according to Morayta's information. All, more or less, are engaged in ... and gambling. La Solid arid ad is languishing and its publication is distressing. I await your announcement and your orders in order to move there. Regards to your family and brothers. Your grateful friend, GRACIANO


317. Arist6n Bautista, Saigon, 31 May 1892

A post card from Bautista asks Rizal to send him "instructions for the guidance of those working for the realization of our ideals".

10 Plaza Sta. Cruz Or Baer Senior et Cie., Manilal Saigon, 31 May 1892 MR. J. M. BASA FOR MR. J. RIZAL Hong Kong DEAR PEPE~

I have been here for four very dull days, at the rate of three pesos a day. We are shaking hands and I am very sorry indeed that I cannot do it in person for lack of time. I want to reach Manila soon to find out what is happening to my family. Do not forget to send me instructions for the guidance of those there who are working for the realization of our ideals. My greetings to your family and Don Paciano and for you a close embrace from Yours truly, A.B.


318. Rizal, Hong Kong, 15 June 1892 To Mariano Ponce

The idea of a Tagalog pnntmg press is good - It can disseminate quickly what we want - What is needed is courage, character, and diligence. 짜짜:(.

Hong Kong, 2 Rednaxele Terrace 15 June 1892 MR. MARIANO PONCE


Through your letter of 18th May that I have received, I have learned of your good wishes for me and I see that you do not forget me. My relatives and parents are thanking you for your regards and returning them sincerely. If the news that I have received about your return is true, it seems that it will not be bad for you to establish a Tagalog printing press, because we really need it. What we need in the Philippines is a printing press that can disseminate quickly any news, anything we want. I believe that you are one of the few who can do this thing. What is need is courage, character and diligence and a small printing press that is portable and a large one that can be installed in a shop for cover. We have already some finished work here. This is all and I am always at your service. Your compatriot and friend, RtZAL

- 692-

319. Rizal, Hong Kong, 15 June 1892 To Marcelo H. del Pilar

Attacking me in Solidaridad ... would be equivalent to disowning its own principles in its last days - "Rizal does not believe that the reformists are more useful abroad, than in their own ~ountry - Can a patient be cured more quickly by having the physician and the medicine far from him?" - Rizal's return to the Philippines is strongly opposed.

Hong Kong, 15 June 1892 MR. MARCELO






I see by your letter of 10 May that you are not responsible for the article attacking me that Lete has published. Perhaps I may be mistaken, which would make me very glad, for a wide breach would have been opened to the enemy. Attacking me in La Solidarz'dad would be for La Solidaridad like a renunciation of its principles, and if contradicting and attacking one another are done by Spanish newspapers, we should not follow their example. But you, better than I, know what you are doing. I note only that it is somewhat puerile to make known to everyone, urbi et orbi, that arms, ships, and money are necessary to make revolutions. It is a discovery which if it is not very old, at least it was already practiced in many places in the world that are not very civilized. Friend Lete can be excused from telling us such a novelty, though perhaps he has supposed that I am much more stupid, more ignorant and more candid than I am.


-694I am glad of what you tell me that you will be more useful in the Philippines. I do not ignore the services you are rendering there and that you are the only one at present who can render them, but, as La SolÂŁdaridad reaches Manila with great difficulty, your efforts are very much paralyzed. It is the belief of many of our countrymen that we are or we will be more useful abroad than in our country. When they can prove to me that a patient is cured more quickly by having the physician and the medicine far from him, then I will believe them. Cavour said that one does not serve the native country by staying out of her but within her. I have encountered strong opposition to my return. I too am ready to settle disputes notwithstanding and with everybody, and I have so expressed it to the Committee, which answered me talking to me about my giving explanations. As I answered it rather vigorously, it stopped writing me. Perhaps it was also due to the difference in our views, for I believe that we ought to adopt a different policy and other principles. I have written Manila that they should not decide anything until you write me about Lete's article. They have not replied. I wish to see you in Manila or here so that we can come to an understanding and again become what we had always been. I hope that once out of that atmosphere, and seeing ourselves more closely, we may understand each other. My parents as well as my brother are grateful for your regards. The colony greets you. Yours, RIZAL

320. Timoteo Paez, Manila, 19 Jnne 1892

Publication of Lete's article, "Iluso" resented - Paez will name his son after Rizal - Masonry is progressing - Will send Rizal a good copy of Florante at Laura.

ECHEITA Y PORTUONDO Manila, 19 June 1892

MR. My




I received your let er of 24th May last in which was enclosed another for Moy.1 From this letter I learned what has happened to you, because I have not received La Solidaridad for some time. Two days after I had delivered the letter to Moy, I learned from M. EspaiioP that many are also resentful of del Pilar, even Mr. Cortes, for having allowed that article3 to be published, and Espaiiol told me that when issue in which the said article appears appears arrives, he will not distribute it, because it would kill the Propaganda at once. I have not been able to write you sooner on account of the duties I have now. Besides the office 4 where I stay the whole day, I have another one in the afternoon until eight o'clock at This letter of Timoteo Paez was addressed to Rizal at Hong Kong. Timoteo Paez was an active mason and reformist, and was impr;isoned by the Spanish government. 1 Moises E . Salvador, fellow reformist of Rizal, member of Liga Filipina, who was executed by the S'panish government. 2 Modesto Espanol y Evangelista. 3 An article written by Eduardo Lete and published in La Solidaridad, 15 April 1892. 4 The name of his office is the letterhead: Echeita y Portuondo.


-696night, and these are the affairs of the masonic lodge. As I lack time, I was not able to announce to you my wife's delivery, which occured on 20 March last, and I only asked my brother-in-law Maneng to tell you about it when he would write you. We are going then to put your name on your new servant, whom I offer you from that day, inasmuch as we cannot be compadrel. Perhaps you may be surprised that my son has not been baptized until now. On the first of May we were ready to do it, but since that day until now he has been suffering from coughing. I do not know what I should do. Mr. Zamora6 who treated him would like to apply a kind of caustic on his throat, but, as he is very young, we did not approve of it, and, in order not to tell him to stop attending him, we asked him to give him vaccination, which did not grow either. He is now better, only he has no voice. Your brother-in-law and his family have moved to Calle Lacoste some days ago. Masonry has prog essed much during these six months. We count on 120 to 140 active members distributed in 19 triangles and 9 to 10 lodges. Now I remember I should send you another copy of Baltazar's awit,7 because the one I sent you lacked some pages. I will send it to you on the next boat or on the Don 1uan through the ph ysician Mr. Ruiz. With nothing more for now, our regards to your family. Your friend and servant,

T. PAEZ 6 The sponsor at the baptism or confirmation .of a child becomes a 'c ompadre of the parents of the child. Paez named his son Jose after Rizal. 6 The Manila physician Dr. Felipe Zamora. 7 He refers to the metrical romance in Taga'l og, FLORANTE AT LAURA, by the celebrated poet Francisco Baltazar (also written Balagtas).

321. Rizal, Hong Kong, 20 June 1892 To the Filipinos

Determined to go back to the Philippines - "I cannot live knowing that many are suffering unjust persecution on my account." "Seeing my people persecuted like criminals" - "I offer my life gladly to free so many innocent persons" - "Let those who deny us patriotism see that we know how to die for our duty and convictions." - "What does it matter to die, if one dies for what one loves, for the Native Land?"

Hong Kong, 20 June 1892 To


The step that I have taken, or I am about to take, is undoubtedly very perilous, and I need not say that I have pondered on it a great deal. I realize that everyone is opposed to it; but I realize also that hardly anybody knows what is going on in my heart. I cannot live knowing that many are suffering unjust persecution on my account; I cannot live seeing my parents suffering in exile, deprived of the comforts of their home, far from their native land and their friends; I cannot live seeing my brothers and their large families persecuted like criminals. I prefer to face death cheerfully and gladly give my life to free so many innocent persons from such unjust persecution. I know that at present the future of my country gravitates in some degree towards me, that at my death, many would rejoice, and consequently many are longing for my downfall. But what to do? I have duties of conscience above all else; I have moral obligations toward the families who suffer, toward my aged parents whose sighs pierce my heart; I know that I alone, even with my


-698death, can make them happy by returning them to their native land and to the tranquility of their home. My parents are all that I have, but my country has many sons still who can take it to ad vantage. Moreover, I wish to show those who deny us patriotism that we know how to die for our duty and our convictions. What matters death if one dies for what one loves, for native land amI adored beings?

If I know that I were the only pillar of Philippine politics and were I convinced that my countrymen were going to make use of my services, perhaps I would hesitate to take this step; but there are still others who can take my place, who can take my place to ad vantage. Furthermore, there are perchance men who find me superfluous and my services are not needed, inasmuch as they reduce me to inaction. I have always loved my poor country and I am sure that I shall love her until my last moment, should men prove unjust to me. I shall die happy, satisfied with the thought that all I have suffered, my past, my present, and my future, my life, my loves, my joys, everything, I have sacrificed for love of her. Whatever my fate may be, I shall die blessing her and wishing her the dawn of her redemption. Publish these letters after my death.


322. Jose Alejandrino, Gand, 7 July 1892

Abreu dies of tuberculosis - How sad it is to die young! - For one who has a rosy future! - Professors and friends of the deceased expressed sorrow - He will help in the distribution of El Filibusterismo. ~

9 Rue du Hainaut, Gand 7 July 1892



I received your last letter and I wrote at once to Mr. Valcke about your order. This gentleman replied that on the 25th of last month, two packages left Anvers (Antwerp) addressed to you, containing all your orders. Through the note that I sent you, you must have learned already of the loss which we have just suffereed. Mr. Abreu has left us too soon, a victim of galloping tuberculosis, and all the cares that we lavished on him had been futile. I never believe that his slight indisposition of which he complained at the beginning could have so fatal a result. In my last letter I told that his sickness was not serious, and when the doctor told me of the gravity of his ailment, I could not believe it. I hardly had time to send a telegram to his poor family. He died as he lived; that is to say, serene and affable. Until his last moments his mind remained lucid, speaking about the journey that he planned to undertake in order to return to our country. But death has prevented him from carrying out such rosy plans! To all of us, the death of a friend like Abreu is cruel, because it will be hard to find a young man so pleasant and agreeable as he was. Indeed, it is very sad to die young, having before -699-

-700him a beautiful and rosy future! I cannot Imagllle the sorrow of his poor parents on receiving such news. But although he died far from his family, he was very well taken care of by all, .fspecially by Madame1 who did not leave his bedside during his illness. I have written his parents about Madame's services so that they may express to her their gratitude. The rector, the inspector, and all the liberal professors attended his civil funeral, as I did not like to give the priests even a cent. The foreign students have been very attentive to us, sending very beautiful wreaths so that his casket was covered with flowers. The ribbons were held by four foreign students, representing their respective countries. In spite of the rain which was then falling, they did not like to ride so as not to leave the casket alone. At this moment, the owners of the house have just presented me their bill for damages, for the purchase of a new bed, etc. etc., that amounts to 500 francs, including the services rendered to Mr. Abreu. My father has written me again concerning the conduct of our affairs, but I have already informed him of your plans and your 0pllllOns. As to the second edition of your work, I will attend to it as soon as my examinations are finished because now, I am very busy, having lost much time with the illness and death of our mourned Abreu. The examinations will take place within ten days and I believe I shall be the only one who will take them because the others will wait until September. I beg you to please give my greetings to your family as well as to our other compatriots. With a handshake from



It refers to the landlady. 2Note by Mariano Ponce: Rual did not get to read this 'l etter, having arrived at Hong Kong on 9 August 1892, when Rizal was already an exile at Dapitan. 1

323. Eduardo de Lete, Madrid, 20 July 1892

Lete is surprised that Rizal believed ~imself all~ded to in 9is satirical article - Rizal is not the revolutIOnary QUl)ote comba~t(;!d by him - Rizal is not one of those who belIeve that WIth a sentry-box a revolution can be started.

Madrid, 20 July 1892




I am bewildered by your variol!ls letters that I have read concerning my unfortunate article of the 15th April last. I am sorry indeed that you should continue with your procedure little consistent with good friendship. If you believe yourself offended, why do you not write me, author of the article, and not as you do writing to everybody except to the one who can explain to you his idea? Is it disdain? Is it anger? I do not like to think of such stupendous things about you who boast of being reflective and do not allow yourself to be controlled by more or less unpleasant impressions. At any rate, I do not have to alter my purposes for that, nor do I consider myself-esteem lessened by communicating with you; I dispense with it whenever it concerns you; also because I know you. You write Pilar, Ponce, Rojas, Reyes, and I do not know who else and you do not bother writing me even one word. What is happening to you? What is the matter with you? What are your complaints? On what do you base your grievances? Why should you be the target of my article? Sad is my mission if I do not do anything that is not directed against you! It is odd! How is it that no one has cons i-701-

-702dered himself offended except you? Are they your actions that are depicted in my article? Are you by chance an imprudent man? Are you among those who believe that a revolutionary movement can be started with a sentry-box? Are you among those who believe that patriotism does everything? No? How is it then that it hurts you so much? Yes? Then, what fault have I that without intending to allude to you, you consider yourself alluded to? It is necessary not to rush in judging a question. But before continuing, I must reject indignantly your insinuation, I don't know if it is your letter to Reyes, that the article was written in anger because of what was being said that you were depriving us of our means of livelihood. Never have we subordinated to our personal interests the higher interests of our country. We work with full consciousness that we are doing good, guided by the best good faith, without thinking that anyone would take away our bread, which after all matters little. Do we not have perchance, each one of us, a house in the Philippines where we can live mor,c or less comfortably? Do we not know how to work to earn our living? We do not attack any idea for the sake of our bread and less for this did it ever occur to us to attack anybody. Our friendship and our patriotic sentiments are more important than our stomach. Moreover, who said that you were the cause of the lack of funds of La Solidaridad? Who told us that you took away anything from us? Your eternal suspiciousness makes you see shadows where there are none and you look for reasons without thinking that some of them can do us harm. Let us look back. We know well who is undermining the peace; it is not you. News of hostile and provoking tendencies reached us, of actions, separation, bands, and pessimism capable of bringing to naught whatever advancement has been made on the road of freedom. The optimists or better the prudent, resigned ones, call them what you please, favored caution, the continuation of the work we have been doing while another comprehensive plan, surer of success, is being prepared. The pessimists, the skeptical, rejected every kind of open work. To them the press is useless, as well as everything done in the demand for progress. They say that the only thing that can save us is force; let us abandon peaceful methods and throw ourselves into the battlefield. That was the state of mind when tht director inspired me and ordered me to write the article.

-703The optimists are in my article, those who oppose the pessimists, who commit the madness of surrendering. That was the true state of our camp when I arrived and I told the skeptical: I am enamoured of your ideas as I hold the opinion as you do. But, have you means to fight? Have you thought of preparing them? Have you insured your retreat since you may not win? Is great love of the homeland enough to win? Does it not seem to you that while we cannot fight with some probability of success we ought to suppose ourselves to be good ass£m£lists, possibilists, or opportum'sts, as you like, and obtain for our people a lenitive medicine for their sorrows or at least bestow reason them so that they will never be accused of having lost it? That the press is doing nothing? Read the Manila newspapers and you will see that they now ask what formerly we alone asked: Deputies. In short, I appeared and said to them: How? When? With what? While we are preparing other things, shall we stand by with folded arms? Shall we throw out of the window what is done and won? In order to fight we need something more than patriotism, I said then. But sir, my idea can be understood by merely taking note of two words in my article - Anverso y Reverso. Indeed this reverso (reverse) gives the measure of my good faith, patriotic sen· timents, and methods. What more? Indeed this article is intended to lash the ideas of those who believe that with scanty means everything can be achieved. Indeed that article is an appeal to reflection so that they may act reflectively. It is, to say it at once, the same intention of adding up the forces of defense, guiding the ends towards a common ideal, taking advantage of all the resources, all the combined initiatives without excluding any. It is, how can it be said better, to endeavor not to endanger the success of the designs in favor of the common cause. Why do you consider yourself hurt when nothing in it is against you? Why attack you when we know that you have left the field free, as you yourself said? If the attack were against you, why should I not do it face to face? Do you believe maybe that I do not have enough courage to act openly ? Your character Simoun says that those who ask for reforms deceive the country; do you think we would have done well to be offended? What more? Indeed my exclamation. "And Villailusa remained enslaved!" is the synthesis of my sorrows and my hardships with respect to my country. How

-704must I make a profession of my faith so that no one may doubt my good intentions? I do not pretend to have made any discovery because what I say is in the m~nd of sensible persons; but believe me, I have written the article for those who persist in their ideas, for whom profiles and the strokes must be enlarged in order that they may understand by the rough contrast that the good road is another. That I have sold myself? May it be at the proper time At last I have done it on gratuitous pretense for the same reason that nobody buys. Any way everybody knows what are my ideas and I do not act modestly in making th~m public on honorable pretense to the extreme of becoming an enemy of some friend of my family. That . . . . Note to the Editor of the Epistolario: The last page of the above letter is missing, which must have been lost while it was still in the possession of Mr. Ponce. The letter therefore has no signature, but by the handwriting and style. it seems to be an authentic letter of Lete.

324. Marcelo H. del Pilar, Madrid, 20 July 1892

Grieved by the deportation of Rizal - "Soon I will follow you; let us see if we can scatter the seed" - Pi y Margall and the European colony deplore it - According to del Pilar it is not Rizal whom Lete attacks - It was a call to reflection and duty - Machiavelli divides us.

Madrid, 20 July 1892 MR, JOSE RIZAL


My DEAR PEPE: The news of the outrage done to you has impressed me painfully. I prefer to be the victim than to devour this anguish that takes away my sleep. Well, soon I will follow you and let us see if there where they send us we can scatter the seed and succeed to popularize its sowing. The European colony, including Pi y Margall and family, sympathizes with us. With the first, I have had long conversations about the case; it is very eager to do something, but its ignorance of the motives that led to or justified the outrage prevents it from taking a definite attitude. Don Miguel is out of Madrid on his summer vacation, but I wrote him asking him for his advice. We are expecting any time now the Assistant Minister of Colonies who has also out of town but will return soon. I received your two letters in which you affirmed your belief that you have been attacked by the article of Lete in La Solidaridad, dated April 15. You are mistaken. How could I allow him to attack you when I am interested in your prestige? How,


-706when in spite of whatever has happened between us (better said "in you") I have not stopped wishing for the renewal of our former ties, for I believe that slight differences in procedure are not enough to destroy our common principles, purposes, and feelings? How, when my mode of action depends on the unity, fraternity, mutual tolerance, and mutual support of those who uphold the same ideal? For what have I swallowed in silence the attacks, insults, and bitterness that I have received from many? F or the sake of harmony. I repeat, you are mistaken. I am sure that when Lete wrote the article he did not intend to allude to you and much less to molest you. He described an individual whose methods are diametrically opposed to yours. You do not reject the methods that contribute to your own; you yourself have told me repeatedly: ''No more means are left for us to try"; How can you imagine yourself portrayed by a person who rejects and destroys all means of preparation? Had I believed you as such. 1 would have insulted you and you already know that neither for anything nor for anybody will I offend you. Whether my words be of value or not, I would like to enlighten you about this affair. But first, be assured that Lete's articl~ was inspired by the news which arrived on that date from Manila about the active and effective campaign intended to destroy every instrument of our propaganda: Destroy La Solidaridad destroy the committee, destroy finally all means for the preparation of further solutions, in order not to think of anything more but of these. Although there is bad faith on the part of the hidden agitator of this movement, those who follow him are undoubtedly working in good faith, believing that they are serving their country. For that reason Lete thought of issuing a call to reflection and the medicine that he used was not opium but a caustic substance. But believe me, he did not allude to you, for you had nothing to do with that campaign. J

And now let us refresh our minds : You will remember that, walking on the Paseo de Recoletos you going to the house of Cunanan and I to that Don Miguel, I told you : ''Watch out, for some fine day we shall wake up quarrelling without knowing why." You laughed at my witticism and so did I; you could not believe that determined as you were not to offend me and I, not to offend J

-707you, we would ever quarrel; but that occurred to me without reason as a vague presentiment. The fact was later we were on bad terms. After you have gone, I got on bad terms with both elements of the Filipino colony; and I had to swallow in silence all the bitterness I received in order to maintain harmony among us. It is because neither you nor I had suspected the designs for revenge of the one who was determined to avenge with Mephistophelian devices the affronts of the committee. I have no proofs to show you that the same hand that disunited us in Madrid is the one that continues to divide our own men in the Philippines; but I know his trade mark; and whether my words be of value or not, in any case I let you know them in case they may be of help to you in the evaluation of the matter. You as well as I, my partisans as well as yours, are victims of a base campaign. I do not know whether the purpose of this campaign is solely for revenge, or the friar policy has also something to do with it. Had they accepted my resignation since before and had you relieved me here, we could have exercised his Mephistophelian campaign. Because, revealing myself there as your partisan, his Machiavellism would have been cripled. Well, we shall have an occasion to talk together. I'm glad of the spirit of benevolence that I note in your last letter. You already know that no other spirit animates me except that of unity and fraternity with our colleagues. Let us reserve our energies for the enemies of our tranquility. Your affectionate friend embraces you, MARCELO

325. Ildefonso Laurel, Manila, 3 September

Deploring the unfortunate deportation of Rizal - Our people consider you their redeemer and . saviour - All are ready to shed their blood for the Motherland.

Manila, 3 September 1892 MR. JOSE RIZAL


Upon my arrival at this city, in the bay I learned about the sad mishap that has falllen you. Your father, one night I was at his house on a visit, told me that you will be pardoned shortly. How happy we would be if the news turn out to be true! Our excited people always trust in you, considering you their redeemer and saviour. Do not doubt the loyalty of your fellow countrymen, for all bewail the treachery of which you have been a victim and all are ready to shed their blood for the salvation of our motherland and of yours. All greet you through me and send you an embrace of patriotic love with which some day all united they wish to die. ILDEFONSO LAUREL

P. S. Our mutual friend Deodato Arellano l told me that he has received two letters from Madrid addressed to you, which until now, for lack of means, he has been unable to send you. He is awaiting your decision on the matter. 1 Deodato Arellano. Filipino reformist and revolutionist who, with Andres Bonifacio, I'ldefonso Laurel, Ladislao Diwa, Valentin Diaz, and Teodoro Plata was one of the founders of the Katipunan that started the Philippine Revolution of 1896.


326. Anacleto del Rosario y Sales, Manila, 13 October 1892

His analysis of the waters of Luzon - Gift to Rizal: A bottle of Fehling's liquor and tubes for experiment - Reminds Rizal of happy days of the Marian Congregation - The value of religious sentiments in adversity - Without them, what would life be?

Manila, 13 October 1892

MR. My




I received through the Very Reverend Father Superior your esteemed letter of 1st September and I am informed of its content. I am glad you like my insignificant work on the Waters of Luzon; but I must inform you that in that report only the chemical part is mine; all studies pertaining to geological, climatological, and therapeutic matters belong to the president and physician of the Commission. I have added to the remittance to Father Sanchez one bottle with 100 grams of Fehling's liquor for the analysis of urine and six tubes for experiment that you asked me. Of Sonchier telemeters, like the ones I furnished Father Sanchez, I have none left, nor are there any in the market. They have to be ordered in Paris. As to payment, you have nothing to think of, for Fehling's reagent and the tubes cost nothing; use them as my remembrance. May you continue in good health and ... may you remember now and then those happy days when we were fellow mem-


--710bers of the Executive Board of the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception at the Ateneo! I know that you have forgotten or despised them, but on my part I assure you that several times a day those happy days cross my imagination. Will you be a gooJ enough friend of mine to remember them also? My life and children return your afectionate regards. As to Mama . . . your letter, received on the 6th instant arrived at the precise moments when the poor one was entering the period of agony of her long and chronic illness. On the 9th, at 7 :30 in the morning, it pleased God to call her to His glory. May she rest in peace, she who, with solicitous care, maintained, educated, and taught me the right road since the age of the five, when I lost my father!

It is in these cruel moments, Friend Pepe, that one appreciates the value of religious sentiments! without them?

What would human life be

Pardon me for speaking to you of this; it is an unbosoming of your friend who 10 es you, ANACLETO

327路 Jose l\1a. Basa, Hong Kong,

Basa's account of Rizal's books for March 1889 -

December 1891



1889 4 March For one draft, his acct., London .... . . PlOO.OO 1890 4 March " freight of one box of books . .... . . 8 March " one draft, his acct., Paris ...... . . 8 March " premium for the said draft . .... .

9.76 150.00 44.40

1891 3 June " fare from Marseille to Hong Kong . . 236.39 29 Sept. " freight of four boxes of books ... . 12.79 29 Sept. " unloading of the same ... . .. . .. . . 0.75 3 Dec. " tip to the porters of books .. . .. . . . 46.75 3 Dec. From the Manila Committee I received .. ... ... P117.72 Mr. Rizal I received ... .. .... .. ...........


Messrs. Seeker for 1 copy of NoN, P2.50; Somoza 1 id. id. id.; Laurel 1 id. id. id.; Luzuriarga 1 id. id. id.; Aristegui 1 id. id. z'd; Tannert 1 id. id. id.; Pastor 1 id. id. id.; Concepci6n 6 id. id. id. PIS; Arguelles 1 id. id. id.; Luna 1 Villanueva 1 id. id. id.; Dr. Ingles 1 id. id. id. ... . ..... .. ... . .


3 Dec. 3 Dec.

" "


-7123 Dec. From Messrs. Gonzales for 1 copy of Morga P2:50; Villena 1 id. id. id.; Luzuriaga 1 id. id. id.; Camus 4 id. id. id. PlO; Arguelles 1 id. z路d. id.; Lim 1 id. id. id.; Araneta 1 id. id. id ..: and Villlanueva 1 id. id. id.; ......................................


P600.84 P207.72

1891 3 Dec. Balance in my favor .................. P393.l2 Savf' error or omission. Hong Kong, 3 December 1891

J. M.


Note: I have received from Mr. Antonio Lopez P200 for the balance in my favor. 30 Nov. 1892.

328. Valentin Ventura, Paris, 6 April 1894

Bill of lading of a parcel sent to Rizal by the firm Genpre of Paris via the Messageries Maritimes.



Rue Baudin, Paris, 6 April 1894



. Enclosed is a bill of lading of a parcel that the firm A. Lucas Gendre of this city is sending you through the Messageries Maritimes consigned to the agent of that firm at Manial. The said parcel contains the articles listed in the invoice that I have also the pleasure to send you. According to the letter of Messrs. A. Lucas Gendre and Company, you have authorized them to collect from me the cost of the invoice. I paid for your account 98.75 francs. I will appreciate it if you would write me acknowledging receipt of this as well as of the pracel and tell me if I have done right in paying for the invoice. Yours affecitonately, V. VENTURA


329. Juan Luna, Manila 17 November 1894

Acquitted, Luna returns to his homeland - painted in Bilbao pictures ordered by Spanish personages - Wander'i ng about the world he has become a bit of a philosopher at Manila Called on Rizal's family - Vicissitudes and misfortunes - RizaI is enough of a philosopher ,to understand what destiny is.

12 Alix, Manila 17 November 1894




I take this opportunity to relate to you something about my life. As you already know, after my acquittaV I went immediately to Spain. At Madrid I was very well received by myoId friends and I made other friends who were moved by feelings of sympathy towards me on account of my misfortunes. From Madrid I went to Bilbao, where I undertook numerous works, some of which were important, for Senator Chavarri, Martinez de las Rivas, and others. There also I left very good friends, among them those you already know, the Benlliure brothers. I embarked at Barcelona, and it is now five months since I have returned to my homeland, after so many years of absence - 18 years. When I see my mother and my brothers and this scenery and these streets and these hOllses and this people, believe me that I become a bit of a philosopher and I venture to make 1 Accused

of killing his wife and mother-in-law, he was acquitted by tile



-715comparisons between this life and our life in Europe and those times of the Boulevard Arago, of Madrid, of Toledo, etc ..... I have met your whole family at Manila including your old father, who is in good faith. Naturally we talked about you and your vicissitudes and misfortunes. I have not worried about your banishment, because I know that you have more than enough philisophy to understand what destiny is and in your banishment you will find the same satisfactions and the same pains as in any populous city. Here you have me who has gone through so many sufferrings, who has had so many ambitions, of which were fulfilled more than I wished. Well then, I am happy, for time erases the bad and of the good something always remains; but of the bad even its memory displeases us while the good continues to please us, at least like the memory of a charming melody when we use to hum it alone. In short, lad, one has to take things as they come. Andres is now a little man of 7 years and this country suits him very welL Antonio lives with us also and my mother is our landlady. What a great pity that this happiness would not last longer, for eventually I shall have to go back there, perhaps within a year and a half. I shall be glad if we meet some day, and as you know I am always ready to serve you in what I can. I shall be grateful to you if you will write me. Your old comrade and friend,

J. Regards from Antonio


330. Rizal, Dapitan, 18 December 1894 To Jose Ma. Basa

The sending of his medical books - And his English and German dictionaries - His transfer to Ilocos or La U ni6n - There are difficulties in granting him his freedom - Dapitan is very poor, very poor - Lack of medicine and instruments - Very regrettable conditions that he is unable to remedy.

Dapitan, 18 December 1894 MR. JOSE MA. BASA



If this letter reaches your hand on time, receive my Christmas greetings and my wishes for a Happy New Year! Let us see if we shall have more propitious year than '94. Now that you have offered to send me the books that I ask you, I would be glad if you would put in a box with tin lining all my medical books which you will ~asily find. The most important that at any cost I would not want to be forgotten are the works of Claude Bernard, Wecker, Trousseau, Eichhorn, Bernard and Huette, Nelaton, Mata, and others. In addition, my big English dictionary by Webster and should there be more space, my German dictionary. I would request you to have all these ready there, for as I am on the eve of settling I do not k.now where, I should like for the present to have the most necessary books. His Excellency passed through here and he had the kindness to promise to take me to a better province, Hocos or La Uni6n. I would have liked to be granted my freedom, but in view of certain difficulties, it is not possible to do so for the present.


-717I have heard that Rafaela has a small tumor on the neck. Do not worry about it, for when it attains a good size we are going to remove it. Here I perform numerous operations of these diseases and until now they have all turned out well. I have learned that the house on Remedios Terrace which was about to be sold, has already been sold and it was not very dear. If things had not altered, we would have brought it. My mother and my two sisters, Maria and Trinidad, in addition to three nephews, are living with me here. We are in good health and if anyone is ill, that is me as I am not well on account of so much heat. Do not send yet my books to Manila for I will see if there is a chance to bring over all my library with my bookcases. I am engaged in the abaca business and we have had a good season, but now, on account of the fall in price, we are going through a crisis. This town of Dapitan is very good. I am in good terms with everyone. I live peacefully, but the town is very poor, very poor. Life in it is not unpleasant to me because it is isolated and lonesome; but I am very sorry to see so many twisted things and not to be able to remedy them, for there is no money or means to buy instruments and medicine. Here a man fell from a coconut tree and perhaps I could have saved him if I had instruments and choroform on hand. I perform operations with the little that I have. I treat lameless and hernias with reeds and canes. I do the funniest cures with the means available. I cannot order anything, for the patients cannot pay; at times I even give medicine gratis. With many regards of my mother and sisters to all of you we always talk about you - and wishing you good health and luck in your business, I send you a good embrace. Yours affectionately who kisses your hand,


P. S. My little pistol has not arrived here. Could you not ask for it from the one who took care of it, or give me his address so that I may ask him for it?

331. Julio Llorente, (No date. 1894?)

Llorente sends Rizal a card introducing a Mr. Bracken from Hong Kong.

(No date. 1894 ?)





I recommend to you my friend Bracken1 so that you may treat his eyes. Your friend, JULIO LLORENTE

1 His name was Taufer. Accompanied by Miss Josephine L. Bracken. He arrived at Manila in S'eptember 1893 and reached Dapitan in March 1894.


332. Rizal, Dapitan, 15 March 1895 To Dr. Lorenzo Marquez

Present of books on carpentry and wheel have been taken as revolutionary books - He will engage in fanning - His clientele in Dapitan is poor - They propose to him to escape - But Rizal does not want to be called "a runaway."


I take this opportunity to write you a few lines and to tell you how I am. I continue living as a deportee, but free enough to engage in some abaca business. The books on carpentry and wheel that you sent me have been taken for revolutionary works and they have torn out the page with your dedication. I intend to engage in farming, for the place where I am is so poor that I even have to give free medicine. I still do not know how much longer they intend to hold me as a deportee. I am resigned, for the longer they hold me the worse for the government's prestige. Some have proposed to me to escape; but as I have nothing to reproach myself, I do not want later to be called a "runaway". Moreover, this will prevent me from returning later to my country.] 1 Several patriots desiring to free Rizal from his banishment, proposed to him that he escape, entrusting to Mtr. Paez the chartering of a boat and helping him to escape. But Riza:l rejected such a proposition. The patriot Mr. Antonio Ma. Regidor also recommended this means to rescue him foom his banishment.


-720The friars sent me here a spy called Pablo Mercado; then they sent another; then they appointed the present district physician to watch me, according to his own confession. A doctor appointed to spy! Is it not sad? I do not write more because I will be in bad humor. Many regards from your old friend who misses your pleasant and intelligent company. Affectionately yours, JOSE RIZAL

The following two letters deal with the proposed flight. Manila, 26 May 1895 MR. JOSE MA. BASA

Hong Kong





I take the liberty of writing you this letter - and I suppose that you will be surprised by this boldness and bother at the same time - to introduce to you the bearer of the same, who is a fine man, Mr. Timoteo Paez, who is in charge of the risky mission of liberating my brother from his exile. Mr. Paez will give you an account of everything we have proposed here for such an undertaking. He is our good friend whom we owe many favors and who deserves your confidence. He is going to that port to charter a boat and afterward .... I shan appreciate infinitely every attention and favor you may grant him and command at your pleasure your faithful servant who kisses your hand. TRINIDAD RIZAL

P. S. My affecionate regards to all the family and kisses to your daughters. 路

- 721ANTONIO MA. REGIDOR JURADO Spanish Advocate 23 Billiter Street, London 7 June 1895 MR. JOSE MA. BASA Hong Kong



I received your letter of the 9 January on time in which you kindly suggest to me the negotiation for the freedom of our dear friend Rizal. Now I must tell you that when I was in Madrid last year, without the encouragement of anyone, I attended assiduously to this matter and I was surprised that the large Filipino colony there thought that Rizal no longer wanted to leave the place where he is because he has invested there some six or eight thousand duros that he won in the lottery and he had with him several of his brothers, developing his agricultural lands. The idea, though possible, seemed to me improbable and I ignored it. Availing myself of the close friend-ship that b01.!llld me with some of the mi nisters then, I explored the possibility of obtaining his liberty. However, to my great regret, I became convinced that it was imposs ~ble to obtain it in Spain, for the ministers themselves told me that, and they said the truth, they did not believe any order of that kind would be carried out in Manila; that it must be worked out in Manila with the Captain General who should carry it out openly, caustiously, and without the knowledge of the Reverend Fathers until after Rizal is already on the way for abroad. In the numerous efforts I made here I did not find anyone who wished, or better, who dared, to write on the matter to General Blanco. All agreed that the best solutz'on was Rz'zal's escape; and as you know that I have always been a practz'cal partz'san of thz's solutz'on, I cannot understand why our frz'end whom I belz'eved courageous and z'ntrepz'd does not adopt z't. The sympathetic Mr. Blumentritt wrote me later that Rizal wanted to leave and much later I received your letter. Unfortunately for me I have been very ill since 19 December until about fifteen days ago. Nevertheless I have moved in the sense suggested by you, and though I do not despair, I do not think my mission is easy to realize. In my opinion we ought to study and utilize for our purpose the political changes

-722that occur in Spain. Now there is the possibility and hope that new elections of deputies to the Cortes may be held in January or February and I believe that we should try then to elect Rizal, very secretly, deputy for one district in Spain. If we succeed, they would have to let him go, for the president of the new congress would have to demand him from the Captain General over the exactions and impositions of the Reverend Fathers. Would there not be in the world ten patriots who will contribute each one thousand duros for that undertaking? If you succeed to get this, I offer to go to Spain to work and prepare a district and present Rizal's candidacy with the least expense, without ostentation or noise, the latter being indispensable conditions, I reiterate, to get his election. If the amount I mention is not obtained, reduce it to four or five thousand duros and work for the election of del Pilar or any other Filipino with sufficient qualifications who formally promises to work openly and secretly for the liberty of Rizal and of other exiled Fil'ipinos, for the representation of the Philippines in he Spanish Parliament, and for the elevation and employment of purely and esseliltially Filipino elements. And in making this suggest on, I wish to make it clear in advance that I do not count myself among those 'tVho are qualified for numerous reasons, among them, which should not be concealed from you, that I can no longer inspire enthusiasm and confidence in those who are to take part in this campaign - twenty-three years of absence, the distance, the retired life I have been forced to lead in these last years for reasons too long to enumerate, place me logically out of that candidacy. In order for it to be successful, those who ought to take part in it are only the modern saints, the spirited young men who know the youth intimately and inspire confidence. We the old ones ought to retire now behind the curtain and the gallery and from there, like observers and advisers, inspire and suggest to those who enter freshly anJ anew in this fight for libetry and rights in which you entered and from which our contemporary friends came out so ill-treated. Let us push forward and encourage that youth that I love and that makes me conceive of so many hopes if it marches through the tried paths trodden by us before them and with identical purpose, the same enthusiasm, and the same generous faith that seize them, though with infinitely more limited means in :m era of dejection and decadence which could rarely happen. Work

- 723 then in this sense, friend Pepe, which is the only means through which we may get, as it is commonly said, with one stone, not two but four or five birds. We must not sleep. Believe me ever your very affectionate friend, compatriot, and comrade, ANTONIO REGIDOR


333. Rizal, Dapitan, 10 April 1895 To Jose Ma. Basa

H e is thinking of colonizinQ Ponot on the coast - As he will be the forest, he is asking for his library - In Ponot one can have four or fi ve thousand cattle and 40,000 coconut trees.


Dapitan, 10 April 1895 M R.

JosE MA.



I am writing you this as I am determined for the present to remain on this Islan of Mindanao and the government might accede to my petition nd therefore I shall remain here forever. I am planning to colonize Ponot on the coast of this island and jf the government grants me advantages or privileges, it will be very easy to begin the work next June. Therefore, as I shall be in the forest among half-civilized people, I should like to have my library with me. I beseech you for this reason to have my books ready because if the government will permit their free entry, I should like to have them in the month of June when I shall have a suitable house. I hope that the governor general will grant me permission one of these days, for I asked him for it more than a month ago. In Ponot one can have four or five thousand cattle and plant some 40,000 coconut trees, etc. It has a good port, water, plain, etc. With nothing more and wishing that you may have no mishap during the present black plague, I am ever your attentive servant and affectionate friend , JOSE RIZAL

- 724 -

334. S. Jugo Vidal, Capiz, 20 October 1895

A fellow reformist in Spain introduces an eye patient to Rizal sister, treated by Rizal, has fully recovered.


Capiz, 20 October 1895 MR. JOSE RIZAL Iligan, Dapitan



You will be surprized that I write you only to cause you some trouble, but as I do not doubt your kindness, I dare to introduce to you the bearer, a reside,.nt of this locality and a friend of mine, who is going there to seek the aid of your specialty. For a long time I have been advising him to put himself in your hands. I hope you are in good health and you know you can command your friend and comrade who esteems you. S. JuGO VIDAL

P. S. My sister is completely cured. I am grateful to you for the treatment. The same.



Rizal, Dapitan, 16 December 1895

Condolences for the death of Dr. Antonio Paterno - M.inong and Rizal were such good friends - It is sad to live on memories - How many friends of one's youth have passed away!

Dapitan, 16 December 1895 MR. P E DRO




As very rarely news reach me - and even these are very confused - since I haye been exiled to this corner of the world, I did not know for thi reason if your father is still living (as I wish) and hence I address this letter to you and not to him as I should. I h ave learned through the Oceania that myoId and good friend, D r. Antonio Patemo, had died at Tambobong. 1 You who know the never disturbed friendship that had existed between him, Minong,2 and I, of about the same age, can figure out how much the news has grieved me. There rise before me old memories, occasions, circumstances, sensations, ideas, that we have lived, felt, and experienced together. He has died and I was not able to shake his friendly hands or to return to him so many good services that lowed him. Since I have been here, how many friends of my youth have passed away! Abreu, Aguirre, del Rosario, Antonio Paterno. I can repeat with Thomas Moores: 3 Old name of Malahon, a town near Manila. Dr. Maximino Paterno, brother of Pedro A. Paterno and Antonio Paterno. 3 Thomas Moore (1779-1852) Irish poet. 1


- 726-

-727When I remember all The friends so linked together I have seen around me fall Like leaves in wintry weather, I feel like one Who treads alone Some banquet hall deserted, Whose lights are fled Whose garlands dead And all but me departed! How lonely we the living are becoming! I could say parodying Becquer;4 because here I live alone and I live only on memories, the memories of good friends. I beg you to express my profound condolence to your distinguished family, to your father, sisters as well as to the unforgettable Minong. Command your most attentive servant and friend who kisses your hand,


Gustavo Adolfo Becquer (1836-1870) Spanish romantic poet.

336. Jose Ma. Basa, Hong Kong, 28 April 1896

Mr. M arciano Rivera, bearer of a letter to Rizal

Hong Kong, 28 April 1896




The bearer, Mr. Marciano Rivera, is going there to pick up a ring of one of your sisters, which is in one of the boxes. You can entrust it t(l him bea;luse he ha our full confidence. Your friend who esteems you.

]. M.

- 728 -


337. Francisco Villa-Abrille, Argentina, 27 SepteDlber 1896

Suggestions of a nostalgic compatriot - Long live the Unitarian R.~pub路 lic of the Philippines! - News of the insurrection reached Argentina - He believes that Japan is called upon to liberate Oceania and the west coast of the Pacific frotp. European domination - High hopes for an independent Philippine!' - News of Rizal's arrest published in Argentine newspapers - He would like to be a signatory of the Philippine act of Independence.

540 G. Mitre Street, Barracas al Sud Republica Argentina, 27 September 1896

MR. JosE


Hong Kong



I write you uncertain that you will receive t.his letter and I address it to Hong Kong because I have read in La N aci6n the newspaper with the largest circubtion in this country - that a physician "known for this adverse ideas to Spanish sovereignty" resides at Hong Kong and this physician cannot be any other but you. You cannot imagine with what pleasure I write you. I should like to write you my impressions of the present insurrection, of what is said and talked about here, of the probabilities of victory of our patriotic soldiers; but everything comes in confusion, ideas crowd on me that it is impossible for to coordinate them into a single phrase. Nevertheless, I will begin by exclaiming: Long live the Unitarian Republic of the Philippines!


-730The first news of the insurrection that we received here date from the beginning of this month, and although the majority of the Spaniards residing here believe that it will not go beyond a calamity, I do not believe so, and not only that, but I consider it more grave than that of Cuba. We have the advantage of being very far from the Peninsula (that is, we the revolutionists), an advantage for which the Cubans themselves envy us, we have a larger population, our soldiers are long-suffering and sober, circumstances that in no way favor the foreign tyrant that dominates us. Our cause besides is most holy and just. Happy is he who can fight for the independence of his motherland! The weapon that Spain uses to discredit our cause is the perfidious. She says (always the same thing) that the insurrection in the Philippines is due to racial hatred, that we are still beardless to think of independence, that, in the last analysis, we would get out of Herod to fall into the hands of Pilate (the Japanese), in short, fictitious tales of this nature J do all J can. As if 1 were informed of previous events, I declare to them that the present insurrection is closely connected with the peoples of Sumatra, J ava, and Borneo who, in secret treaties, have agreed to join us, the Filipinos, themselves rising in their turn in the near future. I canot believe that Japan aspires to acquire the Pearl of Oceania, though this weapon or strate gem to frighten us is the most frequently used to combat our cause and in truth it makes anyone cavil. Notwithstanding, I firmly believe that the rOle that Japan is called upon to play will be that of liberating Oceania and the West Coast of the Pacific from European domination. What an honor it would be for us if we could, once we are independent, to cooperate with that nation to carry the flag of freedom to all the islands of the Pacific Ocean!

If this revolution fails, we must work to bring about the uprising of Java and other islands I have mentioned to you, for these islands have nearly forty million inhabitants who are a good nursery to found a nationality. Neither do I dislike the idea that should the present uprising fail, you try by all means to submit to the decision of the committees or general council the following:

-731Endeavor to bring into Dutch rule the Philippine Archipelago so that in this manner Java, Sumatra, the Philippines, etc. will be only one nationality. To fight afterwards Dutch rule, the Dutch being scarcely four million souls, the Filipinos alone would be enough. Once this union is formed and our independence attained, we have nothing to fear from the Japanese. We would become, don't you doubt it, the English of the Pacific on account of the splendid position of the said islands and we would hold the keys to its navigation. Spain could not endure to have the Philippines plucked from her crown, but in order to save the mother country the insult that such a loss would mean to her, if we obtain our independence by force, our policy ought to be then in harmony with hers so that we or the Philippine would not pass into Dutch rule. We, on the other hand, would remain grateful to Spain. We would concede to Spanish commerce the largest freedom and she in turn would have the glory of having assisted in the formation of a powerful nation. These are, in broad strokes, my opinions, without wanting to say that I am against the present insurrection. May we win this time. Spain has beeen drawing the interest of an uninvested capital for more than three hundred fifty years and it is just that we, the sole and legitimate owners of our land, should have its use and ownership. I do not know your address so that I send this to the general delivery of the post office. Communicate with me often so that I can seek for opnions here that are favorable to us. These last days tnere was published in this city a telegram that said that "Dr. Rimal" had fallen into the power of the Spaniards, and as it was most probable lbat the name was yours, erroneously transcribed, I availed myself of the opportunity to dispel the error, by writing to the publication saying that it must be Dr. Rizal and not "Rimal", a name I have never heard of nor will it be found in the Philippines.

In that telegram you are mentioned as a prisoner and sent to Ceuta.

-732Is the execution of the banker Rojas l true? We are anxious to receive reliable information on what is happening and no one else but you can give it to us. Another compatriot of ours resides here, the physician Dr. F. Pardo de Tavera, brother-in-law of Juan Luna y Novicio who was in Paris when the events in which our illustrious compatriot Luna gave so much to talk about occurred. 2 He is opposed to emancipation. He is married to an Argentine woman, daughter of Mr. Manigot who owns haberdashery shop on Florida Street. I came to this country in 1885 (6 January) and since '90 I have been practicing the profession of notary. I have married and I have a daughter of three years. This is a great country with a smiling future. If the vicissitudes you have to go through will compel you to abandon the motherland, come here to Argentina which is an eminentlly liberal nation. Here you will see how the Spaniard is humbled without his mumbling. The pride and haughtiness that he shows in Manila disappear here, giving way to humility. In case our act of independence is worked out and our constitution is drafted, I authorize you with the widest powers to sign it for me. I should like to have this honor and I hope you would adduce powerful reasons in order that they may permit you this concession that I will value most highly. When you write me put this address: Republica Argentina Via England My name Calle G. Mitre 540 Barracas al Sud. Greet in my name all our friends, tell them that I pray th1t liberty may triumph, and you command your true and consistent friend who embraces you, FRANCISCO 1 Francisco Roxas. 2 Juan Luna in fit


He was executed by the Spaniards. of jealousy shot his wife Paz Pardo de Tavera, sister of Drs. Felix Pardo de Tavera and T. H. Pardo de Tavera at Paris. Luna was acquitted by the French court.

338. Francisco Vila-Abrille, Al'gentina, 29 September 1896

Sends his adhesion to the General Committee of the Philippipe Revolution through Rizal - Offers his services as nQtary public.

Barracas al Sud, Republica Argentina 29 September 1896 DEAR FRIEND, ..

Today I have spoken with some countrymen of ours and I note enthusiasm to go. I too send you my adhesion which I wish you to be kind enough to present to the General Committee.

If you need a secretary who is at the same time a notary, here I am ready to answer the first call to attest the resolutions or measures that are adopted. My license is from the Federal Republican Nation. Again I salute you. F. VILLA-ABRILLE

Rizal did not receive this letter. to Spain, abroad the Isla de Panay.

In September 1896 he was en route

-733 -


Appendix I

NOLI ME TANGERE BEFORE MONKISH HATRED IN THE PHILIPPINES by Plaridel (Marcelo H. del Pilar) Philippine monasticism cannot bear J. Rizal's novel entitled Noli me tangere, despite the favorable reception it has received in the literary and political world of Spain and other countries in Europe. In the Philippines the censors wish the Noli me tangere (Touch me not) to be Noli me legere (Read me not) . Here is the opinion expressed by a reverend Augustinian father : Most Excellent Sir: - The undersigned, member of the Permanent Commission on Censorship of these Islands, has read and examined very carefully the book entitled Noli me tangere, called 'I'agalog Novel, written by J. Rizal, native of the Philippines, and printed, according to the title page, in the year 1886 Cllt Berlin, by t e Berliner Buchdruckerei Actien Gesellschaft. In completing the report by order of Your Excellency on this libellous, defamatory book, full of falsehood and calumny, in which the author reveals crass ignorance of the history of this thoroughly savage country until the light of the Gospel shone on it, degraded like the heathen countries that surround it, until the wise laws of the Spanish Mother Country raised it from the wretched state of atony and moral prostration in which it was found, the undersigned must state that he considers this book deserving of the most acrimonious and severe censure and reprobation, official as well as private, by every honorable person. The author, nursing an ill-concealed hatred of the mother 1 who gave him birth and steeped in the defamatory writings of envious foreigners who wish to discredit one of the greatest works of generous Spain in these Islands, and giving himself Volneyist2 and Voltairian.3 airs, makes it his principal object to discredit openly and impudently all the institutions established by the Metropolis in these distant Islands. Meaning Spain, the mother country. Count de Volney (1757-1820), FTench philosopher, autholl" of Ruins oj Palmyra ( 1791), his reflections on revolutions and liberty, a book widely read by inte'llectual Filipinos in Rizal's time .. 3 Being an intellectual, Rizal was of course familiar with Voltaire's 'ideas. 1



-736He attack in a violent and wicked manner some fundamental dogmas, many truths, and pious beliefs of the State religion, the ta,r get of his fury being the religious communities and the Ciyil Guard, not so much for the habit the former wear and the rules they follow and the latter's social mi ion, but for considering both institutions the principal impediment and insuperable of the country. According to the author, Spain has brought here nothing good, or so dearly it has cost the Islands the few rudiments of civilization that they have received that degradation and death would be a thousand times preferable to living uncler the despotic government of Spain. He considers corrupt and cOlTupting the courts of justice, venal the governors general, inept the administration, null the education in a country where more than seventy per cent of the citizens know how to read and write, the rchipelago abandoned to its own resources, and slaves the Filipinos, whom he pretends to awaken with cries of war and revenge, evoking the memories of Cavite, in order to shake off the oppressive rule. Few are the pages in the oli me tangere which do not contain some statements offen ive to respectable persons and institutions. As it i impossible to comment on them all and in confirmation of the censorship which in general synthe i has been emitted, the undersigned cans the attention of Your Excellency t the following points: After that synth sized censure follows an analytical cenure, divided into four articles whose respective titles are : 1. Attacks on the religion of the State. 2. Attacks on the Administration, the Spanish employees of the government and the courts of justice. 3. Attacks on the Civil Guard. 4. Attacks on the integrity of Spain. He cites the pages which, according to the censor, contains the respective attacks, inserting also passages from the book, with special care of omitting the words that complete and justify the author's thought. Its simple perusal and comparison with the censored book are enough to show the ignorance and the bad faith of the censor. And the analytical examination finished, the reverend father concludes with the following words: Most Excellent Sir, the undersigned, based on the text, literally copied, that he has just presented to the strict and patriotic consideration of Your Excellency, is of the opinion that the importation, reproduction, and circulation of this perniciou book should be prohibited absolutely by your authority. Besides attacking so directly, as Your Excellency has seen, the religion of the State, institutions, and persons respectable for their official character, the book is vitiated with foreign teachings and doctrines, and its general synthesis is to instill deep and cruel hatred of the mother country (Spain) in the minds of the submissive and loyal sons

-737of Spain in these distant Islands, placing her behind foreign countries, especially Germany for which the author of Noli me tangere seems to have pre-eminent predilection. His only objective is the absolute indepedence of the country, desiring to break with impious and bold hand the sacred integrity of the Mother Country, that Mother Country that gave him birth, that nursed him on her noble breast, that n u r t u red him wit h the b rea d and p r i nciple of civilization, and who of an ignorant and degraded heathen has made of the Philippines a Catholic country par excellence, the most free and enlightened of the peoples that live under the immediate protection of the European nations, and the happiest race that has lived under the beneficient shadow of the paternal Laws of the Indies - the monument erected in the midst of modern civilizations to protect and assimilate the childish peoples that God has entrusted to Spain, not to make them into slaves and degraded men as do other nations, but to teach and enlighten them and make shine over them the dawn of Christian liberty and the resplendant sun of a new life, of social culture, and modern civilization. This is why the undersigned believes the circulation of the book should be absolutely prohibited. Notwithstanding, Your Excellency, with your greater knowledge and lofty judgment, wi1l decide what is most prudent and fitting. Manila. 29 December 1887. FR. SALVADOR FONT, SHOD AUGUSTINIAN

Magnificent are the literary strokes with which the reverend censor tries to embellish his ideas; but rhetorical embellishments are not enough to dissimula.te the nakedness of the censure with regard to its lack of veracity and good faith. The attitude of Father Font deserves notice. He describes the book as defamatory libel; he states that it attacks and offends, among other institutions, the religious community to which as a friar he belongs; and nevertheless, offended and everything, personally or his corporation, he does not hesitate to accept and perform the office of censor, invoking his official position of member of the Permanent Commission on Censorship to judge the book which he says offends him. With what then does he guarantee his impartiality? The bile that he pours out in his writing does not show the serenity of one who acts without passion and fulfills his duty with rectitude. We shall examine nevertheless the decision of that judge and adversa.ry of the Filipino novelist. It is an old weakness of the friars to discredit and slander every civilizing tendency in the Philippines from whomsoever the idea may come. If it comes from the ruling class, they attribute to it despotic purposes and denounce it to the fanaticism of the people; if it comes from the people, they attribute to it subversive purposes and denounce it to the blind fury of the rulers.

-738Thus, short as the history of that Spanish province is, it already contains doleful pages with respect to the regular clergy. Diego de Salcedo, while governor general of the Islands,4 was eized and put in chains in his own sleeping-room by the friars. Fernando de Bustamante, while serving as governor genera.1 5 of the chipelago, died of stab wounds, dragged out of his palace at the order of the regular clergy. Simoun de Anda y Salazar,6 the most vigorous defender of Spanish integrity, Archbishop Basilio Sanch0 7 zealous defender of discipline and morality in his diocese, and other civil and ecclesiastical authorities were victims of the implacable domination of the convents in the Philippines. It is not strange then that now they should agitate against the author of the Noli me tangere, a book essentially critical, whose object is the betterment of the Philippines, pinning on the love of Spain. In fact it satirizes whatever social vices it finds in institutions as well as in the masses. In the first he censures simony and oppression practiced by the religious, the venality of the government functionaries, the theocratic-monastic tutelage over the government, without omitting the abuses of the armed force. In the second the masses - he criticizes the passion for cockfighting; in Pedro, husband of Sisa, he criticizes the laziness of the head of the family; in Bruno and Tarcilb the venality of ignorance; in Cap-itan Tiago, egoism, hypocrisy, fa.naticism, ambition . . . and what more? In Cri ostomo Ibarra, the Rrotagonist who represents patriotism, he criticiLe also the lack of faith in the liberal spirit of Spanish policy. '!\Then Ibarra. wa enjoying good luck, he refused to work for peaceful reforms for his country; but when he suffered, he became desperate and wished to resort to violent measures. The author condemned preci ely separatist aspirations, putting in the mouth of Elias the most reasonable criticism that the folllowing dialogue reveals: C. Ibarra: 7 a " Now misfortune has removed the bandage from my eyes. The solitude and misery of my prison h ave opened my eyes. Now I see the horrible cancer that gnaws this society, that takes hold of its flesh, and asks for drastic remedy. They have opened my eyes, they have made me see the wound, and they compel me to be a criminal! And since they have wished it, I shall be a filibustero, but a real filibustero I shall call on all the unfortunate, on all those who within their breast feel a hea.rt beat, on those who sent you to me ... no, no, I shall not be a criminal, never is one so who fights for his mother land. On the contrary! For three centuries, we have extended to them our hand, we have asked them for love for we longed to call them our brothers. How do they answer us? With insult and mock1663-1668. 61717-1719. 6 1762-1764. 7 Archbishop Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa y Rufina, who assumed office on 22 June 1767, subjected the religious orders to diocesan visit and gave a good number of parishes to the Filipino clergy. 7a Noli Me Tan~ere, Berlin, 1887, pp. 336-337. 4

-739ery, denying us the quality of human beings. There's no God, there's no hope, there's no humanity; there's only the righ't of might!" Elias: 8 "You're master of your own will, sir, and of your future. . .. But if you would allow me to make an observation, I would say to you: Consider well what you're going to do; you're going to start a war, for you have money, brains, and you will easily find many supporters, there being many discontented people. However, in this struggle that you're going to undertake, those who will The suffer most are the defenseless and the innocent. same sentiments that a month ago sent me to you asking for reforms are also the same ones that now move me to tell you to reflect. The country, sir, is not thinking of sepa.. ration fTom the Mother Country; she ony asks for a little liberty, justice, and love. 9 You'll be seconded by the discontended, the criminals, the desperate, but the masses will abstain. You are mistaken in believing that since everything is dark, the country is desperate. The country suffers indeed, but she still hopes, believes, and will only rise when she has lost patience; tha,.t is, when those who rule wish it, which is still far away. I myself would not follow you; never will I resort to Chose extreme remedies, so long as I see hope in men." "Then I go ahead without you " replied Crisostomo determined. "Is that your ÂŁirm decision?" "Firm and only one, witness is the memory of my father I wouldn't allow peace and happiness to be wrested with impunity; I have wished only what is good, I who have respected and suffered for love of a hypocritical religion, for love of native land. How did they reciprocate? Throwing me into an infamous dungeon and prostituting my future wife. No! For me not to take revenge would be a crime; it would be to incite them to commit new injustices! No! Down with cowardice, pusillanimity, moaning and weeping when there are life and blood, when to insult and challenge are added sneers! I shall caU that people ignorant; I shall make them see their wretchedness. Let them not think of brothers. There are only wolves which devour one another, and I shall tell them that against this oppression rises and protests the eternal right of man to fight for his freedoml" "The innocent people will suffer!" "Better! " The preceding lines show that the Noli me tangere is very far from being separatist, and the censor's criticism attributing such an objective to it is simply incorrect and slanderous. Father Font's exaggeration is pardonable. We find his obduracy natural considering that he himself finds perhaps suspicious 8 Ibid. p . 338. 9 Italics by Plaridel.

-740the attacks against his corporation; but it would be very painful if insidious bad faith should obstruct or render difficult the prevailing fraternity that has been identifying Spain and the Philippines. Neither do we find proven his criticism that the author of the Noli me tangere has a special predilection for Germany for purposes that he so baselessly attribute to him. But it must be taken into account that the system of stirring ha.tred against Filipinos for supposed inclinations toward that nation avid for colonies would only succeed in exciting Germany or aro using the jealousy of France, and at any rate it would render difficult Spain's international policy with respect to her possessions. All vested interests in the Philippines protest against such a This element is fatal monas tic system, for it is already known: not Spanish, it has no mother country, the banks in Asia insure its future, and it would not matter to it perhaps should that part of Spain be involved in international conflicts.

III The enthusiastic phrases that Father Font dedicates to the aspirations of the metropolis in her civilizing campa,i gn with respect to the Philippines deserve our unconditional applause. He recognizes the purpose of Spa,i n to assimilate the Archipelago; he recognizes it as a mission entrusted to her by God not to degrade the colonies but to enlighten them and make shine over them the resplendent sun of a new day, of social culture and of modern civilization. Regrettable it is, however, that the government's campaign encounters an insuperable barrier in the convents. Established as a power without the responsibilities of power, they skillfully interpose themselves between the government and the people, achieving in this manner their aims of domination at the expense of both elements. The author of the Noli me tangere recognizes it thus: To the optimism of those who despise monastic power in order to rely on the good intentions of the government, he puts in the mouth of one of the personages the following reflection: "The government! The governmentl" The philosopher murmurs, raising his eyes to look at the ceiling. "However great is the desire to exalt the country for its own benefit as well as for that of the Mother Country; however much some functionaries recall or mention to themselves the generous spirit of the Catholic kings, the government does not see, does not hear; it judges only what the parish priest or the father provincial makes it see, hear, and judge. It is convinced that it rests upon them, that if it is able to maintain itself, it is because they support it, that if it exists, it is because they allow it to exist, and on the day they fail it, it will fall like a mannikin that lost its support. They frighten the government with a popular uprising and the people with the government forces. Here originates a simple game similar to what happens to the

-741faint-hearted when they visit gloomy places: They take their own shadows for phantoms and their own echoes for strange voices. So long as the government does not come to an understanding with the country, it will not get out of that tutelage; it will live like those imbecile young men who tremble at the voice of their tutor whose condescension they beg. The government does not dream of a vigorous future; it is an tirm, its head is the convent, and because of this inertia with which it allows itself to be dragged from abyss to abyss, it is converted into a shadow, its value disappears, and weak and incompetent, it entrusts everything to mercenary hands,lo This reflection is either correct or it is incorrect. If it is correct, if it is true that the friar belittle the value of the government, if it is true that the government commits a lamentable error in allowing itself to be guided by monastic inspirations, if it is true that this circumstance is the one that has been darkening the brilliant history of Spanish institutions in Oceania, why must one who has done laborious studies and offers to the government a share of his knowledge to correct very old errors and develop the prestige of Spain in the Philippines deserve to be censured, why should he be a ftlibustero and anti-Spaniard? If the preceding Ii es are not true, if the friar, on the contrary, responds faithfully to the trust of the government, if he seconds sincerely its aims, why those obstacles to the progress of the Philippines after which the rulers and the governed aspire alike? Why those obstacles to the diffusion of Spanish, since the friar cura.tes control the teachers who cannot get their pay without their approval? Why are private schools in the Philippines the resort of students when public schools, under the curates' supervision, are free? Whence come the clouds on the Philippine sky th at impede the resplendent sun of a new life of social culture and modern civilization to shine? Orders in force declare enemies of the Mother Country all those who obstruct the diffusion of the official language in the Islands; and nevertheless there was printed, and it circulates, a little story in Tagalog intended to discredit the study of our language. l l It is entitled Si Tandang Basio Macunat written by the Very Reverend Father Miguel Bustamante 12 and in it is set down the dogma that knowledge is prejudicial to the Indio, for the moment he is separated from his carabao, he becomes an enemy of God and his king. This little book, despite that official order, was approved by the commission on censorship of which Father Font is a member, a.nd on the other hand he goes on anathematizing the Noli me tangere, and lamenting the lack of unity between the government and the people, and above all that this lack of unity weakens and annuls the value of the government. 10 Ibid. p. 139. 11 It means the 12 Fray Miguel

Spanish ~anguage .. Lucio Bustamante, FlJ'anciscan friar. The booklet was printed at Manila in 1885.


IV One of the charges of the Manila censorship against the Noli me tangere is evoking the memories of Cavite. The uprising that the author relates, foreseen by Father Salvi and later attributed to Ibarra, indeed has some similarity to the incidents that occurred in Cavite in 1872. At that time was being agitated the famous question of the Filipino clergy aimed at the restoration of the rights of the secular clergy. The Council of Trent declares the members of the regular clergy incompetent to hold secular curacies and for that reason the friar parish priests hold their parishes as a pure privilege and in an acting capacity, while the scarcity of secular priests makes it necessary. That necessity no longer exists and the secularization of the parishes has been ordered. In addition, the opening of the Suez Canal has made it easy for the country to attract Spanish secular prie t to serve in the Philippines. For this reason the implementation of the orders was asked and under the leadership of the young doctor Jose Burgos the secular priests mainta4ned that the privilege of the regular clergy to hold parishes had ceased. On their own behalf the regular clergy undertook a vigorous campaign of opposition, but unable to oheck their opponents, they reorted to a thousand de ices to arouse antagonism against the indigenous clergy. They even placed in doubt their quality as intellectual beings. They accused them of consecrating host made with rice flour, and their efforts reached such a point that they made them descend from the ape, drawing inspiration from Darwinism. Disregarding Philippine history, ignoring monastic crimes against the governors general of the Archipelago, forgetting the imprisonment of Diego de Salcedo and the assassination of Bustamante, they broadcast the claim that the friar is a necessity in the Philippines for the maintenance of Spanish integrity. The slanders began; the enthusiastic reception accorded General la Torre 13 was interpreted as a manifestation of separatist aspiration, and they created that atmosphere of enmity which greatly hindered the progress of the Philippines. Then occurred the Cavite incidents (1872). Some soldiers in that garrison mutinied. The uprising was suppressed at twelve o'clock. And later, three priests of the secular clergy - the abovementioned Doctor Burgos and Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora - sentenced by a council of war, went up the scaffold. Such was the Cavite incident, which should be the object of a careful and impartial study. The era of reforms in the Philippines has begun, and we believe that its success depends in great meaure upon a correct appreciation of historical antecedents . 13


Carlos Ma. de la Torre, Uiberal-minded governor general from 1869 to

-743It is important, therefore, to determine whether the Cavite incident was a case of a mere military insubordination or a popular uprising. That it was a case of military insubordination is shown by the fact that it was tried by a military court. At that time, neither Cavite, nor Manila, nor any other part of the Ar<:hipelago was in a state of siege. Martial law was not proclaimed, and for that reason military courts , lacked jurisdiction over political crimes; they were only competent to try purely milita.ry crimes. The Filipino people therefore cannot be held responsible by history for that uprising. Consequently, the judgment that may be formed against the Filipinos for that uprising would be groundless. There is not recorded a solemn declaration, a writ of execution, of a competent court that would sanction as an authentic and indisputable fact that the Filipinos aspired for separation from the mother country. Moreover, such an aspiration is opposed to the interests of the Philippines. Her people do not ignore that separated from Spain, they would become a plaything in international struggles. The topographical situation of the country, scattered islands, does not favor it; and to attribute to them such an aspiration is to attribute to them the idea of suicide. Would it honor Spain to suspect the Filipinos of such a desperate purpose? The appreciation f the Cavite incident demands light, much light; and from this p0int of view one should be grateful for Father Font's censure which furnishes an opportunity to discuss so important an episode in the history of the Philippines. On remembering this, the N ali me tangere 14 on page 43 replies with this reflection: "No, despite everything, first the native land, first the Philippines, daughter of Spain, first the Spanish mother country! No, that which is fate does not lessen the glory of the mother country, no!" And Father Font censures this! 14

First edition, Berlin, 1887.

Appendix II Father Vicente Garcia, Filipino clergyman, in the following pages answers the attacks on Rizal's Noli me tangeTe by Father Jose Rodriguez, an Augustinian friar, v.:hich was a courageous act for a Filipino at that time. His letter appeared in La Solidaridad, 15 March 1890, vol. II, 79-80. Rizal, in a letter to Mariano Ponce on 9 November 1888 (No. 73 in this volume) expresses his pleasure at Father Garcia's defense of his novel, as he also wrote later Father Vicente Garcia, which is letter No. 217 in this volume. The pages herein cited refer to the first edition, Berlin, 1887. The footnotes are by the translator.

TTanslatoT JI

Father Vicente Ga.rcia's Reply to Father Jose Rodriguez Concerning Noli me tangere

Very Reverend Father Jose Rordriguez My respected Reverend Father: Recently I saw an read a little the treatise published by you entitled Wit)' should I 01 "ead it? It seemed to me very good, as everything that is inspired by a truly evangelical zea.! should be. Continuing later its perusal, I came to tl].e sixth rule, one of those established to determine what are the prohibited books. This says: "The books that are written or published containing errors against the fa.ith." And you add by way of comment: "Such is the book of Doctor Rizal entitled Noli me tangere which many who say they are Catholics today read without any qualm, though by reading it they commit a grave sin, because it is a book full of heresies, blashphemies, a.nd errors of the grossest kind." I had alrady heard something of that long before this. They tty that Doctor Rizal is a heretic who attacks religious institutions approved by the Church; he does not believe in purgatory; he denies the eHica.cy of indulgences and also the infinite value of the Hoi Y Sac r i fie e of the Mas s and this confusion brings about doleful aberrations that at times cause irreparable injustice. The criticism of the vices seen in society, rather, in the masses, should be understood without this confusion of ideas, which brings me to the subject. For example, the book criticizes the stupid and ridiculous boast of persons who call the mselves devout, disputing without rhyme or reason who of them have earned more indulgences for the liberation of souls from the punishment of purgatory, each one, and some more than the others, alleging having gained so many plenary and so many partial indulgences


-745for visiting altars on days that they call toties quoties;l so many indulgences for diverse scapulars that they wear over their breast and back for ostentation; so many plenary and partial indulgences for a certain number of chanted and solemn Masses they order to be said, some of the rivals boasting of having gained in one year more than six hundred plenary indulgences. Well now, is putting in relief with the bright and strong colors of criticism that stupid boast, that arrogant boast and ridicule of such devout persons, perchance to deny the existence of purgatory, the efficacy of the indulgences, and the infinite value of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass? Can anyone affirm it, unless blinded by passion? The author himself, far from denying purgatory, proves it, citing the authority of the Council of Florence held in 1439 and of Trent under Pius IV, in 1563, 25th session, in the decree that begins Cum catolica Ecclesia Spiritu Sancto edocta, etc., assuring, moreover, that even before the coming of Christ to the world, some philosophers already had an idea of that place of expiation. (See page 67.) I am going to quote some words of the said author in which can be seen clearly the purity of his faith in this regard: "Among us, we can say that the idea of purgatory is good, holy, and reasonable; it continues the union between those who are gone and the living, and it compels a greater purity of life. The evil lies in the abuse that is made of it." (Page 66 .) Take note of these last words, whenever it is desired to take his criticisms in a bad sense, and do not forget the kind of book to which the Noli me tangere belongs. It is not a sermon or a doctrinal treatise, but a novel in which, under guarded allusions, are criticized great abuses. \Vhether he has followed the canons or art and good taste in his criticisms will be judged impartially by the experts in the profession. You say that Doctor Rizal is an impious man, a heretic and blasphemer who induces others to be atheists; but you do not cite any proposition of his that show~ his impiety, heresy, or blasphemy. In the words or various phrases in his book that I am going to cite I see his fa.i th in God and the Christian religion that contradicts all idea of impiety and atheism. His faith in God . (Page 68.) The philosopher Tasio, a3ked "I don't know, by a lady if he believes in damnation, replies: madame, what God will do with me. When I'm in the agony of death, I will give up myself to Him without fear; let Him do with me what He pleases." Is this the wayan atheist speaks, a man who denies the existence of God, or godless man who drives others to atheism? What follows is under the lofty domain of theology and deals with the question of whether the number of men who are sa,v ed are more than those who are damned. Philosopher Tasio makes his computation and says: "If the only ones who can he saved are the Catholics (in the eyes of God, it is understood) and from among these only five per cent, as some curates say, the Catholics forming a twelfth part of the inhabitants of the earth, according to statistics, it would turn out that after thousands and thousands of men had been damned during the numberless centuries before 1

As often as.

-746the coming of the Savior to the world, after the Son of God has died for us, now only five of everyone thousand two hundred would succeed to save themselves. Oh, certainly not! I prefer to say and believe with Job: 'Will you be severe towards a flying leaf and persecute a dry chaff?' No, so much misfortune is impossihle; to believe it is to blaspheme, no, no! A dazzling lightning accompanied by frightful thunder lighted the philosopher who, with a,r ms extended toward heaven, was shouting: "Thou protest! 1 know already th a t Thou are not cruel; I know already that I ought to call you the The Good." Are these the blasphemies and heresies of which you say the Noli m e tangere is full? Is this not the idea that we have of the infinite mercy of God of which the earth is full? At this point the theologians? His faith in the Christian religion. (Page 88.) The protagoni t in the novel speaks, whose fa,ther, a generous protector of school children, was persecuted until death, whose corpse was exhumed from the cemetery and hurled into the lake: "I have refl ected be tter" he says to the schoolteacher, "and I believe that to realize my fa ther's ideas (in favor of those children) is better than to m ourn him, very much better than to avenge him. His tomb i acred nature and his enemies were the people and a priest: I forgive the first because of their ignorance and I respect the second because of his status a nd because I wa,nt the religion of that educa ted society to be r espected. I want to be inspired in the pirit of th e one who &"ave me birth, a nd for this reason I should like to know the obstac es tha t education encounters here." Here is the religion of Christ p rofessed in spirit and truth, not officially and selfishly, not with words belied by actions a,nd abuses that dishonor it and that God abhors in his ministers. You say besides: "The only notable thing about the author i his h a tred of religion and Spain. " Only those who have not read the book a nd h ave h eard the very active propaganda against him h er e and in the provinces will believe this; but the well-inform ed will laugh at it. I have already said that the person of the relig io us should not be confused or identified with immaculate religion . Identifying them is absurd. However, this is what is pretended, as if the abuses tha.t are criticized are proper to religion. You accuse Doctor Rizal of political heresy, saying that he hates Spain ; but your accusation is equally gratuitous; that is, without a ny proof, except your own word. Undoubtedly you ignore that th e book itself belies it in many passages. I am going to quote some. Iba rra talks with Elias, emissary of the persecuted which is related in chapter 49, and he asks him (page 263): "Wha t else do they ask? Elias: "Reform of the priesthood; the unfortunates ask for grea ter protection against the religious orders." Ibarra: "Has the Philippines forgotten what she owes these orders? Has she forgotten the immense debt of gratitude she owes those who have delivered her from ' error and given her faith, those who have protected her from the tyrannies of civil authority? Here is the evil of not teaching the country's history .... " (Page 234). 1 love our na tive land as you do . .. Nevertheless, my friend, I

-747believe we somewhat look at the matter with passion; here less than elsewhere I see the need for reforms." Elias: "Is it possible, sir? You don't see the need for reforms, you whose family misfortunes .... " Ibarra: "Ah, I forget myself; I forget my own ills before the security of the Philippines, before the interests of Spain. In order to preserve the Philippines it is necsssary for the friars to continue as they are, and in union with Spain lies the welfare of our country." Elias: "Do you believe that the Philippines will be preserved by the friars?" Ibarra: "Yes, only by them. All who have written about the Philippines believe so." Elias: "I didn't know that you had such a poor opinion of the government and the country (Page 280) . Ibarra: "What the people are asking is impossible and it is necessary to wait." Elias: "To wait! to wait is equivalent to suffer." Ibarra: "If I should ask for it, they would laugh at me." Elias: "And if the people should support you?" Ibarra: "Never! I shall never be the one to lead the multitude to obtain by force what the government does not believe opportune, no. And if sometime I would see that multitude armed, I would place myself on the side of the government and fight it; for I would not consider that mob my country. I want her welfare; for th t reason I build a school; I seek it through education, through progressive advancement; without light there i no way." Elias: "Without struggle neither could there be liberty." Ibarra: "I don't want that liberty." Elias: "Without liberty there's no light ''''hat should I say to those who have sent me to you? Ibarra: "I have already told you, that I deplore very much their condition but let them wait, for evils cannot be cured with other evils." Considering this, who will say that the one who thus expresses his patriotic sentiments is disloyal to Spain? Had you read dispassionately and impa,r tially the Noli me tangere, you would not have had the courage to accuse its author of political heresy, saying that he hates Spain. At the end of the novel, Ibarra, having fallen into the plots contrived by the curate, is imprisoned as a conspirator; but succeeding to flee, furious and desperate, he wanted to become a filibustero 2 and take revenge. Thus harassed by the iniquities of m en and like a violent madman, having lost his family and his future wife to his rival, he said in paroxysm of despair: "There is no God, there is no hope, there is no kindness, there is only the right of force." You find this on page 337, and Rizal is personified by Ibarra. You can put this against all that has been said about his sentiments of loyalty to Spain; but what will you reply to those who will ask you, "Who is to blame for this madness?" 2

That is. a rebel, a revolutionary.

-748As to the rest, let no one say that I decla.re myself a defender of that book, no. Despite the fact that many say that his description of the abuses to which I refer is still pale, I do not share that opinion. I do not approve of the harshness and acrimony of his criticism. The strong and bright colors of his criticism are offensive to the pious and delicate ears of this eminently faithful Catholic people, just as the excessive brightness of artificial light or of the rays of the sun hurts the eyes of delicate and sickly persons. The truth in its proper place. Between this and to say that Doctor Rizal is an impious man, a heretic, blasphemer, ,md cxcom municated, without his book being condemned by competent authority, there is an immense distance. Doubtless his criticisms, judged passionately and without looking at the bottom of things, have provoked that public judgment, injurious to his faith and good name, with the notable circumstance that he was attacked after his departure from this country and therefore unable to defend himself. Since in your attacks you have acted as a competent authority, without being so, declaring tha.t the said book is full of heresies and blasphemies, without citing a h eretical or blasphemous statement to prove it, it is logical that the intelligent public, without believing you, should attribute your declaration to another motive, for example, the cursed fear of losing curacies, estates. or to the above-mentioned active propaganda aga inst the book. Here are the reas ns for th is incredulity: 1. It is publicly known that tlite book was denounced to the central government, and persons of great influence, exceedingly interested in its disappearance, have made strong representations before the highest civil authority, as well as ecclesiastical, to prohibit its circulation. It is known that it was submitted to censorship. And what was the resulf? The claim did not prosper. So far as we know, the prohibition asked by the interested party was not ordered. This result of the negotiation was to be expected in view of the present dominant polky in Spain and the prevailing atmosphere there, here, a nd everywhere. I have read the opinion of the curate-censor, certainly and of course very favorable to the pretension. It seemed to me very exaggerated and undoubtedly its official approva l would h ave been a matter of course, had it been emitted twenty years ago; tha t is, in the time of the gags when one could not speak against the abuses of a certain class of persons, because everywhere there resounded ihe deaf voice of terrible vengeance whose echo is similar to Noli me tangere. 2. During Rizal's sojourn here for more or less a year, they already promoted at tolle tolle 3 which had given more importance to this book, so much so that six pesos were offered for a copy. If it is true that. it is full of heresies and blasphemies, our prudent and zealous bishop would have snatched away from the hands of the faithful that book which is said to be poisonous for the soul, prohibiting it under canonical penalties. 3. On page 25 you say that the ecclesiastical authority was the only one that can judge whether a book is good or bad. Well 3 Take away, take


- 749 then, was the father prior of Guadalupe,4 only for being so, perchance the competent ecclesiastical authority? No? Then, ore tuo te judico.6 These three reasons are sufficient to convince anyone of the need for you to give the necessary explanations on the matter, or else let the competent authority emit his decision specifically condemning the said book, if he thinks it convenient.




Name of the Augustinian convent in Guadalupe, outside of Manila.

5 Literally, "1 judge you by your m outh. 6

Anagram of Vicente Garcia, a Filipino clergyman.



Selling Price Excluding Postage Paper Cloth

Diarios 'i Memorias por Jose Rizal, 339 pp . ... . . . Cartas Entre Rizal y los Miembros de la Familia,

P 7.90


Cart;sarEnI~e2~z"fry 'Mi~~b;o's ' d~' i~ 'F~~'iii~: 'P~;t Cart;;'E;::e P~iza'l ' y' ~i 'Pr~f: ' F~~a~d~ 'Bl'~~~~~;i~t~ Cart~a~n!;e 3~za)py ~i 'P;~f: 'F~~a'~d~ 'Bi~~~~~ri~t',













9.20 8.30 2.50 4.40

11.60 10.70 8.00 9.40



Part II, 310 pp. . . ... ..... . . .. . . ..... ... . . Cartas Entre Rizal y el Prof. Fernando Blumentritt, Part III, 304 pp. . . ... . . : ........ .... .. .. . Cartas Entre Rizal y sus Colegas de la Propaganda, Part I, 442 pp. . . . ................... . ... . Cartas Entre Rizal y sus Colegas de la Propaganda, Part II, 873 pp. . . . ..... . .. . ... .. ....... . . . Cartas Entre Rizal y Otras Personas, 360 pp. . . . . Poesias por Jose Rizal, 171 pp. . ... .. .. . .... .. . . Prosa por Jose Rizal, 339 pp. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . ... . Noli Me Tangere por Jose Rizal, offset of the 1887 edition, 354 pp. . .. . .. . ..... .. . ... . . .... .. . Noli Me Tangere por Jose Rizal, offset of the original manuscript, 465 pp. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. ... . El Filibusterismo por Jose .Rizal, offset of the 1891 edition, 286 pp. . ...... ... ..... . .... . ..... . ÂŁ1 Filibusterismo por Jose Rizal, offset of the original manuscript, 279 pp. . ..... . .. . . . ...... . .. . . Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas del Dr. Morga anotada por Rizal, 374 pp. . . .. . ... ...... ..... . ... . Escritos Politicos e Hist6ricos por Jose Rizal, 379 pp. Escritos Varios por Jose Rizal, Part I, 315 pp. ' " Escritos Varios por Jose Rizal, Part II, 338 pp. '" Facsimiles de los Escritos de J. Rizal, Part I, 554 pp. Facsimiles de los Escritos de J. Rizal, Part II, 1106 pp. Pensamientos de Rizal, 104 pp. . ..... .. . ... . ... . Rizal Ante los Ojos de sus Contemporaneos, 244 pp. Poedas Dedicadas a Jose Rizal, 152 pp. . .. . .. ... . ENGLISH EDITION

27.60 4.40

6.60 25.20

5.50 6.50 4.10 4.10 8.30 9.30 1.70 4.60 4.30

7.40 11.50 5.30 5.30 10.70 9.60 4.10 5.90 6.10



(regular edition)

Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal, 374 pp. Letters between Rizal and Family Members . .. .. .

Excluding Postage Selling Price Paper Cloth

Letters between Rizal and Family Members ..... . Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence, Part I, 313 pp. Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence, Part II, 572 pp. Letters between Rizal and the Reformists ....... . Miscellaneous Correspondence . .. .. . .. .......... . Rizal's Poems, 182 pp. . .... , .. " ......... ... . . Rizal's Prose, 226 pp. . .. .. ... .. . ... . .... ..... . . Historical Events of the Philippjne Islands, by Morga anotated br Rizal, 353 pp........... . Political and Historica Works .. ..... . . ..... . .. . Miscellaneous Writinos ......... . .......... .. . . Quotations from Rizal's Writings, 374 pp........ . Pictorial Album on Rizal, 155 pp............. . . Proceedings of the International Congress on Rizal, 496 pp ... ....... ................. . ...... . International Congress on Rizal, 311 pp. . ..... .. .

9.85 9.85 2.20 3.50

4.10 5.90





8.40 3.60


ENGLISH EDITION (popular edition)

Reminiscences of Jose Rizal, 179 pp. .. .......... Letters between RizaL and the Members of his Family, 119 pp .................... " .... ... .. The Rizal-Blumentritt Correspondence, 251 pp. '" Letters between Rizal and the Reformists, 124 pp. Miscellaneous Correspondence of Rizal, 150 pp. .. Rizal's Poems~ 174 pp. . ..................... , . Rizal's Prose, 190 pp. ........ ................. Political and Historical Writings of Jose Rizal, 144 pr. ..,.,' ..... .... ,........... . . .... .

.50 .65 .65 .65 .65 .60 .65

' .55


Mga Tala sa Paglalakbay, Mga Ala-ala at Iba pa ni Jose Rizal, 420 pp. . ...... .... . ........... . Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa kanyang mga Kasambahay, 674 pp. . ......................... . . Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal kay Dr. Blumentritt .. . Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa mga Kasama niya sa Pagpapalaganap, 696 pp. . .... ............. . Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa mga Kasama niya sa Pagpapalaganap .......................... . Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa Iba't Ibang Tao, 390 Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa Iba't Ibang Tao ..... Mga Tula ni Jose Rizal - V. de Jesus, L. Dianzon at A. Cruz, 181 pp. . ..................... . Mga Akdang Pampanitikan sa Tuluyan ni Jose Rizal, 332 pp ... ... , ..... . ... .. . .. .. ... . ....... . Mga Akdang Pampanitikan sa Tuluyan ni Jose Rizal, 332 pp. . ... . , . . , .. .... . ..... . ...... .. ... . Noli Me Tangere ni Jose Rizal, (P. Mariano) 550 pp. . ........ , ... , . '....... ,'. , ....... , .



13.85 5.80

25.75 7.60 13.25

3.20 5.90

7.70 9.50


Selling Price Excluding Postage Paper Cloth

El Filibusterismo ni Jose Rizal, Tinagalog ni P. Mariano, 339 pp. . ....... . .... .... ..... . . . Ang Mga Pangyayari sa Kapuluang Pilipinas .... . Mga Akdang Pampulitika at Pangkasaysayan ni Rizal Mga Iba't Ibang Sinulat ni Rizal .. .......... .. . Si Rizal sa Harap ng Kaniyang mga Kapanahon, 327 pp . . .. ...... . ......... .. .. . ......... .




TAGALOG (Popular Edition)

Talaarawan at mga Ala-ala ni Rizal, 159 pp. Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa kanyang mga Magulang at Kapatid, ISO pp. .. .. .... ... .. . ......... Pagsusu1atan nina Rizal at Blumentritt, 131 pp. .. Pakikipagsulatan ni Rizal sa mga Tagapagpa1aganap, 218 pp. . ....... ......... ...... .. ... ...... Pakikipagsulatan sa Iba't ibang tao, 200 pp. .... ... Mga Tula ni Rizal, 165 pp. ......... . .... ...... Mga Akdang Pampanitikan sa Tu1uyan ni Riza1, 197 pp. ......... .. .. . ......... . .... ...... Pampulitika at Pangkasaysayan, 163 pp. . . . ....... Iba't ibang Sinu1at ni Rizal, 176 pp. . ........... Guillermo Tell (William Te11) Rizal . . .... . .... .


.70 .65 .65 .65 .65 .55 .55 .65 .55


Mga Rawitdawit ni Jose Rizal, 101 pp . . .. ...... . Hare sa Sako Pagdoot - Noli Me Tangere, 487 pp. El Filibusterismo, 355 pp. . . .............. . .. . .

1.00 8.10 6.55

3.40 10.00 8.35


Mga Balak ni Jose Rizal, 139 pp. - (Poesias de Rizal ) Noli Me Tangere, 545 pp. . .................. . E1 Filibusterismo .. .............. . ............ .



4.80 14.95










Mga Binalaybay ni Jose Rizal, 170 pp. . .. . .. . .. . Noli Me Tangere . ............ . .... . .. . ..... . El Filibusterismo ... ............ . . . ... . . ...... . Mga Sinu1atan sa Panghimanwa ni Rizal, 409 pp. ( Political and Historical Works) .... . ...... . SAMAR-lEYTE TRANSLATION

Mga Siday ni Jose Rizal, 12~ pp. . ............. . Noli Me Tangere . ........ .......... ......... . An El Filibusterismo, 353 pp. . ................ .

Excluding Postage Selling Price Paper Cloth


E Mu Ku Tagkilan, 505 pp.


(Noli Me Tangere)


Dinak Sagiden (Noli Me Tangere) ........ . .. . El Filibusterismo ............................. . PANGASINAN TRANSLATION

Ag mu ac Didiwitin ( Noli Me Tangere) ....... . El Filibusterismo ............................. . PAMPHLET

Rizal, as an Internationalist, 84 pp. . . .. . .. . ... .. . Rizal, in Spanish ...... . ...... . . .. .. ... .. . ... .


E~~s:nai He'r~' ~f ili~ 'Phi'lippi~~~

iilie . . .:::::: Rizal, El Heroe Nacional de Filipinas .......... . The Rizal Shrine a Fort Santiago . . ........... . WINNING MANUSCRIPTS

The First Filipino ( Rizal biography) by Leon Guerrero ........ . . . . .. ..... . ......... .. . . Rizal Anthology (In Spanish, English and Filipino)

.80 1.80 1.80 .50 .50 .70

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