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Also by Thomas Cutler

Brown Water, Black Berets: Coastal and Riverine Warfare in Vietnam


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BATTLE OF LEYTEGULF

23-26 Oetober 1944

THOMAS .I. CUTLER

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HarperCollinsPublishers


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23-26 OCTOBER 1944. Copyright © 1994 by Thomas J. Cutler. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For information address HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022.

THE BATTLE OF LEYTE GULF:

HarperCollins books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. For information, please write: Special Markets Department, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022. FIRST EDITION

Designed by Nancy Singer Maps by Paul Pugliese

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cutler, Thomas J., 1947The Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944 / Thomas J. Cutler.-1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-06-016949-4 1. Philippine Sea, Battles of the, 1944. I. Title. D774.P5C87 1994 940.54'26--clc20 94 95 96 97 98 ·:·/RRD 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

93-44785


To Ann and Hans Schuler Two of the most generous people I have ever known and loved, without whom many lives would be different-especially mine and

To Chris and Gary Whose love, achievements, and friendship have brought me more happiness than any father could hope for


Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war. Carl von Clausewitz, On War

[Clausewitz] introduces the element that others have called "the fog of war," the perennial inadequacies and inaccuracies of intelligence. Bernard Brodie, "A Guide to the Reading of On War"


Contents List of Maps

Xl

Preface

XUI

Prologue

XVU

Part I * Preludes * 1 CINCSOWESPAC

3

2 COMINCH

11

3 CINCPAC

25

4 COMTHIRDFLT

37

5 "We Will Fight You All!"

45

Part II * The Return * 6 King Two

53

7 "We Sailed Quietly East in the Dark of Night"

62

8 "Strike!"

74

Part III * First Blood * 9 Of Sorties, Submarines, and Coffee 10 Dangerous Ground

83 94

Part IV * 24 October 1944 * 11 TG 38.3

113

12 Sibuyan and Sulu Seas

135

13 "Start Them North"

154


x

*

Contents

*

Part V * Night of 24-25 October 1944 * 14 Exits and Entrances

169

15 Midwatch in Surigao Strait

182

16 Curtain Call

194

17 Friction and Fog

206

Part VI * 25 October 1944 * 18 "Charge of the Light Brigade"

219

19 "The World Wonders"

249

20 "Divine Wind"

265

Part VB * Aftermath * 21 Long Nights

277

22 Epitaph

283

Source Notes

299

Bibliography

315

Acknowledgments

329

Index

331

Illustrations follow page 188.


Maps Philippines

4

Starting Points and Routes Followed by Japanese Forces

63

Approach of the Japanese Forces

90

Kurita's Formation in Palawan Passage

97

Battle of Surigao Strait

183

Situation on the Morning of 25 October

220

Battle of Samar Begins,

223


Preface

The Simon & Schuster Encyclopedia of World War II calls the Battle of Leyte Gulf "the greatest naval engagement ever fought." Famed historian Ronald Spector in his history of the American war with Japan, Eagle Against the Sun, describes the engagement as "the largest naval battle in history." Former military editor of the New York Times, Hanson W. Baldwin, in one of his many successful books, Battles Lost and Won, entitles his chapter on this battle, "The Greatest Sea Fight." Why is the Battle of Leyte Gulf always referred to in such superlative terms? Because it was, in point of fact, the biggest and most multifaceted naval battle in all of history. It involved more ships than any other engagement, including the gargantuan Battle of Jutland in the First World War (250 British and German ships fought at Jutland; 282 American, Japanese, and Australian ships engaged at Leyte). Nearly two hundred thousand men participated in the fight, and the geographical area in which the battle was fought spanned more than a hundred thousand square miles. Dozens of ships were sunk, including some of the largest and most powerful ever built, and thousands of men went to the bottom of the sea with them. Every aspect of naval warfare-air, surface, submarine, and amphibious-was involved in this great struggle, and the weapons used included bombs of every type, guns of every caliber, torpedoes, mines, rockets, and even a forerunner of the guided missile. But more than size gave this battle its significance. The cast of characters included such names as Halsey, Nimitz, MacArthur, even Roosevelt. It introduced the largest guns ever used in a naval battle and a new Japanese tactic that would eventually kill more American sailors and sink more American ships than any other used in the war. It was the site of the last clash of the dreadnoughts and the first and only time that an American


XIV

*

Preface

*

aircraft carner was sunk by gunfire. It was replete with awe-Inspmng heroism, failed intelligence, sapient tactical planning and execution, flawed strategy, brilliant deception, incredible ironies, great controversies, and a plethora of lessons about strategy, tactics, and operations. If all of the above is true about the Battle of Leyte Gulf, why is it not a household word like Pearl Harbor? Why have fewer Americans heard of it than the Battle of Midway or the D-Day invasion of Europe? The answer lies in its timing. Leyte Gulf occurred late in the war, after several years of conflict in which great battles had become commonplace. Names like Midway, Stalingrad, Guadalcanal, and Normandy were by then frequent fare. More significantly, however, was that the Battle of Leyte Gulf happened when most of America had accepted ultimate victory as merely a matter of time rather than as a debatable question. Midway was widely accepted as the turning point of the war in the Pacific, a dramatic reversal of what had been a losing trend. The D-Day invasion at Normandy was seen as the true beginning of the end of the war in Europe. But Leyte Gulf was seen as just another step along the way, the continuation of a trend which by that time was seen as normal and inevitable. Lacking such drama as the earlier battles had enjoyed, Leyte Gulf was then eclipsed by events like the nearreversal at the Battle of the Bulge, the ferocious fighting at Iwo Jima and Okinawa, and the cataclysmic dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But the Battle of Leyte Gulf was indeed pivotal in that it represented the last hope of the Japanese Empire and the last significant sortie of the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was vastly important. to millions of Filipinos and thousands of Allied prisoners of war, whose liberation from Japanese oppression depended upon it. And, while an American victory in the battle may have been viewed as somewhat mundane by that stage of the war, an American defeat would have been a disaster of great magnitude. Writing about a battle of such vast proportions is no simple task. Many important events were occurring simultaneously and yet must be presented in a linear format. This requires frequent shifts of scene which can become confusing if presented carelessly. I have tried to make each scene as clear as possible in terms of time and place so that the reader may keep up with the whirlwind of widespread yet interlocking events. I have written this book making a few assumptions about the reader's knowledge. I have assumed that the reader knows that a battleship is bigger and more powerful than a cruiser and that these are, in turn, larger


*

Preface

*

xv

than a destroyer. But beyond that I have tried to explain the nature of each type of ship introduced. Readers already familiar with such things may find this somewhat tedious, but this is preferable to excluding other readers from a clear understanding. I have dispensed with the laborious practice of including the hull numbers of vessels that so many authors seem compelled to do, using instead only the ships' names. In that same streamlining vein, I have omitted from the names of individuals the frequently appended "USN" and "USNR," using only their ranks as appropriate. Certain biases will become apparent as the reader progresses through this work. I am an American patriot and a retired naval officer, so my account will reflect a certain pride in the achievements of the U.S. Navy and a great deal of respect and appreciation for the heroism and sacrifice of the American sailors who fought at Leyte. I have interviewed and gotten to know some of these men and my admiration for them has been strengthened by that experience. But I also have an abiding and sincere respect for their Japanese adversaries. I respect anyone who has faced the terrors and rigors of combat, even those who once were my enemies in a different war at a different time. This is not to say that I have pulled my punches when discussing the errors made during the battle. I sincerely believe that a true patriot must be willing to criticize constructively his beloved country, just as a loving parent will chastise the misbehaving child. Nothing is perfect, and nothing will get nearer to perfection without honest appraisal. I have used the military 24-hour system of time-so that 3:00 A.M. becomes 0300, noon becomes 1200, 1:15 P.M. becomes 1315, etc.because to a naval officer, using civilian time when discussing a military operation is something akin to using the word "tune" when describing Beethoven's music. The reader will probably detect that I have a love of the sea and some readers may find my personification of ships somewhat overdone. But those are the readers who have not served in ships, who have not experienced firsthand how a vessel takes on the collective personality of the men who crew her. A half-century has passed since the sound of gunfire echoed across the waters of Leyte Gulf, but the importance of what happened there has not diminished with time. It is fitting that we should take another look, fifty years later, at what happened at Leyte Gulf, recognizing the courage and sacrifice of those who fought there, learning from the mistakes that


xvi

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Preface

*

were made, and hoping that nothing in our future will ever rival this event for its well-deserved title of "greatest naval battle in history." The criticisms of others found within this work are offered humbly. My purpose in questioning the acts and decisions taken a half-century ago is not to defame the men who originated them but rather to let their actions and the criticisms contained herein serve as lessons for future naval officers. Never would I claim to have been able to do better than the men I write about. I have known the awesome responsibility of handling a single ship in moments of challenge; my mind boggles at the thought of handling whole fleets. I have experienced the confusion that can reign on the bridge of a ship in the dark of night when all is not going according to plan; I can only begin to imagine how that would be magnified if my ship were sinking beneath me. And I have known the mind-numbing terror of combatthough never to the degree experienced by most of the men I now write about; I sincerely believe that only those who have never been shot at would disparage the actions of men under fire. I make my judgments from the comfort of a desk chair. I am surrounded by books and documents with a hundred times the information available to those on-site commanders, and I may peruse them at my leisure, pressured only by a publisher's deadline. I write on a machine that dutifully erases my errors, and I sip coffee as I write. Most of all, no one must live or die by what I do here. So it is with the ultimate humility that I hope that my criticisms and judgments will serve as food for thought, as stimulus for further debate, but never as a substitute for what brave men did under the pressures of command and combat.


Prologue

As the sun emerges from the waters of the Philippine Sea on the morning of 24 October 1944, the stage is set for the greatest naval battle in history. In many ways, the "play" about to commence is to be a Greek tragedy. The long march of American forces across the Pacific has served as prologue, and in the acts to follow, with their many scenes of intense human drama, many noble and gallant men of two different nations will fall in battle. The chorus warns that others will find tragedy in a different form as they make their entrances full of pride and hope, only to exit as victims of the callous whims of the Fates and of their own follies. The climax will be swift and decisive, but the denouement is still being written. As the drama is about to unfold, the major characters are on the stage or in the wings. A cast of thousands has rehearsed for this moment, but it is improvisation rather than script that will shape their performances. As in all Greek tragedies, the gods play parts as well. Poseidon as god of the sea, Thanatos, god of death, and Ares, god of war, all have obvious roles. But it is Aeolus who controls the winds, and Hermes, messenger of the gods, whose interference will have surprising effects upon the outcome. And it is Athena, sharing her wisdom with some and withholding it from others, who will determine which of the antagonists will earn Nike's laurel wreath of victory.


Index

Page numbers in italics refer to maps. Abukuma, 201, 204 "ace," 125 "action addressees," 160n Adair, Charles, 53-55, 278, 282 Adams, Max, 117-19, 135 A-Day, 54 Air Combat Intelligence, 41 aircraft carriers: night landings on, 162, 210 Pacific Theater role of, lOn, 46-47, 65~85, 136-37, 138, 174 sinking of, by gunfire, xiii-xiv, 252-55 types of, 57 wind direction and, 15 see also escort carriers Air Group Eighteen, U.S., 118 Albert W. Grant, USS, 195-97,205, 296 Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS), 8,21 "alongside that of the enemy," 120, 256 America ~ First Soldier, 6 ammunition, types of, 66,174-75,242 amphibious landings, 92 Angler, USS, 144 Aoba, 104n, 144n Arcadia conference (1942), 8n armor-piercing ammunition (AP), 174-75,176,194-95,243 Army Air Force, U.S., 43n, 204 Army and Navy Register, 136-37

Arnold, Henry H., 6n Arunta, 193 Asagumo, 187,188,193,203 Asashimo, 144 Ashigara, 205 Asiatic Fleet, U.S., 9, 53, 228 Atago, 89,93,96, 100, 102, 104, 109, 144 atomic bombs, xiv "At Sea Logistics Group," 40-41 attack carriers (CVs), 57, 209 Australia, 7, 54 Bakutis, Fred, 140-41, 142-44 Baldwin, Hanson w., 214, 291 Baltimore, USS, 24, 28, 30, 31, 32 Barbey, Daniel E., 54, 58, 278 Bataan, 3, 33 Bataan, 30, 39 Bates, Richard W., 294, 295 "Bartle for Leyte Gulf, The" (Brodie), 290 Battle of Balaclava, 238, 251 "Battle Order Number One," 37 battleships,119n comparison between Japanese and U.S., 64-66 daily life aboard, 117 firepower of, 65-66 "hermaphrodite," 85, 114 naval warfare role of, 46-47,174,198


332

*

Index

*

Baxter, 1. Ao, 279, 280 Beale, USS, 193 Bechdel, Jack, 230, 247-48, 280 Benitez, Ro c., 103 Bennion, USS, 205 Berkey, Russell So, 176 Besugo, USS, 84, 85 Biak,15 big-gun ships, see battleships; cruisers Billie, Robert Mo, 229-30, 231, 247-48,277-78,279,282 Birmingham, USS, 130-31, 133, 144 "Black Cats," 216 Blackfoot Indians, 6 Boeing B-29 Supenortress bombers, 12 Bogan, Gerald Fo, 114, 117, 121, 135, 138,210-11,213,251,292,295 Bowling, So So, 180 Bream, USS, 104n British Chiefs of Staff, 8n Brodie, Bernard, vii, 290 Brunei,88-89 Brunelle, Ao Wo, 188 Buell, Thomas B., 13, 14 Bulge, Battle of the, xiv Bulkeley, John Do, 5 "Bull's Run: Was Halsey Right at Leyte Gulf?" (Cant), 291 Bungo Channel, 85 Buracker, William Ho, 37-38, 128-32 Burke, Arleigh, 39, 212 Bums, James McGregor, 28-29 Burton, Bill, 225 Bushido, 15-16, 48n, 108 Cabot, USS, 146, 148 California, USS, 57, 174, 199 Cant, Gilbert, 291 Cape Engafio, Battle of, 234-37, 252, 260-61 capping the T, 182-84,211 Carney, Robert B. "Mick," 70-71, 165, 251 Caroline Islands, 9, 28

Carr, Paul Henry, 245 CCS (Combined Chiefs of Staff), 8, 21 Center Force, see Kurita's force Central Pacific campaign, 9-10, 14 "Charge of the Light Brigade, The" (Tennyson), 238, 239, 240, 241, 242,248,251 "chasing salvos," 252 "chasing the splashes," 229 chess, go compared with, 67 Chikuma, 257,258 China, Republic of, 22, 33, 43 Chitose, 85, 235 Chiyoda, 85 Chokai,257 Christie, Ralph W, 109-10 Churchill, Sir Winston, 42 CICs (combat information centers), 155 CINCPAC, 7-8 see also Nimitz, Chester CINCSOWESPAC, 8 see also MacArthur, Douglas Claggett, Bladen Do, 94, 98,101-4, 105, 107, 109-10 Clausewitz, Carl von, vii, 210, 216, 292 Columbia, USS, 175 combat infQrmation centers (CICs), 155 Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS), 8, 21 Combined Staff conference (1941), 8n COMINCH, see King, Ernest 1. communications: encryption "padding" in, 250-51 failures and misunderstandings in, 157-62, 17~2,181,200-201, 209,212-13,216,238,249-51, 286,295 "reading other people's mail," 160, 178-79 visual,176 COMTHIRDFLT, see Halsey, William Fo "Bull" concentration of forces, 137, 138, 163 Condition I Easy, 186


* Condition Two, 86 condoms, 25-26 Coney, Charles, 177-78 Connally, John, 122 "Convoy College," 83 convoys, IOn Copeland, Robert w., 224, 225, 226, 242,243,244,245,246,253 Coral Sea, Battle of, 119 Corps of Engineers, U.S., 5 Corregidor Island, 3, 5, 33, 53 Coward,J. G., 178-79, 185, 190,203 cruisers, 119n comparison between Jap~nese and U.S., 64 naval warfare role of, 46--47 Cruzen, Richard H., 216 CVEs (escort carriers), 57-58, 209, 226 CVLs (light aircraft carriers), 57, 209 CVs (attack carriers), 57, 209

Dace, USS, 94-95, 98-104, 105-8, 109,110 Daly, USS, 193 Dangerous Ground, 95, 98, 104, 105, 277 Darter, USS, 95, 98-101,105-7,109, 110, 115, 121 Davison, Ralph E., 114, 115, 121, 135, 138,172-73,207-8,251 daylight circles, 206 D-Day (Normandy invasion), xiv, 15, 53 dead-reckoning, navigation by, 105 DennM, USS, 227, 258 Denver, USS, 175, 203 destroyers, 198, 252 Digardi, Ed, 227-28, 229, 230-31, 240,241,247,248,278,279, 280,281-82 "Dirty Tricks Department," 208, 210, 215 divine wind (kamikaze), 13,265-66, 268,285

Index

*

333

Drury, Paul, 129-30, 132-33 dysentery, 77 elections, U.S., of 1944, 34, 93, 284 encryption "padding," 250-51 EnterprMe, USS, 37, 38, 56, 139, 140, 141, 142, 148 escort carriers (CVEs), 57-58,209,226 Essex, USS, 115, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 148, 156 European Theater, xiv, 8, lOn, 15, 21 Evans, Ernest E., 228, 229, 230, 231, 239,240,244,247,297 Ewen, Edward C., 210-11

Fanshaw Bay, USS, 226, 233, 252, 258 Fifth Fleet, U.S., 14, 169 alternating status of Third Fleet and, 39-40, 41, 61n, 115 in invasion of Mariana Islands, 15, 16-18 fighter director officers, 155-56 Filipinos, xiv, 5, 33, 75, 77, 79 fire-control radar, 199 First Battleship Division, Japanese, 45, 64,91,148,256 First World War, xiii, 64, 65n, 136 "fish," 123 Flatley, James, 212-13 Fletcher, Frank Jack, 119 flying bridges, 229 fog of war, 210, 216, 292 Forager, Operation, 15 Formosa, 22,24, 32-33, 42,43, 69-70,71,85,86,164,295 Fox schedule, 159 Franklin, USS, 148,207 friction, in war, 210, 216, 292 friendly fire, 88, 126, 192 Fuchida, Mitsuo, 48 fuel tanks, self-sealing, 16 Fukudome, Shigeru, 70 Fuso, 91, 140, 188, 199,201


334

*

Index

*

Gabilan, USS, 84, 85 Gadd, Peter, 184 Gambier Bay, USS, 227, 252-55, 256, 258,271,280,282 Garsian, Leon, 88 "general attacks," 236 Germany, Nazi, 8, 21, 37 Gilbert Islands, 9, 14,28, 139 go, chess compared with, 67 "gouge," 189 Granite II strategy, 22 Grosscup, Ben, 255-56 Guadalcanal, 14,25, 73, 122, 139, 179 "Guide to the Reading of On War, A" (Brodie), vii hachimaki, 271 Hagen, Robert C., 239 Haguro, lO2 Halsey, William F. "Bull," xiii, 14,36, 56,92,110,114,115,139, 141-42,154,174 after-action report of, 283 battle action sought by, 119-20, 259-60 character of, 38-39, 42 as COMTHIRDFLT, 39-40, 41 declaration of war authorized by, 37-38 errors made by, 293 escort carriers proposed by, 57-58 forces divided by, 251-52 Formosa attacked by, 69-70, 71, 85, 295 Kinkaid's communications gap with, 159-62,170-71,295 military command, philosophy of, 136-38 Mitscher overridden by, 61, 135-36, 213 nickname of, 38n Nimitz's instructions to, 59-61, 120-21,159,215,295

Nimitz's "the world wonders" message to, 238, 249-51, 261 Ozawa's force chased by, 163-64, 171-72,206-16,220,222, 234-36,237,285-86,287-96 Philippine invasion schedule advanced by, 41-44, 49, 53 in postwar controversies, 287-96 San Bernardino Strait left unguarded b~163-64,171-72, 181,209, 215-16,237,249,287-88, 291-92 strike order given by, 121, 135, 136 Hamakaze, 152 Hardhead, USS, 144 Harrington, Red, 226 Haruna, 64 "hawks," 123 HC (high-capacity ammunition), 174-75,176 Heerman, USS, 227, 239, 241, 258 "hermaphrodite" battleships, 85,114 Hertel, W G., 197 Hess, Frank, 144 high-capacity ammunition (HC), 174-75,176 High Explosive shells, 66 Hiroshima, .xi v History of United States Naval Operations in World War II (Morison), 133n, 284 Hitler, Adolf, 29 "Hit Parade," 84 Hoel, USS, 227, 239, 242, 243, 256, 258,277,282 Holloway, James L., III, 205 Holmes, Christopher, 32 Holmes, L. M., 196 Honolulu, USS, 86-88, 122n, 144 Hornet, USS, 41, 139, 144n Hoskins, John M., 130, 131-32, 133-34 Hutchins, USS, 193 Hyuga, 85,260


* I-56, 268, 270 Imperial Japanese Navy: air power of, 47, 70-71, 116-17, 144-45,150,164,266-68,284, 293 descriptions of ships of, 64-66, 85, 114; see also specific ships disciplinary standards in, 31 Japanese and U.s. names for forces of,ll3n Japanese Army's cooperation with, 117 at Mariana Islands, 15, 16-18,45 night prowess of, 187 in Russo-Japanese War, 184 Spruance's confrontation with, 17-18, 19-20,47,60,164-65,296 starting points and routes taken by, 63,90,95,113-14 strategy of, 46-47, 66-69, 73, 89, 92-93,116,172,202 warrior mentality of, 15-16, 48n, 89, 93,108-9 Independence, USS, 162n, 206, 210, 211,213,214 Indianapolis, USS, 21 Influence of Sea Power Upon History, The (Mahan), 137 "information addressees," 160n "in harm's way," 179-80, 228, 297 Inoguchi, Toshihira, 146, 147-48, 149, 151-52 Intrepid, USS, 117-18, 121, 135, 141, 145, 146, 148,210 "Ironbottom Sound," 170 Irwin, USS, 132-33 Ise, 85,260 Isuzu, 85 Italy, 37 Ito, Masanori, 287 Ivey, Harold, 189 Iwo Jima, xiv Japan: China invaded by, 43n

Index

*

335

defensive strategy options for, 69 Empire of, xiv, 37, 49, 62, 68, 120 Philippines invaded by, 6, 77 Japanese Fleet, Japanese Navy, see Imperial Japanese Navy Japanese merchant fleet, 48, 85 Japanese names, transposition of, 14n John C. Butler, USS, 227, 258 Johnson, Allen C., 253-54 Johnston, USS, 227-32, 239-42, 244,246-48,258,277,280, 281-82 Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 20-21, 22-23,26,28,42,53 in Combined Chiefs of Staff, 8n members of, 6n Jones, John Paul, 179-80,228,255, 256,297 Jutland, Battle of, xiii, 136 Kaiser, Henry, 226n Kalbfus, Edward C., 137 Kalinin Bay, USS, 227, 252 kamikaze (divine wind), 13,265-66, 268,285 Kamikaze Corps, 266-73 creation of, 266-68 four sections of, 268 Seventh Fleet attacked by, 26873 Karig, Walter, 226 Kato, Kenkichi, 147, 149, 152 Kennedy, John F., 180n KeIT,And~86-88, 123n Killen, USS, 193 Kimmel, Husband, 27 Kimmel, Vernon, 271, 272 King, Ernest]., 6n, 22,23,24,27,32, 42,43,56,60,159,160,207, 214,251,288,291 career and character of, 19 as COMINCH, 18,20-21,26 King Two Operation, 53


336

*

Index

*

Kinkaid, Thomas Cassin, 57, 92,110, 120,154,174,178,220,237, 249,251,260,262 background of, 55-56 credit due to, 296 errors made by, 292-93 Halsey's communications gap with, 159-62,170-71,295 Halsey's postwar relationship with, 289-92,293 as Seventh Fleet commander, 56, 58, 59,61,114,175,180,215-16 as Task Force 77 commander, 58 Kishinami, 101,102 Kitkun Bay, USS, 227, 259, 272 Kiyoshima, 152 Knox, W. Franklin, 6n Kongo,233,241,256 Kovar, Isadore M., 181 Koyanagi, Tomiji, 89,146,222, 256 Kublai Khan, 265 Kumano,230-31,241,257 Kurita, Takeo, 47, 49, 65, 93, 117, 158,172,184,186,187,219, 266-67 career of, 72 Ozawa's command relinquished to, 71-72 in Palawan Passage fighting, 100, 101,102,104,105,108-10,277 pursuit of Taffy 3 broken off by, 259, 261--64,286-87 in Sibuyan Sea Battle, 149-53 Kurita's force (Center Force), 95, 113, 115,135,160,170,172 in Palawan Passage, 96-110, 97, 121,277 pincer attack by, 91 in San Bernardino Strait, 160, 163, 186,209,211,215,219 Seventh Fleet attacked by, 219-34, 220,223,236-37,238-48, 252-59,261--64,289

in Sibuyan Sea Battle, 145-53, 163, 277 Kusaka, Ryunosuke, 70 Lamar, Hal, 25, 36 Landing Crafts, Infantry (LCIs), 11 Landing Ships, Tank (LSTs), 54, 77 Langley, USS, 127, 155, 156 Lanikai, 53-54 LCIs (Landing Crafts, Infantry), 11 Leahy, William D., 6n, 7, 18, 21n, 26, 42,291 at Pacific command meeting, 29, 31, 32-33 Lee, Fitzhugh, 181 Lee, Willis A., 211-12, 213, 238, 294, 295 Leeson, R. A., 180, 188 Lewis, Dan, 189 Lexington, USS, 126, 144,235 Leyte Gulf, Battle of: analysis of, xv-xvi, 283-97 choice of site of, 23 component battles of, see Cape Engaiio, Battle of; Samar, Battle of; Sibuyan Sea, Battle of; Surigao Strait, Battle of exhaustion as factor in, 115, 212, 215,258,261,286-87 first ships hit in, 99, 108 first shots fired in, 76, 108 as Greek tragedy, xvii Japanese losses in, 144,205,260, 285 Japanese Navy's starting points and routes in, 63,90,95, 113-14 mistaken identifications in, 84, 88 notable displays of courage in, 32, 122-28,149,196-97,231-32, 238,243,244,245,296-97 number of men and ships involved in, Xlll

official beginning of, 121 planning of, 54-55


* scheduling of, 41-44, 49, 53, 295 significance of, xiii-xiv, 93, 283-85 U.S. losses in, 144,205,260,285 Leyte Gulf, U.S. amphibious landing at, 53,54,59,61,209,296 Leyte Island, 75 Life, 291 light aircraft carriers (CVLs), 57, 209 Lingga Roads, 47, 49, 62 Louisville, USS, 175, 176,203 Love, Robert W, 19 LSTs (Landing Ships, Tank), 54, 77 Lucky Bag, 56 Lufberry fonnation, 123-24 Luzon, 23, 69,278 MacArthur, Arthur, 5 MacArthur, Douglas, xiii, 14,22,43, 53,54,56,159,295 as CINCSOWESPAC, 7-8, 9 forced abandoning of Philippines by, 3-5, 180 Nimitz and, 26-28, 35-36 at Pacific command meeting, 32-35, 50,75,118 Philippine liberation strategy of, 22-24,32-34,42,296 refusal of, to leave Nashville, 177-78 reputation of, 3, 6, 79 return to Philippines promised by, 5, 8,35,74-75,76,78-79 Roosevelt's relationship with, 6-7, 29,34,35,284,296 Southwest Pacific campaign of, 9-10, 14,23 "MacArthur's Navy," 56-57, 58 McCain, John S., 115, 138, 162n, 238, 259-60,292 McCallum, Art, 216 McCampbell, David, 121-28, 145, 234,235 McClintock, David H., 95, 98-99, 100, 105, 106, 107, 109-10

Index

*

337

McDermut, USS, 169-70, 176-77, 179, 185-86, 189-90, 191-92, 194 McElfresh, John, 188 McGowan, USS, 176, 179, 190, 192 McIntire, Ross T., 7 McKaskill, Jackson, 243 Magellan, Ferdinand, 200, 277 Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 137,293 malaria, 16, 77 Manila Bay, USS, 181 Mariana Islands, 9,12-13, 15, 16-18, 22,28,45,47,50,68,139,169, 212,296 Marine Corps, U.S., 11, 169 Marpi Point, 11-12,21,50 Marshall, George C., 6n, 26, 43 Marshall Island, 9, 14,28,39, 139 "Maru Morgue," 83-84 Maryland, USS, 57, 174, 199 Maya, 99, 102, 104, 109, 144 Medals of Honor, 128, 180, 297 Melvin, USS, 176, 179, 190, 192 Mercer, Bill, 228-29, 231-32, 240, 248,278,279,281,282 Merrill, James M., 39 messenger ships, 157 Michishio, 187,193 midwatch, 189 Midway, Battle of, xiv, 14, 16, 56,62, 120,139,147,163,283 military time system, xv Millar, Bill, 119 Mindanao, 23 Mindoro Strait, 5 Minneapolis, USS, 175 Minsi 1II, 122-27 Mississippi, USS, 57, 174, 199 Mitchell, John B., 268 Mitscher, Marc A., 115, 119,208,212, 295 Halsey's overriding of, 61, 135-36, 213 as Task Force 38 commander, 59, 260,261


338

*

Index

*

Miyazaki, Shuichi, 68 Mogami, 62,91, 173, 184, 186, 188, 199,201,202-4,221 Monsarrat, John, 155-56 Monssen, USS, 179, 190, 191, 192 Moore, Carl, 22 Mori, Kokichi, 201-2 Morinaga, Masahiko, 268, 270 Morison, Samuel Eliot, 133n, 205, 284 Moulton, Doug, 142 Murphy's Law, 181 Musashi, 64-65, 73,89, 104, 146-49, 151-53,219 Myoko, 96, 102, 146 Nachi, 200,201-3,204 Naganami,l44 Nagasaki, xiv Nakazawa, Tasuku, 67,89, 109 Nashville, USS, 74, 76, 78, 88, 177-78 Natoma Bay, USS, 255 Naval Communications Stations, 159 Naval Institute, U.S., 138, 170,292, 293 Naval War College, 136-37, 138,293, 294 navigation, by dead-reckoning, 105 Navy, U.S., 19,20,38,46 disciplinary standards in, 31 Pacific command structure of, 7-8, 18,26,36,59,135-36,289 tactical grouping system in, 40n Navy and Marine Corps medal, 180n Nelson, Horatio, 120n, 255n Newcomb, USS, 195, 197 New Jersey, USS, 165,208,234,237, 252 New York Herald-Tribune, 291 Night Air Group 41, 210, 211, 213, 214 Nimitz, Chester, xiii, 13, 14, 19-20, 21,25,39,54,56,59,160,289 Central Pacific campaign of, 9-10 character of, 26-27

as CINCPAC, 7-9, 18,26-27,42 and Halsey's chasing of Ozawa's force,171-72,207,214,288 Halsey's instructions from, 59-61, 120-21,159,215,295 Halsey's "the world wonders" message from, 238, 249-51, 261 MacArthurand,26-28, 35-36 at Pacific command meeting, 31, 32-33,34,50,118 Nisewaner, T. A., 196 Nishimura, Shoji, 91, 158, 172, 173 errors made by, 286 Shima and, 95-96, 200-201, 202, 286 at Surigao Strait Battle, 182,183, 184, 186, 187 Nishimura, Teiji, 173 Nishimura's force (Southern Force), 91, 113-14,154,174 air attack on, 139-41 in Sulu Sea crossing, 173 in Surigao Strait Battle, 182-93,183, 199-205 Nishino, Shigeru, 173, 184-85, 199 Normandy invasion (D-Day), xiv, 15, 53 Northern Force, see Ozawa's force Noshiro, 96 Octagon conference (1944), 42, 43 Ohmae, Toshikazu, 235, 260, 264 oil, 28, 33, 48, 62, 68, 88, 285 Okinawa, xiv, 68n, 69 Okinawa, Battle of, 285 Oldendorf, Jesse B., 179, 187,211 as Task Group 77.2 commander, 58, 175-76,184,189,190,193, 194-95,199,203,296 omens, 73, 135-36, 173 O'Neill, J. C., Jr., 196 Onishi, Takijiro, 117,266-68 On War (Clausewitz), vii, 210 Operational Telegram Order Number 360, 73


* Operation Victory One, see Sho [chi Go Operation Victory Two (Sho Ni Go), 69, 70 Operation Victory Three (Sho San Go), 69 Operation Victory Four (Sho Shi Go), 69 Osmefia, Sergio, 78, 83 Otani, Tonosuke, 219, 221, 234 Oyodo,85 Ozawa, Jisaburo, 47-48, 49, 70, 71-72,158,235,236 Ozawa's force (Northern Force): decoy role of, 86, 92-93,. 113n, 114, 142,154-57,162-64,209,211, 212,214,234-35,260-61, 285-86,293 on route to Leyte Gulf, 84-86, 95,114 Third Fleet's chasing of, 163-64, 171-72,206-16,222,234-36, 237,251,260,285-96 Pacific Fleet, U.S., 9, 39 Pacific theaters: alternative U.S. strategies in, 22-24, 32-34,42 operating areas of, 83-84 strengths and weaknesses of Japan and U.S. in, 14-16,46-47,49,59, 92 U.S. military command structures in, 7-8,18,26,36,59,135-36,289 Palau Islands, 41 Palawan Passage, fighting in, 96--110, 97, 121, 144, 149,277 Panama Canal, 64 Pan American Airways, 30 Parker, Richard, 189, 191 Patrol Torpedo (PT) boats, 180 Pearl Harbor: Japanese attack on, 16, 19,27,31, 37,38,55,57,139,153,170, 174,234,235 Nimitz's headquarters at, 249

Index

*

339

Pacific command meeting in, 28--35, 50,75,118 Pennsylvania, USS, 57, 174, 199 Petro! Bay, USS, 269 Philippines, 4, 69 Japanese invasion of, 6, 77 MacArthur's forced abandoning of, 3-5, 180 MacArthur's promised return to, 5, 8, 35, 74-75, 76, 78--79 MacArthur's strategy for liberation of, 22-24,32-34,42,296 in Southwest Pacific Area theater, 7 strategic importance of, 68, 284-85 see also Filipinos Philippine Sea, Battle of, 13, 16--18, 19,20,45,47,49,136,139,163, 164,296 Phillips, Richard H., 192 pilots, comparison between Japanese and U.S., 16,48, 70--71, 92,116, 156,260-61 pincer attacks, 91-92,141 Portal, Sir Charles, 21 Portland, USS, 175, 203 Potter, E. B. "Ned," 60, 165n Pratt, William v., 136--37 Princeton, USS, 128--34, 144, 156, 164,207,294 prisoners of war, Allied, xiv, 33 Proceedings, 138, 170, 293 PT (Patrol Torpedo) boats, 180 PT-41, 5 PT-I09,180n PT-130, 185 PT-131, 184 PT-134, 188 PT-137, 181 PT-152, 185 PT-490, 188 PT-491,l88,203-4 PT-493, 188 "purple suit" mentality, 21n


340

*

Index

*

Quiet Warrior, The (Buell), 14

radar, fire-control, 199 radiomen, 157, 160 Radio Tokyo, 88 "rats," 123 Ray~n~ USS, 227, 271, 272 Reilly, Mike, 35 Reme~ USS, 179, 190,192 Reno, USS, 133 Reno V plan, 23 Rhoades, Weldon E. "Dusty," 29-30, 74-75, 78 Richard P. Leary, USS, 195 Richardson, Robert C., 32 Roberts, Bob, 224, 225, 226 Robinson, USS, 205 rockets, 77 Rollins, Virgil, 170, 191 Rome, 15 Ronquil, USS, 84, 85 Roosevelt, Franklin D., xiii, 3, 5, 19, 57-58 as commander in chief, 18, 26, 36, 42 on Halsey, 295-96 MacArthur's relationship with, 6--7, 29,34,35,284,296 military advisors to, 6n, 21,28 at Pacific command meeting, 28, 30--35,50,75,118 political motivations of, 28--29, 32, 34,93,284 Ross, USS, 144 Rushing, Roy, 122, 125--26, 127, 128 Russell, James, 207--8 Russo-Japanese War, 184 St. John, Joseph F., 75, 76--78, 79 St. ro, USS, 227, 252, 271, 272-73, 282 Saipan, 15, 18,28,45,46, 118 Japanese mass suicide at, 11-13,21, 50 Salvage Control phases, 129-30

Samar, Battle of, 219-34,220,223, 252,258,260,286,295 Samuel B. Roberts, USS, 224-26, 227, 239,242-46,258,277,282 Samurai, 271n San Bernardino Strait, 91, 95, 96, 113, 120--21,150,151,152,160 Kurita's force in, 160, 163, 186, 209, 211,215,219,287 unguarded status of, 163--64, 171-72,181,209,215--16,237, 249,287--88,291-92 Sanga~~ USS,269 Santa Fe, USS, 131 Santee, USS, 268--70 Sato, Kenyro, 66--67 Saturday Evening Post, 288, 290 Seabees, 169 Seafights and Shipwrecks (Baldwin), 291 "seagoing foxhole," 236--37 Secret Service, 35 self-sealing fuel tanks, 16 Selleck, W. M., 196--97 Seventh Fleet, U.S.: assault responsibility of, 59, 61, 92, 209 Fire Support and Bombardment Group (Task Group 77 .2) of, 58, 175--76,179,184,194,199,203 Kurita's attack on, 220,221-34, 236--37,238-48,252-59,261--64 size and strength of, 56--57, 58--59, 174-75 Taffy 1 group of, 114,224,268--70 Taffy 2 group of, 114,224,232, 255--56,257,262,268 Taffy 3 group of, 114,222,223,224, 226--34,236--37,238-48, 252-55,256,261--64,268, 271-73,289,297 task forces and groups of, 58,114 Task Force 77 of, 58 Task Force 78 of, 58, 278


* Task Force 79 of, 58 Task Group 77.2 (Fire Support and Bombardment Group) of, 58, 175-76,179,184,194,199,203 Task Group 77.4 of, 114 Task Group 78.12 of, 279-80, 282 sharks, 278,279, 280,282 Sherman, Forrest, 250 Sherman, Frederick C., 114, 115-16, 121, 133, 135, 138, 141-42, 154, 251 Shigure, 64, 140, 173, 184-85, 188, 193,199-201,204 Shima, Kiyohide, 187 Nishimura and, 95-96, 200-201, 202,286 in Surigao Strait Battle, 200-204, 286 Shima's force, 113-14, 154, 174 in Surigao Strait Battle, 183, 186, 200-204 Shinarw, 65n Sho [chi Go (Operation Victory One),

66-69,73,89,93,95, 113n, 116, 172,202,284 Sho Ni Go (Operation Victory Two), 69,

70 Sho San Go (Operation Victory Three),

69 Sho Shi Go (Operation Victory Four),

69 shuttle-bombing, 164 Sibuyan Sea, 91, 105, 113, 118, 119, 135,141,172,277 Sibuyan Sea, Battle of, 145-53, 154, 163,277 sisal,65 Smith, Holland, 21 Smoot, Captain, 195,205 Solomon Islands, 7, 28, 56, 170, 173 Sound Military Decision (Kalbfus), 137, 294-95 Southern Force, see Nishimura's force Southwest Pacific campaign, 9-10, 14, 23

Index

*

341

Sprague, Clifton A. F. "Ziggy," 114, 226,227,232,233,239,258, 264,295,296 Sprague, Thomas L., 58, 114 Spruance, Raymond A., 21,72,119-20, 136,164,172 character of, 13-14 confrontation between Japanese Navy and,17-18,19-20,47,60, 164-65,296 as Fifth Fleet commander, 15, 39-40, 41,60-61 Sterell, USS, 178 Stimson, Henry L., 6n Strickland, 1. B., 232, 281 Stump, Felix B., 114,232,255-56 submarines, lOn, 17,49 Pacific Theater role of, 83-84, 94 suicide: ritual, 16 at Saipan, 11-13,21,50 see also Kamikaze Corps Sulu Sea, 113, 142-44, 154, 173, 174 fighting in, 139-41 Surface Warfare Officers School, 297 Surigao Strait, 95, 120, 121, 139, 140, 141,173,174-81,209 Surigao Strait, Battle of, 182-205,183, 211,215,277,286,295 survivors at sea, rescue of, 277-82 Sutherland, Richard, 29, 43 Suwanee, USS, 269, 270 Suzutsuki,84 Suzuya, 241,257

Swain, W. H., 196 T, capping of, 182-84,211 tail hooks, 157 Taiwan, see Formosa Takao, 99-100, 104, 109, 144 Talk Between Ships (TBS), 87, 121, 178-79,210,224,232 Tama, 85 task force and group designations, 40n


342

*

Index

*

Task Force 8, 37, 38, 56 Tennessee, USS, 57, 174, 199 Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 238, 251 Thach, John, 292 "thin-skinned," 226 Third Fleet, U.S., 56, 121,229,235 alternating status of Fifth Fleet and, 39--40,41, 61n, 115 dividing of, 251-52 Formosa attacked by, 69-70, 85, 295 nickname of, 40 Ozawa's force chased by, 163--64,

171-72,206-16,222,234-36, 237,251,260,285-86,287-96 Task Force 34 of, 160, 161--62, 163, 171,207-8,211,216,234,237, 249-50,251,260,261,292,293, 294 Task Force 38 of, 40, 41,57,59--61, 162n,207,238 Task Group 38.1 of, 115, 138, 162n,

Trathen, USS, 270 Tsushima, Battle of, 184 Type HE (High Explosive) shells, 66 Type 91 (armor-piercing) shells, 66 Type San Shiki Model 3 shells, 66,146 Ugaki, Matome, 50, 66, 72-73, 89, 93,

95,96,148,151,219,256,264 in Palawan Passage fighting, 99,

100-101,102,104 and Philippine Sea Battle, 45, 47 United States: entry into war by, 37 war production by, 14-15,21 "unsinkable aircraft carriers," 15,

17 Vandegrift, A. Archer, 25-26 Vella Gulf, Battle of, 64, 173, 204 Viewig, W V. R. , 252, 254-55 Virginia Quarterly Review, 290

238,259--60 Task Group 38.2 of, 114, 117, 121,

125,138,210,211,251,260 Task Group 38.3 of, 114, 115-16, 121,130,135,138,141--42,145, 154,156,158,162,251,260 Task Group 38.4 of, 114, 115, 121, 135,138,139,172-73,251, 260 Thurber, Harry R., 87 time system, military, xv Toho Motion Picture Company, 70 Tojo Hideki, 28 Tokyo, 39, 55 Tone, 152, 258, 260 torpedoes: firing at, 259 on Japanese cruisers, 64 malfunctioning of, 83, 170 toll taken by, 198 Towers, John H., 165 Toyoda, Admiral, 66, 70, 73, 150, 152,

160,172

Wakatsuki, 84 War and Remembrance (Wouk), 252 Wasatch, USS, 178,215 Washington, USS, 211 West, Roy, 169, 170, 176, 185-86,

189,190,191-92,194 West Virginia, USS, 57,174,197-98, 199 Weyler, G. L., 176 White Plains, USS, 227, 233, 252, 259,

272 Wilkinson, Theodore S., 58, 179 Wilson, Len, 176 Winters, Hugh, 235 Wogan, T. L., 84-85 World War I, xiii, 64, 65n, 136 World War II, declarations of war in, 37 Wouk, Herman, 252 Yamaguchi, Moriyoshi, 116 Yamagumo, 188,192


* Yamamoto, Isoraku, 14, 46 Yamashiro, 91, 173, 187-88, 193, 197, 199 Yamato, 64--65,66,72-73,89,95, 99, 101, 104, 145-46, 148, 152, 219,221,233,234,256-57, 264

Index

*

Yokosuka D4 Y Suisei "Comet" or "Judy" bombers, 128 Yonai, Misumasa, 284--85 Zuiho,85 Zuikaku, 85, 235-36 Zumwalt, Elmo R., 205

343


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The Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944  
The Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944