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IN

Shinzo Hayase

Publishers

FILl. lNA~S HrrtlTAGE LIBRARY


SENSO NO KIOKU 0 ARUKU, TONAN AJIA NO lMA by Shinzo Hayase Š 2007 by Shinzo Hayase Originally published in Japanese by Iwanarni Shoten, Publishers, Tokyo, 2007. This English language edition published in 2010 by New Day Publishers, Quezon City, Philippines is by arrangement with the proprietor do Iwanami Shoten, Publishers, Tokyo (morikawa@iwanami.co.jp).

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner or form without written permission by the author and the publisher, except in the form of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews.

Published by NEW DAY PUBLISHERS Ground Floor, 877 EDSA, West Triangle, Quezon City 1105 P.O. Box 1167, 1100 Qj.tezon City, Philippines Phone (632) 928 8046 / 927 5982 Fax (632) 924 6544 E-mail sales@newdaypublishers.com Website www.newdaypublishers.com (English edition): Bezalie B. Uc-Kung Cover Design and Inside Layout: Juvelin T. Aripal The National Library of the Philippines CIP Data Recommended entry: Hayase, Shinzo, 1955A walk through war memories in Southeast Asia / Hayase Shinzo. -- Qj.tezon City : New Day, 2010. p. cm. 1. World War, 1939-1945- -Southeast Asia. 2. World War, 1939-1945- MonumentsSoutheast Asia. 3. War memorials--Southeast Asia. 4. Japan--Relations- Southeast Asia. 5. Southeast ASia--Reiations- Japan. 1. Title.

D767 940.54259 2010 P095000034 ISBN 971-10-1211-3 Printed and bound in the Philippines by Brown Madonna Press, Inc.


DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this book to my uncle, Kuranaga Yutaka, who perished in the Java Sea on 21 May 1945. If he had survived, our family would have taken a completely different path after the war, and I would not have been born into this world.


INDEX A Abe Shinzo, 161 Abe Yoshishige, 174 Ache (Indonesia), 13 Africa, 33 Agreement on the Japan-Thailand Concerted Operations, 70 Alaungpaya, King, 118 Ambonese (Indonesia), 52 America (-+ U.S.A.), 3, 5, 77, 82,142-144 American Field Service (AFS),78 Amoy (China), 119 Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), 117, 121 Arab, 18 Armed Forces Day (Myanmar), 117, 121 Art Gallery & War Museum (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 79 Aruhiru (Arrow Hill) (Thailand), 80 ASEAN, 6,114 Asia-Pacific War, xii, 5-6, 56, 66 Asian Civilizations Museum (Singapore), 31 Atomic bomb, 174 Aung San (-+ Omoda Monji), 119, 121, 124, 138-139

Aung San Suu Kyi, 124 Australia, 6, 33, 35, 76-77, 81, 123, 151, 184 Australian Minister for Veterans' Affairs, 80 Ayuttahaya Dynasty, 59, 70, 97,118

B Bagak (Bataan, Philippines), 150 Ban Kat (Thailand), 98-99, 102, 104 Ban Kat Witthayakhom School (Thailand), 98 "Banana" currency, 19 Bangkok, 59, 62-63, 65-66, 69, 72,83,88,96-97, 107, 109, 111, 114-115 Bataan Day (-+ Day of Valor), 142, 150, 162 Bataan Peninsula (Philippines), 142, 144-145, 147, 149 Batangas (Philippines), 155 Battle Box (Singapore), 22 Battle of Bataan (Philippines), 146, 149-150 Batu Lintang Teachers' College (Kuching), 46 Biruma no Tategoto [Burmese Ha.zp], 129, 131, 175


Index

Bleached White Bone Highway (Thailand), 88-91 , 108-109 Blood Debt Tower (Singapore) (~Civilian War Memorial), 15-16 Bloody Wednesday Student Massacre (Thailand), 111 Bogyoke Aung San Museum (Yangon), 124 Borneo, 10, 12, 18, 39-40, 46, 49-52, 56-57, 167 Bose, Sub has Chandra, 29, 31, 88 Bridge on the River Kwai (Kanchanaburi, Thailand) (~Death Bridge), 71 , 77-79, 83, 127 British Commonwealth, 9, 121, 143 British Commonwealth Forces, 19, 35 British Commonwealth War Graves Commission ( ~ Commonwealth War Graves Commission), 133 British Malaya, 10, 18, 49 Brooke, James (~white raja), 39,45 Brunei, 12, 39-40 Burma (~Myanmar), 2, 10-12, 51 , 57, 59-60, 62, 64, 70-71, 73,75,80,83,85,88,90,9394,96, 98-99, 102-103, 108, 112, 114, 116-123, 125, 127130, 132-133, 135-136, 139, 141,143-144,175-176 Burma Independence Army (BIA),119 Burma Route, 41

Burma-Thailand Railway ( ~ Thailand-Burma Railway), x, 51, 59-60, 66, 70-73, 77-78, 80,82,84, 91 , 93,121-122, 124-125

C Caliraya (Laguna, Philippines), 158, 167 Cambodia, xi, 13, 62-64, 101, 141, 143, 157 Camp O'Donnell (Philippines), 146, 149 Canada, 35, 76, 123 Capas (Tarlac, Philippines), 146 Capas National Shrine (Philippines), 149 Cavite Naval Base (Philippines), 149 Cebu, 142 Celebes (~Sulawesi) , 10 Central Padang (Kuching), 46 Changi Prison Museum (Singapore), 30 Chao Phraya River, 64 Chen Bi Jun, 34 Cheng Ho, 42 Chiang Kai Shek, 41 , 64, 117 Chiang Mai, 70, 72, 88, 95102,118 Chiang Mai Kingdom, 62, Chiang Mai National Museum, 96 China, 1,3,5-7,9, 12, 33-34, 40-42,49, 115-117,119,141, 157,166,177-178,180-184, 187, 189 Chinatown (Kuching), 27,46

191


A Walk Through War Memories in Southeast Asia

Chinese cemetery (Malaysia), 40-42 Chinese Chamber of Commerce (Singapore), 15 Chinese History Museum (Kuching), 45 Chong Kai (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 74-75, 79 Chulalongkorn, King (Rama V), 61, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok), 69 Chumphon (Thailand), 64-66, 84-87 Chungking (China), 41, 64, 117 Civilian War Memorial (Singapore) (-i Blood Debt Tower), 14-15, 23 Class-A war criminals, 7, 9, 165 "Commandeering," 11, 117 Commonwealth War Graves Commission (-i British Commonwealth War Graves Commission), 74, 81 "Comfort women," 11, 178 Constantino, Renato, 162-163, 165 Corregidor Island (Philippines), 142, 144, 149-152, 170

D Day of Valor (Bataan, Philippines) (-i Bataan Day), 142, 150 Dayak, 52, 55 De La Salle University (Manila), 155

192

"Death Bridge" (Kanchanaburi, Thailand) ( -i Bridge on the River Kwai), 72, 80 "Death March" (Bataan, Philippines), 146-147, 149150, 169 "Death Railway" (-i ThailandBurma Railway), 72, 75-77, 112,124 Defence Service Museum (Yangon),138 Democracy Monument (Bangkok), 63 Dobama Asiayoun (Our Burma Association), 118 Don Rak (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 74-75 Dutch (-i Netherlands), 10, 39,50,52-53,55,57,71,75, 80, 122 Dutch Borneo, 10 Dutch East Indies, 10,50-51

E East Asian Community, 6 East Asian Summit, 6 EDSA Revolution (Philippines), 152 England (-i United Kingdom), 2-3,9, 12,60,62-63,67-68, 70,76-77, 104, 106, 173, 183 Eto Foundation, 99-102 Eurasian, 15

F Federated Malay States, 39, 62


Index

Filipino-American Memorial Endowment, Inc. (FAME),147 Filipino Heroes Memorial, 152 Federation of Malaysia, 14, 39,49 "Forced slave labor," 11 Fort Canning Park (Singapore), 17, 22 Fort Santiago (Manila), 153154 Fort Siloso (Singapore), 20-22 Free Thai (Seri Thai) Movement, 60, 106, 112 French Indochina, 9, 13, 41, 59, 62-64, 141, 143 Fujiwara Yoshiko, 93 Futabatei Shimei, 34

Hariphunchai Kingdom (Thailand), 96 Hashimoto Ryutaro, 100-101 Heiwa Kinen Tenji Shiryokan [The Exhibition and Reference Library for Peace and Consolation], 178 Hellfire Pass (Thailand), 80, 82 Hellfire Pass Memorial (Thailand), 80 Heroes' Grave (Kuching), 46 Heroes' Monument (Kuching), 46 Hindu,36,131 Hirohito (Showa Emperor), 3, 101, 104 Hiroshima, 37, 44, 152, 162 Hong Kong, 64

G

I

General Headquaters (GHQ),5 Germany, 9, 63, 76, 183 Goh Chok Tong, 42 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, x, 6, 8, 60, 180 Greater East Asia War, 5, 86, 109, 114, 136-137 Guadalcanal, 152 Guerrilla, 11, 116, 120, 144, 160 Gulf War, 173 Gurkha, 21, 36

Iban, 46 Images of Singapore [Museum], 17-18,23 Imphal Operations, 31, 60, 108,117,120 Independence Day (Indonesia), 50 Independence Day (Myanmar), 117 Independence Hall of Korea, 182 India, 6, 10,29,31,79,88,90, 98, 101, 112, 118, 120, 123, 129, 139, 157, 168 Indian National Army (INA), 24, 28-29, 31, 88-89 Indochina (-+ French Indochina), 9, 13, 41, 59, 6264, 141, 143

H Hainan Island (China), 41, 116,119

193


A Walk Through War Memories in Southeast Asia

Indochina War, 141 Indonesia, x, 3, 12-13, 46, 5051,53,57,106,119,168, 178 Ingram, Adam, 36 International Military Tribunal for the Far East (-t Tokyo Trial), 7, 183 Intramuros (Manila), 153-155 Iraq, 24, 173 Iraqi War, 3 Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd., 35 Itagaki Seishiro, 20 Ito Keiichi, 93

J Japan Center for Asian Historical Records GACAR),180 Japan-Philippine Friendship Trade and Navigation Treaty, 142, 148, 157 Japan-Philippine Reparation Agreement, 157 Japan-Thailand Alliance Treaty, 59, 70 Japan-Thailand Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1898),62 Japanese cemetery (Kuala Lumpur), 45 Japanese cemetery (Kuching), 47 Japanese Cemetery Park (Singapore), 32, 34 Japanese Expeditionary Forces, Southern Regions, 2, 20, 35 Japanese Garden of Peace (Corregidor, Philippines), 152

194

Japanese Government-General Building (Korea), 182 Japanese Memorial Tower (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 79 Java, v, 10, 18,50, 53, 71, 78, 120 Jawi,46 JEATH War Museum (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 76 Johor, 22, 24, 40

K Kachin, 116, 120 Kanchanaburi (Thailand), 7172,74,79-80,82,122 Kaopoon Cave (Kanchanaburi, Thailand), 79 Kapuas River (Kalimantan), 53 Karayuki-san, 33, 35,45, 47, 134 Karen (Kayin), 13, 116, 120, 134 Kawila, King, 96 Kedah (Malaysia), 40 Kelantan (Malaysia), 40 Kempeitai, 19, 24, 28, 51, 153-154, 169 Kengtung (Burma), 70 Khunyuam (Thailand), 88-91, 93-94, 98 Kiangan (Philippines), 149 Kishi Nobusuke, 161 Koizumi Jun'ichiro, 9, 16,37, 40, 185 Kojima Takaaki, 36 Konbaung Dynasty, 116, 118, 134 Korea, 1, 6-7, 9, 40, 119, 143, 181, 183


A Walk Through War Memories in Southeast Asia

Melaka (Malacca), 14, 18, 39N Nagasaki, 37, 44, 152, 162 42, 86 Medecins Sans Frontieres Nagase Takashi, 83, 93 (MSF),130 Nakatomi Masayoshi, 100 Mempawah (Kalimantan), 56 Nam Tok (Thailand), 79-80 Mengrai, King, 96-97 Nara Kenritsu Tosho Joho-kan Merdeka Square (Kuching), 46 [Nara Prefectural Library & Midway Naval Battle, 70 Information Center]' 181 Minahasan (Indonesia), 52 National Heritage Board Minami Kikan [Agency], 116, (Singapore), 29, 32 National Historical Institute 119,138 Minami Masuyo, 119 (Philippines), 154 Mingalardon (Yangon), 134 National History Museum Ministry of Education Qapan), (Kuala Lumpur), 43 78, 108, 131, 176 National Museum Ministry of Welfare Qapan) (Yangon), 139 ( -t Ministry of Health, Naypyidaw (Pyinmana) Labour and Welfare), 105, (Myanmar), 117, 121 168-169 Nazi Germany, 63 Ministry of Tourism Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia), (Thailand), 74, 87 40,42-43 Mizuki Shigeru, 178 Nemoto Kei, xii, 175 Mizushima, 176-177 Netherlands (-t Dutch), 35, 50, Mon,96, 118, 122, 127, 13276-77,123 New Zealand, 6, 35, 76, 123 133, 139-140 Mongkut, King (Rama IV), 60 Nigeria, 134 Moulamyine (Myanmar), 121Nimitz, Chester William, 2 122, 130-132 Nippon-go Qapanese Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines), 147 language), 19 Mt. Samat (Bataan, Nishimura Takeshiro, 33 Philippines ),148, 150-151, Nishina Yoshio, 174 170 Mudon (Myanmar), 129-130 Myanmar (-t Burma), 2, 10, 12-13, 79, 82-83, 87, 102-103, Office of Strategic Services 116-117,119,121-122,124, (OSS), 106 131-132, 139-140, 167 Okinawa, 61, 152, 160, 181

o

196


Index

Okinawa-sen Kankei Shiryo Etsuran-shitsu [Reading Room for Okinawa War Related Source Materials]' 181 Omoda Monji (-lAung San), 119 Osmefia, Sergio, 144 Ouchi Hyoe, 174 Overseas Development Agency (ODA),157

Pontianak (Kalimantan), xi, 50-54 Portuguese, 39 Potsdam Declaration, 3 Prachuapkhirikhan (Thailand), 66, 68 Pridi Phanomyong, 68, 108109,112 Prisoners-of-War (POWs), 27, 29,30,36, 46-47,177

Q p Pacific War, 5, 107, 163 Pacific War Memorial (Corregidor, Philippines), 152 Pagan Dynasty, 116-118, 132 Pahang (Malaysia), 40 Pampanga (Philippines), 146 Papua Province (Indonesia), 50 Pearl Harbor, 10, 68, 92, 173 Penang (Pinang) (Malaysia), 14, 18, 40, 62 Perak (Malaysia), 40 Percival, Arthur, 20, 23, 25 Phibunsongkhram, 64, 67, 85, 91,112 Philippine Memorial Shrine, 149 Philippine Revolution, 153, 169 Philippines, xii, 2, 10-13, 20, 51,57-58, 105-106, 142-148, 152-163, 165-166, 168-170, 183-184 Phnom Penh, 141 Pictorial Gallery (Kuching), 46

Qing Dynasty, 118 Quezon, Manuel L. , 144, 151-152

R Raffies, Thomas Stamford, 17, 22 Raffies Hotel, 17 Rangoon (-l Yangon), 10, 41, 70, 116-117, 119-121, 133, 136 Rangoon War Cemetery, 134 Ranong (Thailand), 84-85, 87 Rattanakosin Dynasty (Bangkok), 59, 62, 96-97, 155 Red Cross, 71 Reflections at the Bukit Chandu [Museum] (Singapore), 30 River Kwai March, 72 Rizal, Jose, 153 Rizal Shrine (Philippines), 153 Romulo, Carlos P., 165 Romusha, 51, 81 Royama Masamichi, 175

197


A Walk Through War Memories in Southeast Asia

S Sabah, 13, 39-40,49, 167 Sampo Temple (Malaysia), 42 San Agustin Church (Manila), 154-155 San Fernando (Philippines), 146-147 San Francisco Treaty, 43, 157, 165, 179 Sandakan (Sabah), 46 Sarawak, xi, 13, 39-40, 45-46,49 Sarawak Museum, 45

Sekai [The World], 174-175 Sekai Shuho [ World Weekly], 16 Selangor (Malaysia), 40 Seni Plamoj, 106 Sentosa Island (Singapore), 17, 20-21,23 Shan, 118 Shan State, 59-60, 70, 107-108 Shigemitsu Mamoru, 2 Shimizu Ikutaro, 174 Shirabe Kanga, 99, 101 Shokei-kan [Historical Materials Hall for the Wounded and Sick Retired Soldiers, etc.]' 178 Shonan, 27, 71 Showa-kan [National Showa Memorial Museum], 173, 178 Shrine of Valor (Philippines), 148 Shwedagon Pagoda (Yangon), 139 Siam (-t Thailand), 59-60, 65,97

198

Singapore, xi, 2, 10, 12, 14-39, 42-43,49,51,71,74,81,88, 113, 188 Singapore Discovery Centre, 32 Singapore Philatelic Museum, 17,23 Sono Ayako, 80 Soviet Union, 3, 64, 184 Sri Lanka, 35 Straits Settlements, 14, 18 Sukhothai Dynasty, 59, 97 Sulawesi (-t Celebes), 10, 52 Sumatra, 10, 18 Sun Yat Sen, 34 Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall (Singapore), 34 Sun Yat Sen Villa (Singapore), 34 Suzuki Kantaro, 3 Suzuki Keiji, 119 Suzuki Shigeyuki, 100

T Taiwan, 3, 143, 151, 181 Takeyama Michio, 129, 175 Tamil, 17, 73 Tamwe (Yangon), 136-137 Tanaka Masami, 161 Tange Kenzo, 172 Tarakan (Kalimantan), 50 Taukkyan (Yangon), 133-134 Taukkyan War Cemetery (Yangon), 133 Terauchi Hisaichi, 35 "Textbook problem," 182 Thai National Railway Company,72


Index

Thai Peace Day, 60, 109 Thai Student Revolution, 111 Thailand, xi, 2, 10, 12-13, 59-60,76-77,80-82,84-85, 87-88,91-93,95-99, 102-104, 106-115, 118-119, 124, 128129, 139, 187 Thailand-Burma Railway Centre, 75 Thakin Party (Myanmar), 118-119 Thammasat University (Bangkok), 109-111 Thanbyuzayat (Myanmar), 82, 121-123, 125-126, 129, 133 Thaton (Myanmar), 132 Three Pagodas Pass (Thailand), 82 Titi (Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia), 42-43 Tokyo Trial (-I International Military Tribunal for the Far East), 7, 179,183-184 Toungoo Dynasty, 116, 118 Trans-Kra Isthmus Railway, 84,86-87 Treasures o[Time (Singapore), 32 Trengganu (Malaysia), 40 Tua Pek Kong Temple (Kuching), 45

u U Khanti Pagoda (Myanmar), 131 Umezu Yoshijiro, 2 United Kingdom (-I England), 35, 123 United Nations, 6, 114

United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), 149 United States of America (U.S.A.) (-I America), 82 University of St. Paul (Manila), 155 Urdu, 29, 36

v V-J Day, 1 Vajiravudh, King (Rama VI), 66 Victory Monument (Bangkok), 63 Vientiane, 118 Vietnam, x, 9, 13, 62-63, 73, 141, 143 Vietnam War, 141, 173, 179

W Wang Jing Wei, 34 War Criminal Court (Philippines), 155 War Memorial Park (Singapore), 15 Wat Chaichumpol (Thailand), 76 Wat Chiang Man (Chiang Mai, Thailand), 97 Wat Khu Tao (Chiang Mai, Thailand), 97 Wat Muai Tor (Thailand), 92 Wat Muang San (Thailand), 95 Wat Phra That Doi Kung Mu (Moo) (Thailand), 95 Watanabe Makoto, 100 West Africa, 134

199


A Walk Through War Mem ones . in Southeast Asia

We~t Kalimantan (Borneo), 50 White raja (--+ Brooke, James) 39,45 ' Win Sein Tawya (Myanmar), 129

y Yaizu, 48 Yamashita Tokuo, 99 Yamashita Tomoyuki, 20, 26, 149, 155, 164 Yangon (--+ Rangoon), 10, 70, 119, 121-122, 124, 131-134 137, 139, 167 ' Yasukuni Shrine viii 8 16 40,42,60, 105: 127', ;65-~66 171,173,177,184-185 ' . .. Yoshikawa Toshiharu ) Xl-XlI, 66, 80, 84, 113, 169 Yuan Dynasty, 117 Yushu-kan [War Museum], 60, 127-129, 171

200

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