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AUGUSTO V. DE VIANA


KULABORETOR! The Issue of Political Collaboration During World War II

AUGUSTO V. DE VIANA

University of Santo Tomas Publishing House Espana, Manila


Copyright Š 2003 by the Author and the University of Santo Tomas All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, ~echanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Book design by Bong Bundang Published and printed in the Philippines by the UST Publishing House University of Santo Tomas Espana, Manila

De Viana, Augusto Kulaboretor! : the issue of political collaboration during World War II I Augusto de Viana -- Manila: UST Publishing House, 2003 xiv, 286 p. ; 23 cm ISBN 971-506-259-8 1. World War, 1939-1945 - Philippines. I. Title D731.D34 2003


THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF ALL THOSE WHO COLLABORATED YET, RESISTED THE ENEMY DURING THE DARKEST DAYS OF WORLD WAR II: DR. JOSE P. LAUREL, JORGE B. VARGAS, CLARO M. RECTO AND ALL THOSE WHO STEERED THE NATION AWAY FROM GREATER IGNOMINY. THEY ARE THE UNAPPRECIATED GREAT MEN WHO CHOSE TO LIVE AND REMAIN BY THE SIDE OF THE PEOPLE IN THEIR GREATEST HOUR OF NEED.


Acknowledgements This work would not be possible without the assistance of many institutions and individuals. The author acknowledges the University of Santo Tomas Graduate School under which the basic research for this work was originally undertaken and accomplished. The author thanks the late Dr. Pablo Tangco, DeL for his useful advice in the writing of the manuscript. His comments on the legal aspect of collaboration were very helpful in making the intricacies of proving treason more understandable to laymen. To Dr. Florentino H. Hornedo for helping in improving the manuscript and providing a highly favorable review which led to its approval for publication. To Dr. Mecheline Manalastas, Director of the UST Publishing House, for making the publication of the book possible. To her helpful staff especially Mr. Allan "Bong" Bundang for his extraordinary patience and perseverance in preparing and designing the book. To the staff of the National Library, Filipiniana Division, especially Mrs. Lita Almazan and her assistants Elvis and Ruben for making available for my use various postwar periodicals. For the same favors, I must thank Miss Vigie Lampad of the Jose P. Laurel Memorial Foundation, Ester of the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation and Mrs. Esperanza Fulo of the National Historical Institute. To the Manila Times and its Publisher Mr. Rony Diaz and its Executive Editor Mr. Fred de la Rosa for the use of photographs and articles used in this book. To the Philippines Free Press and its publisher Mr. Enrique Locsin for allowing likewise the .use of articles and photographs on collaboration from said publication. Finally I would like to thank my wife Lorelei for her tireless efforts throughout the final preparation of the text. To all of them belongs my boundless gratitude.


Table of Contents

FOREWORD /

xix

INTRODUCTION

/1

I The Legal Dimensions of Collaboration/3 Collaboration Defined /3 Collaboration as Treason /3 The Elements of Treason /5 Modes of Committing Treason /5 Examples of Specific Acts Constituting Treason /6 The Method of Proving Treasonable Collaboration /7 The Types of Collaborators /7

CHAPTER

II The Beginnings of Collaboration /15 Quezon's Instructions /15 First Contacts with the Japanese Forces /20 The Dilemma of the Political Elite: How to Cooperate with the Japanese /23 The Hesitation of the Filipino Leaders to Collaborate with the Japanese /24

CHAPTER

III Political Collaboration During the Japanese Occupation /35 The "Puppet Government" /35 The Origin of" Suspended Sovereignty" /40 The Collaborators" Play Along" /43 The Japanese Strategy to Gain Mass Support /44 The Formation of the KALIBAPI /44 The DANAS /51 The Attempt of the Japanese to Force Other Officials to Swear Loyalty to Them /53 The Lure of Philippine Independence /54

CHAPTER

ix


The Exit of Vargas and the Rise of Laurel as the Foremost Wartime Leader /60 IV The Possible Alternatives to Laurel and the Political Elite /75 Artemio Ricarte /75 Emilio Aguinaldo /78 Benigno Ramos /81 Pio Duran /87 Manuel Roxas /88

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

V Collaboration and Resistance in

the Laurel Government /97 Laurel's Efforts in Dealing with the Japanese /97 The Japanese Demand for a Declaration of War Against the United States /100 VI The Prosecution and Arguments of the Top Political Collaborators /111 The Intention of the Americans to Prosecute the Collaborators /111 The Arrest and Detention of Top Political Collaborators /114 The Response of the Commonwealth Government Regarding Collaboration /117 The Creation of the People's Court /124 The Arguments of the Former Collaborators /130 A. Duress and the Preconceived Plan of the Japanese /131 B. The Invalidity of Some Acts of the Occupation Government /134 C. The Instructions of President Quezon D. The Unpreparedness of the United States to Defend the Philippines /138 E. The" Suspended Allegiance" of the Filipinos /138 F. The Very Nature of Military Occupation of a Territory /139 G. The Theories of the Abrogation of Political Laws of the Philippines and Suspended Sovereignty /140 The Responses of the Prosecution to the Arguments of the Former Collaborators /141

CHAPTER

x


The Outcome of the Trials of Prominent Political Collaborators /145

VII The Development of Public Sentiment Favoring Collaboration /151 Reactions to the Hutchinson Report /151 The Role of the Press as the Voice of Prp and Anti-Collaboration Groups /155 The Victory of Former Collaborators in the 1946 and 1947 Elections /164 The Polarization of the People over the Issue of Collaboration /167 Arguments for Amnesttj in the Senate /171 Frustrations in the People's Court /174 Development of Legal Doctrines Regarding Collaboration /181 The Behavior of the Roxas Administration Regarding Collaboration /183

CHAPTER

VIII Amnesty and Reaction /191 The Proclamation of Amnesttj for Collaborators /191 Reactions to the Amnesttj /197 The Aftermath of the Amnesttj Proclamation /209 The Other Effects /211

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

IX Summary and Concluding Remarks /219

ApPENDICES

/227

1

Letter of Gen. Homma to Quezon Asking Him to Cooperate with Japan (December 30, 1941) /227

2

Order No. 1 of the Japanese Military Administration Ganuary 2,1942) /229

3

The Proclamation of Gen. Homma to the Filipino People Ganuary 3, 1942) /230

4

Gen. Homma's Order.to Jorge B. Vargas Directing him to Organize a Civil Government Ganuary 8, 1942) /231

5

The Letter of Response to the Japanese Military Administration Ganuary 23,1942) /232

xi


6

The Proclamation of President Quezon on January 29, 1942. /234

7

Remarks of Pres. Quezon Defending the Filipino Officials in the Occupation Government (undated) /235

8

Contents of a Leaflet Dropped in Bataan Urging Filipino Soldiers in the USAFFE to Lay Down their Arms /237

9

Letter of High Commissioner Francis B. Sayre to Interior Secretary Harold Ickes (February 19, 1942) /238

10 Letter of Interior Secretary Har?ld Ickes to the Secreta~y of State (June 4, 1942) /240 11 Draft of Letter of Gratitude to Japanese Prime

Minister Hideki Tojo for his Promise of Independence in 1943 /242 12 Vargas' Message on the Japanese Promise of Philippine Independence /243 13 _Appeal to the Filipino People (February 25, 1943) /244 14 Statement of Jorge B. Vargas Over Radio KZRH in his Capacity as Chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission Created by the Japanese Forces of Occupation (January 31,1942) /245 15 Pact of Alliance Between the Philippines and Japan (October 14, 1943) /247 16 Contents of a Letter of Quezon to his Secretary, Sotero H . Laurel (September 30, 1943) /249 17 The Remarks of President Jose P. Laurel Repudiating the MAKAPILI (Malacanang, December 8, 1944) /250 18 Proclamation No. 30 Declaring the Existence of a State of War Between the Philippines and Japan, (Manila, September22,I944)/251 19 Declassified Secret Document of the Office of Strategic Studies Research and Analysis Branch "The Philippine Government Under the Japanese" / 253 xii


20 Last Proclamation of President Jose P. Laurel Dissolving the Philippine Republic (Nara, Japan, August 17, 1945) /258 21 Letter of u.s. Secretary Harold Ickes Expressing Concern over the Return of Certain Collaborators¡ to Power /259

22 Reply of President Osmena to Harold Ickes' Letter /260 23 The Directive of u.s. President Harry S. Truman to the Secretary of Interior on the Collaboration Issue to the Philippines /261 24 Commonwealth Act No. 682 - An Act Creating the People's Court and an Office of Special Prosecutors for the Prosecution and Trial of Crimes Against National Security Committed During the Second World War, and for Other Purposes /262

25 Resolution of Judge Eusebio Lopez to dismiss the Treason Charges Against Senator Camilo Osias /268 26 Proclamation No. 51 Granting Amnesty for Political and Economic Collaborators by President Manuel Roxas Oanuary 28, 1948) /269 27 Republic Act No. 311 - An Act Abolishing the People's Court and the Office of Special Prosecutors, Providing for the Trial and Disposition of Treason Cases not Embraced by Proclamation Numbered Fifty One Granting Amnesty to Political and Economic Collaborators, Creating the Position of Special Attorneys in the Office of the Solicitor General and Appropriating Funds Therefor /272

BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

/275

/287

xiii


List of Illustrations

ILLUSTRAnONS

PAGE NO.

1.

The arrival of Japanese forces in December 1941

16

2.

Gen. Masaharu Homma landing in Lingayen, Pangasinan

16

3.

Filipino leaders with Gen. Douglas MacArthur and President Manuel Quezon at the latter' s house in Marikina on December 29, 1941. Left to right were Justice Secretary Jose P. Laurel, Executive Secretary Jorge B. Vargas, Mrs. Aurora Quezon, Gen. Manuel A. Roxas and an unidentified military aide

18

4.

Quezon signing the papers of Executive Secretary Vargas as Mayor of Greater Manila

19

5.

Executive Secretary Vargas in his office in Malacaftang

21

6.

Japanese forces meet a temporary road block in Bulacan on their way to Manila

22

7.

Japanese troops from Lingayen passing by the Bonifacio Monument on their entry to Manila on January 2,1942

22

8.

Japanese army tanks being welcomed in Manila, January 2,1942

22

9.

Officials of the Japanese-controlled government in Malacaftang (left to ri~ht) Serafin Marabut, Jose Yulo, Claro M. Recto, Teofilo SIson, Jose P. Laurel, Jorge B. Vargas, Antonio de las Alas, Rafael Alunan, Jr., Quintin Paredes, Benigno Aquino, Sr. and Francisco Lavidez

30

10. Filipino and Japanese officials offer a toast to the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission on January 23, 1942

30

11 . Vargas presenting the Letter of Response of Filipino leaders to

31

Gen. Misami Maeda, Head of the Japanese Military Administration 12. Varsas making a broadcast with a Japanese military officer

38

seatmg nearby

xv


ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE NO.

13. Vargas with an unidentified woman reading a pro-Japanese message

39

14. Convention of ~ovemors, mayors and councilors being addresse to by Chairman Vargas

41

15. A meeting of the Philippine Executive Commission in Malacafiang

42

16. Aquino, Vargas and Laurel cheering the Japanese during the gratitude rally on February 8, 1942

42

17. Laurel watches as a Filipino official helps light Prime Minister Tojo's Cigarette

42

18. Vargas and Gen. Homma in Malacafiang

43

19. Vargas conversing with Gen. Homma in a propaganda photograph

44

20. The launching of the KALIBAPI at the Luneta on December 30,1942

45

21. Vargas, Aquino and Laurel taking the KALIBAPI oath at the Rizal Monument on December 30, 1942

45

22. Gen. Artemio Ricarte, with Benigno Aquino Sr. and Jorge Vargas

49

23. VarEas conferring with Gen. Homma during the atter's visit to Malacafiang

55

24. Recto, Var~as and other officials at the Victory Parade at t e Luneta on May 18, 1942 following the fall of Corregidor to the Japanese

55

25. Japanese Prime Minister Hideki To~ and his staff arriving in Manila on ay 5, 1943

58

26. Laurel, Vargas and Aquino paying a courtesy call on Gen. Hideki Tojo durin~ their visit to the Prime Minister's office on Octo er 1, 1943

65

27. PCPI members offering flowers at the Rizal Monument on Septem er 8,1943

65

28. Jose P. Laurel fivinffi: his speech after his inauguration as President 0 the hilippines on October 14,1943

66

29. Claro M. Recto, Foreign Minister of the Japanese sponsored Philippine Republic

67

30. Gen. Artemio Ricarte clad in a kimono

75

31. Ricarte as "Shogun," an honorary title given by the Japanese

76

xvi


ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE NO.

32. RicarteJiving a speech in his hometown in Batac, IIocos orte m 1942

77

33. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo with Japanese military officials

79

34. Jose P. Laurel shaking hands with a ranking Japanese official

98

35. A woman wearing an armband of the Japanese Propaganda Corhs harangues her audience to cooperate with t e Japanese

101

36. One of the leaflets of Gen. MacArthur with his famous promise to return to the Philippines

112

37. President Sergio Osmefia and his cabinet: "The problem (collaboration) must be resolved with justice and dignity"

118

38. Francisco Delgado authored the memorandum on government policy regarding wartime collaboration

121

39. Newspaper headline announces the readiness of the People's Court to try collaborators as soon as its judges and fiscals are appointed

130

40. Newspaper headline announcing the number of treason cases filed

131

40. The sentencing of former Minister Teofilo Sison, the only high official in the occupation government to be convicted of treason. Sison however appealed to the Supreme Court and was released on bail

145

41. The two "Tommies," Interior Secretary Tomas Confesor and Defense Secretary Tomas Cabili - both anti-collaborationist hardliners

159

42. A hearty handshake: President Osmefia and Manuel Roxas before their political split

164

43

165

Roxas casting his vote in the 1946 Presidential elections

44. Embattled President Osmefia voting in the 1946 elections

167

45. Sen. Mabana~ "People indicted of political collaboration represented t e cream of Filipino leadership"

171

46. Tafiada: "I may lose all my cases but I will not quit"

180

47. Newspaper headline announcing President Roxas' grant of amnesty for political and economic collaborators

191

48. Amnesty for big shots?: This editorial cartoon lambasts Roxas' amnesty for favorin political big shots and economic collaborators whiff e discriminating against military collaborators and guerrillas who committed crimes during the war

202

xvii


ILLUSTRA nONS

PAGE NO.

49. Main Oppositors of Amnesty Sen. Vicente Sotto: "There is no difference between loyal and disloyal..." Sen. Ramon Diokno: "Proposed amnesty only benefits the top political collaborators" Sen. Mariano Cuenco: "This (the amnesty) is the end of patriotism" Sen. Salipada Pendatun: rallied former guerrillas to oppose amnesty for collaborators

204

50. Supporters of Amnesty

205

Sen. Camilo Osias: "I did not have anyone persecuted durin!?, the occupation" Sen. Emiliano Tirona: 'Not every collaborator is a traitor" Sen. Vicente J. Francisco: "The country's political laws were stale when the Philippine Republic was inaugurated Sen. Vicente Madrigal: Principal supporter of Roxas presidential campaign in 1946 51. Congressman Hermenegildo Atienza: " ... to collaborate is to be idealized and glorified"

208

52. Philippines Free Press editorial cartoon criticizing

211

President Elpidio Quirino for honoring alleged traitors, grafters and racketeers in his government

xviii


Foreword resident Manuel L. Quezon is well known for saying that he preferred a Philippines "run like hell by Filipinos rather than one run like heaven by Americans." But privately, he is reported as telling the Americans to stay. In the postwar period, President Manuel Roxas faced the daunting challenge of telling the nation what treason was, and who had been traitors to the national cause during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II. It was known as the "collaboration issue," and a large number of significant persons of the nation were accused of treasonous collaboration with the enemy. Before guilt of the accused could be formally established (and therefore the accused were still presumed innocent), Roxas granted "amnesty" which, by normal construction, is a pardon and therefore presumes guilt on the part of the accused. This decision was a decision not to decide! Many significant issues concerning the top offices of the country have frequently been so treated: the issues dissolved rather than solved. When the Stonehill case was a major corruption scandal in Pres. Diosdado Macapagal's time, Stonehill was conveniently allowed (How else does one construe it?) to leave the country thus leaving the case unresolved. Pres. Ferdinand Marcos tried to be decisive in his own interest, and the nation threw him out only after two decades of national vacillation; and Pres. Corazon C. Aquino became president on the basis of what may be called a euphoric national "moral conclusion" but not on the positive numbers of a count which the electoral law prescribes. What was Pres. Fidel Ramos called? The "30% president"? One president may have been elected on the basis of a movie image than on a perceived real capacity. And when the same President was under impeachment, the nation was held in intolerable suspense by a group of senators who must have believed that their patron's and their political

P

xix


longevity was sealed in an envelope! (How could a nation's fate be dependent on an envelope's seal?) But a decision would have been intolerable on both sides. So the nation went again to EDSA - to do once again one of the nation's now habitual extra-legal "moral conclusions." So, today, like it or not, there fingers this qualm in a significant segment of Philippine civil society that the incumbent Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is in Malacafiang by the devious fate that her opponents think of as a conspiracy involving the military and the judiciary for which reason Gen. Angelo Reyes and Chief Justice Hilario Davide have been hounded relentlessly - by elements who seem to have nothing really substantial to offer by way of a clear statesmanly solution. On the side of the symbolic, Nick Joaquin (who, I think, is a kind of national oracle) explains this culture of Indecision in one of his tales, "Dona Jeronima," where a contested engagement ring requested by the fictional Archbishop of Manila as a sign of his release from a rash youthful vow to marry Jeronima is thrown into the Pasig River - and the Archbishop would be released from his vow when the river would yield it up again! Applied to the nation, Joaquin seems to say here that this nation dissolves its problems rather than solve them. There is a significant thread of a culture of indecision in the highest levels of our national social and political organization. (is this why we are so sensitive to the ever-fluctuating statistics of popularity surveys?) Sometimes the acts of indecision or half-way decisions are justified by calling them acts of compassion. But without decisive transparency and clear justice, the Philippines can only expect an endless twilight of mind and will. We have Dr. Augusto de Viana to thank for documenting very clearly in his present book one of the famous symptoms of this blighting national culture of indecision inaugurated right after the United States of American recognized Philippine Independence over half a century ago. And in the meanwhile the blight continues to plague us stilluntil the nation grows up to be definite and decisive about what it wants and how to get there.

F. H. Hornedo, Ph.D. Professor 18 Nov. 2003 xx


Introduction

he subject of collaboration with the Japanese during the Second World War is a sensitive topic in the study of Philippine history. Its effects could be felt generations after the conclusion of the conflict. Collaboration whether on the side of the Americans or the Japanese changed the fortunes of the political elite and the nation as a whole. It became a controversy which sharply divided the Philippine Republic at the early years of its postwar existence and caused a rethinking of the nation's values and what it should do in case of invasion again by a foreign power. The political elite which collaborated either with the Americans or the Japanese claimed to be working for the benefit of the country and considered their acts as legitimate and patriotic. It was evident, however, that self-interest and the instinct of political and physical survival were the primary motives in the direction of their allegiances. The necessity of survival during a time of war and enemy occupation compels the citizens of a country to cooperate with the occupying power. This pattern is universal in any armed conflict. This, however, runs against the primary allegiance of every citizen to his nation-state to which he must be loyal at all times. This dilemma was the grim reality faced by Filipinos who experienced the Second World War. Not everyone could flee to the hills, become guerillas or

T

1


KULABURATOR! THE ISSUE OF POLITICAL COLLABORATION DURING WORLD WAR

II

refuse to cooperate with the Japanese invaders. It would be suicidal not to cooperate with them. Yet, they were still bound to protect the sanctity of their original allegiance to the Philippine Commonwealth and the United States which had sovereignty over the country at the outbreak of the Second World War. With the fall of the Philippines to the hands of the Japanese in 1942 and the subsequent establishment of a government under their control, the Filipinos found the" enemy" in positions of authority. The political leaders who remained in the country faced a terrible choice: cooperate or die. Some cooperated with the invaders willingly, while others cooperated reluctantly and looked for justifications for their collaboration with the Japanese. Those who outrightly refused to collaborate paid with their lives. The return of the Americans and their eventual victory over the Japanese demanded an accounting of the allegiance of the leaders who remained in the Philippines. They demanded that those who collaborated with the Japanese face the consequences of their acts. People who cooperated with the Japanese were labeled as puppets and disloyal Filipinos. Those who fought the collaborationists considered themselves as patriots. The people who collaborated with the Japanese likewise considered themselves as patriots who served the people in their darkest hours. The American demand to punish all those who collaborated with the Japanese resulted in the arrest and imprisonment of various personalities who were charged with the crime of treason. How the American authorities handled collaboration as treason and their treatment of individual collaborators affected the resolution of the issue. In the end the Filipinos were left alone to deal with the problem. This book attempts to portray the development of collaboration with the Japanese during the Second World War with focus on the political collaborators. It also shows, how the Filipinos dealt with the collaboration issue. This is a book of voices - of those who figured in the national dilemma which affected the country's basic values.

2


Index

A

Abad Santos, Jose 17, 88, 99, 101. 140 Abrogation of political laws, principle of 140-141 Aguinaldo, Emilio 32, 57, 59, 61, 66, 75-76,78-81, 87,114,129, 210 Alunan, Rafael Jr. 7, 8, 31, 59-60, 79, 89-90,114-116,130,136,142-143, 145,171-172 Alvero, Aurelio 9, 11, 57, 84 Aquino, Benigno, Jr. 212, 225 Aquino, Benigno, Sr. 8, 23, 27, 31, 40, 43-44, 46-50, 56-57, 59, 62, 64-66, 75,89,114,116,129,145,184 Arranz, Melecio 59 Avancefia, Ramon, 27, 32, 59-60, 90, 130, 172

Collaboration, defined 3 Commonwealth Act No. 600 18 Commonwealth Act No. 620 18 Commonwealth Act No. 670 19 Commonwealth Act No. 682 128,174 Council of State 27-28, 31, 23, 36, 41, 43,58 Cuenco, Mariano 119, 167, 199, 201 D

DMHM (Debate, Mabuhay, Herald, Monday Mail) 155 Delgado, Francisco, A. 119-114 Democratic Alliance (DA) 167, 173 Diokno, Ramon 31, 167, 201 District and Neighborhood Associations (DAN AS) 10,44,5153

B

Baluyot, Sotero, 84-85 Bocobo, Jorge 23-24, 26, 54 Borong-Borong 11, 181 Briones, Manuel 59 C Civilian Emergency Agency 26 Cabili, Tomas 146, 159, 167, 173, 175 Cabarroguis, Leon 11-12, 125, 208 Capinpin, Mateo 100, 114 Confesor, Tomas 146, 159, 167

E

Executive Order No. 44 4 F

Francisco, Guillermo 6, 60, 100, 114, 116,129-130,143-145,172 Francisco, Vicente 17,140-141,174176,179-180,183-185 G

Ganap 10, 82-83, 104, 120, 122-123, 127

287


KULABURATOR! THE ISSUE OF POLITICAL COLLABORATION DURING WORLD WAR II Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere 45, 54, 64, 107, 221 Guinto, Leon 17, 36, 60, 89 H

HUKBULAHAP (Hubong Bayan Laban sa Hapon) 167-168, 213, 223 Homrna, Masaharu 21, 28, 36, 114, 152 Hull, Cordell 32 Hutchinson Report 151-154 Hutchinson, Walter, R 151-154 I Ickes, Harold 32,112-113,119,127, 166

J Japanese Military Administration 21, 23,26,35-37,53,57,62,158

Letter of Response 28-29, 221 M Mabanag, Alejo 171-174, 173-174, 199200 MacArthur, Douglas 15-17, 20, 32, 111-115,117,119,154-155,168, 219-222 Madrigal, Vicente 14, 59-60, 79, 114, 125, 129, 155, 163, 168, 185 Maeda, Misami 21,23-25,27,29,35 Malayang Kalipunan ng mga Pilipino (MAKAPILI) 11, 77-78, 84-86, 87, 104,120,122-123,158-159,178, 180-181, 213 Manila Courier 155 Manila Times 159, 198 Marabut, Serafin 31, 43, 60 Marcos, Ferdinand 212 Murata, Syozo 91, 104-106 N

K KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas) 9-10,43-51,56-57,59, 83, 120, 122-123, 134, 136, 145 Kaigun Hatai 11, 86, 181 Kihara, Jitaro 20, 29, 38-39, 69, 97 Kuroda, Shigenori 60, 91 L

Laurel, Jose, P. 8, 17-19, 20, 23-24, 2728, 31, 37, 40, 43, 51, 53-54, 57, 5969, 75-80, 83-85, 87, 89-91, 97-109, 114, 116, 129-130, 131, 133, 135, 137-138,140-145,151,159-161, 163,168-170,172, 177-178, 183184,200,208-212,219-222 Laurel, Jose III 59,61,114, 116 Lavidez, Francisco 43, 60

288

Nagahama, Colonel Akira 77, 90, 99 Nishimura Butai 11

o Ochoa, Eliza 64 Office of Strategic Studies 63 Osias, Camilo 9, 46, 59, 79, 114-115, 129,178,185,201 Osmefia, Jose, 8, 119 Osmefia, Nicasio 9, 119 Osmefia, Sergio 8, 17, 81, 117, 126127, 166, 195 Osmefia, Sergio Jr. 9, 119, 225 P PCPI (Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence) 8,5960, 62-65, 131 Pact of Alliance 67, 68-69


IND~

Palaak 10 Paredes, Quintin 8, 21-24, 26, 28-29, 31,40,54,59,76,89,114-115,129, 132,136,146,154,178,208 Pendatun, Salipada 167, 171, 173, 199 People Vs. Abad 181-183 People Vs. Agoncillo 182 People Vs. Escleto 181 People Vs. Jose Luis Godinez 171, 196 People Vs. Perez 182 People's Court 129-130,133,137,140141,143-146,198,201,206,210, 222 People's Court and Office of Special Prosecutors 128,146,174-175, 222 Peralta, Macario 212 Perez, Toribio 199, 205-206 Philippine Executive Commission 31, 35-37,40-41,43,53-54 Philippine Liberty News 158 Philippines Free Press 155, 161, 163, 211-212 Proclamation No. 30 103-105 Q

Quezon, Manuel Luis 8, 15-20, 23, 27, 32, 40-41, 54, 80-81, 83, 88, 90, 130,137.155-156,159,168,219 Quirino, Elpidio 60, 89, 126-127, 160, 211,224 R

Ramos, Benigno 10, 46, 57, 81-86, 98, 127 Recto, Claro, M. 8, 23-24, 26, 28, 31, 59-60,62, 67-68,87,102-103, 107, 114,116,125,129,131-136,145, 154, 169, 184, 209-210,212 Republic Act No. 311 210 Revised Penal Code 4, 121

Ricarte, Artemio 8, 57, 60. 66, 75-78, 84-85,98 Rodriguez, Eulogio, Sr. 171, 173-174 Roxas, ManueI8,17,50,59,65,81,8891,99,101-103,114-116,124-125, 127-128,146, 155-157, 160, 164166,168,170-176,179,183-184, 191-200, 222-223,224 Roosevelt, Franklin, D. 110-111, 117 S Sabido, Pedro 27,59,79,114,129 Sakda181-82 Santos, Lope, K. 9 Sayrem Francis, B. 32, 80 Sison, Teofilo 8, 23, 31, 43, 89, 114119,131-133,142,168,175, 178, 180,192,210,222 Sotto, Vicente 167, 174, 201 Sultan sa Ramain 59 Suspended sovereignty, 40-41, 140141

T TVT (Taliba, Vanguardia, Tribune) 62 Taftada, Lorenzo, M. 128-129, 137, 146, 153, 168, 175-179, 199, 201203 The Hague Convention 26-27, 53 Tirona, Emiliano Tria 59, 125, 129, 143 Tojo, Hideki 56, 58-59, 64-65, 80, 114. Treason 3-7, 50, 108, 119-124, 127-129, 138-141,143,146,151-152,156, 159,162-163,167,169,174-1845, 192-198,201-202,206,208,209, 222-223 Tribune 47,52-53,61-62,66, 102 Truman, Harry, S. 111-112,154,157, 164-165, 168

289


v o

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E

s

"Hooray for Collaborationists!" - Jorge B. Vargas, upon learning that Roxas was winning the 1946

Presidential elections

"Everybody was a collaborator during the war. It was said everyone who used Japanese-issued war notes better known as Mickey Mouse money were collaborators. The use of the notes during the occupation was an act of collaboration ... Everybody was a guerrilla in heart, if not in deed. Collaboration is a myth or everybody was guilty of it." . - Teodoro M. Locsin summing up the stand of the Liberal Party on collaboration, March 22, 1952

"Those peorle are dead and I'd be committing a sacrilege to their memory if I falter now. may lose all my cases, but I will not quit." - Solicitor General Lorenzo Tafiada, referring to his friends in the underground who died at the hands of the Japanese and the treason cases being tried at the People's Court

"Suppose we do away with enmity between ourselves. Forgive and forget as the saying goes, and I think I will see the Philippines arrived at a better conclusion. Let's forgive those who collaborated with the enemy (and we) can call (upon) them once more to rebuild the country." - Letter writer Andronico Duque, Letter to the Editor, Manila Times, May 21, 1947

"I am worried about the generations still unborn. One day our shores will .be trampled again by the enemy; one day our skies will darken with the wings of the invaders and we shall wonder, we ask as Rizal once said, "Where is the youth, the youth that shall dedicate his golden hour in the defense of the country?" That youth will not be there because today, Friday the 13th, we voted forever to establish the utter futility of sacrificing one's blood, sweat and tears for his native land; today we have given a premium on the refusal to fight and willingness to embrace the enemy. Today, we have laid down one abject lesson - To live and collaborate is to be idealized and glorified." - Congressman Hermenegildo Atienza, in his speech opposing the grant of amnesty to . collaborators, February 13, 1948

"Do you want this man to be the President of the Philippines?" - Nacionalista Party political advertisement in 1969 attacking Liberal Party candidate Sergio Osmefia Jr. for his alleged economic collaboration with the Japanese and his reported dispute with his father over inheritance

Kulaboretor! : the issue of political collaboration during World War II -- PRELIMINARY PAGES  

Rod Hall Collection

Kulaboretor! : the issue of political collaboration during World War II -- PRELIMINARY PAGES  

Rod Hall Collection