Page 1


MACARTHUR AND DEfEAT IN THE PHILIPPINES - RICHARD CONNAUGHTON

THE OVERLOOK PRESS WOODSTOCK

&

NEW YORK


First published in the United States in 2001 by The Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc. Woodstock & New York WOODSTOCK:

One Overlook Drive Woodstock, NY 12498 www.overlookpress.com [for individual orders, bulk and special sales, contact our Woodstock office] NEW YORK:

141 Wooster Street New York, NY 10012 Copyright Š 2001 Richard Connaughton All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a revievv-er who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine, newspaper, or broadcast. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Connaughton, R. M. (Richard Michael). MacArthur and defeat in the Philippines / Richard Connaughton. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. World War, 1939-1945-Campaigns-Philippines. 2. MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964. I.Title. Manufactured in the United States of America FIRST EDITION

135798642 ISBN 1-58567-118-5


This book is dedicated to the memory of Doctor John Lewis Pimlott 1948-1997


CONTENTS

Foreword Introduction

ix xi

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 ChapterS Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13

Grand Strategies Early Days A Whiff of Politics Plans To Build An Army Relative Values Internal ConRicts Serenity And Confidence "One Of The More Shocking Defects of the War" To Corregidor "... Their Freedom Will be Redeemed" "A Time When Men Must Die" "I Will Bring You In Triumph On The Points Of My Bayonets To Manila" Chapter 14 "I Shall Return" Chapter 15 Epilogue Notes Bibliography Index

1 16 30 48 72 93 118 144 162 179 198 226 251 269 292 309 355 363

vii


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FOREWORD

I

mmediately prior to the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Manila in 1945, the late Dr. John Pimlott, Dr. Duncan Anderson (both of Sandhurst's Department of War Studies) and I received a commission to write the history of that liberation. Individuals in the Philippines who had been closely associated with that episode and who previously had not wished to recount their own personal stories, began to indicate their preparedness to give their very often grim accounts of what happened in February 1945. There was an element of immediacy which left the would-be authors with a matter of fourteen weeks to write The Battle for Manila. It was therefore not a deep and heavy academic work but a straightforward story of a tragic event in the lives of so many Manilefios. While in Manila conducting interviews, my mind turned to perhaps the obvious question as to the origins of the tragedy of Manila's liberation by General MacArthur. Although the process had been begun by the Japanese, it was a case of a city that was destroyed in order to be saved. This new book is the prequel to The Battle for Manila and begins in 1880, the year of MacArthur's birth, and runs through to 1942, to the fall of the Philippines in the first of the two campaigns of the Second World War. It is a weightier book than The Battle for Manila because there was sufficient time available to study the political and military machinations which led to America's stunning defeat xv


xvi

FOREWORD

by the Japanese. I began the prequel with a totally open mind. The conclusions that I have drawn are based on the analysis of the available material. So essential was the requirement for veracity that a number of experts in this field were co-opted to read and comment upon the drafts. To that end, I am extremely grateful for the generous assistance and advice provided by: Dr. Bernard D. Cole, Chairman, Department of National Security Policy and Professor of Maritime History and Strategy at the National Defense University, Washington; Colonel Adolf Carlson of the War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania; James W. Zobel, Archivist at the MacArthur Memorial, Norfolk, Virginia; Professor Ricardo Trota Jose of the University of the Philippines; and Dr. Duncan Anderson of the Department of War Studies, Sandhurst. However, the responsibility for all errors and omissions are entirely mine. In addition, I would like to thank: John J. Slonaker, Chief, Historical Reference Branch and David Keough of the ManUSCript Branch, both at the U.S. Army Military History Institute; Kathy Lloyd of the U. S. Naval Historical Center; Ben Frank, formerly of the U. S. Marine Corps Historical Center; and Clive Richards, MoD Air Historical Branch. Thanks to Rosemary Best for reading the manuscript and to Gina, without whose work production skills and enthusiasm this 'book would never have come to fruition. Finally, I wish to record my gratitude to the Ayala Corporation, Roderick Hall, Consuelo McHugh, Memorare Manila and Ambassador John Rocha for their generous assistance in offsetting the research costs of MacArthur and Defeat in the Philippines. RICHARD CONNAUGHTON

Nettlecomhe, Dorset


INDEX

ABC-1 strategy, 116 ABDA command (American, British, Dutch, and Australian), 194--95, 278, 280, 283 Abend, Hallet, 304 Abucay: battle of, 241--42 Abucay-Mauban Line, 227, 228, 235, 241, 244,248,249, 270 Acheson, Dean, 114 Adversario, Domingo, 224--25 Agno Line, 218 Agno River, 206, 207, 208 Aguinaldo, Emilio, 17-18, 19, 43, 59, 255, 256 Air Corps, U.S. : and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 153, 156-57; and building of Philippine Army, 82; daily life for men in, 137; and defense of Philippines, 130-31, 135, 140--42; and defense plans for Philippines, 67, 82-83, 105-6, 107; files of, 171; Grunert's requests for increase funding for, 106; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 169-71; Japanese intelligence about, 116, 145; MacArthur's views about,

82-83,298; race issues in, 145; and RAF, 176; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163-64, 165, 169-78; responsibilities of, 35, 82-83; Roosevelt's views about, 42; strength in Philippines of, 68; and surrender in Philippines, 298; as U.S . Army's most important defensive weapon, 99; weakness of, 92. See also air power, U.S.; specific person, squadron or type of aircraft air power, U.S.: and defense of Philippines, 307; and establishment of U.S . base in Australia, 186; inadequacy of, 307; and Japanese attacks on Luzon, 179, 181-82, 185-86; and Kelly's mission, 181-82; MacArthur's views about, 34--35. See also Air Corps, U.S. Akagi (Japanese carrier), 15 Akin, Spencer B., 120, 178 Akiyama, Monjiro, 223 Alaska, 2, 49, 51, 65, 114 Allen, Robert S. , 41, 76 American Coordinating Committee, 110


INDEX

American public: and defense of Philippines, 90; and MacArthur, 225, 230, 266, 291 ; and MacArthur's press release about Bataan, 297; need for heroes of, 291, 306 ammunition: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 152-53; importance of saving, 204; problems with, 152-53, 188, 199, 200, 205, 238-39,273, 276; and reinforcement of Philippines, 187 operations, 67, 153, 159, 184, 200, 246-49,297, 308 Amur region, 5-6 Anders, Lieutenant, 185 Angat River Line, 221 Aparri, 148, 167-68, 180, 181,205, 207 Arcadia Conferences (Washington, 1942),193-94, 259 Arlington Military Cemetary (Virginia), 36, 71 Armour Corporation, 219 Army Department, U.S. , 105 Army and Navy Club (Manila), 4, 25, 83-84, 138 Army, U.S.: airplanes as most important defensive weapon for, 99; and breaking of Japanese codes, 114-15; budgets for, 42; and defense of Philippines, 28; defense plans of, 50; in 1930s, 35, 42; as permanent colonial force in Philippines, 5; Philippine Department as part of, 105; quality of, 35; size of, 13, 35; and U.S . Far Eastern policy, 91, 116; weakness of, 92. See also Air Corps, U.S.; interservice relations; specific person, regiment, division, or brigade Army War Colleges, 48-49, 63, 76, 80, 89, 98, 99 Arnold, H. H . "Hap," 134, 142, 147, 148, 170,171 Ashigara (Japanese ship), 150 Asian Exclusion Act (1902), 5, 8 Asiatic Detachment (USN ), 31 Asiatic Fleet, U.S. , 61, 94, 116, 117, 129, 130, 133, 165, 186, 198,199

Asiatic Squadron, U.S ., 3 Associated Press, 163, 258, 280 Atimonau, 209, 211 Atlanta, Georgia: MacArthur as commander of IV Corps in, 30 Atlantic Charter (1941), 126 Atlantic Conference (Placentia Bay, Newfoundland), 14 Australia: and ABDA alliance, 194-95, 278, 283; as American base, 187, 194; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 220; Bennet in, 178; Brereton's trip to, 149; British relations with, 278; and defenders of MacArthur, 307; Eisenhower's recommendation for establishing base in, 186; and Europe First strategy, 116; and evacuation of Corregidor, 259, 268; Hurley in, 194, 239; Japanese views about, 307; MacArthur in, 298, 308; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 278-79, 281, 282; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 278, 282, 284, 287, 288, 290; and Plan X, 194; Quezon's departure for, 232; U.S. reinforcement of, 255; U.S . as responSible for defense of, 278 Axis powers, 12-13, 14. See also Germany; Italy; Japan B-17 bombers, 124, 125-26, 140-41, 153,157,166-67, 169, 172-73, 176-77, 181-82,183,283 -23 aircraft, 283 Bagac, 227, 241, 243-44,269, 274 Baker, Newton D., 22 Bakikpapan, 159 Balanga, 235, 241 Balantay River, 241 Balayan Bay, 210 Baldwin, Hanson w., 266 Balete Pass, 181 Baliuag, 221-22 Baltirrwre Sun, 258 Bataan, 226-50; American withdrawal to, 152,209-25,227, 235; American-


INDEX

Filipino strength on, 244, 293; amphibious operations on, 246-49; battle for, 269-75, 293-96; beginning of battle for, 228-29; and bombing of Nielson and Nichols fields, 245; bombing of, 275; casualties on, 244, 249,271-72,274; and Corregidor battle, 277; Corregidor as MacArthur's base for command of, 227, 235; criticisms of defense of, 305; defense plans for, 228; earthquake on, 295; equipment and supplies for, 143, 184, 209-20, 227, 236,238-41,243, 273-74, 293, 295; and Europe First strategy, 278; Filipino-American spotters on, 229; Filipinos on, 261-62, 269-70, 272-73, 279, 293; and Homma, 228; 229, 235, 243, 245-46; and Homma's offer of surrender to MacArthur, 236-37; impact on MacArthur of, 236, 295-96, 298,304; Japanese agents on, 102; Japanese ambitions for quick battle for, 229; as Japanese base for shelling Corregidor, 299; Japanese blockade of, 239-41, 272; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 202, 203; Japanese offensive against, 292-96; Japanese strategy about, 223; Japanese strength on, 244; King as commander on, 293-94; and Legaspi runs, 240-41; location/geography of, 226-27, 228; lulls in fighting on, 275; MacArthur maps peninsula of, 28; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 279, 281, 293; MacArthur's commitment to continue fighting on, 265, 293, 294; MacArthur's eulogy for, 295-6; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 284-85, 286, 288-89; MacArthur's final contingency plans for, 294-95; MacArthur's glamorization of, 291; and MacArthur's logistics problems, 184; and MacArthur's Medal of Honor,

291, 303; MacArthur's plans to fight Japanese on, 183, 191; and MacArthur's relationship with subordinates, 233-34; and MacArthur's reorganization of command, 288-89; MacArthur's reports about, 280; and MacArthur's sacking of Selleck, 175; MacArthur's visit to, 235, 256-57; morale on, 224, 227,235, 239,240,249,271,272-73, 277, 289, 293; as option for withdrawal from Luzon, 202; payday on, 273; plans for withdrawal to, 107; preparation for battle of, 227-28; press reports about, 256-57, 258, 280, 297; promises of reinforcements for, 229-31 , 237-38, 277; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 261-62, 265; Quezon and MacArthur as symbol of hope for forces on, 259; Quezon's views about, 253-54; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163, 169; supportive messages to MacArthur about, 244-45; surrender of, 227, 238,274, 281,294-96,297, 301, 305; U.S. aircraft on, 245; U.S. intelligence about, 228; Vargas's manifesto about, 267; Wainwright and Homma meet on, 300-301. See also specific person Bataan Death March, 296, 303, 308 Bataan Gang, 85, 89 Bataan (MacArthur C-54 plane), 236 Batan Island, 179 Batangas, 164, 184, 201, 209, 210 Batavia, 159 Batchelor Field, 177 Bauang, 205, 206, 208 Beebe, Lewis C., 119, 120, 215, 287-88 Bennett, C. v., 156 Bennett, Gordon, 178 Big Pocket, 270, 271-72 Bilibid Prison (Philippines), 25, 144 Binalonan, 208 Bismarck Islands, 128 Bittern (American minesweeper), 180 Black Plan: Germany as enemy in, 48 blockade runners, 186, 187, 240-41


INDEX

Bloemfontein (transport), 220 Bluemel, Clifford, 304 Boeing Corporation, 126 Bonus March of Unemployed First World War Veterans, 36, 39-41 Booth, E. E., 51 Borneo, 128, 173, 179,220, 278 Bowers, Faubion, 234 Brady, Francis M., 147, 157, 160 Brereton, Lewis H.: and access to MacAurthu~ 164, 165-66, 175; and American attack on Formosa, 168, 173, 176; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 153, 157, 160; appointed FEAF commander, 147; appointment to MacArthur's staff of, 120; arrival in Manila of, 147; and blockade runners, 187; challenges faCing, 147-49; as commander of Third Air Force, 120; and defense plans for Philippines, 142; and Japanese agents, 185; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 170-71, 172, 175, 176; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 203; Luce (Clare Boothe) interview with, 175-76; and Luzon, 183, 185; MacArthur's relationship with, 120, 170, 175, 176; Manila Hotel party for, 157, 160; and Marshall, 171; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163-67, 168, 172-73; strength of command of, 147-48; and Sutherland, 165-66 Brett, George H., 187, 283, 298 Bridget, Francis J., 246, 248 Brisbane, Australia, 187 Brooke-Popham, Robert, 116-17, 158, 159 Brooks, Louise Cromwell. See MacArthur, Louise (wife) Brown, Francisco, 115 Browning rifles, 211 Bulkeley, John D ., 174,247, 255,284, 286-87,290 Bureau of Insular Affairs, 5, 55, 78 burial ceremonies, 236 Burma, 8, 127, 128, 178, 195, 278

Burnett, Charles, 78 Burnham, Daniel Hudson, 4 Busch, Noel, 123 Byrnes, Joseph w., 57 Caballo, 226 Cabanatuan, 216, 221 Cabcaben, 296, 297, 300-301 Cabinet, Philippine, 24, 260-61, 264 Cagayan, 287 Caibobo Point, 246, 247 California: fear of Asians in, 8; and Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 160; U.S. purchase of, 2. See also San Francisco, California Calumpit Bridges, 221, 222, 223-24 Cambrai, Battle of (1917), 98 Camp John Hay (Baguio), 210 Camp O'Donnell, 296 Canada/Canadians, 48, 242-43 Canopus (submarine tender), 246 Canton, China, 128 Capas, 296 Capinpin, Mateo, 204 Capiz, 240, 266 Caporetto, Battle of (1917), 207 Carabao Island, 226 Caroline Islands, 9, 162 Casa on the Wall, 25 Casey, Hugh J., 120, 157, 178 Casiana {Quezon yacht), 96 Catalinas, 153, 185, 186 Cavite Naval Yard, 116, 180,240, 246, 276 Cebu, 239,302 Celebes, 128 Ceylon, 8 , Joseph, 84 Chamberlin, Stephen J., 194 Champlin, Malcolm, 256-57, 271, 274 Changkufang: RUSSian-Japanese battle at, 12 Chase National Bank, 267 Chemical Company (American), 247 Chemulpo (Inchon), 6 Chennault, Claire, 147, 178 Chiang Kai Shek, 11,44, 147, 183, 287


INDEX

Chief of Engineers: MacArthur offered appointment as, 33 Chief of Staff, U.S. Army: Craig appointed, 47; MacArthur as, 34-47; MacArthur's aspirations to be, 32, 33-34; MacArthur's flag as, 197; MacArthur's threat to resign as, 42-43; Marshall (George) appointed, 85; powers and role of, 52, 129, 266; role of, 266 China: and ABDA command, 195; American dependents in, llO; and American Far Eastern Policy, 92; collapse of Manchu Dynasty in, ll; colonialism in, 2, 9; Faircloth's visit to, 54-55; and importance of reinforcements for Philippines, 186; Japanese brutality in, 101; Japanese invasion and occupation of, 73, 87, 101, 132,147, 264;andJapanese objectives, 128; Japanese relations with, 5,6, 9, 11-12, 13; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 5, ll-12; Japan's success in, 89; MacArthur family tour of southern, 8; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 287; in 1930s, 11-12; and "open door" policy, 10; Sayre as broker for peace agreement between Japan and, 94; and U.S.-Japanese relations, 13; and Washington Naval Treaty, 10; and World War I, 9 Chinese: immigration to U.S . of, 8; living in Manila, 101; in Philippines, 4,219 Christie, Albert F., 302 Churchill, Winston, 14, ll4, 126, 180, 194-95,222, 230,278-79, 283 Chynoweth, Bradford Grethen, 37, 138-39,233,240,268, 288, 302 Civil Defense, Philippine, 131, 151 Civilian Emergency Administration, Philippine, llO Clagett, Henry B., 120, 141 Clark Air Force Base: aircraft strength at, 183; and American withdrawal to

Bataan, 217; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 156; and defense of Philippines, 141-42, 306; equipment and supplies for, 148-49; inadequacies of, 141-42; Japanese agents at, 185; Japanese bombing of, 169-75, 176, 177-78, 180; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 205, 217; as Japanese objective, 102; Japanese occupation of, 292; Japanese reconnaissance over, 156; Kelly's mission from, 181, 182; lack of U.S. investigations about Japanese attack on, 178; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169; U.S. monitoring of air traffic from, 232-33 Clear, Warren J., 259 Clement, W. T., 202-3 Co-Prosperity Sphere of Greater East Asia, 14, 251, 253, 263 Coast Artillery Regiments, 135 Collins, J. Lawton, 76 Collins, Ross, 35, 36, 41 colonialism, 1-9, 14 Color Plans, American defense, 48. See also specific color Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee, 193 Command and General Staff School (Baguio): MacArthur speech at, 66-68 Commander in Chief, U.S. : MacArthur proposed for, 265-66 Committee of Imperial Defense (Japanese), 147 Commonwealth: inaugural celebration for, 54, 55-56; and independence for Philippines, 253; Japanese recognition of, 252; provisional government for, 252-53; Roosevelt signs act for creation of, 43. See also Philippines Commonwealth Day, 97 communism, 30, 36 Conejero, Lino, 239-41


INDEX Congress, U.S.: and defense plans for Philippines, 97, 106, 110; and draft, 140; and equipment and supplies for Philippines, 142; and honors and decorations for MacArthur, 258; and independence for Philippines, 70, 91; MacArthur's address to, 304; MacArthur's dealings with, 35; and MacArthur's military mission to Philippines, 44---45; and U.S.Japanese relations, 92; and Washington Naval Treaty, 10 conscription: of Filipinos, 52, 53, 60, 96, 98, 99, 111, 146 Consolidated PBYs. See Catalinas Constabulary (Philippine ): academy of, 60; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 217; as basis of Philippine Army, 52-53, 60; on Bataan, 247; and criticisms of defense plans, 63; and defense plans for Philippines, 31, 96, 97; functions of, 53; headquarters of, 60; image of, 53; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 204, 217; Quezon's views about, 96, 97; separation of Philippine Army from , 86; size of, 52 Coolidge, Calvin, 32 Cooper, Isabel "Dimples" Rosario, 34, 41 Corps of Engineers, U.S.: MacArthur in, 8, 16 Corregidor: American withdrawal to, 209-25; American-Filipino strength on, 244, 293; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 154; batteries on, 154, 248; bombing and shelling of, 224-25, 275-77, 285, 298-99; casualties on, 299; criticisms of defense of, 305; defense plans for, 51, 77; equipment and supplies for, 143,288, 293, 299; and Europe First strategy, 278; evacuations from, 156, 297-98; and fall of Manila, 195-96; fall of, 273, 281; and Homma's offer of surrender to MacArthur, 236-37; intelligence operations on, 102; Japanese agents on, 102; Japanese

blockade of, 239-41, 259, 272; Japanese intelligence about, 144-45; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 202, 203, 209; Japanese offensive against, 292-96, 299-300; as Japanese target, 227, 233; and Legaspi runs, 240-41; location/geography of, 226; MacArthur plans to move to, 183, 191, 192, 195-96; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 279, 281; MacArthur's arrival on, 214; as MacArthur's base, 227, 231; and MacArthur's bravery, 232-33; MacArthur's evacuation from , 174, 250, 265-66, 278-91, 308; MacArthur's glamorization of, 291; and MacArthur's logistics problems, 184; MacArthur's repudiation of suggestions for surrender of, 293; MacArthur's return to, 306; MacArthur's statement about Wainwright's surrender of, 301-2; and MacArthur's visit to Bataan, 235; Moore as garrison commander at, 288; morale on, 224, 277, 289; Philippine treasure on, 189, 259; population of, 236; press reports about, 258, 285-86; Quezon evacuation to and on, 190-92, 195-96, 222-23, 252, 253-55, 259-68; Quezon's evacuation from, 45-46, 259, 265-68; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163; Rockwell establishes base on, 188; role in defense of Philippines, 306; supplies and equipment for, 209-20, 236, 238-41; surrender of, 296-302, 305; training of Philippine Army on, 111; tunnels on, 99, 144---45, 154; U.S. aircraft on, 239. See also Malinta Tunnel Coughlin, Father, 38 Council of State, Philippine, 163, 192, 253, 266 Craig, Malin,47,62,65, 69, 71, 76-77, 78,98


369

INDEX

Crete, 304 Cromwell, Jimmy, 23 Crowell, Benedict, 265--66 Cruz, Pelagio, 83 Cuba, 3, 16, 98 Curley, James B., 54 currency: in Philippines, 189 Curtin, John, 194-95,278,298 Czechoslovakia, 83 Dale, Jack D., 182 Damortis, 206, 207 Davao, 101, 177, 179 Davis, Dwight F., 33 Davis, Thomas J., 32, 71 Dawson, Harry, 156 De Ruyter (Dutch cruiser), 283 Defense Department, U.S.: budget of, 87 defense of Philippines: and ABDA command, 195; air power/patrols, 105--6, 153; American commitment to, 51, 55, 62--63; American public'S views about, 90; as American responsibility, 87, 96, 142, 191; and Arcadia Conferences, 193-94; budget for, 50-51, 52, 53, 59-61, 87, 95-96, 97-98,106,110,118,142-43;and citizens' army concept, 43; contingency plans for, 125; criticisms of, 59-60, 62--63, 89-90, 92, 122, 124, 150-51, 160--61,305-7; as deterrence to Japanese advance, 124; DeWitt's views about, 89-90; early defense plans for, 44, 49, 50; and economic concerns of U.S., 27; effects of European events on, 86--87; Eisenhower-Ord plan for, 52, 53-54, 60, 61; Embick's concerns and proposal about, 50, 51; equipment and supplies for, 107, Ill, 112, 13&-40, 147-48; and Europe First strategy, 111, 255, 278, 297; first Philippine committee meeting about, 52; and formation of Philippine Division, 26; and geography, 67; Gerow's plans for, 125; and Great

Britain, 95, 116--17; Grunert's plans for, 99-100, 105, 106--8; and importance of reinforcing Philippines, 186, 187; and independence for Philippines, 92; and interservice relations, 28, 125, 129, 131-32; and Japan as enemy of U.S., 27; Lassiter's report about, 31; MacArthur Sr. calls for stronger, 8; MacArthur's first report about, 61; and MacArthur's miscalculations about Japan, 124-26, 142; MacArthur's plans for, 50, 54, 57, 65-66; MacArthur's press statement about, 87-88; MacArthur's views about, 147, 173-74; and Military Districts, 53; need for coherent U.S. policy for, 106; and Pearl Harbor, 307; as political judgement, 97; power and authority for, 129; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 260--65; Quezon asks MacArthur to assume responsibility for, 44-47; Quezon's views about, 86--87, 95-98; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 173-74; reinforcements for, 186--87, 189-90, 193-94, 255, 260--65, 280; revision of plans for, 130; Roosevelt's (Theodore) views about, 27; Sharp in command of, 299-300; and U.S. Far East policy, 124; U.S. Navy's role in, 306; and U.S.-Japanese bilateral agreement, 69; and Wainwright's surrender of Corregidor, 299-300; waning of enthusiasm for, 63; and Washington Naval Conference, 12; and Washington's let down of MacArthur, 230-31; Wood's views about, 27. See also Bataan; Corregidor; Luzon; National Defense Act (Philippine); Plan Orange; United States Army Forces in the Far East;

specific plan Defensive Information Patrol (American), 155 Del Carmen Field, 164, 168 Castano, Jose, 102


370

INDEX

Del Monte Field, 157, 164, 175, 177, 183, 187, 297 dependents, U.S.: evacuation of, 109-10 Dern, George H., 42-43, 44, 46, 47, 55, 56, 57, 68 Destroyer Division 57 (American), 159 Dewey, George, 3, 35 DeWitt, John L., 89-90 Diller, LeGrande A., 120, 122, 256, 285 Distinguished Service Cross, 40, 182, 277 Distinguished Service Medal, 21 Distinguished Service Star, 83, 267 Doba, Kotoshi, 68 Drake, Charles C., 120, 143, 215-18, 301 Drum, Hugh, 65, 66, 68, 85 Dufault, zz, 262 "Dugout Doug," 233-34 Dunckel, William, 99-100 Dunkirk, France, 278-79, 304 Dutch East Indies, 101, 124, 127, 150, 186, 195,283 Early, Stephen, 85, 109 Edmonds, Walter D ., 177 Eichelberger, Robert L., 225 Eighth Division (Australian), 178 Eighty-eighth Artillery (PS), 135 Eighty-first Division (PA), 138 Eighty-fourth Infantry Brigade: MacArthur as commander of, 9, 21 Eighty-sixth Artillery (American), 210 Eighty-sixth Artillery (PS), 135 Eighty-sixth Battalion (PS), 206 Eisenhower, Dwight D .: appraisal of western Pacific situation for Marshall by, 186; and Bataan, 238; and Bonus March, 39, 40-41; and building of Philippine Army, 74, 75-76, 80-81, 83; career of, 62, 79; on Constabulary, 53; and defense plans for Philippines, 44, 52, 60-61; and development of Philippine Army, 63; on elections of 1936, 64; and Europe, 83-85; and Europe First strategy, 255; as head of War Plans, 266; on leave to U.S., 83;

MacArthur compared with, 79-80; and MacArthur as Field Marshal, 45-46; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 280, 282; on MacArthur's career, 308; MacArthur's efficiency report about, 85; and MacArthur's miscalculations about Japan, 230; on MacArthur's reactions to Pinky's death, 57; MacArthur's relationship with, 75-76, 79, 80-81, 84, 85, 230, 231; on MacArthur's staff, 37-38,39,40-41,47; and Medal of Honor for MacArthur, 291; Ord's relationship with, 64, 83; in Philippines, 47; as pilot, 82; power and authority of, 129; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 254, 263, 265; on Quezon-MacArthur relationship, 64; Quezon's financial award to, 231-32; Quezon's Washington visit to, 231-32; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 174; and reinforcements for Philippines, 255; role on MacArthur's staff of, 84; strategic appraisal for Quezon by, 184; on Wainwright, 308; and Washington's let down of MacArthur, 231; and withdrawal of troops from Philippines, 140 EI Fraile, 226 elections; Philippine: of 1941, 111-12, 146 elections, U.S .: of 1932,38-39; of 1936, 64,69; of 1940, 103;ofI944,266,281 Eleventh Air Fleet (Japanese), 167 Eleventh Division (American), 152, 201, 206,221,222 Eleventh Infantry (American), 273 Elks Club (Manila), 4 Ellis, Herbert, 174-75 Embick, Stanley D., 50, 62, 63, 71, 80 Emergency Powers Act (1940), 110 Enfickel, Jacob, 120 Enfield rifles, 138, 139, 211, 212 Engineer School: MacArthur at, 19 England. See Great Britain enlisted men, U.S.: life for, 137


INDEX Erlinda ofBataan (symbol ofJapanese barbarity), 256 Europe: B-17s in, 126; German successes in, 228; MacArthur's 1930s tour of duty in, 41-42; Quezon's concerns about war in, 95; Quezon's visit to, 71; and U.S. Far Eastern Policy, 91, 92, 100. See also Europe First strategy; specific nation Europe First strategy, 100, Ill, 116, 140,186,193-94,229,255,260,266, 278,297 Executive Order No 1 (Quezon), 231

Faircloth, Jean Marie. See MacArthur, Jean (second wife) Falangist Movement, 102 . Far East: MacArthur's appointment as commander in, 112-13, 117; MacArthur's knowledge about, 68-69, 109, 265, 306; MacArthur's strategic views about, 153. See also Far Eastern policy, U.S. Far East Air Force (FEAF): and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 157; Brereton as commander of, 147; equipment and supplies for, 147-48; evacuation from Manila of, 187; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 169-71, 172, 178; and Japanese landings on Luzon, 181-82, 183, 185; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 166, 168; strength of, 147-48, 183, 185 Far Eastern policy, U.S.: early policy for, 31; and establishment of USAFFE, 117; and Great Britain, 116-17; reappraisal of policy for, 124; and U.S.-Japanese relations, 91-92,113, 116-17 Federal Security Administration, 85 Fellers, Bonner, 51, 52, 67, 75, 77-78 Fey, Harold E., 69 Field Marshal: MacArthur as, 45-47, 61-62,71,72,79,173,196,231,233 Fifteen Years War, 12 Fifteenth Infantry (American), 83

37 1

Fifth Air Force (American), 171-72 Fifth Air Force (Japanese), 68, 167, 223 Fifth Delaying Line (D-5), 221, 222 Fifty-first Division (PA), 26, 152, 183, 211,241-42 Fifty-seventh Infantry (PS), 135, 185, 216,224,227,235,241,274 Filipino soldiers: on Bataan, 245; on Corregidor, 236; MacArthur's relationship with, 233. See also Philippine Army; Philippine Scouts; specific person or division Filipinos: American fears of, 27, 63, 76; as anti-American, 255, 262, 279-80; anti-Japanese propaganda by, 256; on Bataan, 293; and Bataan Death March, 296; conscription of, 52, 53, 60,96,98,99, Ill, 146; and Japanese occupation of Philippines, 255; as loyal to U.S., 90; loyalty to MacArthur 0~90,280,291,305-6;and

MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander in Australia, 279; MacArthur's overestimation of, 306; MacArthur's relations with, 24-25 Finland, 96 First Battalion (American), 137 First Battalion (Japanese), 272 First Division (American), 270-71 First Infantry Regiment (PA), 210-13, 218 First Philippine Constabulary, 247 First Regular Division (PA), 210-11 Fletcher, Admiral, 20 Formosa: American planned attack on, 165,168,170,172,173,176; American reconnaissance of, 153, 168; and B-17s attack on, 177; and early defense plans, 49; Japanese bases on, 68, 128, 157, 167, 173, 179, 198,200; Japanese occupation of, 150; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 5; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 165, 166, 168 Fort Drum, 226 Fort Frank, 226 Fort Hughes, 226


372

INDEX

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: MacArthur posted to, 19 Fort McKinley, 137, 213, 219 Fort MacNair, 44 Fort Mason, 16 Meyer (Virginia), 34, 39 Fort Mills (Corregidor), 214, 221, 281 Fort San Pedro, 138 Fort Santiago, 104, 144, 182, 220 Fort Stotsenburg, 145, 169, 209, 216, 217 Fortieth Division (British), 98 Fortune magazine: poll by, 90 Forty-eighth Division (American), 307 Forty-eighth Division (Japanese), 200, 206,221, 223,228 Forty-fifth Infantry (PS), 135, 242 Forty-fifth Regiment (PS ), 26 Forty-first Division (American), 201, 224 Forty-first Division (PA), 183, 241-42 Forty-first Division (PS ), 146, 152 Forty-second (Rainbow) Division: MacArthur as commander of, 9 Fourteenth Army (Japanese), 127, 167, 173, 193, 198,201, 205, 206, 222, 223,243,272, 292 Fourteenth Engineers (PS), 224 Fourth Delaying Line (D-4), 221 Fourth Division (Japanese), 292, 297 Fourth Fleet (Japanese), 128 Fourth Marines (American), 132, 136, 202-3,275,299, 306 Fourth Tank Regiment (Japanese), 207-8 France: defeats of, 304; and IndoChina, 12-13, 107, 124; Japanese relations with, 12-13; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 5-6; MacArthur in, 71; and Plan Red, 48; U.S. purchases ofland from, 2; and Washington Naval Treaty, 10; in World War I, 20-21; in World War II, 100 Francisco, Guillermo B., 246 Franco, Francisco, 120 Frank, Walter H., 120 "Freedon for the Philippines" (KGEI radio), 256

Friend, "Z2, 56, 262 Funston, Frederick, 17, 19-20 Gallipoli, 67 Gardner, John Nance, 57 General Staff, Philippine, 60, 95, 96 General Staff, U.S., 62, 67, 69 George, Brigadier General, 245 George VI (king of Great Britain), 56, 244-45

German Luffwaft, 176-77, 228 Germans: as agents in Philippines, 102; in Manila, 189 Germany: American views about, 91; and Arcadia Conferences, 193; and Chamberlain's speech, 84; and colonialism, 2, 6, 9; and Color Plans, 48; and Europe First strategy, 116; European successes of, 228; Japan declares war against, 8-9; Japanese relations with, 12-13, 177; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 5-6, 27; in late 1930s, 83-84, 91; MacArthur Sr.'s animosity toward, 8; Roosevelt's recognition of inevitability of war with, 14; Russian offense of, 113, 183; as strong adversary, 304; and tripartite agreement, 12-13, 107; in World War I, 8-9, 20, 207 Gerona, 205 Gerow, Leonard T. , 112, 125, 129, 160, 266 Gort, Lord, 278-79 Governor General of Philippines: Davis as, 33; MacArthur's desire to be, 32-33; Murphy as, 46, 52; Stimson as, 32; Taft as, 3-4, 17; Wood as, 24 Grant, Walter, 99 Great Britain: and ABDA alliance, 194, 278, 283; and American War Plans, 100,116-17; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 155--56; Australia's relations with, 278; and British-U.S. Far East strategy, 116-17; Chamberlain's speech to, 84; defense plans for Malaya of, 50; and defense plans for Philippines, 95, 111,


INDEX

116-17, 130; and embargo on Japan, 113, 114; and Europe First strategy, 116, 259, 266; importance of sea to, 66; intelligence work of, 115, 155--56; and Japanese objectives, 128; Japanese relations with, 6, 8-9, 10, 13, 115; and MacArthur's leaving Philippines, 278; MacArthur's relationships with representatives of, 158-59; military defeats of, 304; and Plan Red, 48; U.S. dispute over Venezuela with, 2--3; and Washington Naval Treaty, 10; and Washington Staff Conference, 116; in World War I, 8-9. See also Hong Kong; Malaya; Singapore Great Depression, 12, 34-35, 36 Greece, 35,228,304 Grew, Joseph, 114 Grunert, George: appointed commander of Philippine Division, 98-99; birthday celebration for, 113; career of, 98; and defense plans for Philippines, 31,105--7,119,130,201; and equipment and supplies, 111, 112; and evacuation of U.S. dependents, 110; Hart's relationship with, 104, 105, 129; and inadequacies of air fields, 141; and interservice relations, 129; MacArthur meets with, 105; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 119; MacArthur's letter to, 136-37; MacArthur's relationship with, 99, 108, Ill, 112, 113, 136; MacArthur's removal of, 305--6; and Marshall, 107; and Philippine Army, 99,105,106-7, 136-37; as Philippine Department head, 99, 104-8; promotions for, 104-5; and protocol, 108; Quezon's description of, 113; Quezon's relationship with, 104, 105; recall of, 119; Sayre's relationship with, 104-5, 113 Guadalcanal, 307 Guam, 3, 27, 92, 97, 128, 149, 164 Island,18 Gunther, John, 18-19,58, 120

373

Hachiro, Arita, 94 Halsey, William, 49 Hamby, Private, 276 Hamilton, Ian, 7 Hanes, Donald, 206-7 Harbin, China, 6 Harbord, James G., 119 Hardy, Mary Pinkney "Pinky". See MacArthur, Mary "Pinky" (mother) Hart, Thomas C.: and allied operations, 116-17,130, 158,159;and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 149-50, 153, 155, 158; and defense plans for Philippines, 50, 105,116-17,129,130-35,148; Defensive Information Patrol of, 155; and Grant, 99; Grunert's relationship with, 104, 105, 129; health of, 283; and intelligence reports, 120, 149-50; and interservice relations, 129, 132--35; and Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 160; and Japanese bombing of Clark field, 180; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 198-99; and Luzon, 180, 185--86, 187-88; MacArthur compared with, 129-30; and MacArthur's appOintment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 119; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 282-83; MacArthur's criticisms of, 188, 198-99; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282-83; MacArthur's relationship with, 104, 132--35, 146-47, 148, 153, 158, 164; MacArthur's views about, 306; marines under command of, 136; power and authority of, 129; and Quezon, 96-97; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 164, 165; responsibilities of, 129-30; and Sayre,94,113;andtorpedo problems, 200; and underestimation ofJapan, 147; views about MacArthur of,165 Haruna (Japanese battleship), 181


374

INDEX

Hawaii: annexation of, 3; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150; and defense plans for Philippines, 27, 49, 52, 203; Japanese living in, 100; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 9; and proposed Konoye-Roosevelt meeting, 114. See also Pearl Harbor Hawaii Department (American), 52 Hay, John, 2 Hayo Maru (Japanese transport), 199 Hazen, Maynard, 189 heroes: Americans' need for, 291, 306; and Kelly as hero, 182; and MacArthur as hero, 225, 291, 305, 308 Hewlett, Frank, 234 High Commissioner, of Philippines: MacArthur considered for position of, 46; MacArthur's desire to be, 85--86; McNutt as, 70, 78, 85; and Quezon's head of state status, 55--56; role of, 56; Sayre's successor as, 110. See also Sayre, Francis Bowes Hirohito (emperor ofJapan), 84, 94, 114,229 Hirsh, George, 120 Hitler, Adolph, 38, 83--84 HMAS Bataan (Australian ship), 298 HMAS Perth (Australian ship), 283 HMS Exeter (British ship), 283 HMS Indomitable (British carrier), 158 HMS Prince of Wales, 14 Holbrook (American transport), 220 Holbrook, Lucius R., 61, 73-74, 78, 79 Holland. See Netherlands Holt, Thaddeus, 232 Homma, Masahuru: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 222, 223; and anti-American propaganda, 255; and Bataan, 228, 229, 235, 243, 245--46, 270, 271,272,296-97,305; command of, 127; and Corregidor, 297, 305; criticisms of, 307; erroneous reports about ham kiri of, 277; and fall of Manila, 193; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 199,200, 201,206,208,209,210,222,223;

Kimura meeting with, 245--46; Maeda's relationship with, 223; profeSSional background of, 206; and provisional government for Philippines, 251, 252, 253; recall and disgrace of, 302-3; surrender invitation to MacArthur from, 236-37; views aboutJapanese Army of, 292; and Wainwright's surrender of Bataan and Corregidor, 296-97, 300-301, 305. See also Fourteenth Army Hong Kong: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 159; British forces in, 50, 94, 159, 178, 230; Churchill's views about defense of, 230; as economic resource, 65; Japanese attack on, 164; and Japanese objectives, 128; Sayre visit to, 94; and supplies and equipment for Bataan, 242,244 Hoover, Herbert, 32, 33, 36, 38, 42 Howard, Colonel, 202-3 Huff, Sid, 3, 88--89, 120, 190, 191, 195, 196,231,250,267,282,284,290 Hull, Cordell: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150, 159; and defense plans for Philippines, 124, 129; and intelligence reports, 150; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 280; and oil supplies for Japan, 13; power and authority of, 129; Sayre's relationship with, 93, 94; and U.S.-Japanese relations, 113, 159 Hull, J.A.T., 7-8 Hunt, Frazier, 75, 250 Hurley, Patrick J., 194, 239, 280 , Howard J., 71 Hutton, T. J., 178 1 Corps (American): on Bataan, 227, 235-36,241,242-44,248,249,269, 270-71,294-95; Jones as commander of, 288. See also Wainwright, Jonathan M. "I Shall Return" (MacArthur), 290-91 Iba Field, 156, 164, 167, 169-70


INDEX Ickes, Harold: ambitions of, 36; and Bataan, 229; and civil defense in Philippines, 151; and Civilian Emergency Administration, llO; and defense plans for Philippines, 129; and embargo against Japan, ll4; and MacArthur's aspirations for presidency, 303; and MacArthur's Medal of Honor, 303; MacArthur's relationship with, 35-36, 71, 229; and MacArthur's retirement, 78; in nine1930s, 35-36; power and authority of, 129; and Quezon's financial award to MacArthur, 232; and Sayre, 93, lll; and tenn of Philippine preSidency, 103 Ida, Shojiro, 127 II Corps (American): on Bataan, 227, 235-36,238,241-42,243-44,249, 269, 270, 293, 294-95. See also Parker, George M. , Jr. III Corps (American ): MacArthur as commander of, 30 Imamura, Hitoshi, 127 immigration: Philippine restrictions about, 93 Imperial General Headquarters (IFHQ), 126, 153, 155, 223 Imperial Japanese Air Force, 147, 171, 179,180,185-86, 201, 227, 233 Imperial Japanese Army, 6,14, 101,

102-3, 114,163, 182-83, 292. See also specific person or force Imperial Japanese Conference, 126 Imperial Japanese Navy, 10, 14,49, 128, 167, 182-83, 290 Imperial Japanese Staff, 67 Inchon (Chemulpo), 6 India,6,8,195,278 Indo-China, 12-13, 107, 124, 128, 153, 156, 264 Infanta: and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 2ll Inouye, Vice Admiral, 128 intelligence: American, 102, ll5, 120, 125, 144, 145, 149-50, 155, 156, 185, 201, 228, 232-33; British, ll5, 155-56; Japanese, 102-3, 115-16,

375

144-46, 157-58, 228; niseis as American counter-, 144-45; in Philippine Army, 95 Interior Department, U.S. , 78, 92, 93, 104 internment: of Japanese, 144, 189 interservice relations, U.S., 28, 35, 49, 50, 125, 129, 131-32, 158 Intramuros, 137 Irvin, Constant L., 120 , Colonel, 204 Isabel (American yacht), 155 isolationism, 2, 9, 14, 27,91 Italians: in Manila, 189 Italy, 10, 48, 107, ll6 N Corps (American), 30 IX Corps (American), 77 James, zz, 20, 32, 78, 156, 161, 234, 307-8 Japan: anti-American feeling in, 7; codes of, ll4-15; diplomacy as solution to problems of, 128; embargo on, 13, ll5-16, 124; and German invasion of Russia, ll3; Germany's relationship with, 177; League of Nations condemnation of, 12; MacArthur proposes attack on, 183; MacArthur Sr.'s views about, 8; MacArthur's miscalculations about, 68-69, 87-88, 124-26, 142, 147, 153, 182-83, 213-14,230-31, 306; MacArthur's views about, 8, 100; in 1920s, 10; in 1930s, ll-12; objectives of, 128; as orange in American Color Plans, 48; preparations for war in, ll3, 126-28; Roosevelt's assessment of, 304-5; Roosevelt's freezing of assets of, ll3-14, ll5; Sayre as broker for peace agreement between China and, 94; Sheean's views about, 122; as strong adversary, 304-5; surrender of, 304; territorial ambitions of, 2, 3, ~, 8, 14, 91-92, 172-73; underestimation of, ll4, 147; U.S. declares war against, 163; U.S. negotiations with, 145, 149, 150,159-60; in World War I, 8-9. See also specific person or topiC


INDEX

Japanese: in Davao, 101; internment of, 144, 189; living in Philippines, 100-101; in Manila, 144 Japanese agents, 101, 102-3, 115, 144, 156, 158, 185, 189 Japanese Consulate (Manila), 145, 157, 298 Japanese Good Friday, 293 Japanese Imperial Rescript, 229 Japanese soldiers: nature of, 9 Japanese students, 8 Java, 13,50, 113, 128, 173,228,278, 283 Java (Dutch cruiser), 283 Java Sea, Battle of, 283 Jennings, ZZ, 258 Johnson, Harold K., 220 Johnson, Luther, 258 Joint Army and Navy Assessment Committee, 286 Joint Army-Navy Planning Board, 35, 48, 100, 110, 161 Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, U.S.: creation of, 134 Joint Congressional Committee, 178 Joint Estimate for War Plan Orange, 100 Jones, Albert M., 183,210,212-13,218, 221-22,241-42,271,288,294 Jose, ZZ, 67, 213 Kansas City Star, 286

Kato, Kanji, 10 Kellogg-Briand Pact, 59 Kell~Colin,181-82,277

Kenney, George C., 164 KGEI (San Francisco radio), 256 Kihara, Jitaro, 101, 145, 158,223,252, 253,266-67 Kimmel, Husband E., 160, 170, 178, 186,305 Kimura, Naoki, 243, 244, 245-46, 270 King, Edward Postell, Jr., 120, 263, 293-94,295,296,304 King, Ernest J., 129, 134 Kipling, Rudyard, 1 Kiyoshi, Kiyoshi Uchiyama, 101

Komori, Arthur, 144 Kondo Detachment, 276, 277 Kondo, Vice Admiral, 128 Konoye (prince ofJapan), 114 Korea,5,6,14,264,308 Korean War, 304 Kota Bharu, 164 Kurile Islands, 150 KZRH (Manila radio), 279, 301 La Monja, 226 La Union, 184,205 Laguan de Bay, 218 Lamb, Ray, 199 Lamon Bay, 151-52, 193, 198,209-10, 223 Landon, Alf,64,69 Larrabee, Eric, 36, 174, 232 Lassiter, William, 31 Lateral 3. See Malinta Tunnel (Corregidor) Laurel, Jose P., 192, 193, 213, 266-67 Lawrence, Colonel, 217 League of Nations, 12 Leavenworth, Kansas: Army base at, 79 Lee, Clark, 121, 147, 153,280 Lee, Jerry, 82-83 Lee (Robert E.) mansion, 36 Legaspi, 148, 179, 183, 184-85, 187, 224 Legaspi (biockade runner), 239-41 Lepanto mining stock, 218 Liaotung Peninsula,S, 6 Liaoyang, Battle of, 7 Libby, McNeil and Libby Corporation, 219 Life magazine, 121, 122, 123 , Vicente, 52,53,86,105,146,183,241 Lindbergh, Charles, 291 Lingayen: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 215; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 152; and battle for Bataan, 245, 246; and early defense plans, 49; intelligence about, 145; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 143, 180-81, 193,198,199,200-201,204,205,


INDEX

211, 215,222,223; and Japanese strategy, 223; and MacArthur's lOgistics problems, 184; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 166-67 Little Pocket, 270, 271-72 Lodge, Henry Cabot, 2 Logan (U.S. ship), 25 Long, Gavin, 208 Long, Huey, 38, 47 Longoskawayan, 247, 248 Los Angeles, California: Quezon's visit to, 70 Los Angeles Times, 286 Los Banos, 218 love letters: of MacArthur, 41 Luce, Clare Boothe, 122-24, 175-76 Luce, Henry, 121-22 Luisiana, 213 Luneta Park (Manila), 4, 58 Luz, Julio, 279 Luzon: and ABDA command, 195; air fields on, 141; American reinforcements for, 183, 187, 189-90, 193-94; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 152, 156, 157; battle of, 241; defense plans for, 49, 50,67, 105, 106-7, 130, 131, 142, 148; Eisenhower's strategic appraisal about, 184; and evacuation of Manila, 188-97; Formosa as Japanese base for attacks on, 179; infrastructure in, 82; intelligence about, 146; Japanese agents on, 185; Japanese blockade of, 187, 239-41; Japanese invasion and occupation of, 167-72, 179-82, 184-86,187,193, 198-225;Japanese reconnaissance over, 156, 176; Japanese strategy toward, 198; and MacArthur's logistics problems, 184; MacArthur's visits to, 236; morale on, 183; press reports about, 258; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163, 167; Roosevelt's criticism of MacArthur for defense of, 305; Selleck's withdrawal from, 248; Wainwright's surrender broadcast to, 301; weather on, 142. See also Bataan; Manila

377

Luzon Force: Wainwright as commander of, 288. See also North Luzon Force; South Luzon Force M-Day, 141, 155 Mabatang, 227 MacArthur, Arthur (father), 3, 7, 8, 17-18, 19, 24, 34, 40, 43, 54,71, 72, 196,250 MacArthur, Arthur III (brother), 16, 26, 81, 104, 132 MacArthur, Arthur IV (son), 81-82, 195, 196,267,284 MacArthur, Douglas: appointed Commander General of USAFFE, 117; appOinted supreme commander in Australia, 278-81, 293; autobiography/memoirs of, 16, 18, 34, 236, 245, 290-91; bravery of, 232-34; criticisms of, 305; death thoughts of, 249-50; decorations and honors for, 21-22,40,258, 267,291,303; defenders of, 307; dislike of flying by, 283-84; as doomed in Philippines, 214-15; early career of, 18-29; as emotional man, 222, 295-96; evacuation from Corregidor of, 278-91; Filipino loyalty/support for, 90, 280,305-6; financial affairs of, 97, 112, 218, 267, 268; health of, 19; as hero, 225, 291, 305, 308; and King's surrender of Bataan, 295-96; as leade~37,233, 277; as legend, 225; as lover, 23-24; Luce profile of, 122-24; as MacArthur Sr.'s aide-de-camp, 8; as "narrowly escaping" injury, 224-25; nicknames for, 21, 233-34; personal life of, 23, 30, 71; personality of, 18-19, 20, 108, 131-32, 306; physical appearance of, 280; and protocol, 79, 108, 133, 146-47; recalled to active duty, 117; recommendations for recall of, 69, 71, 76-77; reorganization of command of, 287-88; reputation of, 68, 79,83, 136, 175, 187,231,238; retains ultimate command of Philippines, 287-88, 289; retirement


INDEX MacArthur, Douglas (cant.) of, 77-78; return of, 308; selfdelusion of, 308; self-image of, 109; sixty-second birthday of, 257; South East Asia tour by, 9; as strategist, 83; Truman's firing of, 304; as untouchable, 178; as visionary, 64--66 MacArthur, Jean (second wife): and Arthur's birth, 81-82; on Corregidor, 225, 250; courtship and wedding of, 54-55,57--58, 71; and evacuation of Manila, 196; and launching of HMAS Bataan, 298; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 282; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282, 284, 287; and MacArthur's financial affairs, 267; in Manila, 72; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163; and Red Cross luncheons, 108; and religion, 82 MacArthur, Louise (first wife), 22-24, 25-26,28,29,30,58 MacArthur, Mary McCalla (sister-inlaw),47 MacArthur, Mary "Pinky" (mother): deathlburial of, 57, 71; at Fort Mason, 16; health of, 22, 23, 54; and MacArthur as West Point student, 16--17; and MacArthur's career, 28-29, 34; MacArthur's relationship with, 16--17, 19,30,34,54,57; and MacArthur's wedding to Louise, 23; in Milwaukee, 19; in Philippines, 18, 47; and tour of South East Asia, 8 MacArthur Plan: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 220-21; basic premises of, 65-68; cost of, 67; criticisms of, 75-77, 86-87, 95-98, 125; intent of, 95; and interservice relations, 131--32; and Japanese invasion of China, 73; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201, 202, 207; and MacArthur's miscalculations about Japan, 68-69, 87-88; and Mindanao, 95; and recommendations for recall of

MacArthur, 76--77; as "tragic error," 220-21. See also Philippine Army: training of McBride, Allen C., 227 McCloy, John J., 238, 303 McDuffie, John, 44 McKee, Montgomery, 213 McKinley, William, 3 McMicking, Joseph R., Jr. , 89, 284 McNamey, Joseph T., 303 McNutt, Paul v., 70, 79, 83, 85, 86, 92 Maeda, Masami, 205, 206, 223, 229, 252,272,292 Magic (intelligence operation), 114-15, 120,145,170 Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 2 Malacaiian Palace, 18, 45, 55, 72 Malaya: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 153, 159; British in, 50, 159, 178; and BritishAmerican policy for Far East, 117; intelligence about, 150; Japanese attack on, 164; Japanese living in, 100-101; as Japanese objective, 113, 124, 128; Japanese occupation of, 305; and Japanese preparations for war, 127; MacArthur family tour of, 8; and strategic supplies for Japan, 13; Yamashita's success in, 245-46 Malinta Hill (Corregidor), 299 Malinta Tunnel (Corregidor): and Bataan, 227, 229, 233, 249; bombing of, 233; and bombings and shellings of Corregidor, 225, 275, 276, 285; and breaking of Japanese codes, 114-15; building of, 77; as MacArthur base, 227, 229, 233, 249; MacArthur's arrival at, 214; Moore headquarters in, 154; Quezon's inauguration at, 222-23; Sayre's thoughts on entering, 196; Wainwright establishes headquarters at, 293 Mallonee, Richard C., 203--6, 209, 216, 227,272,273,278,293 Maltby, Christopher, 178 Manchester, William, 19, 157, 164 Manchukuo,12,264


INDEX ~anchuria,5,6,

7,11-12,14,43,209,

304 "~anifest

Destiny," 2 American evacuation of, 188-97; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 154; Burnham's design of, 4; Chinese living in, 101; climate of, 4; destruction of, 180, 308; discrimination in, 4-5; economy of, 101; ethnic groups in, 4, 189; fall of, 193, 195-96, 222, 223; as greatest U.S. military defeat, 304; Homma's securing of, 228; Homma's trial and execution in, 302-3; Japanese agents in, 102-3; Japanese establish provisional government in, 251-53; Japanese intelligence about, 116; Japanese living in, 101; Japanese occupation of, 144,251-53; and Japanese strategy, 223; Joint Headquarters for U.S. forces in, 134; lack of preparation for defense of, 151; ~acArthurleaves, 196-97; as ~ilitary District, 23-29; as open city, 183, 191, 196, 223; Philippine Army parade in, 81; Quezon's desire to return to, 255, 260---U4; and SpanishAmerican War, 3; strength of U.S. Navy at, 130; Vargas as mayor of, 193; Yamashita's surrender of, 304. See also specific place ~anila Bay: Battle of (1898),3; defense plans for, 105, 130; and ~acArthur's misconceptions about Japan, 125; mining of, 113; proposed U.S. Navy base in, 66. See also Bataan; Corregidor; ~anila ~anila Golf Club, 4 ~anila Hotel: and attack on Pearl Harbor, 1; banquet in ~acArthur's honor in, 34; Brereton party at, 157, 160; Burnham's design for, 4; discrimination at, 4; Eisenhower hears Chamberlain's speech while at, 84; and evacuation of ~anila, 196; ~acArthur on Board of Directors of, 73; and ~acArthur as commander of

~anila:

379 ~ilitary

District of ~anila, 25; apartment at, 72-73, 122, 129, 277; opening of, 5; parties at, 146; Pinky ~acArthur's death at, 57; Quezon-~acArthur meeting in, 191; Quzson's dancing at, 58 ~anila Polo Club, 4, 57 ~anila Radio, 256 Manila Tribune, 118, 255 ~anila Yacht Club, 245 maps: and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 203-4 ~ariana Islands, 9 ~arines, U.S., 20, 202, 203, 246, 247, 248. See also Fourth ~arines ~ariveles (Bataan peninsula), 136, 228, 235,241,246,247,248,269,274, 296,297 ~arquat, William, 120 ~arsh, Peyton C., 22 ~arshall, George C.: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 213, 220; and anti-American propaganda, 255; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 154-55, 157, 159-60; appointed Chief of Staff, 85; and Arcadia Conferences, 194; and Bataan,229, 236,237,238,239, 243, 244, 245, 249, 295; and Brereton, 171; and defense plans for Philippines, 107-8, 124, 129, 133, 134, 142, 147; Eisenhower's appraisal of western Pacific situation for, 186; and equipment and supplies, 143, 293; and Europe First strategy, 194; and evacuation of MacArthur family from Corregidor, 250; and Grunert~acArthur relationship, 112; Grunert's relationship with, 107; and Hart-~acArthur relationship, 133; and interservice relations, 133, 134, 158; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 171; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 208-9, 213; ~acArthur compared with, 134; and ~acArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 278-79, 280, 281, 282; ~acArthur's


INDEX

Marshall, George C. (cant.) and MacArthur's criticisms of Hart, 188; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 265, 282, 283--84, 287, 289; and MacArthur's miscalculations about Japanese, 182-83, 230; MacArthur's relationship with, 112-13, 125, 134, 190, 229; and MacArthur's reorganization of command, 289; and Medal of Honor for MacArthur, 291; and Medal of Honor for Wainwright, 303; message to MacArthur about Bataan from , 245; and possible surrender of Philippines, 254, 263, 265; power and authOrity of, 129; proposes MacArthur move to Mindanao, 280; and Quezon's evacuation from Corregidor, 259; and race issues, 145; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 168; and recommendations for recall of MacArthur, 112; and rumors of MacArthur's appointment as commander in Far East, 112-13; Sayre's recommendation about Grunert to, 104-5; and surrender of Philippines, 301; and training of Philippine Army, 136; and U.S.Japanese relations, 159-60; views about MacArthur's staff of, 120-21; and Wainwright, 289, 303; and Wainwright-MacArthur relationship, 303 Marshall, Richard J., 85, 100, 118, 119, 172-73,178,211,215, 223, 227, 231 , 235-36, 248, 284,290 Marshall Islands, 9, 162 Marsman Trading Company, 144 Mauban,209, 210, 211-12,227, 242 Mayflower (U.S. ship), 7 Medal of Honor, Congressional, 17, 19, 20, 21-22, 258, 291, 303, 304 mestizos: in Manila, 4 Merico, 2, 48, 64, 71 Midway, 149 Miguel Airfield, 145

Mikado, Michigan, 258 Mikasa (Japanese flagship), 6, 15 Miles, Perry L., 40 military: conflict between politicians and, 49 Military Adviser: MacArthur as, 46, 50, 55, 59, 64, 78-79, 86, 97 Military Districts (Philippines), 23-29, 53 Miller, Ernest B., 48, 217 Mills, Captain, 274 Milwaukee, Wisconsin: MacArthur posted to, 19 Mindanao: air fields on, 141; and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 152, 157; and building of Philippine Army, 69; defense plans for, 95, 130; educational standards on, 69; and evacuations from Corregidor, 259-60, 297-98; Japanese attacks on, 179; and Japanese blockade of Luzon, 239; Japanese intelligence about, 145; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201; and Legaspi runs, 240; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 281 , 282; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 287, 288, 290; and MacArthur's reorganization of command, 288; Marshall proposes MacArthur move to, 280; Pershing in, 16; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 164, 170; and reinforcements for Luzon, 193; Roosevelt (Theodore) proposed visit to, 255; Sharp as commander at, 288, 299--300; Sharp'S surrender of, 301, 302; and Wainwright's surrender of Corregidor, 299--301; and Wainwright's surrender powers, 289. See also Davao Mindoro, 241 Mitchell, Billy, 10-11 Mizuho (Japanese seaplane tender), 212 Moncada, 221 Moore, George F., 154, 156, 214, 288 Moore, Revel S. , 57 Morhouse, Charles H., 290


INDEX

Morioka, General, 209 Moron, 242, 243, 247 Morton, Louis, 121, 174, 176, 235, 269, 295 Moseley, General, 40 Mount Arayat, 169 Mount Bataan, 226, 227 Mount Natib, 226, 227, 228, 235 Mount Pucot, 247, 248 Mount Samat, 269, 294 Mountain Artillery Regiment (Japanese), 200 Murph~ Frank, 46, 52, 56-57, 59, 70, 76, 78, 110 Nacionalista Party, 46 Nagano, Kameichiro, 292, 296 Nakayama, Colonel, 300, 301 Nanking, China, 11, 12, 73 Nara,Akira, 228, 238, 241, 242, 243, 244, 270 Nasugbu, 184,201, 210 Nation magazine, 69 National Assembly, Philippine, 43, 52, 55,59,60, 73, 75, 79, 86-87, 90, 103-4,146, 190, 253 National Defense Act, Philippine, 46,

52-53, 55, 60-61 , 65 National Defense Department, Philippine: creation of, 86 National Defense, U.S. Department of: proposal for, 35 National Guard, U.S., 106, 137--38, 140, 187 Park Service, U.S., 36 nationalism: in Japan, 14 Nationalist Kuomintang Party (China), 11 Naval General Staff, Japanese, 145-46 Naval War Colleges, U.S., 48--49 Navy Air Corps, U.S., 35, 116, 153, 185 Navy Department, U.S., ll, 35, 37, llO, 160, 188 Navy, Philippine, 52, 88-89, 95 Navy, U.S. : and ABDA Alliance, 283; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 220; and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 151-52, 153;

and Arcadia Conferences, 193; and Bataan, 236, 248; blamed for Luzon situation, 188; and breaking of Japanese codes, ll4-15; convoy duty of, 14; coordination of British and, 158; Corregidor as base for, 99; and defense plans for Philippines, 28, 49, 50, 130--31, 306; as devil to Japanese navy, 10; effects of Pearl Harbor on, 186-87, 188; and evacuations from Corregidor, 260; expansion of, 2; impact of Pearl Harbor on, 260; and intelligence work, ll5, 145, 149-50; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 203, 209-10; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 287; MacArthur's relationship with, 125; MacArthur's views about, 66--67, 298; Manila Bay proposed as base for, 66; and Mitchell's proposal of unified air force, ll; and Philippine Navy, 88-89; and preparations for World War II, 14, 113; and Roosevelt's freezing ofJapanese assets, ll4; Roosevelt's partiality to, 42; at Shanghai, 132; size of, 13; strength in Manila of, 130; strengthen of U.S. Atlantic defenses by, 100; supplies and equipment for, 203; and surrender in Philippines, 298; and U.S . Far Eastern policy, 91, ll6-17; weakness of, 92. See also Cavite Naval Base; interservice relations; specific person, battle, or force Negishi, Mr., ll5 Negros, 139, 201 Neilson Field, 149, 166, 168--69 Netherlands, 13, 30, 50, 100, ll3, ll6, 128, 130, 155, 194, 278, 283. See also Dutch East Indies neutrality: of Philippines, 82, 98, 165, 26O-B2, 265; of U.S. , 14 New Guinea, 307 New York City: MacArthur wedding in, 71; Quezon's visit to, 70, 71 New York Herald Tribune, 88, 122, 258


INDEX

New York Medical Journal, 4 New York Times, 7, 23, 33 New Zealand, 116 Niagara (American submarine chaser), 187 Nichols Air Field, 141-42, 147, 148, 164, 180, 183, 185, 245 Air Field, 185,245 Nieto, Colonel, 58 night operations, 247,274-75 Nihro, Katsumi, 115, 145, 158, 196 Nineteenth Barbardment Group (American),157 Ninetieth Squadron (Royal Air Force), 126 Ninety-first Division (American), 152, 201,221 Ninety-first Division (PA), 242 Ninth Infantry (Japanese), 200, 206 niseis: as American counter-intelligence, 144-45 Nobel Peace Prize: Roosevelt (Theodore) wins, 7 Nomonhan: Russian-Japanese battle at, 12 Nomura, Kichisaburo, 113, 114 Normandy, 308 North Africa, 278 North Luzon Force (American), 140, 151,153,201,204,205,207,211, 215,216,217,218,221,222 Northcote, Governor, 94 Norway, 304 Nye, Senator, 60

oath of allegiance, Japanese, 192-93, 252 Obata, Hideyoshi, 127 O'Daniel, Lee, 258 O'Day, Lieutenant Colonel, 204 Off-Shore Patrol (PA), 54, 74, 88,146 Office of War Information, U.S., 290 oil supplies: for Japan, 13, 14 Olongapo Naval Station, 136, 246 Olson, zz, 228 Olympic team, U.S., 30 One hundred first Division (PA), 138

One hundred ninety-fourth Battalion (American),137-38,205,213 One-hundred ninety-second Battalion (American), 137-38,205,206-7,274 "open door" policy, 10 Orange Plan, 8, 27, 48, 49, 50, 51-52, 99, 100,212. See also specific revision Orange-2 Plan (1936), 99 Orange-3 Plan (1940), 99-100, 105, 106-8,112,119,130,143,201,209, 220 Orange-5 Plan, 202 Ord, James B. (Jimmy), 44, 47, 52, 53, 60,61,62,63-64,74,75-76,80-81, 83 Orion, 243-44, 269 Osias, Camilio, 59, 60 Osmefia, Sergio, 24, 58, 60, 86, 190, 192, 260, 261, 264-65 -40 aircraft, 245,248-49,285,286 Pacific Division (American): MacArthur Sr. as commander of, 7 Pacific Fleet (American), 14-15, 162, 178 Pacific Fleet (Spanish), 3 pacifisism, 30, 35, 75-76 Palau Island, 179 Palawan Island, 130 Panama, 51, 92, 100 Panama Canal, 49, 113 Pana~ 12,240-41,268,302 Paris, France. See France; Treaty of Paris (1899); Treaty of Versailles Parker, Frank, 51, 55 Parker, George M., Jr.: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 209, 212, 223; on Bataan, 227, 235, 241, 242, 243, 269, 270, 273, 293; as commander of South Luzon Force, 140, 153; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 205, 209, 210, 212. See also II Corps Pasay (Philippines), 25 Patrol Wing No. 10 (Patwing 10) (American), 185, 186 Patton, George S., Jr., 19,40


INDEX

payday, 137, 273 Payne, John Walker, Jr., 155 Pearl Harbor: American reactions to, 162--78; as central to U.S . war plans, 162; court martials of U.S. commanders at, 178, 305; and defense plans for Philippines, 142, 186-87, 307; destruction and casualties at, 170, 180, 186-87; impact on Navy of attack on, 186-87, 188, 256, 260; intelligence reports about, 145; Japanese attack on, 1, 15, 150, 160-61, 162--63, 164,167,172, 173, 174, 203; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 203; and Japan's Pacific strategy, 14-15, 128; MacArthur's reaction to attack on, 163, 164-65, 174; U.S. investigations about, 178 Pearson, Drew, 41, 76 Pensacola (American cruiser): convoy of, 187--88, 220 Percival, Arthur, 178 Permit (U.S. submarine), 286 Perret, zz, 32, 51 Pershing, John J., 5, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26,28-29,36,245 Petillo, Carol, 231 Philadelphia Record newspaper, 257--58 Philippine Air Corps, 53--54, 74, 82--83, 88,106,120,164,277 Philippine Army: accomplishments of, 80; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 152, 154; assimilation into service of U.S. of, 135; on Bataan, 227; budget for, 73-76,81, 95-96, 135, 143;concerns about quality of, 107; and Constabulary, 52--53, 60, 86; criticisms about, 62--63; and defense plans for Philippines, 99, 106-7, 112; discrimination in pay of, 273; effects of Japanese propaganda on, 279--80; equipment and supplies for, 63, 74, 80,95,111,138-40, 142--43,152;and formation of USAFFE, 117; function of, 96; and GrunertlPhilippine

Department, 99-100, 105, 106-7; headquarters of, 60; and intelligence information, 95; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201,202,207, 208,209,210;and Japanese living in Philippines, 101; on Luzon, 180, 183; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 119; MacArthur's views about, 66, 96, 136; morale of, 136; officers in, 86, 138, 139; organization of, 52--53, 50, 61, 62--63,67,69,74,82; and Philippine Scouts, 52, 53, 61; and politics, 111-12; practice mobilization exercise for, 86; press reports about, 107; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 260; Quezon's concerns about, 95-96; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163, 173; Roosevelt calls up, 117; size of, 60; strength of, 116; Time article about, 121-22; training of, 52--53,61,67,69,73-92,106,107, 111, 119,135,136-37,139,207, 208, 228,269,291. See also conscription; General Staff, Philippine; Off-Shore Patrol; specific person or division Philippine Campaign: aircraft that survived, 245; importance to U.S. of, 238; Japanese commemoration of, 229. See also specific person, battle, orforce Philippine Campaign Medal, 40 Philippine Coastal Frontier, 130 Philippine Commission, 17 Philippine Defense Forces. See Constabulary (Philippine); Philippine Army; Philippine Scouts Philippine Defense Planning Committee, 63 Philippine Department (American): and building of Philippine Army, 73-74; commanding generals of, 50, 55, 61, 99; and defense plans for Philippines, 52, 105--8, 112; and formation of USAFFE, 117; and Hart-MacArthur relationship, 133; and MacArthur's


INDEX

Philippine Department (cont.) appointment as Commanding General ofUSAAFE, 119, 120; and MacArthur's retirement, 79; as part of U.S . Army, 105; and Philippine Army, 99-100; Sutherland on staff of, 203. See also Grunert, George Philippine Division (American): and American withdrawal to Bataan, 216-17, 224; on Bataan, 227, 242; and defense plans for Philippines, 74, 135; formation of, 26; Grunert appointed commander of, 98-99; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201, 202, 208, 216-17, 224; officers of, 135; problems with supplies and equipment in, 238-39; and training of Philippine Army, 135, 136 Philippine Executive Commission, 253 Philippine Herald, 87-88, 113, 163 Philippine Military Academy, 60, 102, 210 Philippine National Bank, 218 Philippine Normal School: Quezon's speech at, 97-98 Philippine Scouts (PS): and American withdrawal to Bataan, 224; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 154; assessment of, 26-27, 307; as basis of Philippine Defense Forces, 52; on Bataan, 227, 238, 248-49, 271; and defense plans for Philippines, 135, 307; discrimination against, 28, 273; equipment and supplies for, 143; Grunert seeks expansion of, 106; Grunert's command with, 98; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 202,206, 213, 216; and Luzon, 185; mutiny among, 28; and National Defense Act, 52; and Philippine Army, 52, 53, 61 , 139; in pre-World War I , 5; retired, 213; strength of, 5, 106. See also specific person or force Philippines: American responsibilities in, 56; anti-Japanese sentiment in,

101; and British-American policy for Far East, 116-17; as economic resource, 65, 87-88, 91; ethnic diverSity in, 68-69; fears of insurgency in, 63; geography of, 27, 67; Ickes plan for, 78; and impact of defeat on U.S., 307-8; independence for, 27, 32, 43, 52, 56, 63, 70, 87, 90-91, 92, 98, 222,260-64; infrastructure in, 82; insurrection in, 3, 17-18,43, 67; Japanese relations with, 101; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 8, 87-88, 91-92, 113, 128, 172-73; Japanese views about, 100; MacArthur as commander of, 289; MacArthur as Department Commander in, 30-34; MacArthur leaves, 278-91; MacArthur retains ultimate command of, 287-88, 289; MacArthur Sr. family stationed in, 16, 17-18; MacArthur's first tour in, 16, 19; MacArthur's promises to return to, 289, 290-91 ; MacArthur's return to, 288-89, 308; MacArthur's views about, 18, 123; Pershing sends MacArthur to, 23; power and authOrity in, 129; predominance of U.S. military in, 5; proposed surrender of, 260-65; reasons for loss of, 306-~; Spain sells U.S. the, 3; surrender of, 301-3; Switzerland as model for, 96; U.S. Army as permanent colonial force in, 5; as U.S. liability, 3, 8; Wainwright as commander of, 289; and Washington Naval Treaty, 10, 12. See also Bataan; Commonwealth; Corregidor; defense of Philippines; Governor General of Philippines; Manila; provisional government, Philippine; specific person Phillips, Sir Tom, 158, 159 , Clinton, 208,248 Pilar, 227, 274 Pillsbury (American destroyer), 180 Placentia Bay (Newfoundland): Churchill-Roosevelt meeting at, 14


INDEX Plan Orange. See Orange Plan Plan X, 194 plans, defense, 48-71,100. See also specific plan Plaridel, 221 Pockets, Battle of the, 271-72, 273 Points, Battle of the, 269, 272, 274 Poland, 89, 95, 100 politicians: conflict between military and, 49 politics: MacArthur's involvement in Washington, 30-47 Port Arthur, 5, 6, 15 Portsmouth (New Hampshire) peace conference, 7 Portugal, 35 Pozorrubio, 206 Pratt, Veazie, 35 presidency: MacArthur's aspirations for U.S., 33, 37, 38-39, 78, 266, 303; term of Philippine, 103 President Cleveland (American ship), 93, 94 President Coolidge (American ship), 73, 116 President Hoover (American ship), 54 President Taft (American ship), 115 President's Emergency Fund, 143 press reports: lack of objectivity in, 286; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 290; MacArthur's relationship with, 256-58, 286; and "managed news" concept, 297; about Philippine Army, 107; and Roosevelt, 256, 281; and rumors of Sayre's recall, 110 Prince of Wales (British battleship), 158, 159 prisoners of war, 178, 242-43, 289, 296-97,301 propaganda: anti-American, 255-56; anti-Japanese, 256; and anti-Japanese sentiment, 101; and intelligence work, 115; Japanese, 254, 255, 256, 275, 279--80; from MacArthur on Corregidor, 256-57, 285-86; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme

commander, 281; MacArthur's use of, 291. See also press reports; public relations provisional government, Philippine, 251-53 Provisional Naval Battalion (American), 246,247,248,249 Provisional Tank Group (PTG) (American), 205 PT-boats, 284, 286-87, 290 public relations: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 224-25; and building of Philippine Army, 80; and Japanese-Filipino relations, 101-2; and Kelly as hero, 182; MacArthur's concern about, 80, 121, 225, 305--B; Romulo as head of MacArthur's, 196. See also press reports; propaganda Rico, 3 Purnell, William R., 116, 160 Purple code, 145 Purple Heart, 21, 40, 71 Purple Plan, 48 Quail (U.S. minesweeper), 248 Quartermaster Corps (American), 142-43,215,216,219 Quekemeyer, John G., 23 Quezon, Aurora, 32, 59, 61-62, 82, 94, 102,192,250,260,268 Quezon, Manuel: and Aguinaldo, 18; American antipathy toward, 56; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 216, 217; and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 150-51; as Arthur N's godparent, 82; Australia departure of, 232; autobiography of, 193; and Bataan, 235, 238, 253-54, 261-62,267; and bombing of Clark field, 180; cigars of, 289; confirmed as president, 190; and conscription, 146; on Corregidor, 190-92, 195-96, 222-23, 253-55, 259-68; as dancer, 58; death of, 298; and defense plans for Philippines, 43-45, 50, 53, 55, 59, 60, 63,86-87,90-91,95-98,106, 128-29,130,142,150-51; earnings as


INDEX

Quezon, Manuel (cant.) Governor General of, 44; Eisenhower's relationship with, 84-85; Eisenhower's strategic appraisal for, 184; emergency powers of, 103-4, 110; eulogizes MacArthur, 231; and Europe First strategy, 259, 260; and European war, 95; evacuation from Corregidor of, 45-46,259,265--68; extraordinary powers of, 190; and fall of Manila, 190-92, 193, 195--96; Fellers as liaison to, 51, 67; as first president of Commonwealth, 43, 46; governmentin-exile of, 298; and Grunert, 104, 105, 113; and Hart, 96-97; and HartMacArthur relationship, 133; head of state status for, 55--56, 61, 70; health 0ÂŁ94, 128, 163, 190,231,253,255; and honors for MacArthur, 267; inauguration of, 46, 55--56, 57; and independence for Philippines, 43, 90, 91,92,98,260-62; and intelligence reports, 150; and Japanese agents, 102--3; Japanese desire return of, 252; and Japanese landings on Luzon, 183; and Japanese occupation of Manila, 253--54; and Japanese propaganda, 254,255; and Japanese-Philippine relations, 87, 101-2; and Legaspi runs, 239-40; and MacArthur as Field Marshall, 45-47; MacArthur letter from, 254; and MacArthur as military adviser to Philippines, 50, 55, 59, 64, 79, 97; and MacArthur's apartment at Manila Hotel, 73; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 117, 119; and MacArthur's display of bravado, 233; and MacArthur's financial affairs, 231-32, 267; MacArthur's first report to, 61; MacArthur's relationship with, 25--26, 32--33,43-44,55--56,59,64,81,82, 84,86,96,97-98,104,111-12,117, 119,135,146,191,231,259,267-68, 298; as mixed Spanish and Malay

birth, 4; and neutrality of Philippines, 165, 265; and Ord's death, 83; Parker's relationship with, 55; and Philippine Army, 74, 75, 76, 81, 86, 89,95--96, 117; plan to return to Manila of, 260-64; power and authority of, 129; proposed resignation of, 264-65; proposed surrender by, 260-64; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163, 165, 174; Romulo's visit with, 261-62; Roosevelt's communications with, 104,106,129,150,254--55,262-64, 304--5; and rumors of MacArthur's recall, 76; Sayre's relationship with, 94-96,97,98,103,110-11,128-29, 146, 147; second inauguration of, 222-23; and Stimson as GovernorGeneral of Philippines, 32; and term of preSidency, 103; Tokyo trip of, 82; Vargas as representative of, 251, 252; and Washington pecking order, 61; Washington visits of, 69-70; Wood's relationship with, 24, 32 Quezon, Manuel II, 254, 268 Quinauan Point, 247, 248, 249 race issues, 4--5, 114, 145, 147,281 radio: and Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 160; and Japanese night operations, 275; Quezon hears about Europe First strategy on, 260; Quezon's speech on, 255; and Roosevelt's "Europe First" strategy, 278; as source of information for soldiers, 256; from Tokyo, 254; and Wainwright's surrender of Corregidor, 299-300; Wainwright's surrender instructions to Sharp on, 301, 302 Rainbow Division, 120 Rainbow Plans, 48, 100, 162, 173-74 Ramsey, Lieutenant, 216, 233-34 records: of first Philippine Campaign, 121 Red Cross, 108, 195 Red Plan, 48 religion, 17, 82, 163, 225


INDEX Reminiscences (MacArthur), 16, 244 Report on National Defense in the Philippines (1936), 57, 65 Republican party, 265-66, 281 Repulse (British cruiser), 158, 159 Resco, Michelline, 23 Reston, James, 305 retirement: of MacArthur, 77-78 Riggs National Bank (Washington, D.C.), 268 Rockford (Illinois) Star, 90-91 Rockwell, Francis w., 159, 188, 202 Rogers, Paul P. , 137, 283, 284, 290 Rogers, Will, 27 , Jose, 4 Romulo, Carlos: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 214; appointed MacArthur's public relations officer, 214; and Bataan, 240, 241, 284-85; on Corregidor, 229, 256, 276-77, 289; and evacuations from Corregidor, 267, 268; and fall of Manila, 196; and file of news about MacArthur, 286; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 214; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 287, 289; MacArthur's promises to, 289; and MacArthur's statement about surrender of Philippines, 301-2; and press reports about Corregidor, 284-85; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 261-62; and Subic Bay victory, 285; Voice of Freedom broadcast of, 256, 261 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano: and ABDA alliance, 194, 278; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 220; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150, 155; assessment of Japan by, 304-5; and Atlantic Charter, 126; and Bataan, 229, 238, 244; and Churchill, 14, 126; and Civilian Emergency Administration, 110; and Corregidor, 296; criticism of MacArthur by, 305; and defense plans for Philippines, 51 , 69, 97, 106, 110, 129, 155; and elections of 1932, 38-39; and elections of 1936, 64, 69;

and embargo on Japan, 14, 113-14; and equipment and supplies, Ill; and Europe First strategy, 259, 266, 278; freezing of Japanese assets by, 113-14; and Germany, 14; and Ickes, 36; and independence for Philippines, 70, 91, 262; and intelligence reports, 150; involvement in military affairs of, 155; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 170; Konoye's proposed meeting with, 114; and MacArthur as adviser to Philippines, 55; and MacArthur as High Commissioner, 46; MacArthur as misleading, 155; and MacArthur replaced as Chief of Staff, 44, 47; MacArthur's 1937 visit with, 70; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 278-79, 280-82; MacArthur's birthday wishes to, 258; and MacArthur's doubts about possibility of World War II, 77; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282, 288, 308; and MacArthur's Medal of Honor, 291, 303; MacArthur's relationship with, 42-43, 47,54,70, 109,229, 258; and MacArthur's request to be recalled to active duty, 112; and MacArthur's resignation as Military Adviser, 97; and MacArthur's retirement, 77, 78; MacArthur's views about, 38; and Marshall as Chief of Staff, 85; mobilization of armed forces in Philippines by, 118; and "no surrender" order, 296; power and autllOrity of, 129; and press, 256, 281 ; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 254-55, 261, 262-64, 266-67; Quezon's communications with, 104, 106, 129, 150,254-55, 262-64, 304-5; and Quezon's emergency powers, 104; and Quezon's evacuation from Corregidor, 259; and Quezon's financial award to MacArthur, 232; and Quezon's head of state status, 55-56; and Quezon's


INDEX

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (cant.) health, 128; and Quezon's second inauguration, 222-23; Quezon's visit with, 70-71; and recommendations for MacArthur's recall, 69, 76; and reinforcements for LuzonlPhilippines, 187, 189-90, 259; relieves MacArthur as Chief of Staff, 47; and Sayre as High Commissioner, 93; Sayre's relationship with, 104; and surrender of Bataan, 294; and surrender of Corregidor, 300; and surrender of Philippines, 301, 305; and term of Philippine presidency, 103; and U.S.-Japanese relations, 13; views about MacArthur of, 38; vital interests speech of, 97 Roosevelt, Theodore, 2, 7, 17, 27, 255 Rosario, 207 Roxas, Manuel, 146, 192, 218, 232, 240, 260-61,264,267 Royal Air Force, 147, 176 Royal Australian Navy, 298 Royal Navy, 6, 116, 117, 126, 130, 158 Russell, John E., 156 Russia: and British-Japanese relations, 6, 10; and colonialism, 2, 6; defeats of, 304; and defense plans for Philippines, 124; and Europe First strategy, 259, 266; Finnish defense against, 96; German invasion of, 113, 183; intelligence about, 156; Japanese relations with, 6-7, 12; and Japanese territorial ambitions, 5-6, 128; in 1930s, 12; and Sino-Japanese relations, 9; and U.S. policy toward Japan, 13; U.S. purchases ofland from, 2; and World War I, 9. See also Russo-Japanese War Russo-Japanese War (1904-5),6-7,15 Saigon, 118 Sakai,Saburo, 169,181,182 Sakakida, Richard, 144--45, 297-98 Sakhalin Island, 7 Samoa, 49 San Antonio Chamber of Commerce: MacArthur speech before, 37

San Fabian, 204 San Fernando, 184,205,206,217,272, 296 San Francisco, California: Pacific Division headquartered at, 7,8; radio reports from, 256; segregation of Japanese in, 8; Wainwright's surrender broadcast picked up in, 301 San Miguel, 83 Santiago, Chile, battle of, 16 Santos, Pedro Abad, 86, 102, 192 Sayre, Betty, 108, 195 Sayre, Francis Bowes: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150, 151; appointed High Commissioner, 92, 93; arrival in Manila of, 94; and China-Japan peace agreement, 94; and civil defense in Philippines, 151; on Corregidor, 222, 254, 262; and defense plans for Philippines, 94-96, 97, 98, 110, 129, 177-78; and enemy aliens, 189; and evacuation of Manila, 188-90, 192, 195,196; evacuation of, 266, 268; and evacuation of U.S. dependents, 110; and Grunert, 104-5, 113; and Hart, 94; in Hong Kong, 94; and Hull, 93, 94; and Ickes, 93, 111; on inevitability of war, 113; Interior Department relations with, 93, 104; and Japanese propaganda, 254; MacArthur compared with, 122; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 282; and MacArthur's appointment as USAFFE commanding general, 117; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282; and MacArthur's financial affairs, 268; on MacArthur's personality, 233; MacArthur's relationship with, 104, 108-9, 131, 146; and MacArthur's resignation as Military Adviser, 97; as pacifist, 96; and Philippine Army called to service, 117; power and authority of, 129; and Quezon, 95-96, 97, 98,103,104, 110-11, 128-29, 146,147;and Quezon's plan, 262; and Quezon's


INDEX

second inauguration, 222; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 163, 177-78; and reinforcements for Luzon, 189-90; Roosevelt's relationship with, 104; State Department's relationship with, 104; and term of Philippine presidency, 103; Tokyo trip of, 93-94; and U.S .-Japanese relations, 69; in World War I , 189 Schaller, zz, 231, 267 Sealion (American submarine), 180 Seals, Carl, 119, 290 Second Battalion (Japanese), 247, 272 Second Division (PA), 217, 246 Second Formosans (Japanese), 208 Secretary ofJustice (Philippines): Laurel as, 192 Segundo, Fidel, 95, 96, 98, 210 Selleck, Clyde A.: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 152; on Bataan, 175,246,247-48; and defense plans for Philippines, 139-40, 142; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201, 207-8; on Luzon, 248; MacArthur's sacking of, 175 Service Command (American), 227, 246 Seventeenth Pursuit Squadron (American), 164 Seventy-first Division (American), 152, 201, 206,207-8 Seventy-first Division (PA), 139, 140, 142 Sexton-Smith, zz, 190 Shanghai, China, 54-55, 73, 94, 101, 132, 136 Shantung Peninsula (China), 6, 11 Shark (American submarine), 188, 199 , William F., 140, 240,288,299-301, 302 Sheean, Vincent, 122 Shenandoah (U.S. Navy dirigible), 11 Shiko, Sony, 102 Shimada, Admiral, 14 Short, Walter C. , 159, 178, 305 Siain,209

Siberia, 2, 12 Signal Intelligence Service (SIS), U.S., 114-15,156, 232-33 Siguion Reyna, L., 52 Silver Stars, 21,40 Simonds, George, 44 Singapore: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 153, 159; B-17s for defense of, 126; British in, 117, 142, 159, 178; and defense plans for Philippines, 142; and Europe First strategy, 116; fall of, 277; Japanese attack on, 164; as Japanese objective, 113; Japanese occupation of, 266, 305; Purnell and Brooke-Popham meeting in, 116-17; strategic importance of, 116-17; and U.S . Far East policy, 116-17, 124 Singora, 164 Sino-Japanese War (1895), 5 Sino-Japanese War (1937),12 SIS. See Signal Intelligence Service (SIS), U.S. Sison, Teofilo, 87, 95, 207 Sixteenth Bombardment Regiment (Japanese), 207 Sixteenth Division (Japanese), 200, 209, 221,223,243,292 Sixteenth Infantry Brigade (American), 40 Sixteenth Naval District (Philippines), 133, 188 Sixty-fifth Brigade (Japanese), 228, 244, 270,292 Sixty-first Division (PA), 138 Sixty-second Infantry (PA), 139 Skerry, Harry A., 223-24, 274 Smeallie, Admiral, 108 Smith, Chester (Chet), 268 Smith, Robert Aura, 88 Smyth, J. G., 178 Socialist Party, 102 South East Asia: MacArthur family tour of, 8 South Luzon Force (American), 140, 153,205,209,210,211,212,215, 217,221,222


390

INDEX

Southern Army (Japanese): order of battle for, 126, 127 Southern Operations (Japanese), 126-28, 162 Soviet Union. See Russia Spain, 2, 3, 89 Spaniards: in Manila, 4, 84 Spanish-American War (1898), 3 SS Don Esteban, 196 SS Mayon, 196 staff, MacArthur's: and B-17s, 172-73; as Bataan Gang, 85, 89; and building of Philippine Army, 81; characteristics of, 121; criticisms of, 277; and Eisenhower-MacArthur relations, 79; Eisenhower's views about, 80; loyalty to, 165; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 119-21; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 282; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282, 284, 287; and MacArthur's self-delusion, 308; members of, 119-21; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 165; as scapegoats, 81; and surrender in Philippines, 298; Sutherland replaces Ord on, 83; as sycophantic, 213-14. See also specific person Stalin, Josef, 124, 141, 183 Stark, Admiral, 99, 132, 133, 134, 188, 263 State Department, U.S., 91, 93, 104, 110, 114. See also Stimson, Henry L. Stearman aircraft, 89, 277 Stephens, Edwin w., 4 Stevenot, John, 112 Stevens, Brigadier General, 221-22 Stilwell, Joseph, 307 Stimson Doctrine, 13 Stimson, Henry L.: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150; appointed Secretary of State, 32; and Bataan, 238, 245; and defense plans for Philippines, Ill, 124, 129, 134, 230; and Europe First strategy, 193-94; and Grunert-MacArthur

relationship, 112; and intelligence reports, 150; and interservice relations, 134; and MacArthur as Department Commander in Philippines, 31--32; and MacArthur's appOintment as supreme commander, 265-66,279,280,281;and MacArthur's criticisms of Hart, 188; and MacArthur's desire to be Governor-General of Philippines, 33; MacArthur's views about, 31--32; and Pacific policy, 31; power and authority of, 129; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 254, 262-63; and Quezon letter to MacArthur, 254; and Quezon's financial award to MacArthur, 232; and reinforcement of Philippines, 193-94; and a time to die, 230; and Wainwright-MacArthur relationship, 303, 304; and Wainwright's Medal of Honor, 303 Stingray (American submarine), 199 Stivers, Charles P., 120, 138 Subic Bay, 102, 113, 136, 154, 186, 226, 285-86,294-95,303 submarines (American), 105, 106, 129, 131,180,184,186,188,198-200, 201 subordinates: MacArthur's relationship with, 233--34, 236, 237; Wainwright's relationship with, 234 , 83 Sugawara, Michio, 127 Sugiyama, 229 Sumatra, 13, 128, 266, 278 Summerall, Charles P., 31, 33--34 Sutherland, Richard K.: and access to MacArthu~ 164, 165-66, 175; and American attack on Formosa, 176; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 218; and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 151, 157, 160; appointed to MacArthur's staff, 83; and Bataan, 235, 240, 243, 249; and Brereton, 164, 165-66; on Corregidor, 227; and defense plans for Philippines, 95; and equipment and supplies for defense of Philippines, 148; evacuation from


INDEX

Corregidor of, 290; and fall of Manila, 197; and Hart-MacArthur relationship, 133; and intelligence reports, 120, 145; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 170-71, 172, 175; and Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 160; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201, 202-3, 218; and Legaspi runs, 240; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 118, 119; and MacArthur's appointment as supreme commander, 282; and MacArthur's concern about public relations, 225; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 282, 284, 287, 288, 289, 290; and MacArthur's financial affairs, 268; and MacArthur's Medal of Honor, 303; MacArthur's relationship with, 84, 85, 225; and MacArthur's reorganization of command, 288; as MacArthur's successor in case of death, 249; personal life of, 225; promotions for, 119, 120, 178; and Quezon's evacuation from Corregidor, 267; Quezon's financial award to, 231; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 164, 165-66, 168, 173; and records of first Philippine Campaign, 121; responsibilities of, 121; on VVainwright,201,249 Swift Corporation, 219 Switzerland: as model for Philippines, 96 Swordfish (submarine), 266, 267, 268, 282 Taft, VVilliam Howard, 3-4, 8, 17, 33, 48 Taiwan. See Formosa Takahashi, lbo, 128, 150 Takao Field. See Formosa Tanaka Force (Japanese), 207 Tanaka, Giichi, 8, 180, 181 Tarallo, 145 Tarlac, 83, 215, 216, 217,221,301 Tayabas Bay, 184, 201 Tayabas Mountains, 209-10

39 1

Tenney, Les, 274 Tenth Independent Regiment (Japanese), 207 , Hisaichi, 127 Ternate, 276, 277 Thailand, 164 Thayer, Allen, 139 Theo H. Davies & Company, 155-56 Third Air Force (American), 120 Third Battalion (American), 247 Third Fleet (Japanese), 128 Third Infantry Regiment (PA), 210-11 Third Pursuit Squadron (American), 164,170,174,247 Thirty-first Division (PA), 152,201,224, 235,242 Thirty-first Infantry (American), 135, 136,137,242 Thirty-first Regiment (American), 26 Thirty-fourth Squadron (American), 164,247 Thirty-second Infantry (American), 146 Thirty-third Infantry (American), 146 Thomas, Senator (Utah), 257 Thorrws (U.S. transport ship), 29 Thorneycroft Corporation, 89 Tiaong,221 Time Life magazine, 239 Time magazine, 121-22,225 Timor, 128, 278 Togo, Admiral, 6 Tojo, Hideki, 114,253 Tokyo, Japan: American plans to bomb, 141; Quezon's trip to, 82; radio broadcasts from, 254; Sayre's trip to, 93-94 Townsend, Colonel, 273 Trans-Siberian Railway, 2, 6 Traywick, Jesse T., 301, 302 Treasury Department, U.S., 189 Treasury, Philippine, 259 Treaty of Paris (1899), 3 Treaty of Shimonoseki, 5, 6 Treaty of Versailles (1919),9 Trepp, Dr., 260 Triangulo Photographic Studio, 102 Tripartite Pact (1940), 12-13, 107 Trout (submarine), 259


392

INDEX

Truk, 162 Truman, Harry S, 304 Tsuchibashi, Yuichi, 200 Tugwell, Rexford G., 38 Twentieth Infantry (Japanese), 247, 270-72 Twentieth Pursuit Squadron (American), 168, 247 Twenty-first Division (American), 152 Twenty-first Division (Japanese), 292 Twenty-first Division (PA), 201, 203, 204-5,206,221,222 -first Squadron (American), 164, 247 Twenty-fourth Artillery (PS), 135 21 Demands, 9 Twenty-seventh Bombardment Group (American), 157, 187 Twenty-sixth Cavalry (PS), 135, 201, 206,208, 216,224, 233, 242,248 Twenty-sixth Cavalry Regiment (PS), 98 Twenty-third Artillery (PS), 135 Twenty-third Brigade (American): MacArthur as commander of, 26, 28 Twenty-third Infantry Brigade (PA), 98 Two hundredth Coast Artillery (American), 153-54 Tydings, Millard, 44 Tydings-McDuffie Act, 43, 56, 90, 262 uniforms: Japanese wearing of American, 275; of MacArthur, 45, 61-62, 71 , 229 United Press, 57, 163 United States: breaking of Japanese codes by, 114-15; British relations with, 116; declares war against, 163; Filipino loyalty to, 90; impact of defeat in Philippines on, 307-8; neutrality of, 14; Quezon's government-in-exile in, 298; territorial expansion of, 2. See also United States-Japanese relations United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE): and abandonment of Philippines, 204; and American attack on Formosa, 176; and American withdrawal to Bataan, 211,

215-18, 224; and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 153-54; and Australia as American base, 194; and Bataan, 242, 248, 270, 272, 275; Beebe as Deputy Chief of Staff of, 287-88; on Corregidor, 256, 275, 277; Corregidor headquarters of, 214, 223, 224; and equipment and supplies, 215-18; establishment of, 117; and Hart-MacArthur relationship, 133; and interservice relations, 132; and Japanese intelligence, 103; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 205, 208, 210, 211, 215; logistics planning by, 214; MacArthur appOinted Commanding General of, 11, 117, 118-19, 173; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 284, 287-88; Marshall (Richard) as commander of, 215; press reports from, 256--57; and proposed surrender of Philippines, 266; and reactions to Pearl Harbor, 168, 176; rumors of MacArthur's appointment as commander of, 112-13. See also specific person United States Forces in the Philippines (U.S . FIP): Wainwright as commander of, 292-96 United States-Japanese relations: and bilateral agreement, 69; and China, 13; and defense plans for Philippines, 68; and embargo on Japan, 13, 115-16, 124; and Japan as enemy of U.S., 27; and Japan formally recognized as threat to U.S., 8; and negotiations, 113, 145, 149, 150, 159-60; and organization of Philippine Army, 69; and Portsmouth treaty, 7; pre-World War I, 8; and Russo-Japanese War, 7; and U.S. Far Eastern policy, 91-92; and U.S. policy of containment, 13 University of the Philippines: Quezon's speeches at, 103-4, 150-51; Sayre speech at, 108


INDEX

U.S. Army Center for Military History, 296 USAFFE. See United States Army Forces in the Far East USS Blackhawk (American), 159 USS Canopus (submarine tender), 273-74 USS Greer, 14 USS Houston (American ship), 283 USS Maine (American ship), 3 USS Missouri (American ship), 304 Vachon, Pete, 138 Valdes, Basilio J., 86, 192 Vandenberg, Arthur, 266 Vargas, Jorge, 96, Ill, 163, 180, 192-93, 195,218,223,251-53,266-67 Venezuela: British-U.S. dispute about, 2-3 Vera Cruz, Mexico, 19-20 Vigan, 148, 152, 167-68, 181,224 Villamor, Jesus, 182,277,279-80 Visayan, 201,259,268,288,289,300 Visayan-Mindanao Force (PA), 138, 140,288 Vladivostock (USSR), 141 Voice of Freedom (Romulo broadcast), 256,261,289,299 Wainwright, Jonathan M.: and American withdrawal to Bataan, 209, 211, 218, 221-22; and anticipation ofJapanese attack on Philippines, 151, 153; and Bataan,227,234,235,236,242,243, 248,249,269,270-71,273,274,275, 294, 295; as commander of Philippines, 289, 292-96; and Corregidor surrender, 299-302; Eisenhower's views about, 308; equipment and supplies for troops of, 140; honors and decorations for, 303, 304; and Japanese attack on Clark, 169; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201, 205, 208, 209, 211; and Japan's surrender, 304; and King's surrender of Bataan, 295-96; as leader, 270-71; on Luzon,

393

180-81, 184; as Luzon Force MacArthur countermands surrender orders to Sharp from, 302; and MacArthur's evacuation from Corregidor, 284, 287, 288-89; MacArthur's letter to, 249; MacArthur's relationship with, 296, 303; and MacArthur's reorganization of command, 288-89; MacArthur's views about, 302, 303; and Marshall, 289; as North Luzon Force commander, 140, 153; as prisoner of war, 304; promotions for, 289; radio broadcast of surrender of, 301, 302; relinquishes command to Sharp, 299-300; subordinates' relationship with, 234; and surrender of Corregidor, 294, 296-302; and surrender of Manila, 304; surrender powers of, 289; Sutherland's views about, 201. See also I Corps Wake Islands, 128, 149, 164 War Department, U.S.: and anticipation of Japanese attack on Philippines, 150, 153, 160, 161; and Arlington National Cemetery, 36; and Bataan, 227, 237, 280; budgets of, 35; commitment to defense of Philippines of, 51; and defense plans for Philippines, 62-63,105-6,110, 161; in Depression, 36; and equipment and supplies, 111, 142; and Europe First strategy, 259; funding for Filipino troops by, 26; and Homma's offer of surrender to MacArthur, 237; and Ickes plan for Philippines, 78; and interservice relations, 133, 134; and Japanese attack on Clark Field, 172; and Japanese invasion and occupation of Luzon, 201; King's invitation for MacArthur's congressional address from, 304; MacArthur promoted to Major-General by, 29; MacArthur's 1937 visit to, 71; and MacArthur's appointment as Commanding General of USAAFE, 118; and commande~288;


394

INDEX

War Department, U.S . (cont.) MacArthur's retirement, 77, 78; and miscalculations about Japan, 125; and Mitchell's proposal of unified air force, 11; Navy Department consolidated with, 35; and Philippine Army, 74, 80; press reports from, 286; and propaganda, 255; and Quezon letter to MacArthur, 254; and surrender of Philippines, 301, 302; and U.S. Far East policy, 124. See also specific person or plan Ward, Frederick A. , 219 warfare: MacArthur's views on, 43-44 Washington Conference (1921-22), 10, 12 Washington, D.C.: Arcadia Conferences in (1942), 193-94; Bonus March in, 36, 39--41; MacArthur as III Corp commander in, 30; pecking order in, 61 Washington Naval Conference, 92 Washington Naval Treaty (1921-22), 10, 77 Washington Post, 257 Washington Staff Conference (1941), 116 Washington Times, 41 Watson, P. G., 106, 109 Wavell, Archibald, 194-95, 280-81 Weaver, Brigadier General, 205 Weeks, John, 22, 29 West Coast, U.S.: Japanese living on, 100; plans of War Colleges about, 49 West Point: Lim as first Filipino graduate of, 52; MacArthur as student at, 16--17, 131; MacArthur as Superintendent of, 22, 23, 24, 28 Western Union, 160

Wheat, Clayton, 23 White House: MacArthur vomits on steps of, 43 "White Man's Burden" (Kipling), 1 Whitlock, Lester J., 194 Whitney, Courtney, 229 Wilkes, John, 199 Wilkinson, Gerald H. , 155-56, 239 Willkie, Wendell L. , 266 Willoughby, Charles A., 120, 122-23, 156, 175-76, 202,260 Willoughby, Woodbury, 131 Wilson, Woodrow, 69, 92, 94 Wood, Leonard, 5, 19-20,24,26,27, 28, 29, 32, 43, 77, 94 World War: Rainbow Plan for, 48 World War I, 8-9, 20-23, 27, 63, 67, 84, 100,109,152, 189,207,211,273 World War II: MacArthur's doubts about possibility of, 77; as unnecessary war, 15 WPL 44 (U.S . Navy plans), 105 WPL-46 (U.S. Navy plans), 130 Wright, Colonel, 40 X-Day, 128, 150, 153, 155,297 Yamagata, Clarence, 298 Yamamoto, Admiral, 14 Yamashita, Tomoyuki, 127, 245, 304 Yoshioka, Colonel, 270, 271-72 Yuki, Secretary, 145 Yulo,Jose,251-52 Zablan Air Field, 82, 89 Zambales, 102, 156, 201, 295 Zaragoza, 221 Zero aircraft (Japanese), 147, 176, 177, 181,182,186, 245, 277


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MacArthur and defeat in the Philippines  

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MacArthur and defeat in the Philippines  

Rod Hall Collection