Page 1


Sacrifice of the Philippines

.John .Jacob Beck

Foreword by

CLARE BOOTHE LUCE

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO PRESS Albuquerque


Š 1974 by the University of New Mexico Press. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 73-77917. International Standard Book No. 0-8263-0282-3. First Edition


To my friend Alma M. Myers, who was aconstant source of common sense, wisdom, and encouragement


History ... is the tranquil echo of ugly matters. -Ben Hecht


Foreword Knowest thou not there is but one theme for ever-enduring bards? And that is the theme of War, the fortune of battles, The making of perfect soldiers. -Walt Whitman As I Ponder'd in SiIence-1870

Clausewitz called war a continuation of policy by other means. But the course of war is so fraught with incalculable risks, and its fortunes so unpredictable, that its outcome often makes a mockery of the very policy that dictated it. War is not only the most hazardous, it is the most hideous of all human undertakings. It is the violent disruption of lives, and killing on a massive scale. It ruins in an hour the noblest works of the ages. Its costs in blood and money are often greater than the gains for which it is fought. Its grandest victories are only a little less dreadful than its direst defeats. The passions and the hatreds it engenders seldom evaporate with the smoke of the last battle. The pride of the victor and the vengefulness of the vanquished are the seedbed of the next war. War's greatest legacy is not peace. It is more war, or mayhap revolution. But the paradox of war, mankind's greatest evil, is that it often inspires men to astounding deeds of courage and self-sacrifice. "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." In war's fratricidal hell, bonds of brotherly love are often forged which are stronger than death itself. In all the annals of World War II, there is no more heroic -and tragic chapter than the one written by General Douglas MacArthur and General Jonathan M. Wainwright in the Philippines. Theirs is the story of the perfect devotion of two "perfect soldiers" to duty, Vll


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FOREWORD

honor, country, and of that "greater love" which they and their men displayed all during the five agonizing months of bloody combats that ended with the dreadful Bataan Death March . Mr. Beck foregoes the imaginative or interpretive approach one might expect of the journalist, novelist, or historian. His aim is to be rigorously factual and objective. An assiduous researcher and documentarian, he has exhumed his basic material from the official archives of World War II. He has put together, in chronological order, the once Top Secret and Eyes Only messages that passed between MacArthur's headquarters and the War Department, from December 7, 1941-the day of Pearl Harbor-to May 6, 1942, the day the tattered American flag was hauled down over the Rock of Corregidor, and the white flag was raised by General Wainwright. These messages form the backbone of the book. But they are well fleshed out with carefully chosen excerpts from the biographies, diaries, memoranda, letters, and accounts of those who actively participated in or influenced MacArthur's desperate struggle to save the Philippine Archipelago from the Japanese invader. Curiously enough, despite the author's dispassionate approach, the effect that he has achieved is extraordinarily dramatic. The leading characters in this epic of war are General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE); his key staff members and officers; Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippines; Francis B. Sayre, U.S. High Commissioner; and, in Washington, President Franklin D. Roosevelt; Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War; and Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall. These characters speak for themselves, and of themselves, in the many messages they send to one another while they are all being inexorably driven to face up to the certainty of MacArthur's utter defeat. And as they speak, it is as though their tragic dialogue were uttered into our own ears. Hard on the dual shock of Pearl Harbor and the destruction of MacArthur's bombers on the ground at Clark Field, we hear his first imperious demands on Washington for the ships, planes, weapons, and men he will need to hurl back the invaders; then, his incredulity and mounting anger when he is told that, owing to the disaster to the fleet at Pearl Harbor and the more urgent necessities of the war in the Atlantic, his demands cannot be met. We hear him hopelessly argue the highest matters of strategy with his President, as he insists


FOREWORD

IX

that the war against Hirohito should be given priority over the war against Hitler. We hear him slowly, and bitterly, change his demands for the means of victory to entreaties for the means of mere survival-for medicine and food for the men and women in his beseiged fortress on Corregidor. We hear the passionate pleas of President Quezon to President Roosevelt for help to his suffering people, and his angry threats to neutralize his country if it is not soon forthcoming. ( We seem to hear him spitting out his lungs, as he lies on his bed in the Malinta tunnel on the Rock, dying of tuberculosis.) And again and again we hear the compassionately couched but stern and tightly reasoned refusals of Washington to send any relief to MacArthur's retreating Filo-American armies in Luzon, or to his small, hungry, and sick band of men and women in the bomb-blasted fort, as it threatens to become the tomb of all of them. Then, as all hope of succor dies, we hear General MacArthur announcing as calmly as though he were saying, "It looks like rain," "The end here will be brutal and bloody." And we weep with the weeping Stimson when he replies, "There are times when men have to die." We hear many men weep in this story. But none for themselves. We hear the sobs of MacArthur's wife and small son, and of Quezon's young daughters. And then we hear Stimson and the President, under the pressure of American public opinion, planning to rescue MacArthur himself. And we hear MacArthur's soldierly refusal to abandon his men. And when, despite his protests, MacArthur is sternly ordered by the President to effect his escape and that of his family, with the threat of a court-martial if he again refuses, we hear his joyless acceptance of the order. In the end, we hear the modest and gallant Wainwright, "the soldier's soldier," calmly assume the command of the doomed Rock, knowing that the only alternative to an inglorious surrender is death, and hopeful that the luck of war will permit him the proud alternative to die. What is, perhaps, most curious about this essentially documentary book, constricted so largely to terse, disciplined official messages, is how vividly the characters and personalities of the drama tis personae come through them, and, perhaps even more strangely, how clearly the ever-nearing roar of the battle and the mounting moans of the dying echo through its pages. The last dreadful days of the USAFFE


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FOREWORD

in the Philippines are not described here. But from all that has gone before, we nevertheless seem to see them. "Every mistake in war is excusable except inactivity and refusal to take risks," wrote that scholar of war, Commander H. H. Frost. As this book shows, MacArthur, a brilliant strategist and shrewd tactician, a military scholar, and a former Chief of Staff, nevertheless made his share of mistakes in the Philippines. But inactivity and the refusal to take risks were not among them. (The escape of MacArthur and his party from Corregidor is as risky and as suspenseful an episode as military history affords. ) MacArthur's character was flawed by an egotism that demanded consummate obedience not only to his orders, but to his ideas and his person as well. He plainly relished idolatry. But to those who gave it to him, he gave a lambent loyalty in return. He refused to leave his men until he had been given the strongest presidential assurances that his new mission in Australia would be to amass there a force to rescue them. "I shall return," he said. And none doubted him. His soldierly virtues far outshone his human faults. He was a captain of supreme courage and fortitude, with that concern and compassion for his troops and unconcern for his personal safety which deserve the title "hero." MacArthur's campaign, waged from Australia to reconquer all the Japanese-held islands of the Pacific, including Japan itself, ended in complete victory. But there is no doubt that in the long and triumphant history of the soldier MacArthur, his defense of the Philippines was his finest hour. The student of American military history will find little in Mr. Beck's book that is new. But the lay reader who has been brought up believing that the Japanese "sneak attack" on Pearl Harbor was a totally unexpected event and the precipitating cause of America's entry into World War II is, perhaps, in for a surprise. Reading the messages that passed between MacArthur and Washington, he may be startled to learn that, a year before Pearl Harbor, the Roosevelt Administration had reached the decision that it was to the best interests of the U.S. to enter the war against the Axis powers. What was needed was a casus beIIi that would be totally acceptable to the American people. In the isolationist climate of America, Roosevelt was forced to "back into the war" by encouraging an overt Japanese attack on American soil. By embargoing the


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XI

oil and steel vital to the Japanese war machine in China and the Far East, the Administration knowingly and deliberately took the step which it believed would sooner or later provoke Imperial Japan to war. Roosevelt's mistake, and no doubt Stimson's and Marshall's, was in thinking that if-or rather when-the desired Japanese attack came, it would be made first on the Philippines. Washington war planners, no less than MacArthur, saw the Philippines as the key to the command of all Asian waters. Without securing it, the Japanese could not hope to continue their war against the Chinese, Dutch, and British. The "bottling up" of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor was probably ordered partly to convince the American people that the Administration itself had no warlike intentions against Japan (which was not true), and partly to encourage the Japanese to make their move freely against the Philippines. The idea that the Japanese fleet had the capacity-and the daring-to strike at Pearl Harbor does not seem to have occurred to America's war planners. If such was the thinking of the Administration, it proved to be one of the costliest errors ever made in military history. The totally unexpected destruction of a large part of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, idling at anchor in Pearl Harbor, sealed the fate of the Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula, prolonged the war against Japan for years, and cost thousands upon thousands of American lives. The extent to which the holocaust at Pearl crippled-and traumatized-the Navy in the first year of the war is referred to again and again in MacArthur's Philippine dispatches. (Anyone who wonders why the men of the Navy are something less than enthusiastic about MacArthur will find the answers in these pages.) On the other hand, "The day that will live in infamy" united the American people as no other conceivable event could have done, and almost in a matter of months turned the United States into the mightiest machine for war that the world had ever so far seen. The official messages in this book also offer some interesting clues to Roosevelt's pre-Pearl Harbor military strategy. They reveal, though not explicitly, that a firm agreement had been reached between London and Washington that if-or rather when-America got into war "by the Pacific back-door," it would give military priority to the Atlantic "front-door" war. The Roosevelt Administration reasoned, and certainly wisely, that the maintenance of the freedom of the British Isles was more important to the security of the United States than was the salvation of the Philippines. It is hard to believe that General MacArthur was not also aware of this high-level, secret


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FOREWORD

decision. It is clear, however, from the messages in this book, that he could not bring himself to accept it as militarily sound. There is, perhaps, no greater measure of MacArthur, the soldier, and MacArthur, the man, than this: more than eigli.t thousand miles from Washington, in command of vastly outnumbered, untrained, and retreating troops, bereft of war planes, abandoned by Admiral Thomas Hart's U.S. Asiatic Fleet, and written off by Washington as militarily expendable, he nevertheless undertook to argue the overall grand strategy of the entire World War with his President and Commander in Chief. He insisted that his island of Luzon be given priority over the British Isles, and stoutly maintained that Japan, Enemy No.1, could be beaten his way. "There is no substitute," MacArthur said, "for victory." The substitute that Roosevelt and Stimson found was General MacArthur himself-MacArthur, landing in Australia, where this book leaves him, became the symbol of the victory that Americans so deeply desired, and which, in the end, he gave them.

CLARE BOOTHE LUCE

Honolulu, Hawaii December 7, 1973


Preface

This book is the story of General Douglas MacArthur's final days in the Philippine Islands in early 1942 at the start of the war in the Pacific and his subsequent escape via sea and air to Australia. It is also an account of General Jonathan M. Wainwright and the fall of Bataan and Corregidor. -The story concerns four other important men-President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, General George C. Marshall, and Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon-whose decisions and actions determined the fate of 90,000 soldiers and sailors in the garrisons of Bataan and Corregidor, and of 16 million Filipinos throughout the Philippine archipelago. The loyal "lieutenants" of MacArthur and Wainwright are here too: men like Brigadier Generals Richard J. Marshall and Hugh J. Casey, who were instrumental in organizing the defense of the Bataan peninsula; Brigadier General Arnold J. Funk, who epitomized the starved but indomitable soldier on Bataan; Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley, who as commander of PT-boat Squadron Three led the famous "Expendables"; and Lieutenant Colonel John R. Pugh, who was given an opportunity to leave Corregidor three days before its capture but chose to stay and serve General Wainwright until the end. It is a tale of courage, sacrifice, and patriotism that ranks with Thermopylae, the Alamo, and Dunkirk. As High Commissioner Francis B. Sayre said, "The defense of Bataan and Corregidor will go down in history as one of the great and heroic chapters of human courage and endurance. Those who died there will never be forgotten." The book had its inception during the summer of 1964 when I was Aquatics Director at Camp Miakonda, the Toledo Area Boy

xiii


xiv

PREFACE

Scout Camp. That summer I spent part of my leisure time reading Frazier Hunt's biography, The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur. What aroused my interest and curiosity most was Hunt's account of MacArthur's days in the Philippine Islands, the tragedy of his trapped army, and his evacuation to Australia. I knew then if I ever had the opportunity, I also would write a history of General MacArthur and the war in the Philippines, but in greater detail. The opportunity arrived in the fall of 1966 when I was required to write a thesis for a Master's degree in history. My final thesis was essentially a narrative account revolving around General MacArthur from February 1 to March 17, 1942. Encouraged by my advisers at the University of Toledo to expand the thesis for publication, in early 1968 I requested authorization from the Adjutant General's Office to examine and take notes on all material in the army's classified files concerning Generals MacArthur, George C. Marshall, and Jonathan M. Wainwright. In June 1968 the Adjutant General, Major General Kenneth G. Wickham, notified me that my request had been approved. The material gleaned from these files made it possible to cover many of the events in greater detail. In particular, numerous previously classified radiograms and memoranda are presented in their entirety. Much valuable information and insight came also from interviews and correspondence with people who took part in the happenings described here. In 1924 the great American humorist Will Rogers wrote : Why don't we let people alone and quit trying to hold what they call a protectorate over them? Let people do their own way and have their own form of government. We haven't got any business in the Philippines. We are not such a howling success of running our own government. Successive administrations of the U.S. government, however, failed to take Will Rogers's advice. On November 29, 1941, Lieutenant Henry G. Lee, a young army officer serving in the Philippines, wrote a letter to his parents. If Japan ever attacked, he told them, "we'll have a hot time in the Philippines." Nine days later the Japanese attack came. It is my hope that the following pages will give the reader a greater understanding of what actually took place in the Philippines in the early days of the United States' involvement in World War II.


Contents

Foreword-By Clare Boothe Luce Preface Illustrations and Maps Chronology 1 Prologue 2 The Attack on the Philippines: December 8-20, 1941 3 The Moves to Bataan and Corregidor: December 21-31, 1941 4 Confrontation on Bataan: January 1-31, 1942 5 Quezon's Neutralization Proposal: February 1-14, 1942 6 Isolation and the Order to Depart: February 14-28, 1942 7 Evacuation via Sea and Air: March 1-17,1942 8 Jubilation and Disappointment: March 18-21, 1942 9 The End of Resistance on Bataan: March 11-April9, 1942 10 Corregidor and Capitulation: AprillO-May 8, 1942 11 In Retrospect Acknowledgments ~~

Bibliography Index

vii xiii xvi xvii 1 11 31 56 86 113 132 164 171 198 231 243 M9 285 297

xv


ILLUSTRATIONS

Following pages 76 and 172

MAPS

Invasion of the Philippines, 10 December 1941-6 May 1942 Bataan and Corregidor, 29 December 1941-6 May 1942 Corregidor Island MacArthur's Evacuation Route, 11 March 1942

52 53 70 143


Index ABDA area, 68,117,123,124 Abucay, 56,75 Adelaide, 166, 271 Adelaide Express, 161, 168 Adversario, Domingo, 47 Agno River, 255 Agoo,32 Aguinaldo, Emilio, 82-83,92,93, 110 Ah Cheu, 137, 144,145,153,158,166, 169 Akin, Spencer Bo, 11, 133, 144, 146,148, 263 Albania, 103 Alice Springs, 158, 159, 160, 161, 166, 167, 269, 271 Ames, Godfrey Ro, 64-65 Amoroso, Arnold Do, 171 Antique, 115 ANZAC, 127 Aparri, 14, 16, 19 Apo Island, 145 Arcadia Conference, 35 Aringay, 32 Armament Limitation Treaty of 1922, 232 Arnold, Henry Ho, 7,10,18-19, 35,42 Associated Press, 119 Atimonan, 36, 43 Australia, 20, 21, 22, 27-30 passim, 35, 37,41,44,61,63,68,73-74,95,97, 117-41 passim, 154, 157-70 passim, 192,203,210,212,263,266,2720See also individual sites in Australia Bagac,67 Baguio,16 Baldwin, Hanson Wo, 113-14 Baldwin, James Ho, 132, 137, 138, 279 Baldwin, William Ho, 177, 279 Balikpapen, 7 Balintang Channel, 26 Bamban-Arayat line, 51 Barnes, Julian Fo, 28,44, 170 Bataan Peninsula, 4-5, 37,41,45, 56-85 passim, 88,90,98, 117, 118, 121, 125, 134, 135-36, 142, 153, 162, 171-97 passim, 198-206 passim, 213, 219, 232, 236, 237, 240, 258, 260, 265, 273-78 passim

Batangas, 19, 202 Batchelor Field, 157, 158, 160,269,271 Beardall, John Ro, 18 Beaverbrook, Lord, 35 Beebe, Lewis Co, 136, 138-39, 176, 177, 178, 209-10, 211, 217-26 passim, 278 Beecher, Curtis Lo, 215 Belgium, 103 Berle, Adolf Ao, 262 Binuangan River, 189 Birdum, 269 Bonham, Roscoe, 173 Bori Bori, 95 Borneo, 17,40,45,62, 63, 134 Bostrom, Frank Po, 156 Bradford, William Ro, 136 Branch, Robert K., 171 Braun, Albert, 49 Brereton, Lewis Ho, 5-6,9, 12, 14, 18, 37-38,41, 252 Brett, George Ho, 44, 65, 117, 128, 129, 130,133,140-41,154-60 passim, 167, 168,169, 182,204-5,268,271-72, 277-78 Brink, Francis Go, 26 Brisbane, 20, 33,262 Brown, Robert, 220 Browne, Harrison E., 66, 187 Bukidnon plateau, 206 Bulkeley, John Do, 132, 134-35, 136-37, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151-52, 153,267 Bundy, Charles Wo, 7, 9 Bundy, Harvey Ho, 26, 27, 239 Bunker, Paul Do, 63-64, 69, 70, 112, 173, 176,219-20,256,262 Burma, 63, 117, 177 Burnett, Sir Charles, 168 Burra, 167 Butuan, 202 Caballo Island, 208, 219 Cabanatuan, 51 Cabcaben, 66, 196, 218, 220, 221, 222, 225, 228 Ca bra Island, 145 Cagayan, 147, 148, 150, 267, 268 Cagayan Bay, 154

297


298 Cagayan Valley, 86, 138 Cal urn pit bridge, 57 Canberra, 160 Canton Island, 95 Capiz, 115 Carabao, 219 Carmichael, Richard H., 158 Carroll, Hubert, 221, 222, 223, 225 Casey, Hugh J., 11, 13, 16, 56--57, 58, 133, 144-48 passim, 157, 161, 257-63 passim, 269, 270, 272 Casey, Richard G., 29, 36, 37 Casiana, 258 Cavite, 134, 136,201, 215, 219 Cebu, 31,87,103,119,172,180,181, 184,186,199,202,203,204,210,214, 262, 277 Celebes, 63 Ceram, 157 Chamberlin, Stephen J., 160, 161 , 169, 271-72 Champlin, Malcolm M ., 174, 265 Chiang Kai-shek, 134,235 Chih Wang, 134,235,239 China, 8, 27, 30,46,62,84,233 Christmas Island, 95 Chungking, 23, 24, 134 Churchill, Winston S., 27, 35-36,40,42, 50-51, 55, 56, 122, 161, 164, 200, 255 Chynoweth, Bradford G., 138, 172, 204, 231, 234-35, 239-40 Clark Field, 14-15, 16, 19, 251-52 Clark, Golland L., 220 Clark, Grenville, 253 Clear, Warren J., 89-90, 192 Coast Farmer, 118 Combs, Cecil E., 251-52 Condert, Frederic, 270 Connelly, Thomas, 165 Corregidor, 5, 31-55 passim, 59, 75, 82, 84, 88, 89, 90,98,99, 114-20 passim, 123-29 passim, 132-36 passim, 140, 144-52 passim, 162, 173, 178, 181, 184, 189-90,191,195,198-230 passim, 237, 240, 262, 273, 279 Cothern, Wade, 275 Cox, George E., Jr., 146 Crowell, Benedict, 110, 111 Curtin, John, 36, 122-23, 159, 160, 168 Cuyo Islands, 145-46 Czechoslovakia, 103 Dale, Jack, 33 Darwin, 117, 121, 157,268 Davao, 13-14,45, 60, 202, 269 Del Monte, 15,45, 137, 140, 150, 152, 154,155,180,186,202,203,211,251, 268, 269, 277 Dempsey, James C., 212

INDEX

Denmark,103 Denver Hill, 217 Dewey, Thomas E., 110 Dill, Sir John, 35 Diller, LeGrande A., 57, 133, 150 Dinaluphan-Olongapo Road, 184 Doheny, Henry L., 258 Don Esteban, 38, 39, 57,255 Dona Nati, 262 Donovan, William T., 117 Dooley, Thomas, 138, 186, 187, 220, 221, 223, 226 Doyle, Thomas W., 207, 212 Drake, Charles C ., 48, 64, 227-28, 240, 272 Duke of Wellington, 231 Dutch East Indies. See Netherlands East Indies Dyess, William E., 144, 265-66 Eads, 140, 153 Early, Stephen T., 90, 166 Edison, Dwight, 220 Egypt, 30 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 21-22,40, 41-42,65, 66,72,73,100,116,193, 216, 270-71 El Fraile, 219 Elizalde, Joaquin M., 54, 206 Elsmore, Raymond T., 140 Englehart, Edward C ., 232 Eubank, Eugene L., 251 Eyre, James K., 260 Fertig, Wendell W., 269 Fiji,95 Fitch, Alva R., 241-42 food shortage, 64, 71-73, 181, 188,276 Forde, Francis M ., 168 Formosa, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 134,251, 252, 253 Forrestal, James, 18, 23 Fort Drum, 208, 219 Fort Frank, 208, 219 Fort Hughes, 204, 208, 219 Fort McKinley, 16, 57 Fort Mills, 39,41,44, 60, 96, 101, 124, 129, 180,207, 219 France, 189,233 Freemantle, 128, 129 Funk, Arnold J., 39,66, 67, 121, 173, 188, 189, 255,275 George, Harold H., 41, 88,133-36 passim, 140, 144, 153, 157, 161,262, 265, 269 Germany, 92, 96, 103, 123,233,238,254 Gerow, Leonard T., 7-9,13,17,34,35, 62-63, 73


299

INDEX

Gilbert Islands, 94, 95 Gingoog, 118 Glassford, William A., 129, 130 Godman, Henry C., 155,268 Great Britain, 8, 12, 23, 27-30 passim, 36,46,61,68,90,92,97,99, 115, 189,233,238. See also Churchill, Winston S. Greece, 103 Guam, 7,15,94,231 guerrilla warfare, 37, 86---87, 91, 117, 185, 239,260 Guimaras Islands, 195 Gunnison, Arch Royal, 32 Haba, Hikaru, 228, 229 Haggerty, Father Edward, 150, 152-53 Handy, Thomas T., 7, 9 Harrison, Eugene L., 236---38, 282 Hart, Thomas C., 6---7,9, 11, 16---17,20, 22,26,43,65 . Hawaii, 13, 18,23-24,62,95. See also Pearl Harbor Hill, Milton A., 273 Hipps, William G., 251, 268, 269, 271, 278 Hirohito, 208 Hitler, Adolf, 72,97,123,233,238,253 Hoeffel, Kenneth F., 174,191,208,218 Hogg, Forrest G., 173 Holland. See Netherlands Homma, Masaharu, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 22~ 229, 235, 236,239 Hong Kong, 28, 41, 231 Hoover, Herbert, 3, 282 Hopkins, Harry L., 23,27, 35,42, 122, 255 Howard, Charles E. N., 173,255,277, 278 Howard, Samuel L., 217 Huff, Sidney L., 24,43,57, 58,66,124, 132, 13~ 137, 144, 149-5~ 15~ 15~ 166,169 Huffsmith, Victor C., 157,251,269, 277-78 Hull, Cordell, 7,17,18,122-23 Hurley, Patrick J., 72-74, 121-22, 160, 167, 208-9, 270 Hurt, Marshall, 275 Hyde, 58 Iloilo City, 140, 148, 186, 195, 204, 267 Ind, Allison W., 88, 140, 153 India, 61, 117 Indo-China, 103 Inevitability of the War with the United States, 232 Iran, 30 lreland,97

Irwin, Constant L., 212, 279 Italy, 92, 103 Jacoby, Melville, 119-20, 262 Jane's Fighting Ships, 237 Japan, passim; Corregidor, landing on, 215-16; Quezon's proposal to, 98-99, 105-6; Russia's strategy toward, 96. See also Pearl Harbor Java, 117, 120, 155 Jem, 132 Jenks, Royal G., 212 Johnson, Hugh S., 129-30 Johnson, Nelson T., 179 Jolo, 60 Jones, Albert M., 43, 89-90, 136, 138, 173,187,188,189 Kalakuka, Theodore, 277-28 Katsuya, 222 Kelley, Colin, 33 Kelley, Robert B., 149, 151-52, 266, 267 Kendara, 277 Kenney, George C., 205, 277-78 Kimmel, Husband E., 11-12 Kindley Field, 216, 217, 220 King, Edward P., 48,177, 187-96 passim, 199,207,236,252,255,274,275 King, Ernest J., 18,27, 31-32, 34,42, 66, 101, 122, 129 Knox, Frank, 18,24,27, 35,42,61 Korea, 103 Krause, Paul H., 241 Lake Lanao, 45, 204, 208, 209 Laverton Field, 161 Lawrence, Charles, 282 Lawrence, William, 221, 222, 223, 225, 226, 227 Leo, Homer, 31 League of Nations, 2 Leary, Herbert F., 154, 155, 168 Lee, Clark, 119-20, 262 Lehrbas, Lloyd, 168 Lentz, E. C., 234, 252 Lewis, William, 156 Libya, 30 Life and Time Publications, 119 Lilly, Edmund J., 234, 241 Lim, Vincente, 187 Limay, 56, 187 Lingayen Gulf, 16, 32, 33,43,192,236 London Naval Reduction Treaty of 1930,232 Lough, Maxon S., 66, 187 Lovett, Robert A., 26, 27, 239 Luxembourg, 103 Luzon, passim. See also North Luzon


300 Force; South Luzon Force; individual sites on Luzon MacArthur, Arthur (father of Douglas MacArthur), 3 MacArthur, Arthur (son of Douglas MacArthur), 88,113,137,144,145, 149,153,154,155,158,169 MacArthur, Douglas, passim; in Australia, 124,127-29,130,157-63,166-70, 272; communications with Brett, 154, 155-56; receipt of Congressional Medal of Honor, 179, 273; departure from Corregidor, 123-29,132,133-34, 135-36, 144-52, 162, 273; communications with George C. Marshall, 9-10, 17, 35, 36-37,40-41,44-45, 50, 59-61,61-62, 68-69, 73-74, 84, 86-87,88-89,90-92,94-96,108, 113-18 passim, 123-30 passim, 132, 135-36,154-55,156,184-86, 200-202,213; communications with Wainwright, 77-79, 180, 182, 183, 195-96,206-7,219 MacArthur, Jean (Mrs. Douglas), 40, 88, 11~ 12~ 132, 137, 144, 14~ 15~ 154, 155,158,159,169,269 McBride, Allan C ., 173 McCloy, John J., 26, 27, 43,193, 232-33,238-39 McCoy, Melvyn H., 144,276 MacDonald, Stuart C., 173 McDuffie-Tydings Act of 1934, 2, 98, 103,104, 106 McMicking, Joseph R., 133, 157, 161, 263, 270-71, 272 McNarney, Joseph T., 189, 193, 199, 204 Malabalog, 45 Malaya, 21, 28, 36,63,233 Malaybalay, 202 Malinta Hill, 39 Malinta Tunnel, 39,40,41,47,48,57, 116 Manchukuo, 2, 84, 103 Manchuria, 2 Manila, 5, 12, 16, 32, 36-37,45,46, 51, 58,79,105,134,136,168,181,184, 201, 20~ 210, 212, 21~22~231, 232,236,257,276 Manila Hotel, 1, 11, 39 Manila Yacht Club, 134 Manning, Allan S., 220 Mansfield, Joseph J., 165 Mariveles, 50, 137, 144, 177, 191 Mariveles-Bagac Road, 77 Mariveles Mountain, 58, 68 Marquat, William F., 66, 133, 144, 157, 161 Marron, Cyril Q., 235

INDEX

Marshall, George C., passim; communications with MacArthur, 9-10, 17, 35, 36-37,40-41,44-45,50,59-61, 61-62,68-69, 73-74, 84, 86-87, 88-89,90-92,94-96,108,113-18 passim, 123-30 passim, 132, 135-36, 154-55,156,184-86,200-202,213; communications with Wainwright, 'l75-76, 183,200, 213-14 Marshall, Richard J., 11, 37, 51, 57, 58, 66,77, 120, 121, 133, 137, 142, 156, 15~ 251,26~26~271

Marshall Islands, 94, 95 Martin, Joseph W ., Jr., 165 Maryanne, 125 Mauban, 36, 56 Melbourne, 121, 128, 160, 167, 168, 177, 205, 268, 269, 271 Menzies Hotel, 161, 169 Miller, Ernest B., 235 Mindanao, 4, 31,44-45,60-65 passim, 74,86,90-91,117-18,124,127-38 passim, 148, 153, 180, 181, 185, 191, 202-14 passim, 224, 226, 228, 266, 269, 277. See also individual sites on Mindanao Mindanao Sea, 149-50 Mindoro, 115 Moore, George F., 39-40, 48, 50, 69, 89, 112,138,144,171,173,178,210,215, 217, 220, 228, 277 Morganthau, Henry, Jr., 282 Morhouse, Charles H., 133, 137, 140, 141,144,149,157,158,166,252,271, 277 Morrill, John H., 214-15 Morse, William, 39 Moscow, 23,24 Motor Torpedo Boats. See PT-boats Mount Natib, 75 Mount Samat, 189 Mussolini, Benito, 233 Nakayama, Motoo, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224,225,226,227,228 Nasugbu,36 National Republican Club, 110 Negros Island, 149 Negros Oriental, 74 Netherlands, 12, 20, 23, 68, 103 Netherlands East Indies, 4,8,17,20,21, 27, 29, 30, 41-46r.assim, 60, 62, 63,

72,91,95,97,11

,11~ 11~ 12~

157,177,231,233 New Caledonia, 95 New Mexico National Guard, 6 New York Times, 113, 164,271 New Zealand, 30, 161 Nichols Field, 16, 57,202


INDEX

Nimitz, Chester W., 27 Nine Power Treaty, 54 North American Newspaper Alliance, 32 North Luzon Force, 6,25, 32, 38,43,45, 56, 175 Norway, 103 Oahu, 15 O'Daniel, Lee, 84-85 Olongapo, 19, 56, 195 Orani·Olangapo Road, 259 Osmena, Sergio, 48, 49, 59,88,94, 105, 106-7 Palmyra Island, 95 Pampanga, 136 Panama, 23 Panay, 115, 116, 120, 140, 148, 149, 172, 203,210,214 Pandacan oil installations, 56 Pantingan River, 276 Parananique line, 51 Parker, George M., Jr., 6, 66, 67, 75, 186, 187 Parker, Thomas C., 39, 212, 255 Paysawan, 56 Pearl Harbor, 11-12, 15,236-37 Pease, Harl, Jr., 154, 268 Pensacola convoy, 18,20, 26, 27, 28, 33 Permit, 136, 137, 148, 151, 265, 267 Perry, 116 Pilar·Bagac Road, 56, 67, 75 Poland, 103 Porac·Guagua line, 56 Portal, Sir Charles, 35 Pound, Sir Dudley, 35 Pray, John R., 236 Princesa de Cebu, 119 propaganda: American, 46-47, 58, 87; Japanese, 45-46, 79, 87 PT·boats, 132, 136, 144-51, 151-52, 266, 267-68 Pugh, John R., 138, 172, 196-97,210, 212,220-27 passim, 276 Quezon, Dona Aurora (Mrs. Manuel), 93 Quezon, Manuel L., 2,3-4,17-18, 24-25, 38,40,43,48-50,54-55, 58-60,64,74-75,79-82,84,85, 88-89, 111-12, 114-17 passim, 120, 124,130-31,163,191,193,258,260, 263, 282 Quintard, Alexander, 254 Rabaul,156 Rainbow·5, Operations Plan, 5,6,9, 12 Ray, H. James, 132, 134-35, 137, 144, 147, 148, 161, 174,271 Reardon, William B., 234

301 Reminiscences (MacArthur), 263, 271 Reynolds, Royal, 242 Rockwell, Francis W., 42, 125, 132, 133-34,148,154,155,156,157,174 Rogers, Paul P., 57, 133, 150,265 Romulo, Carlos P., 38-39, 58, 116, 142-44,190-91,282 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 4,18,23-29 passim, 31-36 passim, 42, 46-50 passim, 61, 74-85 passim, 90, 100-112 passim, 115, 116, 117, 122-23, 127, 128,129,140,153,161-62,164-68 passim, 171, 177, 179, 188, 193, 194, 195,199,201,202,216-17,218, 233-34,255,256,263,269,273,282 Roosevelt, Theodore (son of president), 87 Roxas, Manuel, 59,94,105,116,191 Royce, Ralph, 157, 161, 202-3, 204, 205, 269, 277 Royle, Sir Guy C., 168, 169 Russell, Roy D., 281 Russia, 17,23,24,27,30,90,116 Samoa, 95 San Bernardino, 203 San Bernardino Strait, 26 San Fabian, 32 San Fernando, 45, 51, 56 San Jose, 39, 227 Sandakan, 134 Santos, Jose Abad, 48, 49, 59 Sato, Gempachi, 227 Sayre, Francis B., 9, 15, 38,48, 59, 61, 76,88,98,99,102,107,114-15,116, 120, 125,235,263 Scanlon, Martin F., 205 Schumacher, Vincent E., 146-47, 148, 267 Seals, Carl H., 79 Seawoll, 76, 151 Selleck, Clyde A., 173 Sharp, William F., 6, 37, 138, 150, 152-53,154,191,218,224,225,226, 228, 229, 230,280 Sherr, Joseph R., 133 Sherry, Harry A., 57 Sherwood, Robert E., 254 Shoss, Morris L., 283 Siberia, 96 Signal Hill, 58, 68 Silino Island, 149, 150 Singapore, 17,20,21,23,24,26,27,30, 36,60,61,62,120,177,231 South Luzon Force, 6, 25, 38,43,45, 51, 56, 57,67 Spearfish,212 Stalin, Joseph, 96


302 Stark, Harold R., 7, 18,24,26,27, 32, 34, 35,42,101 Steel, Charles L., 187 Stimson, Henry L., 5, 17, 18,22-29 passim, 31-32, 35-36,40,41,43, 54-55,59,61,64,81,86,90,96, 98-101 passim, 110-12 passim, 116, 117,123,127,162,171,178,189-93 passim, 208, 236, 238, 253, 255, 263, 269,270, 282 Stivers, Charles P., 13 3 Sturdee, A. H., 168 Subic Bay, 136, 180, 182, 186, 232 Surigao, 269 Sutherland, Richard K., 11, 12, 14, 19, 37-41 passim, 57, 58, 66,67, 75, 88, 104,108,109,116,120-25 passim, 133,137,138-39,142,144,147,148, 156, 15~ 15~ 166, 169, 182,205, 209-12 passim, 251, 253, 263, 265, 270-71, 273 Swanton, Donovan, 234, 241, 281 Swatow, 134 Swordfish, 116, 124, 125,263 Syria, 30 Tagauayan Island, 137, 147, 148, 149, 150 Tagolo Point, 149 Taiwan, 239 Tarakan, 134 Terowie, 161 Thailand, 103 Tisdelle, Achille C., 236, 250, 252-53, 254,255,258,274,275,282 Tojo, Hideki, 82 Tokyo, 79, 82-83 Torres Strait, 20 Traywick, Jesse T., 77, 228, 280 Tribune Manila, 82-83 Trout, 89 Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934, 2, 98, 103,104,106 Uemura, 220, 221, 225, 226 Uno, Kazumaro, 225, 226

INDEX

U.S.S. U.S.S. U.S.S. U.S.S. U.S.S.

Coolidge, 235 Canopus, 191 Napa, 191 Quail, 208, 214 Tangier, 208

Valdes, Basilio, 59 Vargas, Jorge B., 12 Vigan, 16, 19 Villamor, Jesus A., 33 Visayan Islands, 60, 180, 181, 184, 185, 195,204,205,211,214,223-24 Visayas, 91, 118 "Voice of Freedom, The," 58, 142 Wainwright, Jonathan M., 6, 51,66, 138, 139-40,171-96 passim, 198-230 passim, 239, 240, 241, 274, 276, 280; communications with MacArthur, 77-79,180,182,183,195-96,206-7, 219; communications with Marshall, George C., 175-76, 183, 200, 213-14 Wake, 15,94,231 Wallace, John K., 47, 256 Ward, Frederick A., 144 Watson, Edwin M., 84-85 Wavell, Sir Archibald P., 43,50,51,68, 72, 82, 117, 122, 177, 263 Webb, Joseph R., 150 Wedemeyer, Albert C., 233-34, 241, 281 Welles, Sumner, 100-101 Whitney, Courtney, 271 Williams, Everett C., 275 Willkie, Wendell L., Ill, 113, 165 Willoughby, Charles A., 59,93,133,150, 263, 271 Wilson, Francis H., 104, 133,150,251, 260, 264-65, 269 Winchell, Walter, 262 Winthrop, Bronson, 112 Yugoslavia, 103 Zambales Mountains, 185


The author draws his historical narrative from a great variety of authoritative sources: the oncesecret radiograms; diaries, both published and unpublished, of American officers and statesmen; and interviews and correspondence by the author with a host of officers who survived the Philippines campaign . Documenting his narrative in meticulous detail and providing a complete bibliography of his researches, Beck has written a book that will be an important secondary source in the military history of World War II. "The effect that Mr. Beck has achieved is extraordinarily dramatic." -Clare Boothe Luce

Maddalena Discepolo Photo

John Jacob Beck took his M.A. in history at the University of Toledo in Ohio. He teaches social studies and English in the Toledo public schools.

Jacket¡Design, Dan Stouffer


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Roderick Hall CoIl.

11 E R I TAG E MacArthur and Wainwright : sacrifice of the Philipp

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John Jacob Beck ; foreword by Clare Boothe Luce

. . . War is not only the most hazardous, it is the most hideous of all human undertakings. It is the violent disruption of lives, and killing on a massive scale. It ruins in an hour the noblest works of the ages. Its costs in blood and money are often greater than the gains for which it is fought. Its grandest victories are only a little less dreadful than its direst defeats. The passions and the hatreds it engenders seldom evaporate with the smoke of the last battle. The pride of the victor and the vengefulness of the vanquished are the seedbed of the next war. War's greatest legacy is not peace. It is more war, or mayhap revolution. But the paradox of war, mankind's greatest evil, is that it often inspires men to astounding deeds of courage and self-sacrifice. "Greater love hath no man " than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. " In war's fratricidal hell, bonds of brotherly love are often forged which are stronger than death itself In all the annals of World War 1/, there is no more heroic and tragic chapter than the one written by General Douglas MacArthur and General Jonathan M. Wainwright in the Philippines. Theirs is the story of the perfect devotion of two "perfect soldiers" to duty, honor, country, and of that "greater love" which they and their men displayed all duri"g the.. five IIgonizing months of bloody combats that ended with the dreadful Bataan Death March. . . . -Clare Boothe Luce

ISBN 0-8263-0282-3

MacArthur and Wainwright : sacrifice of the Philippines  

Rod Hall Collection

MacArthur and Wainwright : sacrifice of the Philippines  

Rod Hall Collection