Page 1


, MACARTHUR'S PEARL HARBOR WILLIAM H . BARTSCH

Texas A&M University Press College Station


Copyright © 2003 by William H. Bartsch Manufactured in the United States of America All rights reserved First edition The paper used in this book meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39-48-I984. Binding materials have been chosen for durability.

8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bartsch,William H., I933December 8, I94I : MacArthur's Pearl Harbor /William H. Bartsch. p. cm.-(Texas A&M University military history series; no. 87) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN I - 58544-246-1 I. World War, I939-I945-Carnpaigns-Philippines. 2. World War, I939-I945Aerial operations,Japanese. 3. World War, 1939-I945-Aerial operations,American. 4. MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964. I. Title. II. Series:Texas A&M Universtiy military history series; 87. D767-4B37 200 3 200 21 52713 94°·54'25-dc21

The author wishes to thank Eugene Eisenberg for his donation ofJohn D. Shaw's painting, They Fought with What They Had, for use on the jacket cover of this book. The author also wishes to acknowledge the men represented in the painting. They are personnel of the I9th Bomb Group. Shown in the foreground (lift to right): Lt. Henry Godman, Sgt. Meyer Levin, Sgt. James Halkyard, Lt.Joseph Bean (kneeling), Capt. Colin Kelly, Sgt. John Wallach, Sgt.J.W DeLahanty, Pfc. Robert Altman, Pfc.W Money (on bumper). Shown on the Jeep (lift to right): Lt. William Bohnaker, Lt. Edward Jacquet, Lt. Had Pease Jr., Lt. Jack Heinzel, Lt. Don Robins (kneeling).


This book is dedicated to the memory of Lt. Col. Kirtley J. Gregg, USAAF (December 25, I90I-April2I, 1942) and Col.William R. Burt, USAF (Ret.) (August 4, I9I4-January 8,2001)

The inability of an enemy to launch his air attack on these islands is our greatest security. -Douglas MacArthur, commanding general, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East, to visiting British admiral Tom Phillips during a conference chaired by Adm. Thomas Hart, Manila, December 5, 1941


Contents

Foreword by Lt. Gen.Joseph H. Moore, USAF (Ret.) Preface Acknowledgments

II

Prologue: "Seize This Golden Opportunity"

15

PART I: "By GOD, IT Is DESTINY THAT BRINGS ME HERE!"

33

I. "They Have Really Ripped the 17th All to Hell"

45

2.

"A Troop of Boy Scouts Flying Kites Could Take These Damned Islands"

3 7

61

3. "They Will Be Shot Down as Fast as They Are Put in the Air"

70

PART II:"IFWE MAKE OUR ATTACK Now, THE WAR Is NOT HOPELESS"

91

4. "Why Send Over These Ninety-Day Wonders?"

106

5. "The Creation of the Five-Engine Bomber Has Completely Changed the Strategy in the Pacific"

130

6. "Feasibility of Direct Attack on Luzon in the Philippines"

153

PART III: "THE INABILITY OF AN ENEMY TO LAUNCH HIS AIR ATTACK ON THESE ISLANDS Is OUR GREATEST SECURITY" 179 7. "We Are Going Much Too Far on the Offensive Side"

197

8. "Struck by Its Resemblance to a Railroad Timetable"

228


viii

CONTENTS

PART IV: "I SHALL DIE ONLY FOR THE EMPEROR, I SHALL NEVER LOOK BACK" 9. "What a Fog!" 10. "Go

Get 'Em!"

II. "Navy,

Hell, It's the Japs!"

255 264 291 311

12. "Whatever You Do, Don't Get under the Damned Truck!"

341

13. "All We've Got Left Is the Key to the Airplane"

358

14. "What Is the Matter with the Enemy?"

382

EPILOGUE

409

AppendixA.Japanese Naval Air Strength for the Philippines Operation, December 8, 1941

425

Appendix B. Japanese Army Air Strength for the Philippines Operation, Formosa, December 8, 1941

426

Appendix C. Far East Air Force Strength in the Philippines, December 8, 1941

427

Appendix D. Order of Battle, Tainan K6kutai, Tainan, Formosa, December 8, 1941

428

Appendix E. Order of Battle, 3d K6kutai, Takao, Formosa, December 8, 1941

430

Appendix F. Officers of the 24th Pursuit Group, December 8, 1941

432

Appendix G. Officers of the 19th Bomb Group (Heavy), December 8, 1941

435

Appendix H. Far East Air Force Personnel Killed in Action, December 8, 1941

439

Appendix 1. B-17S of the 19th Bomb Group (Heavy), December 8, 1941

442

Appendix J. Japanese Naval Terminology

443

Notes Sources Index

445 505 533


Foreword

y first contact with the author was in 1977 when he wrote me while researching his book Doomed at the Start. We corresponded over the next ten years, his letters asking many questions about my experiences as an Army Air Corps pursuit pilot stationed in the Philippine Islands at the start of World War II, and my answers describing my memories of the events and of my experiences during that chaotic period in our nation's history. We became friends during the ensuing years and this new book is a greatly expanded report of the events of those early days of World War II in the Philippine Islands, which he has aptly entitled December 8, 1941: MacArthur's Pearl Harbor. A person's view of any unusual event, chaotic occurrence, accident, or, as in this case, the opening days of a war, is myopic, limited to what he heard or saw. Other people on the scene will report what they saw, and each person will offer a different version of what happened. Confusion so often prevails. I was particularly impressed with the meticulous way in which Bill Bartsch conducted his research. He has taken all the stories related by the many participants, checked and cross-checked them, and pieced together the big picture of the opening day of World War II in the Philippine Islands. The result was surprising even to me-who was there in what I thought was the very center of all that was happening. So much more was going on, on a much grander scale than I had seen or imagined. In Doomed at the Start, Bill told the graphic story of the pursuit pilots in the Philippine Islands during the military buildup that took place the preceding year and the day of the Japanese strike on Clark Field, December 8, 1941.


4

FOREWORD

In this volume he traces the evolution of our military and national policies toward defending American interests in the Philippines in the face of mounting evidence of Japanese military expansion in the Southwest Pacific, using national and international sources of information. He also covers the development of Japanese plans to expand into the Southwest Pacific and to neutralize American military forces in the Philippines. In October, 1940, I was a first lieutenant assigned to the 20th Pursuit Squadron-a trained, combat-ready unit of our regular Army Air Corpsstationed at Hamilton Field, California. We had just begun receiving new aircraft, the Curtiss P-40, the latest pursuit plane in the Army Air Corps's inventory, and were in the midst of a transition and training program on the new aircraft. One Monday morning, we received orders to prepare for transfer to an overseas station. We were given just six days. Mter feverishly preparing our squadron for deployment in the short time allotted, we departed Hamilton Field the following Friday afternoon for San Pedro Harbor and embarked the next morning on the USS Washington. It was then that we learned we were en route to the Philippine Islands as the first aerial reinforcements for the U.S. Army's Philippine Department. We arrived in Manila thirty days later and were assigned to Nichols Field. In contrast to the urgency that accompanied our departure from Hamilton Field, we found a complacent, business-as-usual atmosphere. We soon settled into the routine of life in the tropics: working during the morning hours and taking time off during the hot, humid afternoons. At that time, the U.S. Army Air Corps in the islands consisted of the 4th Composite Group, with the 3d Pursuit Squadron flying P-26A aircraft at Nichols Field, the 28th Bomb Squadron flying B-IOBs, and the 2d Observation Squadron flying 0-19Es and 0-46As at Clark Field. These squadrons were not fully manned, and they were flying old, obsolete aircraft that had been transferred from squadrons in the states as those squadrons received newer aircraft models. None of these 4th Composite Group squadrons had any combat capability. My squadron was given eight of the 3d Squadron's P-26As and we flew those eight aircraft more in the next thirty days than all the P-26As in the islands had been flown during the whole preceding year. Two w,eeks later, the 17th Pursuit Squadron-another trained, combat- ready outfit-arrived from Selfridge Field. Shortly after Christmas, we received P-35As that had been sold to Sweden and then comandeered and sent to us to use as interim aircraft. In February, 1941, the 4th Composite Group received twenty-four new pilots, and thirty-nine more arrived in May-all recent graduates of stateside flight training schools. Six members of the February group and eight of the May arrivals were assigned to my 20th Pursuit Squadron.


FOREWORD

Families were evacuated back to the states, and our training took on added emphasis as we began working a full-day schedule. Our work hours and training load became more purposeful as we began a program to train these new pilots who had come straight from flight school with no pursuit experience and no training in combat tactics. A shipment of new P-4oB aircraft arrived in April. My squadron received the first twenty-five of the new planes, but we were forced to ground them for two months while we awaited the arrival of Prestone coolant for the engines. The 20th was moved to Clark Field when new construction was begun to upgrade the facilities at Nichols. When our squadron commander was transferred to the 4th Composite Group headquarters in early May to serve as operations officer, I was selected to replace him. I was immensely proud to have been chosen and was determined to be the very best commander possible. Our training program intensified as we received another shipment of ninety-six new pilots in June, twenty ¡of whom were assigned to my squadron. That brought us up to our authorized wartime strength of forty-eight pilots. As the situation deteriorated and war with Japan seemed more imminent, our training became even more concentrated as we took steps to prepare Clark Field for the expected enemy attack. We built revetments around the airfield's perimeter to protect our aircraft, and we dug slit trenches for the protection of our personnel. I became concerned when I learned that the guns on our new planes had never been fired and that there was a severe shortage of . 50-caliber ammunition for aircraft machine guns in the islands. None could be spared for gunnery training, and, as a result, none of the guns in the brand-new P-40S assigned to our pursuit squadrons were ever fired before the war started. While we were concentrating on our training and preparing for a war that appeared ready to erupt at any moment, we knew little of the planning and strategic decisions being made by Gen. Douglas MacArthur's U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAF FE) headquarters and by the Far East Air Force (FEAF) headquarters in Manila, or for that matter by the War Department and the Air Staff at Army Air Forces headquarters in Washington. However, we occasionally received hints of intensive diplomatic and strategic moves taking place at the national level. In late November, we were ordered to stop all training flights and to assume a constant state of readiness for an expected attack by Japanese planes based on Formosa. We continued in that advanced state of readiness until the Japanese attacked on December 8, 1941. The author, after conducting exhaustive research, has woven with extraordinary talent the strands of diplomatic, national, and international activity as they influenced the development of military strategy on both

5


6

FOREWORD

the Japanese and American sides. Within this framework he then covers the experiences of individuals caught up in the consequences of the decisions made at higher levels. It is a fascinating bit of history. H. MOORE Lieutenant General, USAF (Retired) Former Commander, 20th Pursuit Squadron Clark Field, Philippines, December 8, 1941

JOSEPH


Preface

wenty-five years ago I began research on the experiences of army pursuit pilots of the Far East Air Force in the ill-fated Philippines campaign of 1941-42. Mter thirteen years of effort, the results were published as Doomed at the Start in 1992. During my research I also became familiar with the experiences of the bomber crews who shared Clark Field with the pursuit pilots on December 8, 1941, as well as those of the men operating the radar unit at Iba to the west, providing early warning of the approaching Japanese attack force on that fateful day. IN 1951 ,Walter D. Edmonds related the story of what happened at Clark Field on December 8 in his now-classic book on the Army Air Forces in the air war in the Philippines and Dutch East Indies in 1941-42. However, his account of the December 8 attack was, in many ways, not complete. He excluded the experiences of the Air Warning Company operating the radar unit at Iba, for example, as well as those of the antiaircraft regiment and two tank battalions that attempted to engage the Japanese bombers and fighters over Clark Field. The experiences of the Japanese airmen who carried out the attack were also left out of the account. Furthermore, Edmonds made no attempt to present the air defense planning for the Philippines or to discuss the decisions made by the War Department and Army Air Forces headquarters in 1939-41. The latter helps us understand why the December 8 disaster occurred. Equally excluded were the plans and strategies of the Japanese high command in Tokyo and on Formosa for the attack on the Philippines. In pointing out these gaps in Edmonds's presentation, I do not mean to criticize him. His guidance from the Army Air Forces called for him to write an account of the personal experiences of the men involved in


8

PREFACE

the first six grim months of the air war in the Southwest Pacific. He was not asked to consider higher-level War Department and Army Air Forces headquarters planning and decision making or to include the Japanese side of the story. Edmonds, after all, was a well-known novelist, not a military historian. His highly readable account was my introduction to the subject and triggered my desire to know more. Another person was responsible for developing my interest in what was happening at Army Air Forces headquarters that set the stage for the events in the Philippines on December 8, 1941. In the early 1980s, retired colonel William R . Burt was researching prewar Army Air Forces and War Department records at the National Archives to provide documentation for the book he was planning on his experiences in 1940-41 as an aide to Maj . Hoyt S.Vandenberg in the Air Corps's Plans Division. Colonel Burt's focus was on tracing Vandenberg's efforts in early 1941 to introduce an aerial defense system for the Philippines based on lessons learned from the Battle of Britain. When he learned of my research on the events of the December 8 attack, he invited me to join him as he dug through the records of the Army Air Forces' headquarters and the War Department's War Plans Division in an effort to track the developments that ultimately led to the July, 1941, decision to build up army airpower in the Philippines, but with an emphasis on offensive, rather than defensive, capabilities. Colonel Burt wanted to trace the Philippines' aerial reinforcement question all the way up to the president's level in seeking to identifY why Vandenberg's proposal to develop a Battle of Britain-type defense was rejected. Yet, if I related the story only from the American side-however comprehensively-I would be leaving out the Japanese and the answers to several important questions. How was the decision to attack the Philippines as the opening phase of their so-called southern operations made? What strategy did they formulate to that end? What roles did the Japanese army and navy air forces play in the strategy that was developed?What were the experiences of individual Japanese in the air attack that opened hostilities? In seeking to answer these questions, I was obliged to examine Japanese-language sources, given the paucity of information on this subject in English. Fortunately, I had already corresponded with most of the surviving Zero pilots regarding their personal experiences in the Clark and Iba attacks, as well as the preparations they had made on Formosa for the aerial offensive. This information was augmented by published personal accounts in books and magazine articles that were translated for me. To understand the course of development of the southern strategy, especially the Philippines operation, I referred to published Japanese accounts, including the relevant volumes of the official war history, the Senshi Sosho.


PREFACE

This, then, is an account of what transpired on both sides from late 1940 through the traumatic attack on the Philippines-a commonwealth under the United States-that opened the Pacific War. It is told from three levels of experience: that of individual combatants following orders from above; of staff officers in the Philippines, on Formosa, and in Japan and Washington planning and supporting the projected combat operations; and of the senior military officers and political leaders in Washington and Tokyo who made the decisions that led to the opening of hostilities in the Pacific and the Far East on December 8, 1941. As in Doomed at the Start, however, the focus of the story is on the first level: the junior officers and enlisted men ordered to train for and engage in combat. They were on the receiving end. In the case of the Americans, it was their first experience of war. Ironically, there has been a deluge over the past sixty years of books (not to mention two movies) covering every conceivable aspect of the Pearl Harbor attack that occurred just ten hours earlier, yet no one to date has given any book-length treatment to the "other Pearl Harbor," as I term it, despite its significance to the course of the Pacific War. Was the December 8 attack on Clark and Iba Fields really another Pearl Harbor? Ifjudged on the nature of the attack, the answer is no. It was not a "sneak attack," as was the one on Hawaii (although it was originally planned for just three and one-half hours after the Pearl Harbor attack in the hope that word would not get to the Philippines in time to alert the Americans there). However, in terms of its strategic significance, the answer is a resounding yes! As planned by the Imperial Navy, the Pearl Harbor attack was purely a one-shot operation aimed at preventing the U.S. Pacific Fleet from intercepting Japanese invasion forces assigned the mission of seizing the resource-rich colonies of British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. The loss of five battleships (but no aircraft carriers) at Pearl Harbor had little impact on the course of the Pacific War and cannot be equated with the near-destruction of the largest force of warplanes outside the United States-on which hung the fate ofWashington's deterrent strategy against Japan, or, failing that, of effective opposition to Japanese operations against the Philippines.

9


Acknowledgments

his story is mainly based on the personal experiences of hundreds of individuals, Americans and Japanese alike. Fortunately, I started my research in the mid-1970S, when most were still alive. I thus was able to learn of their prewar and December 8 experiences via correspondence, telephone conversations and interviews, narratives they prepared for me, and diaries and prewar correspondence to their families they shared with me. This direct input expanded my knowledge of their activities and those of other participants derived from interviews conducted in 1945 for the preparation of Walter D. Edmonds's 1951 epic, They Fought with What They Had. Almost all of them are gone now. Singling out particular individuals from this group for an expression of gratitude is not easy. On the American side, the help of individual pursuit pilots has been acknowledged earlier in my book Doomed at the Start, but for the bomber crews included in this volume, I would particularly like to thank Ray Teborek, Ed Jacquet, Edson "Spon" Sponable, and Mel McKenzie for long years of assistance rendered in relating their experiences. Among the Japanese participants in this story, I am particularly indebted to the late Hideki Shing6 for four years of faithful responses (up to the time of his death in 1982) to my unending questions about Zero fighter preparations and operations during the attack he led on Clark Field. An important contribution was made by all those Far East Air Force personnel who did not survive the war, having been killed either in combat or in accidents or having lost their lives in prisoner of war (POW) camps or on hell ships taking them to Korea, Formosa, or Japan. Some were able to relate their experiences to fellow POWs who interviewed them for the record, such as Capt. William Priestley, who managed to bury


12

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

his material Oater exhumed) before he himself perished on a hell ship. Others sent letters home detailing their activities and feelings in 1940-41. They would be surprised to know how their innermost thoughts have now become part of history! I am highly indebted to their families for sharing such personal material with me. In this connection, I would particularly like to thank the widow (since deceased), daughter, and grandson of Maj. Kirtley J. Gregg for making available his correspondence to his wife that opened the door for me on the goings-on at the staff level in the Philippine Department Air Force (PDAF) and its successors from November, 1940, to November, 1941. Additional inside information on PDAF activities in 1941 was gleaned from letters of Gregg's colleague, Maj. Bill Maverick. I am indebted to his daughter, Laura Maverick Griswold, for making copies for me. By the same token, I would like to thank Miriam Pachacki, widow of 28th Bomb Squadron pilot Ted Fisch, for making available copies of all of his 1941 letters to her that capture his feelings and those of the other frustrated senior pilots in his squadron. For the inside picture of what was going on in Washington at Army Air Forces headquarters in 1940-41, lowe a debt of gratitude to Col. William R. Burt, USAF (Ret.). He developed my interest in understanding how the decisions of the Air Staff and Maj. Gen. Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, with whom he was serving at the time, shaped the future for air force officers and men stationed in the Philippines. It was with great sadness that I learned he passed away just before I completed this manuscript. Others to whom I am indebted were facilitators in my effort to gain knowledge of the events covered rather than direct or indirect contributors of personal experiences. In this category, I wish to acknowledge the assistance of Duane Reed at the Air Force Academy Libraries for years of unstinting support in obtaining documentary material in the Academy's collections, particularly on the Air War Plans Division's Air Annex to the 1941 Victory Program. Just as they did for Doomed at the Start, Edward Boone and his successor,James Zobel, archivists at the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia, responded to my every request for the USAFFE records kept in its archives. The George C. Marshall Foundation in Lexington,Virginia, proved to be an unexpectedly valuable source of records not found elsewhere, and I am indebted to its staff for help in obtaining them during my visit there. Roger G. Miller, a historian at the Air Force History Support Office, helped me with useful background information on General Brereton, a personage in whom we share great interest. Another historian with a keen interest in the U.S. Army in the Philippines, Richard B. Meixsel at James Madison University, unfailingly responded to particular queries I had about the prewar situation at Clark Field, including the base's physical characteristics.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

On the Japanese side, I am grateful to myoId friend Osamu Tagaya, one of the foremost authorities on Japanese aerial operations in World War II, who during the last year of manuscript preparation came up with additional Japanese-language materials, published and unpublished, that filled the gaps in my efforts to present the Japanese experience and helped me resolve many vexing questions on the subject. I am also indebted to Masaru Nakai (the real name of Shiro Mori) for giving me permission to use material from his book gleaned from interviews that gave me an inside picture of planning for the Philippines attack conducted at the Eleventh Air Fleet headquarters on Formosa. Similarly, I am grateful to Masa-aki Shimakawa, since deceased, for allowing me to quote extensively on his experiences in training for and participating in the Clark Field attack as related in his published wartime memoir. I wish to thank Lt. Gen. Joe Moore, another old friend, for writing the foreword to this book and for sharing with me his 1941-42 Philippines experiences over the past tWenty-five years. I am indebted to Gene Eisenberg and artist John Shaw for the cover illustration. Gene commissioned the work and has kindly given Texas A&M University Press permission to use the painting for that purpose. Thanks are also due to Dale Wilson for his meticulous editing of the manuscript for publication.

0


Index

Page numbers with illustrations appear in italics. ABC talks, 40 Adachi,jiro,342 Adami, Grant, 314-15, 338-39, 376--77, 394-95 Aerial reinforcements, Philippines, 16, 18-19, 84,144-45,175; of heavy bombers, 143, 164,165,194-95. See also War Department Aioi, Takahide, 252-53, 275, 279, 280 Air Board Report, 16, 41 Air Corps Tactical School, 122 Air defense, Philippines, 16, 124, 125; Darvall assessment of, 83; and interceptor control squadron, 132; and mock raids, 132-33; organization of, 51, 87; and pilot reinforcements, 163; and shift to offensive operations, 175; Stimson preoccupation with, 134-35; and transfers ofB-I7S and B-24s, 461n. 35, 465n. 37. See also Philippines, defense of Air Defense Board, 131-32, 138 Air Defense School, 7C>-71 airfields, British, 145 airfields, Netherlands East Indies, 146 airfields, Philippines, 23, 83; adequacy for aerial reinforcements, 84, 164; construction lags, 205-206; proposed development of, 119,211,212, 471n. 36

Air Force, USAFFE, 1I7, 128-29, 176, 198, 467n. ro, 473n. 51; redesignated Far East Air Force, 154,204 air power: and strategic bombardment, 122; in military planning, 16 Air Warning Company, 67, 120, 129, 158, 24 2-43 Air Warning Company, 4th Marines, 24 2-43 Air Warning detachment, Cape Bojeador, 283,484n.46,488n.23 AirWarning detachment, Iba, 159,225-27, 227, 242, 480n. I; in attack on Iba, 347-48,355,390,409,494n.l;picks up bogies, 235-36, 254, 264, 298-99, 305-306,341,479n¡5l,484n¡44,487n. 24; operation of equipment of, 159, 227; transfer to Iba, 158-59 Air Warning Service, 67, 129, 132, 154,249, 392, 466n. 66; communications of with Iba, 254, 299, 306; equipment needs of, 88,131,132; and Grunert requests, 26, 88; and messages to Clark Field, 418, 490n. 40, 490n. 47, 490n. 49; operation of, 87-88,299; and receipt ofSCR-270Bs and SCR-271S, 464n. 19; transfer of to air force commands, 87, 206 air warning system, Philippines, 133,200 Air War Plans Division, 122, 155 , 234. Akagi, 141, 148 , 166,258


534

INDEX

Allen, Albert, 324 Allen, Dana "Chubby," 344, 353, 398, 495n. 23 Altman, Robert, 137, 476n. 19 Amalung, 471n . 36 Amatsukaze, 275 Ambrosius,William, 223-24 American Far Eastern School of Aviation, T29 American Press, [57 Antis, William "Pinky," 80 Anderson, Bernard, 129 Anderson, Marshall, 111 Anderson, Orvil, [24-25,234 Andrews, Frank, 41,52 Anloff, Garry, 309 Aoki ,Yoshio, 358,401 Aparri, 195 ,206, 47In. 36, 476n. 18 Armstrong, Fred, 321, 385 Armstrong, George, 57,108, 157-58,300; on alert status, 198,221-22; in Clark Field attack, 312-13, 323; and squadron moves, 152,222 Army Air Corps, 52,96 Army and Navy Club, 46 Army General Staff, japan: drops support for northern offensive, 96; and preparations for southern operations, 26-27, 39,96, 98-99, 104 Army Ministry,japan, 27-28 Army-Navy Central Agreement Oapan), 181 Army War College, I04 Arnold, Henry H. "Hap," 16,25-26,36,41 , 5T, 52,94,186,235,414,416, 461n. 31, 463n. 12; briefs Brereton, 143-44, 153-55; and Clark Field disaster, 263, 461n . 34, and deterrent strategy, 102,421-22; gambles on heavy bomber reinforcements for Philippines, 144,422; interest in bombing japan, 155, 463n. IO; and messages to MacArthur, 154-55,262, 484n. 43; proposes B-24 reconnaissance mission over Japanese mandates, 243, 467n. 12, 475n. 4; telephone call to Brereton , 282-83, 484n. 43; and transfers of B- 17S and pilots to Philippines, I02, 124,182, 195,207,243 , 465n¡37 Arnold , Robert H. , 120,283, 484n. 46; telephones sighting report to AWS, 484n. 47, 488n . 23; and transfer of Air Warning detachment to Cape Bojeador, 158, 242

Arthur, Herbert, 498n. 39Artukovich, Mike, 37 6 A Sagyo operation, 472n. 42 Asai, Masao, 141,250; and Clark Field m.ission, 269, 288, 318; dllltai of, over Clark Del and Carmen fields, 326, 327-28, 331, 493n . 29, 496n. 2; return trip to Formosa, 370,382,40T Asiatic Fleet, 36, 43, 214A-24s, 213, 472n. 40. See also 27th Bomb Group A-27s, IIO, [[2 Australian-American cooperation, 203 Avant, Shelton, 346-47, 353, 370 A-WPD /I, [23 ,133-3 4,153; and number of heavy bombers proposed for Philippines, 96,143,465n . 37 Backes, Charles, 87 Baguio, T96, 287, 480n. 9, 485n. 57. See also Camp John Hay Baldwin, Hanson W., 36-37 Bardowski, Zenon "Bud," 335-36, 386-87, 499 n ¡7 Barnhouse Lawrence N. , 227 Barnick, Roland "Barney," 79, 87 Basco, 195 Bashi Channel, 274 Bataan Field, lT9 Batan Island, 195, 480n. 8 Batangas Field, 214 Bean,joe, 476n. 19 B-18s, 80, 89,103,245,293,392; in Clark Field attack, 321; in interception practices, 121, 133,236; as reinforcements for Philippines, 25, 41, 89 Bell, Don, 278, 313, 317 Bender, Frank, 378-'79, 392 Benham, Ed, 378 Benson, Gordon "Squirrely," 33 1, 373, 388-89,398 Berenschot, G.j., IOJ, 148 Bergstrom,john, 314 Berkowitz, George, 317, 378-'79, 395 Bibb,jim, 315-16, 338, 369 Bibin, Mike, 366-67,399,477n.23 Biggs, William, 66, 339, 452n . 14 Bird, Cecil, 346 Birrn, Roland, 392 Bissell, Clayton L., 124, 458n. 48 Blackm.on, Earl D., 227 Bland,Al,357


INDEX

Blanton, Nathaniel "Cy," 285, 29I, 45In. 30 Blass, Dan, ]20

Blomfontein, 235 Bohnaker, Bill, I56-57, I7I-'72 Boone,jim, 390 Borchers, Frank, 499n. 4 Box, Clyde, I73, 207, 303, 3I6-I7, 474n. 65 Bradley, Hardy, 346, 354 Brady, Francis, 2II, 276, 292, 462n. 3, 463n. 7, 47In. 27; arrives Philippines, I73 , I77; in briefing for Brereton, I53, I54; chairs FEAF staff meeting, 280-8I; compromises with Sutherland on B-17 basing, 2Io-II, 47In. 37; and construction of airfields, 205-206, 2I2, 47In. 22; prepares plan for FEAF operations, 2Io-II; seeks changes in FEAF staff, 176, I99 Brady, Lester, 368 Brenner, Allen, 378 Brereton, Lewis H. , I42-43, I74, 207, 2I8, 220, 249,292,299,4I6,46In . 3I , 466n. 69,478n. 42,483 n. 40, 484n. 44; and Air Force, USAFFE, staff situation, I76, I99; and alert order, 2I9, 220, 249, 478n. 43; arrives Manila, I73, 466n. 58; and Australia mission , 203, 204, 2I7-I8, 470n. I5, 473n. 5I; and communication with Sutherland, 277, 282, 283, 292, 300, 39I, 4I2, 488n. 25; delivers Rainbow 5 plan to MacArthur, 456n. 35,463n. 7,466n. 6I; and Diaries, 4IO, 46In. 30; extent of responsibility of, for Clark Field disaster, 4I3-I4, 4I5-I6, 422-23; and Formosa photo reconnaissance mission, 230, 4I6, 486n. 5, 489n. 38; and Formosa strike plans and request, 242, 276-'77, 281-82, 283,292,293,296, 300, 39 1 ,4IO,4I2, 483n. 29,483 n. 39,488n. 25,500n. 14; informed of Clark Field attack, 262; informed of Pear! Harbor attack, 276, 482n. 28; inspects Air Force, USAFFE, facilities, I97; issues new working orders, I98 ; meets with staff, I76, 2I9-2o, 282-83, 483n. 30; meets with MacArthur, I74-'75 , I92,390,391,466n.60,500n. I3; and plan for FEAF operations, 2IO; and proposed Singapore/Netherlands East Indies mission, 2I9, 473n. 53; and telephone call from Arnold; transfers part of I9th Bomb Gro up to Del Monte, 473n. 56; and 27th Bomb Group party, 248-49,

478n. 42, 478n. 43; and war threat talk to I9th Bomb Group officers, 24I-42, 477n. 28; and Washington briefing on Philippines assignment, I42-44, I53-55, 46In. 33, 462n. 1 Brett, George H. , 61, I09, I47, 417, 454n. 37 "Brief Summary of Action," 483n . 29 Brink, F G. 82 British Far Eastern Fleet, I96 British North Borneo, I46 British Purchasing Commission, 4I Broadhurst, Ed, 276, 303, 304, 3I3, 368 Brock, Reid, 66 Brodginski, Henry, 227, 227, 299; in Iba attack, 347; picks up bogies, 264,305-206, 34 I Brooke-Popham, Robert, 42, 43,IOI , I46; arrivals of in Philippines, 42, IOI, I46; and discussions with MacArthur, 100, I46 Brown, Ben, 362 Brownewell,john, 222, 307-308,405 Bruce,james, 293 Bryant, Frankie, 36r Bryden,William,I47,186 B-17S, 200, 2IO, 375, 446n. IO, in defense plans for Philippines, I6-17, I8, I23; deliveries of to Philippines, I65, I94-95; as deterrent to japanese expansion, I7-I8, 97, 42I-22;japanese opinion of, 192, I96; in planned bombing of japan, I84-85; radii of operation of, 103. See also deterrent strategy B-17C, I8, 447n. I2 B-I7Ds, 151, 204, 489n. 36; of I4th Bomb Squadron transferred to Philippines, 97, lI8, 137 B-IOBs, 24, 59, 59, 79 B-]2, 123 B-24s: in A-WPD-r , I23; numbers targeted for Philippine delivery, I65; and photo reconnaissance of japanese territory, 475n. 4; potential of to bomb japan from Philippines, I02, I85, 2IO; radii of operation of from Philippines, 103 , I45; range of C and D models, I55 B-29s, I23, 447n. I2 B-23s, 80, 545n. 27 Bundy, Charles, 475n. 4 Burgess,Wyndolyn, 380, 498n. 39 Burgos, 283

535


536

INDEX

Burt, William R.: and aerial defense plan for Philippines, 53-54, 123, 45rn. 21; as aide to Vandenberg, 50; in discussions with War Plans Division, 6r; in OCAC Plans Division, 50, 54 Cabanatuan Field, r64 Caldwell, Charles, r53 , 173, 177,203,276, 280-81, 462n. 3 Camp John Hay, 261, 287. See also Baguio Campbell, Alexander H., 206, 225, 280-81, 299,417-18; as CO of AWS, 87; prepares AWS project proposal, r20, 131, 459n. 2; sends out AWS detachments, 242-43; transmits warning messages to FEAF units, 299, 306, 488n. 24; and 24th Pursuit Group interception order, 490n. 44, 49 0n ·49 Cape Bojeador, 242, 283 Cappelletti, Francis, 222, 228, 238-39, 399, 477n. 23 Caridad, 306-307 Carlisle, Richard "Dick," 284, 303, 304, 489n. 38; in Clark Field attack, 317, 49rn. 8; transferred to 28th Bomb Squadron, 474n. 65 Carmichael, Richard, 243 Carpenter,John, 277, 285, 384, 395; in Clark Field attack, 323, HI, 368; lands Clark Field after attack, 369, 383, 498n. 23; reconnaissance mission of, 293, 304 Carrier Division 4, 151 Casey, Hugh, r63-64 Catanduanes Island, 407, 502n. 3, 502n. 40 Cave, Glenn: evacuates Iba with enlisted men, 405; helps Daniel at Iba, 357, 373; in Iba attack, 345, 355, 495n. 28 Cavite Navy Yard, 242-43 Chaney, James, 62, 69 Charto£[, Maurice, 299 Chauncey, Charles c., 61-62, 452n. I Chiang Kai-shek, 71 "China incident," 28 Choshu Army Air Force Base, 195,271,272 Church, Russel, 63 Churchill, Lawrence, 25,54-55,57,58, 59,81,238; appointed CO ofFEASC, 204-205; and Brereton arrival, 173; and Clagett arrival, 72; and command of 4th Composite Group, 23, 76; dissatisfaction of with aircraft assigned him, 23; and

meeting with Darvall, 83; opposes move to Clark Field, 107, 108-109; performance of, 67, 68; unhappy with new conmland arrangements, 87 Churchill, Winston, 96 dll~tai, 460n.25 Clagett, Henry B., 68,73,74,75,136,146, 152,281,416,454n. 37; and air plan for USAFFE , 127, 130, 131; arrives Philippines, 72; appointed CG, 5th Interceptor Command, 205, 466n. 68; assigned as CG, PDAF, 42, 70; attends Air Defense School course, 70-71; and Brereton, 173, 174,176,177, 466n. 66; and BrookePopham visit, 146; and China mission, 71,75,77,86, 454n. 42, 46rn. 44; health problems of, 85-86, 109, 125-26, 128, 147, 454 n . 42 ,457 n . 7,459n. 58,461n. 44; 466n. 69; makes conunand changes, 76, 109, 137; and mission to Singapore, Malaya, and Netherlands East Indies, rr6-17, 125-26, 127; reappointed as CG, Air Force, USAFFE, II8; replaced as CG, Air Force, USAFFE, 145, 147, 466n. 69; and ter Poorten visit, 147-48 Clagett, Mary, 147 Clark, Bob, 302, 393, 489n. 33 Clark Field, II9, 138, 210,417-18; accommodations at, IIO, 152, r63, 206, 207; aircraft dispersal problems at, 218, 244; anti-aircraft defenses of, 197,218,244; condition of after attack, 392, 394; Dec. 8 morning evacuation of, 284-85, 293-94, 297; 486n. 8, 487n. 15; defense preparations of, 244, 324, 385; evacuated after attack, 394;Japanese reconnaissance of, 214, 215, 240; living conditions at, 172; morale problem at, 88-89; night interception practices at, 236; operations building at, 138,312; pilots shifted to from Nichols Field, 107; practice alerts at, 228-29; runway extensions at, 83, 137, 244,319; Weather Detachment of, 313. See also Clark Field attack, 4th Composite Group; 24th Pursuit Group Clark Field attack, 262, 312-40,319, 358-61, 365-69,491n.2,494n·43,497n.19,498n. 35; B-17 losses in, 375, 383,442; B-18 rescued in, 499n. 8; damage sustained in, 376-77, 386, 387;Japanese damage claims in, 50rn. 34, 502n. 35; numbers of


INDEX personnel killed in, 383-84; 385, 439-40, 499n. 4, 502n. I Clark Field Communications Center, 244, 299-300,4I8,488n.24 Clark and Iba Fields disaster: absence of official investigation of, 423; as "another Pearl Harbor," 4IO; explanations for, 413-24; responsibility for, 4I0-24 Clark Field Headquarters/Operations: air raid warning sounded at, 313; building of damaged in attack, 377; use of teletype in, 503n. 15; weather office of damaged in attack, 377 Clarke, Robert A., 227 Coats, Lee, 173, 379-80, 383 Cocke, Bill, 314, 340,368-69, 384, 499n. 4 Cole,joe, 303, ]28, 329, 393 Collier,james v., 487n. 16, 499n. 2 Colovin,jim, 317, 378, 379 Combined Fleet,japanese Navy: drafts Navy's operations war plan, 181; holds tabletop maneuvers for southern operations, 104; and Pearl Harbor attack, 99, 104-105,258; prepares for war operations, 182; sets target date for opening war, I05. See also Yamamoto, Isoroku Combined Fleet Operations Order No. I, 182, 183 Combs, Cecil, 223 Connally,jim, 173,207,230,276 Cooke, james, 503n. 15 Cookingham, Leroy, 313, 491n. 4 Coolidge, President, 2I3 Cornford, Russell, 316 Coss, Walter, 49, 55 Costello,john,4IO Cox, john, 316-17 Cox, Ray, ]26, 334, 395 Coyle. Harold, 299 Crawford, Robert W, 135 Crimmins, Fred, 173,207,303,304, 474n. 65; in Clark Field attack, 316, ]25-26, 334-35,493 n . 37 Crosland, Donald "Shorty," 361, 362 Cross, Claire, 342, 353 Croxton, Warner, 304, 404 Crumley, Tom, 337 Cummings, Bill, 312-13, 323 Dale,jack, 451n. 30 Daly, Maurice "Moe," 205, 217, 284; as CO

of 28th Bomb Squadron, II4, II5; assumes command of Clark Field, 205 Daniel, Ship: in combat over Clark Field, 330; heads for Clark Field, 307, 309, 322, lands at Iba after attack, 357, 50rn. 24; at Rosales, 397, 500n. 17; takes off from Iba after attack, 373, 498n. 29 Darvall, Lawrence, 82-84, 146 Darwin, 146, Davao, 253, 261, 279 Davao Gulf, 275, 280 Davies,john, 392 Davis, Clarence "Buck," 314, 497n. 21 Davis, Kelly, 346 Day, Roy, 339-40, 384 Decoux,jean,28 Defense strategy, Far East, 135, 194; Brereton briefing on, I53-54; and British-American cooperation, 145, 146, 184, 189, 190, 193, 194; and Brooke-Popham discussions with MacArthur, 146; B-17 role in, 97; and cooperation with Associated Powers in Rainbow 5, 175; and cooperation with Dutch, 101, 145, 190; and regional defense planning, IOI. See also Kuter, Laurence S.; Marshall, George c.; military strategy; Stimson, Henry L. Del Carmen Field, 205, 238, 240, 358, 405; attack on, 392, 501 n. 34; construction of, 164,205-206,213, 471n. 22; dust conditions at, 247, 396; and 34th Pursuit Squadron, 472n. 41, 497n . 10 Del Monte Field, 221, 398; facilities required at,164, 198; as heavy bomber base, 471n. 34, 473n. 58. See also George, Harold H.; MacArthur, Douglas; Sutherland, Richard K. Deterding, Floyd, ]26, 477n. 33 deterrent strategy, 123, 182, 189, 191-92; Gerow formulation of, 144-45; Marshall support of, 184-85, 234; role of heavy bombers in, 155. See also defense strategy, Far East; Kuter, Laurence S.; Stimson, Henry L. Dickson, Ronald, 478n . 36 Dillon,john,259 Dodson, Everett, 380, 498n. 39 Domin, Stanley A., 498n. 39 Donegan,jim, 264-65, 390, 500n. 12 Doolan, Bob, 354 Doolittle, james A., 153

537


538

INDEX

Dowding, Hugh: and aerial defense plan for Philippines, 53, 70-71, 451n. 19; at Air Defense School, 70-71; at Army War College, 52-53, 451n. 18; arrives Washington, 41; and Marshall, 41; mission to U.S., 50; returns to United Kingdom, 84, 454n. 40; and Vandenberg discussions, 53, 45 1n . 19 Drake,Jim, 336, 385 Duncan, Bob, 111 Dutch East Indies, 27, 94 Duvall, Leslie, 49I1l. 8 Dyess,William Edwin "Ed," 247, 292,302; at Clark Field, 394, 395,404-405; patrols over Manila, 302, 307, 340, 375; and P40E deliveries to 21st Pursuit Squadron, 213,478n·40 Eads, Harold "Lefty," 203, 275-'76, 281, 482n. 26 Eaker, Ira , 52, 143 Echols, Oliver B., 153 8th Sentai: bombs Tuguegarao, 287, 485n. 58; Ki-48s assigned to, 482n. 21; and Tuguegarao mission, 195--96, 272, 274, 482n . 21 88th Reconnaissance Squadron, 243 803rd Aviation Engineers, 244,396, 471n. 22 1Tth Air Fleet, 99,196,269,399, 475 n. 7, 476n. 14; American air reconnaissance fears of, 200, 201-202; assesses results of Luzon attack, 402-403; and carrier training for Zero pilots, 151 , 171, 462n. 55; and Dec. 9 attack plan, 403; defense preparations of, 201, 271, 412; establishment of, 93--94; and fears of B- [7 attack, 270--71,412, 485n. 54; and headquarters move of to Takao, 161 , 465n. 39; intelligence of on FEAF strength, 196,214, 215,230--31,469n·43,481-82n.15;and interception ofJapanese Army bombers returning to Formosa, 486n. 9; and Kanoya chart exercises, 148-50; and Luzon attack mission, 267, 270, 478n. 44, 479 n . 47, 4 8In . 15,482n. 16, 482n. [7, 482n. 19, 494n. 5; and operations agreement with Army on Philippines attack, 183 ; and proposal for direct attack on Philippines, 165-71,267,269-'70,270--71, 465n. 40, 477n. 24; reconnaissance flights of over Philippines, 214, 472n. 42; role of

in southern operations, 148-50; weather reconnaissance mission of toward Luzon, 266,268,479 n · 48,479 n ·5 1,481n·4, 4 81n ·7 Elder,Jim, 340, 384 Ellis, Herb, 139-40,225,246,351 ,398; in Clark Field attack, 364-66, 497n. 17, 497n. 18, 50Ill. 24; in Iba attack, 344, 350--51, 495n . 18; and interception exercise, 133; post-attack activities of at Clark Field, 380--81, 386, 499n. 40; take-off from Iba, 279, 301 Ellstrom, George, 64, 370-71, 398, 498n. 26, 501n . 24 Elsmore, Ray, 238, 239 Emergency Aircraft Warning Service Project, 13 1 Emmons, Delos, 143 Eubank, Eugene, 156, 156, 172,391--92,394, 476n . 20; addresses 19th Group officers on war imminence, 222, 474n. 62; and Brereton meetings, 220, 292--93; in Clark Field attack, 313, 325, 337, 369, 383, 492n. 22; and Clark Field dispersal problem, 218; degree of responsibility of for Clark Field disaster, 416-17, designated CO of 5th Bomber Command, 204; and FEAF staff meeting Dec. 8, 277, 280--81, 283, 485n. 49; and Formosa mission, 293, 297, 303-304, 486n. 5, 489n . 34; informed of Pearl Harbor attack, 276, 483n . 28; and movement ofB-17s to Del Monte, 219, 477n. 23; ordered to FEAF Headquarters Dec. 8, 276, 483n. 37; and prewar reconnaissance of Formosa, 237, 476n. 18, 476n. 20, 477n. 33; returns to Clark Field Dec. 8th, 293, 297; and salvaging ofB-17s, 396, and transfer movement of 19th Bomb GrouP. to Philippines, 156, 172; and upgrading of 28th Bomb Squadron, 223 Evans,Joseph K. , 463n. TO Fairfield, Bill, 314, 339-40, 368-69, 385, 40 3-40 4 Far East Air Force (FEAF), 154, 194, 199, 468n.31,473n.57,480n·9486n.3; aircraft losses of in Clark Field attack, 262,409; aircraft strength of, 391, 427; and Field Orders 1 and 2, 297, 392,416, 487 n . 14,489n·34,489n·36,500n. 14;


INDEX

and Formosa maps/photos, 477n. 28, 489n. 39; loss of morale of, 409; placed on readiness status, 219; personnel of killed Dec. 8th, 439-41; and planned Formosa mission, 281, 282, 283, 296, 297, 303; potential of in strategic offense, 410, 463n. 12; and prewar reconnaissance missions of toward Formosa, 229-30; and proposed attack on carrier, 407; and proposed Dec.9th Formosa attack, 296, 500n. 14, 502n. 3; shortage of .50 caliber ammurution of, 200, 225, 233 Far East Air Force Headquarters: building of as a target, 280; G-2 and G-3 sections of, 275; proposed move to Fort McKinley, 2II; SCR-197 of removed, 283 Far East Air Service Command, 154, 199, 204, 2II, 219 Feallock, Bill, 108, 307-308, 494n . 45 Feltham,]ill,77 Fickel,]acob "jake," 155-56, 46rn. 31 5th Air Base Group, 2Il, 220--21, 238, 47I1l. 37 5th Bomb Group, 80 5th Bomber Conunand, 154, 199; activated, 204; Del Monte as rear operating base of, 220; MacArthur's operational plans for, 212; placed on alert, 219, 282 5th Hikoshidan, 183,195,202,272,413,426, 4 86n ·9 5th Interceptor Conunand, 199, 2II, 275; activation of, 204, 463n. 9, 466n. 68, 470n. 18; placed on alert, 219, 282 5th Interceptor Command (Fort Lawton), 75 1st Air Fleet, 99, 148 1st KOkiitai, 288,401,403, 502n. 35; bombs Clark Field, 318,319, 320; 492n. 12; flight to Clark Field, 298, 487n. 20; mission to attack Clark Field, 239, 251; prepares for attack mission, 196, 232; returns to Formosa, 401, 50Ill . 30; take-off from Tainan,271,286,479n.47,485n.55 1st Weather Reconnaissance Unit, 252 Fisch, Ted, 79, III, 115, 224; B-18 of, 321-22, 500n. 17; complains of conditions at Clark Field, III, II5-16, 172; evaluates 28th Bomb Squadron pilots, 223; and evaluation ofB-I8, 79; ferries pursuit pilots to lba and Nichols, 157; and opinion of seruor 28th Bomb Squadron

officers, 127; relationship of with Maitland, 65; seeks to leave Philippines, 88; trains new pilots, 89, II5-16, 163,208; and 27th Bomb Group pilots, 221 Fisher, Bill, 277,303,316; appointed CO of 28th Bomb Squadron, 205, 474n. 65; damages B-17 on arrival in Philippines, 136; transfers new pilots out of 28th Bomb Squadron, 223 Fleming,john, 337 4th Carrier Division, Combined Fleet, 253 4th Composite Group, 36, 42,54,83,86; aerial defense mission of, 16,84; disbanded, 154, 199,204; inadequacy of flying officers of, 23; loses pursuit squadrons, 137; morale problem of, 23, 58; needs of neglected by OCAC, 23; obsolete aircraft of, 22-23, 59-60; srufts to C lark Field, 107; status ofP-35As of, 452n. 7. See also aerial reinforcements, Philippines; Churchill Lawrence; Gregg, Kirtley J. 4th Fleet,]apanese Navy, 27 409th Signal (Aviation) Company, 275 440th Ordnance Company, 220 14th Army,]apan, 183, 184, 487n. 10 14th Bomb Squadron, 143, 155, 172 237, 239; arrival of in Philippines, 135-36; assigned to 19th Bomb Group, 470n. 17; B-17s of transferred to Del Monte, 477n. 23; at Del Monte, 238, 249, 406; and infusion of new pilots, 163; at Midway, 137; ordered to Del Monte, 237-38; and planned Formosa mission Dec.9th, 296, 502n ·40 14th Sentai: and Baguio attack mission, 195-96, 272, 274, 482n. 20; bombs Baguio, 287, 485n. 57; intercepted by Tainan ku on return, 487n. 10, 487n. II Formosa: air bases on, 273; American reconnaissance over, 470n. 4, 474n. 3, 475 n. 4; lack of defense preparations of, 271. See also lIth Air Fleet; Far East Air Force; Tainan Naval Air Base;Takao Naval Air Base Formosa Army Research Department, 39 Fort McKinley, 471n. 37. See also 27th Bomb Group Fort Stotsenburg Hospital, 384-85, 403-404, 499 n ·5 Fossey,jim, ]21 Frank,Walter, 46rn. 31

539


540

INDEX

Franklin, Eugene, 478n. 36 Franks, Perry, 79, 88 French Indochina: air bases provided Japan, 30-31; decision to establish bases in, 93;Japanese troops occupy, 28,30-31, 94; U .S. reaction to southern incursion of, 94 Fuchida, Mitsuo, 258 Fujibayashi, Haruo, 327, 358, 496n. 2 Fukuyama, Kiyotake, 400, 497n. 15 Furukawa, Wataru, 240 Fushima, Hiroyasu, 19, 29, 30 Futrell, Robert F., 415, 503n. 8 Garampi Point, 294 Gary, Arthur "Tex," 380, 498n. 39 Gary,Willis, 474n. 67 Gates,Jack, 3II-J2, 325 Geer,John, II3-14, 486n. 8 Gehrig, Raymond "Lou," 49, 55, 490n. 46; in Iba attack, 344, 345; lands at Nichols after Iba attack, 376, 397 General Staff, Japanese Army, 20 General Staff, Japanese Navy, 39; and Hawaii operation, 39, 96, 99, 105, 166; prepares for war, 37, 96,99; plans for southern operations, 26-27,93, 96 George, Harold H. "Pursuit," 75,125,128, 173,211,281, 283, 484n ¡48;491n¡3;and air plans for USAFFE, II8-19, 130-31, 210; approves 4th Composite Group move to Clark Field, 107; argues for basing heavy bombers on Mindanao, 164, 210, 471n. 34; arrives Philippines, 72; assigned as CIS to Clagett in 5th Interceptor Command, 220, 473n. 57; assigned as G-4 to Brereton, 177; and Australia mission, 203, 470n. 15; authorized to shoot down bogies, 236-37; briefS pursuit pilots on imminence of war, 240-41; and China mission, 77, 85-86; as Clagett's EO in PDAF and Air Force, USAFFE, 71, 73, 109, u8, 128; and construction for FEAF, 163-64, 2U; degree of responsibility for Clarkllba disaster, 416, 418-20; and Iba radar reports, 299; and locations for future airdromes, 2II; orders to 24th Pursuit Group on Dec.8th, 283, 308,418-19, 484n. 44; and Pearl Harbor attack, 275-'76, 482n. 25, 482n. 26, 482n. 27; plans to base pursuit group on Mind-

anao, 164, 2U; and warning message to 24th Pursuit Group Dec.8th, 306 George, Harold L. "Bomber," 134-35, 235; and A-WPDII, 122, 133-34, 153, 46Im.33; and Far Eastern Plan, 234; and FEAF operations, 463-64n. 12; briefs Brereton on A-WPDII, 153, 461n. 33; heads Air War Plans Division, 122 Gerow, Leonard T. , 61,185,186; and briefing for Brereton, 153; and deterrent strategy, 101, 102, 144-45; and MacArthur, 44, 260-61 . See also deterrent strategy; War Plans Division Gibbs, David, 276, 277, 317, 380; as acting CO of 19th Bomb Group, 217, 277; briefS 30th Bomb Squadron on expected attack, 278; in Clark Field attack, 313; orders 19th Bomb Group aircraft off Clark Field Dec. 8th, 284, 293, 297, 485n. 49; and reconnaissance flights over Formosa, 244, 477n. 33 Gibson, Bryan, 375 Gies, Carl, II3, 297---98, 321, 336, 385-86 Gillett, Maxon "Skeedie," 346 Gilmore, Ed, 3II, 320, 363-64, 373, 396 Glenn, Harry, 339 Glover, Herb, 474n. 67 Goldbrum, Louis, 227 Goto, Kyosato, 272, 274, 287, 482n. 21, 482n. 22 Graham, Owen "Tuff)'," 206, 338 Grashio, Sam, 322, 395; in Clark Field attack, 309-10,322,328; at Nichols Field after attack, 3'75, 393; takes C Flight to Clark, 302 , 489 n . 33 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, 21, 43, 187, 191 Greeley, Horace, 177 Green, Ed, 284, 315, 337, 338 Green,Joseph A., 154 Gregg, Kirtley J., 56, 57, 68,72,77,106, 473n. 57; and aircraft accidents, U4, u6; to Air Force, USAFFE, as S-4, II7, 128, 129, 138; and Churchill, 81, 87; and Clagett, 68, 74, 147; as CO of 4th Composite Group, 76, 78,126,128; and Darvall meetings, 82-83, 146; and establishment of interceptor control system, 120-21; to FEAF as asst. G-4 and G-4, 177,220,232-33, 473 n. 57; physical condition of, 47, 177; prepares aerial defense plans, 57, 69; and rumored


INDEX

new pursuit group, 59, 68-69; as CO of 17th Pursuit Squadron, 45, 47,54-55,56, 81-82; and temporary move of 4th Composite Group to Clark Field, 81, 107; as temporary CO of Clark Field, n6, 125, 126; and training of new pursuit pilots, 77, no; and 24th Pursuit Group, 138 Grover, Orrin, 83, IIO, 236, 308; and alleged communications breakdown, 482n. 27; and AWS reports received Dec. 8, 300,307, 488n. 27, 489n. 32; in Clark Field attack, 312-13; 336; and Dec. 8th interception/patrol orders, 266, 284, 300-301,307,308,395,489n·30,489n. 32,489n·33,490n·49,490n·50,490n. 51; given command of 4th Composite Group, 128; and interceptor. control system, 120-21; introduces night interception practice, 236; as operations officer 4th Composite Group, 76; performance of on Dec. 8, 416, 419-21; reassigned as CO 24th Pursuit Group, 138; and his report on 24th Pursuit Group operations, 421, 488n. 27; and Responsibility for Clark and Iba Fields disaster, 420-2 I; and 17th Pursuit Squadron, 284, 340, 488n. 28; and Tarlac interception mission, 283, 297; and temporary closure of Nichols Field, 106-107; and 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 139, 300-301; 307, 489n. 30;and 34th Pursuit Squadron, 490n. 51; and training of pursuit pilots, 163, 199-200; and 20th Pursuit Squadron, 152, 266, 284, 309, 490n. 51; and 21st Pursuit Squadron, 307, 395,489n·32,489n·33 Grow, Floyd, 346 Grunert, George, 24, 42, 42-43, 64, 82; and air defense command and organization, 62, 67; and AWS set-up, 88, and Churchill, 58,67,68; and Clagett arrival, 71--'72, 73; as CG Philippine Department, 23; dissatisfaction of with PD defense capabilities, 23-25, and with PDAF aircraft and personnel situation, 59-60; and Gregg air defense report, 69; and Philippine Army, 38-39, 449n. 13; relieved of command ofPD, 177; and requests for modern aircraft and additional pilots, 24-25, 25-26, 36, and for anti-aircraft defenses, 24; and Richards, 67. See also Philippine Department

Grunert, George R., 73 Grussendorf, Richard A., 83 Haislip,W H., 186 hakkii ichiu, 30 Halbert, Hugh, 474n. 67 Halifax, Lord, 194 Halkyard,Jim, 237, 476n. 18, 476n. 19 Halverson, Max, 385 Hamilton Field, 36, 155 Hancho, 140 Handy, Thomas T., 467n. 12 Haney, Dick, 293, 474n. 67 Hansell, Haywood S., 235 Hanson, Bob, 49,55,56,236,372,393,397 Hara,Yoshimichi, 30, 187 Harada,Yoshimitsu, 318, 382, 401, 496n. 2 Hardegree, Howard, 372, 393 , 397 Harler,John, 227, 341,347 Harper, Howard, 315, 338, 369 Harris, Byron K., 227 Hart, Thomas, 37-38, 43, 82,417; and air reconnaissance of Formosa, 474n. 3; and British-American joint naval operations, 184, 190, 193, 194, 468n. 33; and Brooke-Popham meetings, 42,101; and FEAF in naval operations, 468n. 31; meeting of with Phillips, 184, 468n. 33; and Pearl Harbor attack, 260; and Philippine Army capabilities, 38; relationship of with MacArthur, 99, 190, 192, 193, 260,415 Hasuo, Takaichi, 168,290 Hata, Shunroku, 20 Hatsukaze, 275 Hawaii Operation, 99,181,187,267, 481n. 9· See also Pearl Harbor attack Hawaiian Department, 70, 482n. 25 Headquarters Squadron, 19th Bomb Group, 499 n ·4 Headquarters Squadron, 24th Pursuit Group, 137-38 Headquarters, Nichols Field and 4th Composite Group, 81 Heald, Edgar H., 238, 473n. 58 Heath, Carroll, 227 Heffron, Charles, 227, 347 Heidger, Luther, 339-40, 383-84, 499n . 5 Heito, 195 Hemingway, Ernest, 77--'78 Henry,Jim,373

541


542

INDEX

Hickam Field, 156 Hidaka,Yoshimi, 295,327, 486n. 9 Hillberg, Oscar St.John, 223 Hilton,Jim, 474n. 67 Hinson, Bob, in Iba attack, 346-47, 353-54 Hipps, Bill, 248 Hirohito, Emperor, 29, 94; approves Tripartite Pact, 30; and decision for war, 95, 98, 181, 187; declares war on U.S. and British Empire, 261-62; endorses "Outline of Main Principles," 21; and establishment of bases in French Indochina, 28, 93; establishes Imperial General Headquarters, 447n. 16; and Hawaii operation, 181, 183; issues imperial war rescript, 191, 468n. 25; and Japanese-American negotiations, 181; supports Tojo as premier, I04 Hirose,Yoshio, 400, 497n. 9, 497n. 13 Hiryii, 148, r66 Hobrecht, Forrest, II2, 200 Hoevet, Dean "Pinky," 172 Hoffinan, Arthur, 223, 367, 398 Hohimer, Alfred, 369 Holbrook, 163 Holbrook, Woodrow "Woody," 378-'79, 399 Holub,Anthony, 337, 493-94n. 41 Homma, Masaharu, 184, 187, 191 Honda, Toshiaki, 215-r6, 332 Horikoshi,Jiro,29 Horrigan,William "Hoot" : and Iba Air Warning detachment, 159; reassigned as CO of 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 140, and of 28th Bomb Squadron, 205, 225, 470n. 19 Hoshino, Teruoki, 19,29 Hoskins, Thomas J., 227, 341 Howell,James A., 227 Hubbard, Thomas H. "Speed," 293 Hull, Cordell: anticipates assault on Philippines, 185; and deterrent strategy, I02; and discussions with Stimson and Knox, 187; and Japanese-American negotiations, 156, 227; meetings of, with Roosevelt, 40,185; reacts to Japanese incursion into northern French Indochina, 35 Hummel, Ernie, 58,64 Hutchinson, Russell, 324 Hylton,John, 390, soon. 12 Iba, 55-56,112,405 Iba Field: air defenses of, 245, 341-42, 494n. 5; anti-aircraft protection of, 245, 494n.

5;Japanese aerial reconnaissance of, 214, 215,240 Iba Field attack, 262, 341-57, 495n. 28, soon. 24; casualties from, soon. 12, 502n . 1; Japanese claims of damage inflicted in, 502n. 35; rikk_ return flight from, 495n. 21,495n.28,495n.29 Iguig, 471n. 36 Imperial Conference: endorses establishment of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and southward advance, 93; of Sept. 19, 1940,29-30; of September 6, 1941,98; of November 5, 1941, 181; of December I, 1941, 187 Imperial Headquarters-Government Liaison Conference: of July 1940; introduction of, 447n. 17 Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), 29; accepts agreement on basing troops in French Indochina, 28; and date for commencing hostilities, 191; established by Hirohito, 447n. 16; and "new order" for East Asia, 20; requests Luzon Dec. 8th attack results , 403 IGHQI Army, 183, 191,258, 467n. 8 IGHQ/Navy, 182, 258 Imperial Navy Operations Plan for War, 181 Imperial Navy Staff College, 99 Ind,Allison, 82-83,176,275-'76,299; and air plan for USAFFE, 130; arrives Philippines, 75; assigned as S-2 in PDAF, 75; assigned as asst. G-2 in FEAF, 177; and Australi<J mission, 203;AWS evaluation of, 87-88; bombing objectives folders prepared by, 281, 463n . IO; and Clagett, 85-86,126,147; at Dec. 8th FEAF staff meeting, 280-81; and mission to NEI, Malaya, and Singapore, II6-17, 126, 127; and Nichols Field defenses, 84; and Philippine Department working conditions, 75-'76; prepares study on bombing Tokyo, 463n. IO Ingalls, A.L., 376-'77 lniet Birdmans Association, II2 Intercept Station C (CAST), 414-15, 503n . IO

Ireland,Vern, 331, 398, 493n. 31, 497n. 18, 50rn . 2 4 Irisa, Toshii, 232, 251,289-90,343,400 Ishii, Shizuo, 294-95, 327 Isozaki, Chitoshi, 348, 360-61, 497n. 14


INDEX

[ta, Shinka, 142, 460n. 28 Iversen, Guy, 385 [wakuni, 183 Jackfert, Ed, 491n. 4 Jacquet, Ed: arrives Clark Field, 171-'72; and Clark Field accommodations, 172, 206; at Del Monte, 398--99, 406-407; and Formosa aerial reconnaissance ban, 237; and order to bomb Japanese carrier, 407; transferred to Del Monte, 238; on trans-Pacific flight to Philippines, 156-57 Japan: foreign policy questions of, 20-21; military policy of toward China, 20, and toward new order in Asia, 450n. 29; and risk of war with US. and UK., 21; and southern advance, 31; US. embargo against, 27; war preparations of, 98 . See also southern operations Japanese-American negotiations, 185, 186, 188,195,456n . 2o Japanese consul, Manila, 414-15 Japanese Naval Air Force terminology, 443 Japanese pilots, 86 Jintsii, 275 IN-25 code, 503n. IO Johnson, Lee, 276, 309, 4910. 4, 491n. 52, 499 n ¡ 40 Joint Army-Navy Board, 18,96,98, 104, 175 , 414 jones, George, 354 jones, William, 499n. 4 Kagosruma Bay, 161 Kakuda, Kakaji , 253 Kamei ,Yosruo, 165, 167-68, 170, 399 Kamibeppu,Yohinori,240 Kamirura, Keishu, 382, 401, 496n. 2 Kaneko,Yosrura , 403 Kan ' in, Kotohito, 19-21,29 Kanoya Naval Air Base, 148-50, 161 Kanoya Kakutai , 141; aircraft of transferred to Saigon, 196, 232, 251; bombs [ba, 343, 494n. 6; damage claims by in [ba attack, 502n. 35; flight of to [ba, 290, 298; losses on [ba mission, 400; mission attack plans of, 239, 251,270; preparations of for attack mission , 196,2]2,251; return of to Takao,400,5 0In . 29 Kaster,jack, 339, 340, 384 Kasllga Maw, 465n. 42

Kato Army Air Base, 195,272,274,287 Kawada, [sao, 29 Kawanisru, Hirosru, 280 Kawano,Yasujira, 358, 401 Kawasaki Ki-48, 274; onTuguegarao mission, 272, 274, 287, 482n. 21, 482n. 22 Keator, Randy, 386,405; in C lark Field combat,311,320,362-64,374 Keenan, Gerry: in combat near Pinatuba, 355-56, 496n. 30; intercepts bogies, 265; at Rosales, 398, soon. 17; separated from fl ight, ]22; transferred to 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 49 Kellar, Douglas, 367 Kelly, Colin: Dec. 10th mission of, 40B; to Del Monte, 237-38; and reconnaissance flight over Formosa, 237, 476n. 18, 476n. 19 Kennard,William, 276, 403, 404, 483n. 28 Kenney, George, 416 Killian, William, 498n. 39 King, Arnold "Bill," 312 King, Edward, 147 Kiser, George "Ed," l oB, 4510 . 30 Knox, Frank, 36,40, 185,259 Koike,Yoshio, 400, 472n. 46, 501n. 27 Kokjer, Madsen, 392 kiiki4tai, 460n. 25 Konda, Nobutake, 19 Konoe, Fumimaro: despondent over situation, 98; and [mperial Conferences, 29,93; and Liaison Conferences, 19-21, 447n. 17; loses confidence of Hirohito, 104; and oil embargo reaction, 95; personal characteristics of, 21; resigns as premier, 104 Koopman, Harold W, 227 Koshun Army Air Base, 195,282,400 Kota Bharu, 195,258 Kozono,Yasuna, 231 Kreps, Kenneth, 172, 173,297,339 Krieger, Andy, 79,173,279,397, 460n . 16; and Clark Field, 307, 309; in combat over [ba, 344, 345, 349, 495n. 18; and radio calls, 490n. 46, 493n. 31, 495n.17; and P-40E characteristics, 225; and P-35A canopy accident, 460n. 22; and P-26A flying practice, 64; at Rosales, 371, 393 Kruger, Courtney, 473n. 58 Kruzel,joe, 451n. 30 Klibo,Yoshiaki, 271-72, 274, 287, 482n. 20

543


544

INDEX

Kundert, Emanuel, 470n. 12 Kurosawa , Takeo, 168,217,251,290; and carrier training, 462n. 55; in combat over Clark Field, 359-60,400, 496n. 7, 497 n .8

Kuroshio, 280 Kurtz, Frank, 229, 278,379-80, 474n. 2, 489n. 35; in Clark Field attack, 337; and crew deaths, 383-84, 498n. 39, 499n. 4, 50rn. 21; and loss ofB-17 of, 380 Kurusu, Saburo, 186 Kuter, Lawrence S., 123,208,422; and A-WPD/1, 122, 123, 133-34, 458n. 48; and Brereton, 209, 234; and deterrent strategy, 209; prepares secret memorandu m for Marshall, 208-209 . See also deterrent strategy Laguna de Bay, 302 Laito airdrome, 282 Lamb,Sam, 71,75,281,299 Lancaster, Ollie, 248 Landon, Truman , 243 Lark, 340 Layton, Edwin, 410 Lee,Joseph,71

Legaspi, 238 Legg,John "Pete," 129, 132 Leicester, Lloyd, 322 Lewellyn, Norman: and Air Force, USAFFE worlcing habits, 198; arrives Philippines, 173; on Brereton Australia mission, 203; keeps FEAF Headquarters record of events, 483n. 29; and proposed Singapore/NEI mission, 218-19, 473n. 53 Liaison Conferences, 93, 95, 98 Linn, Brian M, 446n. 3 Lipa Field, 164 Litchfield, Sam, 300 Lloyd, Thomas J., 227; picks up bogies, 29 8--99,3 0 5-3 06 Lodin, Larry, 108 Logan, Douglas, 304 Louk, Max, 199,320-21,385 Lowe, Lionel, 499n. 4 Lowery, Herman, 248

Ludington, 235 Luker,Jesse, 321, 385 Lunde, Ozzie, IIO, 111 Luzon, 273

MacArthur, Douglas: and aerial defense capabilities of USAFFE, 193; and airfield capacities, II9; air-mindedness of, 415; and Arnold, 263; and basing ofB-17S, 212, 473n. 58; and Brereton, 143 , 174, 175,411,415,488n.25,500n.13;and Brereton diplomatic missions , 203, 218, 219; 415-16,473 n. 53,473n. 54; and Brooke-Popham meetings, 42, 100, 101; and Clagett, 131, 458n. 3I, 466n. 69; and Clark Field attack reports to Washington, 262-63, 391, soon. 13; Clark/lba Fields disaster accountability of, 4II, 414, 423; and cooperation with British and Dutch, 145, 189, 190,259; Davao attack, 261, 480n. 8, 483n. 40; and deliveries of aircraft to Philippines, II8, 164; and establishment of a new Far East conU11and, 38, 44, 94; expected date ofJapanese attack, 175; and FEAF alert order, 219; and Formosa attack decision, 263,277,281-82,296,391,410,412,414, 502n. 3; 503n. 8; and Formosa reconnaissance, 185-86, 192,229-30,237,293;and Gerow, 260-61; and Hart relationship, 99,190,192,193,229-30,468n¡3l,483n. 29; intelligence information provided to, 414; orders shooting down of bogies, 237; and Pearl Harbor attack, 260, 482n. 27; and Philippine Army, 38; and Philippines as deterrent to Japanese expansion, 96; and Philippines defense coverage, 95, 99, 101,175; and Philippines neutrality, 414; and Phiilips meeting, 193; and plans for Air Force, USAFFE and FEAF operations, II8, 131,210; and Quezon relationship, 38; and Rainbow 5 War Plan, 175, 186,413, 466n. 61; recalled to active duty to conU11and USAFFE, 94; requests B-24 reconnaissance of Palau, 230; and Sayre, 117; and subversive activities warning, 193--94; and War Department messages, 391, 479-80n. 6; and "war warning" message, 192 MacDonald, Florence, 404 Maclnrlls,Ra~56

Mactan, soon . 12 Madden,James, 308, 478n. 36, 490n . 49 Maddux,Sanl,276,396 Magruder,John, 146 Mahony, Grant, 48, 49, 55-56, 58, 64


INDEX

Maidhoff, Daniel A., 227 Maitland, Kathleen, 66 Maitland, Lester, 72--'73, IIO, I36, I72, 454n. 25; arrives Philippines, 65; and beard growing order, 89, I17; as Clark Field CO, 65, 79,87; as CO of 28th Bomb Squadron, 65, 79, 87; as Executive Officer of FEASC, 205; heavy drinking of, 65; and mission to NEI, Malaya and Singapore, II6-I7, 125; nickname of, 66; promotion of, 66, 79, 452n. 15; relationship of with enlisted men, 65-66; and 28th Bomb Squadron, 65, 79, 87, I52 "Maitland's Folly," 324 Maki,Yukio,25 I Maki chiitai: in combat near Mount Pinatuba, 360-61, 496n. 30; detached to 3rd Kiikiitai, 240, 478n. 44; returns to Takao, 370,400, 50rn. 26;Takao departure of, 290 Mako, Pescadores, 195, 476n. 18 Malalag Bay, 279 Malaya operation, 258 Mallonee, Richard c., 370--'71, 498n. 26 Mangan,Jim, 248 Mango, Carl, 248 Manila, 307 Manila Bay, as naval base, 15-16,36,193,194 Marett, Sam, 213, 361, 362, 373 Marrocco, William, 242 Marshall, George c., 154, 185, 194,208, 257,414; and aircraft reinforcements to Philippines, 26, 36, 40--41, 60; and air offense plan against Japan, 98" 184-85,208, 422, 467n. 10; and airpower use, 41,52; and Aparri airfield, 206; and A-WPD/r, 133; and Brereton briefing, 153-54; and British-American cooperation, I84; and B-24 photorecon mission, 475n. 4; and deterrent strategy, 96, 97, 98, 421-22; and FEAF to support naval operations, 463n. 12, 468n. 31; gambles on Japanese offensive timetable re sending B-17s, 422, 46In. 35; and Grunert, 26, 60, 67; and MacArthur to head new conm1and, 44,94; and MacArthur-Hart command relations, 190, 192; and messages to MacArthur, I04, 188,257,259-60, 468n. 31; and offensive air operations from Philippines, 422; opposed to oil embargo against Japan, 94; proposes air com-

mander candidates to MacArthur, 143, 461n. 31;and Rainbow 5 revision, 175, 279; and reconnaissance of Formosa, 188; reverses War Department policy toward Philippines defense, 94; and Roosevelt, 40,182,185,188,195; and secret briefing of correspondents, 184-85; and Stimson, 97; and War Department policy toward Philippines defense, 15, 18-19,40,41,94; and War Department General Staff, 186. See also War Department Martin, Frederick L., 482n. 25 Matsumoto, Masarni, 232 Matsuda,Yoshio, 230 Matsunaga, Toshio, 468n. 28 Matsuoka,Yiisuke, 19,29-30 Maverick, Billy, I06-I07, I09-IO, Il2, II5, 472n. 44; as 4th Composite Group Operations Offtcer, 128, 129, 133; and Gregg, 78,81; at Nichols Field Dec. 8th, 397, 406; as Operations Offtcer 24th Pursuit Group, 138; slated as CO Nichols Field, 205,220; as 3d Pursuit Squadron CO, 76, II4; and training of pursuit pilots, 80--81, 138-39; as 20th Air Base Group CO, 205, 473n. 57, as Executive Offtcer, 76 May,Jimmy, 302, 393 McMee,Jim, 221 McAuliff, Hal, 304, 396 McBeath,John, 346 McBride, Woodrow, "Woody": in Iba attack, 34 1-4 2 ,346-47, 353,495n. 24 McCaffrey, Rondelle]., 227 McCallum, Gerald "Bo, 48 McCloy,John].,134 McCown,John, 303, 375; attacks strafer of Ellis, 366, 497n. 17; in combat over Clark Field, 328, 329, 493n. 28 McDonald, Bill, 172, 228-29, 276; in Clark Field attack, 317, 325, 368 McDonough, Eugene]., 227, 306,347 McElroy, Joe, 338 McIntyre, Pat, 173, 313 McKenzie, Mel, 172, 203, 304 McNarney,]oseph T., 61-62 Meigs, 235, 472n. 40 Menzie, Robert G., 338, 499n . 4 Meyer, Bob, 379-80 Michie, Robert, 223 Miles, Sherman, 186 military planning, U.S., I02

545


546

INDEX

military strategy, U .S.: and deterrent strategy vs.Japan, 102, 182; and "Germany first" approach, 40, 423; and Roosevelt, 182; toward Philippines, 40. See also deterrent strategy; War Department Miller, Charles, 303, 487n. 14, 489n. 36 Miller, Donald c., 407 Miller, Glen, 248 Mine, Hirose, 342 Mitsubishi A5M4 Type 96 carrier fighter, 140,253; characteristics of, 22; in China operations, 22; in Davao attack, 253, 275,280; in defense of Formosa, 271 Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 carrier fighter, "Zero": characteristics of, 22, 141 ,202; in China operations, 28-29, 86; enters operational service, 22; as experimental fighter, 22; and fuel reduction efforts, 167,169-'70, 465n. 44; Iba mission takeoff of, 289; in Philippines direct attack plan, 169-'70; range of, 148-50, 168-'70; and secrecy surrounding, 29; transferred from China to Formosa, 140 Mitsubishi C5M2 Type 98 reconnaissance aircraft: 295; and missions over Luzon, 214,23 0,240 Mitsubishi G3M Type 96 land attack bombers, 22, bomb Chungking, 28; bomb Clark Field, 318, 320; and Clark Field mission , 239; Luzon reconnaissance missions of, 2 T4; and photo reconnaissance missions over southeast Asia, 472n . 42; as weather reconnaissance aircraft, 252; and weather reconnaissance mission, Dec. 7/8, 266 Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 land attack bomber: bomb Clark Field, 320, and Iba, 342-43; characteristics of, 231-32; of Kanoya K6kiitai, 343; mission to bomb Clark Field and Nichols Field, 239 Mitsubishi Ki-T5 Type 97 reconnaissance aircraft: and reconnaissance ofTuguegarao,272,482n.21 Mitsubishi Ki-21 Type 97 bomber: and Baguio attack mission , 271-'72, 274; bomb Baguio, 287; maximum bomb load of, 482n.20 Miyano, Zenjir6: in combat over Clark Field, 359, 360; and extending range of Zero, 168; and take-off from Takao, 290 Miyano chiitai, 359, 496n . 4

Miyazaki, Gitar6 : assigned to Tainan K6kiitai, 141; briefs shatai on C lark mission, 269; flight to Clark Field, 295; returns to Formosa, 401 ; and Shimakawa, 250; and shatai attack claims, 401; strafes Clark Field, 333; and take-off from Tainan, 288 Miza, Masami : and Clark Field attack plan, 240; on Clark Field mission, 295, 305, 360; escorts damaged Zeros to Formosa, 501 n. 31; and prewar reconnaissance flights over Luzon, 214, 215; return flight to Formosa, 382, 401, 501n. 31 Moffat, Reuben c., 123 Moore,jarriet, 341, 347, 355 Moore,Joe, 278, 374, 385; appointed CO of 20th Pursuit Squadron, 76, 78; in combat near Clark Field, 362-64, 497m.12, 497n. 15, 503n. 17; evacuates 20th Pursuit Squadron from Clark Field, 394; evaluates Zero performance, 386; and gunnery practice, 200; P-40B of, 245; and 20th Pursuit Squadton take-off Dec. 8th, 309, 31I ,32 0 Morhouse, Charles H ., 457n. 7 Mori, 48, 450n. 8 Morse,William P., 412, 483n. 39 Morton, Louis, 410 Moseley, c.L., 172 Motomura, Ry6suke, 272, 287 Mt. Arayat, 331, 398, 493n. 31, 497n. 18 Mt. Pinatuba, 268, 496n. 29 M3 Stuart tanks, 244, 324 Mueller,Al, 303, 383, 474n. 65 Mukai, Ichit6, 290, 359 Mulcahy, Lowell "Tod," 321,385 Nagano,Osami,93,94, 105, 181, 187 Nagato, 104 Nagumo, Chuichi, 258 Naiden, Earl, 135 Nakahara, Kokichi , 342-43 Nakahara, Tsuneo, 168, 496n. 6 Nakajima B5N2 Type 97 carrier attack planes: on Davao attack mission, 253, 275,280 Nakajima Ki-27 Type 97 fighters, 271 Nakamizo, Ry6ichi, 358,401 Nanney, Stancill "Stan," 304, 407 Nasugbu, 243 Navy Department, 15-16, 37,41. See also Knox, Frank


INDEX Navy Ministry,Japan, 27, 39; and bases in southern Indochina, 93; and map exercises, 27; and southern operations, 27, 39 Nelms,Wade, 227; in Iba attack, 341, 347, 494n. I; radios radar reports to AWS, 299, 306,34 1 Neri, Frank, 292, 406, 50rn. 24; attempts interception of bombers over Iba, 353, 355, 495n. 23; and bombing of Iba, 344, 345; in combat over Mt. Pinatuba, 356, 496n. 30; at Rosales, 372, 393, 398, 500n. 17 "new order" in Greater East Asia, 30 Nichols, Erickson S., 79, II5, 173, 177 Nichols Field, 45,55,393,397; air depot at, 220; and repairs and upgrading of, 83, ro6-ro7, II9, 137; as target for air attack, 83,393,4 0 3 91st Bomb Squadron, 213 93rd Bomb Squadron, 163,239, 476n. 18, 502n. 3, 502n. 40; and bombardment training, 222-23; and B-17s of, 474n. I; and B-17s of transferred to Del Monte, 237-38, 477n. 23; at Del Monte, 249, 296, 406, 502n. 40; evacuation of personnel of from Clark Field to jungle, 395; and practice alerts, 228-29; and simulated interceptions of its B-17S, 200, 222-23, 470n. 9 95th Pursuit Squadron, 45 19th Bomb Group, 156, 157, 222, 277-'78, 292,319, 490n. 40, 50rn. 33; on alert status, 198, 223m 474n. I; arrival ofB-I7s and flight crews at Clark Field, 171-'72, 229; arrival of ground officers and men at Manila, 163; assignment of to Philippines, 125, 143; B-18s of, 392, 396; bomb supplies of, 234; B-17s of, 396, 442; B-I7s of destroyed in attack, 262, 325,375, 379-80,383; and camouflage painting of B-17s of, 197,222,284-85; Clark Field attack on B-17s and B-18s of, 262,325, 327,331-33,334-35,337-39,368-69,375, 379-80,383,392,409; decoy B-17s of, 338, 487n. 16; evacuation of personnel of from Clark Field, 394; and Formosa attack mission plans and preparations, 303-304,391,410,412-13,489n¡34,489n. 38, 502n. 40; and mock interception of B-17s of, 200; and officer list of, 435-38; and order to attack aircraft carrier, 502n. 40; practice alerts of, 228-29; radio messages of monitored by Japanese, 474n. 74;

and reconnaissance missions of, 229-30, 237,244,303-304; transfer ofB-17s of to 28th Bomb Squadron, 474n. 65; transfer of to Del Monte, 220, 224, 238, 249, 473 n ¡5 8 19th Bomb Group Headquarters/ Operations: communications set-up at, 418; messages received Dec. 8th, 418-19; coordination with 24th Pursuit Group, 284 Nomura, Kichisaburo, 186,257, 456n. 20 Nomura, Ryosuke, 267, 269 Nonaka,Taro, 251, 289 Norgaard,Arthur, 323, 367, 497n. 19 Novotney, Stephen E ., 227 OA-4,24 OA-9,24 Obert, Dave, 308, 340; assigned to 17th Pursuit Squadron, 45rn. 30; at Nichols Field, 108; patrols over Manila Bay, 499n . 2; on Tarlac mission, 285. 291, 297 O'Bryan, Carey L., 155-56, 477n. 23 O'Connell, John "Casa," 346-47, 390 O'Donnell, Emmett "Rosie," 136,277; arrives Philippines, 135-36; ordered to attack aircraft carrier, 502n. 9, and to move B-I7s from Del Monte to Clark Field, 391; and Tash, 285, 398 O'Donnell Field, 164 Offield,James M., 227 0-52 "Owl," 84 0-49,25 0-46A, 24, 56, 60 Ohara, Mitsuru, 305, 360 0'Hare,Joseph,78 Oikawa, Koshiro, 29, 37 oil embargo, 94, 95 Okada, Keisuke, 187 Okayama airdrome, 282 Oliver, Eddie, 222, 378, 379, 498-99 n. 39 Olongapo, 214-15, 240, 388-89 Olsen, Richard, 228-29 I Calle Victoria, 277 192nd Tank Battalion, 244, 324, 335-36, 386 194th Tank Battalion, 163,244,386 0-19E, 24, 60 Onishi, Takajiro: antagonizes Shingo, 165-66; and chart exercises at Kanoya, 148-50; and fog at Takao, 269, 270; and Luzon strike mission return, 399;

547


548

INDEX

Onishi, Takajiro (cont.) moderates II th Air Fleet staff meeting, 165--<i6; personality of, 171; and Philippines direct attack plan, 170-71,267; and preparations for Philippines attack, 94; and Shibata, 150; suspends carrier training for Zero pilots, 170-71 Ota, Toshio, 269, 333 "Outline to Carry Out National Policies," 98 "Outline of Empire's National Policies," 93 "Outline of Main Principles," 20-21,27 "Outline for Operations of the Southern Army," 181 Ozaki, Seiji, 231-32, 342 Ozaki, Takeo, 251, 286, 320, 492n. 12 Pacific ferry route, 96 Palau, 253 Paracale, 242 Parsel, Elmer "Pappy," 238-39 Passanante, Bart, 354-55, 390, 500n. 12 Patani, 195, 479n. 4 Patrol Wing 10: PBY s of attacked on Malalag Bay, 279-80, 483n. 35; radio messages of, monitored by Japanese, 474n. 74; and reconnaissance missions of, II3,200-202, 229,470n. 12 Paul, Edward J., 227 PBY-4s, II3, 200, 201, 279-80 Pearl Harbor attack, 258, 276, 278, 479n. 3, 479n. 4. See also Hawaiian operation Perkins, Clarence 0 .,227 P-40S: IIth Air Fleet opinion of, 196,400; performance of, as an interceptor, 470n. 9,47 2n ¡44 P-40Bs: Allison engine performance of, 200; assembled at Nichols Field, 80; climbing time of, 503n. 17; decision to send to Philippines, 40; flrepower inadequacy of, 62; inadequacy as interceptor, 200; over C lark Field, 116, performance against Zero, 386; and Prestone supply, 80, IIO P-40Es: arrive Manila, I57; deliveries of to I7th Pursuit Squadron, 157, 162, to 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 157, and to 21st Pursuit Squadron, 478n. 40; flying characteristics of, 222; guns of not test-fired, 233; hydraulic gun chargers plugged, 245; as an interceptor, 225; shipment of to Philippines, II8; throw oil, 329; in Vandenberg Philippine air defense plan, 53

Philippine Air Depot, 197, 198 , 2II, 232-33 Philippine Army, 38-39 Philippine Army Air Corps, 84, 87 Philippine Defense Project, 83-84 Philippine Department: aerial reinforcements to, 36; anti-aircraft defenses of, 24; morale problem in, 88-89; working hours of, 46, 76. See also Grunert, George Philippine Department Air Force (PDAF): and arrival of 41-B pilots, 74-'75; Clagett selected to command, 70; and 4th Composite Group move to Clark Field, 107; interceptor control system of, 120, 121; name change of to Air Force, USAFFE, II7, II8; organization of, 87 Philippines: as base for air offensive operations , 17-18, and for training new pilots, 23; defense planning for, 423; excluded from Japan's sphere of influence, 448n. 47;Japanese prewar reconnaissance flights over, 472n. 44, 475n. 16; as threat to Japanese southward movement, 94, 104; U.S. military policy toward, 15. See also Philippines, defense of Philippines, defense of: anti-aircraft defenses of, 84,193; B-17s role in, 97; military reinforcements for, 188; political considerations in, 423; and revised Rainbow 5 War Plan, 175;War Department policy toward, 15,94, 446n. 3. See also air defense, Philippines; War Department Phillips, Robert W, 379, 50rn. 22 Phillips, Tom S. v., arrival Manila, I90, 192-93, 468n. 32; arrival Singapore, 468n. 23; and conference with Hart, 184, 193; and plan for joint British-U.S. naval operations, 190, 193 Pineau, Roger, 410 Pirie, George c., 50, 451n. I9 "Plan Dog," 37 Plans Division, OCAC, 1652, 53-54 Polikarpov 1-15 ,28 Polikarpov 1-16,28 Port Moresby, 146 Posten, John, 395 Pothier, Bernard, 336 Powell, Bill, 310, 398, 490n. 46, 501n. 24; in combat over Clark Field, 329-30, over Iba, 351-52; at Lingayen, 371, 387, 406; at Rosales, 388


INDEX Powell, Elmer "Bud," 162 Prince of Wales, 193,232 Privy Council, 31 Provisional Tank Group, 386 P-35,80 P-35As: assembled at Nichols Field, 49; assigned to pursuit squadrons, 80; buzz USAT Washington, 74; in combat with Zeros, 358; engines of wearing out, 140,247; lose canopies, 139; as replacements for P-26As, 45, 80; redesignated from Seversky EP-IS, 36; in 17th Pursuit Squadron, 63; training in, no; and wheel strut repair need, no P-26As, 25, 63; assigned to 17th Pursuit Squadron, 45; in Iba maneuvers, 55-56; as obsolete aircraft, 59; reconditioning of, 46; transferred to Philippine' Department, 24; transition training in, 64, no Purnell,William R., 192,417 Putnam, Walter "Benny": assumes comnland of 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 128, 139-40; attempts interception of intruders, 472n. 4; in Clark Field attack, 312-13, 323; and P-35A canopy accident, 460n. 22; transferred as CO of Headquarters Squadron, 139-40 Quezon, Manuel, 38, 192,414 Rabaul,146 Railing, Bill, 337 Rainbow 5 War Plan: approved by Joint Board, 43; and cooperation with Associated Powers, I04; delivered to MacArthur, 174-'75; 463n. 7, 466n. 61; mission of, 43,104; tasks included in, 175 Rayl, Lewis E., 227 Reigarzo airdrome, 282 Repulse, 193,232 Rice, Glenn, 337 Richards, Harrison H. C: assigned FEAF as Air Corps Inspector, 205; and Brereton arrival, 173; and Clagett, 72, 85-86,125; and Darvall meeting, 82; Gregg opinion of, 68; Grunert criticism of, 67; and Hemingway visit, 78; and Dutch East Indies mission, 125; relieved as Air Officer, 205; seeks block 4th Composite move to Clark Field, 107, 108; unhappy with new PDAF command arrangement, 87

Richardson, Frank L., 389, 390 Richardson, Robert D., 227 Riegei,James S., 227 rikkii, 464n. 24, Rikiigun K6kii Shikan Gakko, 272 rikujii kogeki-ki, 464n. 24 Rizzolo, John, 385 Robb, Stewart, 361, 362, 373 Roberts, Fred, 310, 398; in charge at Iba after attack, 389; in C lark Field combat, 329-30; crash- lands off Iba, 352, 357; in Iba combat, 351-52; and Iba devastation, 389; identifies squadron dead, 389; rescued by 3rd Pursuit men, 496n. 32; takes squadron wounded to Manila, 405 Robertson, William A. R. "Robbie," 55-56, 58,72,76 Robinett, George, 394 Rockhampton, 146 Rogers,Jack, 226, 227, 242 Roland, Orville, 342 Roosevelt, Franklin D.: anticipates assault on Philippines, 185; at Argentia Conference, 96; and B-17s release to MacArthur, 96; considers bombing Japan, 40; and defensive stance in Pacific, 40; and deterrent strategy, I02; and embargo against Japan, 35; expects Japanese attack, 185; and Far East operations opposition, 54; freezes Japanese assets, 94; and "Germany First" approach, 423; and global strategy formulation, 40; and Japanese expeditionary force movement south, 189; and military strategy toward Japan, 182; opposes Philippines reinforcements, 423; recalls MacArthur to command USAFFE, 94; sets up new army command in Philippines, 94 Root, Richard "Hawk," 50In. 24; killed at Iba,344,345,39 0 , 397, 494 n . 8 Rosales Field: B-18 flow to after attack, 322, 499n. 8; construction at, 164; P-40S at shifted to Nichols Field, 393; 3rd Pursuit Squadron at, 388-89; 20th Pursuit Squadron transfer to, 152 Rowe, Bill, 126-27 Ruegg, Bob, 392 Ryiijii: aircraft capacity of, 465n. 2; aircraft carried, 253; assigned nth Air Fleet, 151; assigned Davao strike force, 253; availability of to nth Air Fleet, 148; and car-

549


550

INDEX

Ryl1jii (cont.)

rier training for 3rd hj pilots, 161, 462n. 55; and Davao attack mission, 252-53, 275,279,280; dropped from Luzon attack plan , 171; and fighter squadron of, 279-80, 483n. 36; planned for Luzon attack, 167; as target for 19th Bomb Group, 502n¡3,502n¡40 Sacramento Air Depot, 243 Saeki,Yoshimichi, 295, 327, 472n. 46, 487n . II, 492n. 25 Sagara, Mutsuo, 275, 280 Saigon, 196 Saito, Masahisa, 165 , 231 ,240,249, 478n. 4 Sakaguchi, Otojiro, 400, 497n. 15 Sakai, Saburo, 216, 239,289,305; arrives over Clark Field, 318; arrives Formosa, 140; and Clark Field bombing, 320; in Clark Field attack, 331-33, 493n. 34; 493 n. 35; 496n. 2, 498n. 33; escorts rikkii after attack, 326; and 1st kij accident, 286; and fog delay, 267-68; and fuel consumption of Zero, 202; and Grashio combat, 498n. 33; and ground strafing competition, 215-16; intercepts Japanese Army bombers, 294-295,486n.9,487n. 10,487n. II; meets with novice pilots, 140-41; and PBY reconnaissance over Formosa, 201; and Pearl Harbor attack news, 269; return flight to Formosa, 370; and shiilai of, 472n. 46, 493 n . 35 Sakai, Toshiyuki, 472n . 46 Salvatore, Alexander, 392 San Marcelino, 212, 242, 391, 392,405 Santa Ignacia, 370, 498n. 26 Sasaki,Yoshikane, 496n. 5 Sato,Yasuhisa, 401, 472n. 46, 496n. 3 Savage, Charles M. , 67, 87, 205 Sawada, Shigeru, 19 Sayre, Francis B., 24, "7, 192 Scanlon, Martin E, 235 Schmitt, Arthur, 173 Schoebert,Joe,4 19 Schramm, Eric, 342, 253 Schwanbeck, Ray, 173 , 303, 304, 313, 314 SCR-197s: at FEAF Headquarters, 283; at 19th Bomb Group Headquarters, 304; at 24th Pursuit Group Operations, 300, 307,308,336, 495n. 17; warning messages received by, 300, 307

SCR-270B, 226; allocation to AWS detachments, 243; arrive Philippines, 138, 464n. 19; at Cape Bojeador, 242, 283; at Iba, 225-27,235-36,254,264-65,298-99, 305-306341,347,355; monitors Jap. bombers Dec 8th, 341; picks up bogies, 254,264; range of, 488n. 21; requested by Campbell, 131 ; shipments of to Philippines, 132 SCR-271s: and Air Warning stations, 206; arrive Philippines, 120; put in storage, 243, 464n. 19; requested by Campbell, 131 Seamon, Walter, 404 Second China Fleet,Japanese Navy, 27 2d Observation Squadron, 56,76, 152, 219; operates obsolete aircraft, 60; pilot strength of, 25, 48,106 2d Weather Reconnaissance Unit, 252 Seeborg,Arvid,120-21 , 13 2,244-45 Selfridge Field, 36 Seto,MaSuzo,288,295,3 27,3 26-27, 358 Settsu, 232 701St Ordnance Company, 220 17th Bomb Squadron, 213 17th Bombardment Wing, 248 17th Pursuit Group, 45 17th Pursuit Squadron, 74, 279,383, 484n. 48, 494n. 45; aircraft accidents of, II6; on alert, 198,221-22; Dec. 8th patrol during Clark Field attack, 340, 382, 383, 499n. 2; at Del Carmen, 394, 396, 405; George briefing of, on war imminence, 240-41; and Gregg farewell dinner, 81-82; at Iba for gunnery practice, 107, 109, II2, II3; and move to Del Monte, 220, 222, 238, 473n. 58; night flying practice of, 199-200; operates obsolete P-26As, 59-60; ordered to Philippines, 36, 46; and P-40Es in commission Dec.8th, 246; P-40E deliveries to, 157; P-40Es of flown to Clark Field after attack, 393 ; and P-40E guns not test fired, 233, 246; and P-40E hydraulic gun system deactivated, 246; P-40Es test-flown, 162; pilots assigned to, 74, 106, 108; pilots of transferred to 21st Pursuit Squadron, 247; reassigned to 24th Pursuit Group, 137; and training of pilots, II2-13, 246; and Tarlac mission, 284, 285, 291-92, 297; and transfer back to Nichols frOI11 Iba, 15 2 , 157


INDEX 7th Bomb Group, r64, 206, 238, 243 7th Materiel Squadron, 198,220,409 Seversky EP-1, 36 Shaffion,Wash,348 Shedd, Morris, 173,207 Sheppard, William "Red," 54, 63,108, 222; concern over lack of interception practice, 246; shifts squadron equipment to [ba, ro8 Shibata, Takeo, 150, 399; and lIth Air Fleet study meeting, 165; and Philippines direct attack plan of, 149-50, 167--'71 Shimada, Koichi, 399, 465n. 42, 501n . 33; evaluates results of Luzon attack, 402; and Luzon attack plan, 251-52, 477n. 24; and weather reconnaissance mission, 25 2,271 Shimada, Shinichi, 240 Shimakawa, Masa-aki, 160, 231,269, 460n. 8; carrier training of, 159-61; in Clark Field combat, 328, 333; Right of to Clark Field, 295,298,305, 487n. 19; and fog delay, 268; preparations of for Clark Field mission, 249, 250, 269; and return Right of to Formosa, 333, 370, 401; takes off from Tainan, 288-89; transfer of to Takao Base, 140; and Zero fighter, 141, 240 Shimokawa, Manbei, 21-22 Shind6,Sabur6,22,28 Shing6, Hideki, 166,268,401, 481n. 13, 498n. 26; arrives Takao, 141; and carrier train.ing for Tainan k,] pilots, 160-61; chiitai of in Clark Field attack, 331-33, 358; on Clark Field attack mission, 295--96,318; and combat time allowed over Clark Field, 481n. 12; designated Tainan k,] Rying leader, 141; on Right to Clark Field, 294; and ground strafing competition, 215-16; and Luzon direct attack plan, 465n. 40; and P-40 encountered at Santa 19nacia, 370, 498n. 26; and radios ordered removed from Zeros, 288, 48rn. 12; reputation of, 142; shotai of in Clark Field combat, 370, 491--92n. ro, 492n. II; and study meeting at 1rth Air Fleet Headquarters, 165-66; and take-off from Tainan for Clark Field mission, 288; and training program introduced for pilots, 142 Shinohara, Ryokei, 382,401, 499n. 1

Shiokaze, 275

Shirane, Aya-o, 28 Signal Intelligence Service (S[S), 414 Singapore naval base, 42 "Singapore talks," 43 Singora, 195, 479n. 4 16th Bomb Squadron, 213 16th Naval District, 307, 340, 48rn. 4, 484n. 44 Slane, Andrew, 499n. 4 Smallwood, james c., 227 Sm.ith,joe, 335 Smith, Walter Bedell, 208 Sneed, Charley, 266, 285, 292, 297, 385 Snyder,William A., 227,242 Sorensen, Edgar P, 235 Sorrell, Arthur, 498n. 39 Sorpl, 148, 166 South China Army, 39 "southern advance," 93 Southern Army, 181, 183 Southern Operations: and Army-Navy agreement on air force division in Luzon attack, 183, 487n. 18;ArmyNavy operational agreements for, 183; and Basco airfield seizure, 195; British Malaya airpower discounted in, 191; date for commencing of set, 191; IIth Air Fleet role in, 148; endorsed by Imperial Conference, 93; and Malaya operation, 195,258, 467n . 21, 479n. 4; and orders to attack, 183; and Philippines operation, 193, 195; planning for, 99,104; and Thailand landings, 195; 25th Army in. 195; as violation of international law, 191; war games for, 99 Soviet-American cooperation, 189 Sowa,john, 367 Spaatz, Carl: with AAF staff, 235; and additional staff for FEAF, 199; and airpower strategy for Philippines, 16; and Brereton assign.ment, 142-43, 153; and role of strategic airpower, 52; and "Strategic Estimate of the Far East," 234; and study on airpower role in Far East strategy requested by Stimson, 135; and Vandenberg for Plans Division, 50 Spigler,john, 177 Sprague, Charles "Bud," 7 I, 177, 281, 392; arrives Philippines, 75; assigned as S-3 in PDAF, 75; and Dec. 8th interception order to Grover,306,419,490n.44,490n.

551


552

INDEX

Sprague, Charles "Bud," (cont.) 49; degree of responsibility for Clark Field disaster, 419; and Iba radar reports, 299; leads B-I7s to Clark Field, 460n. 16; and Pearl Harbor attack, 275-'76; 482n. 26 Stark, Harold R. , 18, 37, 188, 463n. 12; and British-American military cooperation plans, 184; and B-I7 as a deterrent, 98; informed of Pearl Harbor attack, 259; meetings of with Roosevelt, 40,182,185; opposes oil embargo against Japan, 94 Steele, Don: arrives Iba, 356, 496n. 31; in Clark Field combat, 330; heads for Clark Field, 307, 309, 322; lands in riverbed, 357,372-'73; at Olongapo, 388- 89, 397 Sternberg Hospital, 86 Stimson, Henry 1., 36, 44, 71, 97, 259-<>0; appointed Secretary ofWar, 35; and A-WPDIr presentation, 133-34; and B-I7S arrival in Philippines, 182; and B-17 as deterrent, 97, 421; and B-I7 production diversion, I02; and decision to send B- 17S to Philippines despite risk, 461n. 35; and defense of PhiIippines, 35, 134-35; delivery of supplies to Philippines preoccupation of, 194-95; and deterrent strategy, I02; ignorance of regarding aircraft characteristics, 460n. II; informed of Pearl Harbor attack, 259; and Japanese expeditionary force report, 189; and negotiations with Japanese, I03I04; 182; and Roosevelt, 40,185,189; and strategic situation in the Far East, 103, 134-35,414; and Vladivostok as landing field for heavy bombers, 189 Stinson, Lloyd, 324, 336, 385 Stitt, Austin: and camouflage painting of B-I7, 284-85; in Clark Field attack, 317,326,334; helps salvage B-I7s, 395; post-attack activities of, 377-'78, 378-'79, 396 "Strategic Concept of the Philippine Islands," 144-45 Strathern, William "Willie," 313, 49rn. 4 Street, Orville, 341,347, 494n. I "Study of Air Force for USAF FE," 131 Suda,Yoshizo, 231, 251, 289, 342, 343 Sugio, Shigeo, 359-<>0, 400, 496-97 n . 7 Sugiyama, Gen, 99, 181 Summers,Julius "Zeke," 248

Sutherland, Richard K.: authorizes Formosa reconnaissance mission , 486n. 5, and shooting down bogies, 237; and basing of B-I7s on Mindanao, 2II; and Brereton on air operations status Dec.8th , 300; and Brereton Formosa bombing request, 277,281-82,283,410,412,488n.25, 489n . 39; and Clark Field attack, 391; and Davao attack, 483n. 40; interferes with Brereton tactical decisions, 413; and MacArthur order, 296; and Pearl Harbor attack, 260, 276, 482n. 27; in Phillips meeting, 193; and Rainbow 5 War Plan, 175 Suzuki, Tetsutaro, 214 Tagaytay Ridge, 242 Taichung Naval Air Base, 232 Tainan Kokiitai, 231, 249, 472n. 47; carrier training of, 159-<>1; claims of in Clark Field attack, 401, 403, 496n . 3, 50 rn . 32, 50rn. 34; in Clark Field aerial combat, 3I8,332-33,491-92n. 10; and Clark Field mission, 196,231,239,268-69,288, 487n. 19; and Clark Field strafing, 326-28, 33I-33,358,492n. 24,492n. 26,493 n . 33; and Del Carmen attack, 270, 358, 482n . 16, 496n. I; and direct attack on Luzon plans, 165-66, 465n. 40; and escort of rikko on attack mission, 268-69, 326; and 1st ku take-off accident, 286; flight of to Clark Field, 295-96; 305, 318, 486n. 9, 490n. 41; formation of, 140; ground strafmg ¡competition of, 215-16; intercepts returning Japanese Army bombers, 294-95, 486n. 9, 487n. 10, 487n. II; loses Zeros to Malaya operation, 196; losses of during attack, 401, 493n. 30, 496n. 3; order of batde of Dec. 8th, 428-29; ordered to Tainan base, 141; and parachutes carried on attack, 485n . 9; pilots of, 141, 428-29, 478n. 44; preparations of for attack mission, 250, 478n. 44; reconnaissance unit of, 214, 230, 240, 402, 476n. 15; return of to Formosa, 370, 401, 50rn. 27; shotai of, 472n. 46; training of for Zero range extension, 202;Type 96 carrier fighters of, 271; Zero strength offor Clark mission, 240, 428-29 Tainan Naval Air Base, 141-42,231; and B-17 attack possibility, 286, 484n. 42;


INDEX construction of, 141; fog covers, 267; and Luzon attack mission, 475n. 6 Taiya, 148 ,253, 465n. 41; and role in Luzon attack plan, 167, 171 Takagi, Sokichi, 95 Takahashi, Chihaya, 171,214,266 Takahashi, lbo, 184 Takao Communications Unit: intercepts American radio messages, 230-31, 266, 474n¡74,481n.8,481n.lo,485n¡54 Takao Harbor, 281 Takao Kokiitai: bombs Clark Field,319, 320, 492n. 13; bombs lba Field, 342-43; and claims of in attacks, 502n. 35; converted to land based attack bomber unit, 140; flight of to Luzon, 289, 298, 487n. 20; mission of to attack Luzon,.239, 251, 288; moves to Takao, 161; prepares for Luzon attack, 196; returns to Formosa, 399; and southern operations briefmg, 231; and training of, 232 Takao Naval Air Base, 140, 162,282; false reports to ofB-17s approach, 485n. 54; 486n. 9, 487n. lO; fog envelops, 269, 270"-71; and Luzon attack preparations at, 196,217; and Pearl Harbor attack message received, 269 Takenaka, Flyiizu, 170 Tanaka, Kuniyoshi: assigned to Tainan kl~, 141; in Clark Field attack, 318, 331; on flight to Clark Field, 295-96; as Shingo wingman, 142; and war decision, 231 Tant, Nornlan, 275,478n. 42, 482n. 25 Tarlac, 284, 291-92, 309, 486n. 5 Tash, Earl, 406; in combat over Clark Field, 331,366-67; flight of back to Del Monte, 368,398; flight of to Clark Field from Del Monte, )23, 485n. 53; repair need of B- 17D, 285 Tasker H. Bliss, 163 Taylor, Bill, 378 Taylor, Willis, 71, 75 Teats, Edward, 236 Teborek, Flay, 278 Templeton, Billy, 369 "tent city," 46 ter Poorten, Hein, lOl, 147-48 Terauchi, Hisaichi, 181, 183, 187, 191 Terrill, Harry, 346, 354 3d Fleet, 183 3d Hikoshidan , 183

3d Kokiitai: carrier training of, 151, 161; claims of in attack, 402-403, 50rn. 34; in Clark Field attack, 358-60, 497n. 22; and complement of Zeros, 150; converted to fighter unit, 150; and direct attack plan, 170; flight to lba, 289, 290, 494n. 3; fuel-saving training of, 202; ground gunnery practice of, 217; and lba attack, 342, 348, 494n . 8,495m.20,495n.21;and lba to Clark flight, 495n. 16, 496n. 31; loses Zeros to Malaya operation, 196; losses in attack, 495n. 15, 495n. 19; and maintenance of aircraft, 217; and mission briefing, 252; moves to Takao, 161-62; and Nichols Field as mission target, 239; order of battle of Dec. 8th, 430-31; ordered to attack Clark Field after Iba, 270; picked up by radar, 298; and P-40 performance, 400; pilots of, 150,430-31, 485n. 61; preparations of for attack, 196, 250-51; reconnaissance unit operations of, 214, 230, 402, 476n. 15; return of to Formosa, 370, 399-400, 50rn. 26; target of switched from Nichols to lba, 270, 482n. 16;Type 96 fighters of, 271; Zero strength of, 464n. 26 3d Pursuit Squadron, II4, 240-41, 292, 309-lO, )22, 490n. 50, 49rn. 53; on alert status, II3, 198; aircraft of wrecked, II6; attempted interceptions of bogies by, 235-36,254,264-65; and Clark Field combat, )28-30, 491n. 10; and CO changes, 225; and Del Monte move, 220,224-25,238, 473n . 58; evacuates lba, 390,405; in lba attack, 341-42, 345-47,356-57; Iba attack casualties of, 389-90, 500n. II, 500n. 12; lba gunnery training of, 152, 157, 159,225; and lba maneuvers, 55-56; interception practice of, 133,236,246; Mt. Pinatuba combat of, 355-56; and Nichols Field false alert, 406; ordered to cover Manila instead of lba, 306-307; operates obsolete P-26As, 59-60; oxygen supplies of, 245-46; and Pearl Harbor attack, 278-'79; P-40Bs assigned to, III; P-40ES of, 157,225,245, 388; and P-40E guns, 233, 245; P-40E losses of, 398, 500n. 24; pilots assigned to, 25, 48, 74, lO6; pilots of transferred to 21st Pursuit Squadron, 247; P-35As of 139, 140, 460n. 24; reassigned to 24th

553


554

INDEX 3d Pursuit Squadron (cont.) Pursuit Group, 137; and party for Robertson, 77; at Rosales , 388, 393; and training for new pilots, IIO; and transfer to Clark Field, I09 30th Bomb Squadron: in Clark Field attack, 376; evacuates C lark Field, 394; and infusion of new pilots, 163; operations tent of, 378, 380; personnel of KIA in attack, 499n. 4; and practice alerts, 229; and prewar reconnaissance of Formosa, 476n.I8 38th Reconnaissance Squadron, 243 31st Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army, 388 - 89, 499 n . 9 34th Pursuit Squadron: arrives Philippines, 213; assigned to Del Carmen, 213, 472n. 41; assigned P-35As, 213; in combat near C lark Field, 361-62, 493n . 35, 496n. 2, and over Del Carmen, 361-62; at Del Carmen, 361; evacuates Del Carmen, 373; flies daily patrols, 247; patrol over Clark Dec.8th morning, 284, 484n. 48; pilots of, 240--41, 247; P-35As of, 247,361-62; and take-off order II:45 Dec.8th, 301, 490n. 51, 497n. IO; victory claims of, 496n. 3 Thomas, Melvin, 159,227, 341 ,3 47,355 Thompson, Francis, 284,317, 49In. 8 Thorne, Henry G. "Hank," 245, 279, 301; assumes command of 3rd Pursuit Squadron, 225, 470n. r9; and AWS detachment operation, 225; attempts interception of bogies, 235-36, 264-65; attempts interception of bombers Dec.8th, 352, 495n. 21, 495n. 22; and bogies report, 236; and Iba-Clark-Iba flight Dec. 8th, 322, 330--31, 495n. 21; at Nichols Field night Dec. 8th, 397, 406; in night interception practice, 236; orders 3rd Pursuit to Rosales, 349, 352; patrols over lba Dec. 8th, 302; at Rosales, 372, 388-89; transfers surviving P-40S to Nichols, 393, 397 Tills, Robert G., 483n. 35

Tjinigara,

127

Todd, Bill, 227, 341,347 Togo, Heihachiro, 400 Tojo, Hideki, 19,28,29, 187; appointed premier, 104; misrepresents Hull note, 187; reads imperial war rescript to JalJanese public, 26r-62

Tokunobu, Mizuki , 479n. 3 Tominaga, Kyoji, 28 Tomioka, Sadatoshi, 183, 196, 258 Townsend, Ed, 248 Toyoda, Teijiro, 29 Tripartite Pact, 30 Tsukahara, Nishizo, 99, 148, 399; and air raid alarm, 486n. 9; and American air reconnaissance of Formosa, 200--201; and chart exercises, 148-50; and II th Air Fleet Headquarters study meeting, 165; and fog at Takao, 270; and Luzon attack plan changes, 269-70, 271; personality Of,I71 Tuguegarao, 47rn. 36; bombing of, 287, 485n. 58, 486n. 5; as target for Japanese Army bombers, 196, 272 Turner, Richmond Kelly, 259 Twaddle, Harry L., /86 12th Kokutai , 140, 141 20th Air Base Group, 76, 205, 220 20th Pursuit Squadron: accommodations of, 172; aircraft accidents of, II6; on alert, II3, 198; arrival in Philippines, 46; briefing of pilots of on war irnrninence, 240--41; at Clark Field, 152; in Clark Field attack, 320--21, 324, 336, 385-86; and delayed take-off order Dec. 8th, 3II, 420, 490n. 51, 50rn. 33; departure order for Philippines, 36; evacuates C lark Field, 393--94,405; gunnery practice, 200; and infusion of new pilots, 74, I06; and interceptipn practices, 133,200; and night flying practice, 199; operates obsolete P-26As, 59-60; ordered to line for possible interception, 265-66, 278; P-40Bs of in commission, 245; and P-40B guns not test fired, 233; and P-40B revetments, 245; and proposed transfer to Rosales, 464-65n. 33; reassigned to 24th Pursuit Group, 137; and Tarlac interception , 284, 285,292, 484n. 48; training of new pilots of, IIO; transfer of aircraft of to Clark Field, I09 28th Bomb Squadron, 152, 221, 293; accommodations of, 172; assignment of pilots of to B-I7s, 245; B-r8s of, 218, 238, 245; 379,499n.8,500n.I7,50In.22;B-I7S assigned to, 223, 474n. 65; B-I7 pilots reassigned to, 474n. 65; B-17S of strafed, 338; in Clark Field attack, 338, 377,497-


INDEX

98n. 22; commanding officers of, 127, and Del Monte transfer rumor, 172,224; equipped with obsolete B-IOBs, 59-60; evacuates Clark Field, 394-95; and Formosa strike mission, 500n. 15; and 4th Composite Group, 76; and infusion of new pilots, 48, I06, III, 163,223, 474n. 67; and mock raids, I2J, 132-33; personnel of KIA at Clark Field, 499n. 4; pilot strength of, 25, and proposed transfer of to Cabanatuan, 464n . 33; redesignated as heavy bomber squadron and assigned to 19th Bomb Group, 204; transfer of pilots of to other squadrons, 223; and transition training to B-17s, 245 21st Pursuit Squadron: arrives Philippines, 213; assigned P-35As, 213, P-40Es, 246, 478n. 40; awaits take-off orders Dec 8th, 279, 292; at Clark Field after attack, 394,395,404-405; in combat over Clark Field, 328-29; and Dec. 8th flight split, 302; and flying over Clark Field Dec. 8th, 309-IO, 322; and infusion of pilots, 247; at Nichols Field, 213; ordered to cover C lark Field, then Manila, 301, 307, 489n. 32; patrols over Manila Bay during attack, 340; and P-40E dispersal, 246-47; and P-40E engines throw oil, 302, 329; and P-40E guns installed, 247; and P40E gun charging systems, 247; P-40Es of transferred to Clark Field after attack, 393; pilots of briefed on imminence of war, 240-41 24th Pursuit Group: casualties of in attack, 409; disbelief of in reported Zero performance, 241; doubts about interception capability ofP-40E, 241; establishment of, 137-38; and low opinion ofJapanese pilot capabilities, 241; and night interception practices, 246; officers of, 432-34; P-35A accidents of, 207-208; and Tarlac interception mission, 413; and training of pilots, 199-200 24th Pursuit Group Operations:AWS messages received at, 299, 300-301, 306, 307308; and air warning tests staged, 222-23; hangar of, 138; interceptor control system at, 244-45; and lack of communications coordination with 19th Bomb Group Operations, 284, 418-19; SCR-197 of 308 , 33 6 , 340, 49 0n . 46, 494 n . 45, 495 n .

17; "Tally Ho" calls of, 308, 309, 322, 490n. 46, 494n. 45; and teletype installed at, 244, 300, 478n. 36, 490n. 49 25th Army, 191, 195,258 27th Bomb Group, at Army-Navy Club for football game broadcast, 22 I; arrives in Philippines, 213; assigned to Fort McKinley, 213; and A-24s arrival date, 213;A-24S oflack bomb bands, 233; and base confinement exception, 247-48; at Brereton dinner, 245; excluded from Eubank's plans, 242; and Formosa strike mission, 392, 500n. 15; and pilot reassignments after attack, 392; scheduled departure of for Philippines, 164 23rd K6kusentai, 170, 266, 399 200th Coast Artillery Regiment: antiaircraft guns emplaced at Clark Field, 218,244; arrives Philippines, 163; at Clark Field, 469n. 2; in Clark Field attack, 324, 334, 335, 493 n. 37; defective shells of, 324; fires on 20th Pursuit Squadron planes, 374; and 37 mrn guns in attack, 493n. 37 Tyson, Herb, 346 Ugaki, Matome, 188, 191

Umi Yukaba,

262

U.S. Army Air Forces, 122, 131 U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE): and Baguio strike flight report, 484n. 44; defense cooperation of with Associated Powers, 104; defense responsibilities of widened, I04; as deterrent to Japanese southward movement, 96; established by Roosevelt, 94; and Japanese carrier report, 502n. 40; and transfer ofB-17s to Mindanao, 413 USAFFE Headquarters: building of, 276-77, 390; Special Orders 83 of, 413, 473n. 58, 85 of, 413 USAT Etolin, 45,57 USAT President Coolidge, 120 USAT Presiderlt Pierce, I06 USAT R epublic, 72,74 USAT Washington, 74,75,79 Vanaman, Arthur W, 235 Vance, Reginald, 220, 473n. 57 Vandenberg, Hoyt S.: and airpower doctrine, 85,122-23; and A-WPDIr preparation,

555


556

INDEX

Vandenberg, Hoyt S. (cont.) 121-24; at Army War College, 16, 51; and B-17C range, 447n. 12; and Burt, 61; and Dowding discussions, 50, 451n. 18, 451n. 19; and 1939 memorandum of on Far East air operations, 16-18,52; and Philippines air defense planning, 51-54, 84-85, 98,422; and P-40B unsuitability, 62; in Plan Division, OCAC, 50,51 , 53-54; and Spaatz, 50; transferred to A-3 position, 122; and War Department planning, 85; and War Plans Division study on Air Forces requirements, 85 Vasey, Lou, 159,227 Verity, George, 395 "Victory Program," 96, 122, 124, 421-22 Vigan , 195, 476n. 18 Vladivostok: as landing field for U.S. heavy bombers, 102, 145, 155, 185,208, 463n. IO VP-IOl, 470n. 12 Wagner, Boyd "Buzz," 82, II3, 126, 394; as CO of 17th Pursuit Squadron, 69, 76, 78; and Dec. 8th Manila patrol, 307-308; and rught interception practice, 237, 245; and Tarlac interception, 284, 285 Wainwright, Jonathan, 403 Wakao, Akira: chutai of in combat outside Clark Field, 358, and strafes Clark Field, 326-27; damage sustained by chiitai of, 382,401; losses of chiitai of in attack, 358, 401, 496n. 3; and take off from Tainan, 288 Walker, Kenneth, I22, 123, 133-34, 143, 45 8n ¡4 8 Walsh, Birrell " Mike," 156,276,277 War Department, IOl, 468n . 35 , 479n. 6; and Air Board Report, 16; and airpower build-up in Philippines, 41 , 96, 422-23; and airpower role in military operations, 17, 52; and aviation reinforcements for the Philippines, 26, 80, 210; and Clark Field attack, 391; and cooperation with British on Far East defense, IOl; and deterrent strategy, 102,422; and Dowding visit plans, 41; and evacuation of Army dependents from Philippines, 58;Japanese attack timetable, 422; and Philippines airfields adequacy, II9, 164; Philippines defense policy of, 15-16, 35, I04, 423, 446n. 3; and Philippines

reinforcements, 41, 84, 423; strategic decisions of re Philippines, 421-23; and tours of Philippine Department officers extended, 58; and Tripartite Pact reaction of, 35. See also Marshall, George C.;War Plans Division War Mirustry,Japan, 20, 27, 39-40 War Plan Orange, 15 War Plans Division: and aircraft deliveries to Philippines, 234-35; and aircraft warrung service for Philippine Department, 26; and anti-aircraft defense upgrading in Philippines, 25; and AWPD planrung role, 85, 463n. 12; and deterrent strategy, 144-45; military policy of toward Philippines, 15, 18-19; and Philippine Army capabilities, 38-39; and Philippine aviation reinforcements policy of, 18-19; and risk of sending B- 17S to Philippines, 461n. 35. See also Gerow, Leonard T;War Department Weaver, James, 324 Webb, Andy, 348, 390 Weden, Willard, 242 Wegner, Jacobus, 82 Wellman, Otto, 338 Wheeler, R. A. , 186 Wheless, Hewitt "Shorty," 278, 284, 293, 383 Whitcomb, Ed, 404, 407; in Clark Field attack, 313-14, 325, 337; makes copies of Formosa maps, 304, 404 White, Theodore H., 38 William B. Preston, 280, 483n. 35 Williams, Greeley B., 338, 491n. 6 Williams, Gus, 303, 328-29, 375 Willoughby, Charles A., 4IO Wilson, Don, 52, 53 Wilson, Francis, 483n. 29 Wimberley, Lonrue, 491n. 8, 497n. 21 Wimer, Charlton]., 227, 341; and Air Warning detachment casualties, 390; briefs Thorne on SCR-270B operations, 225; designated Iba detachment CO, 158; in Iba attack, 355; informs Thorne ofbogies, 235-36, 264 Woolery, Ed, 279, 301; flight of in combat over Clark Field, 329-30; in Iba attack, 344, 354; and Iba-Manila-Clark-Iba flight of, 301-302, 306-307, 309-IO, 322, 490n. 45; at Nichols Field, 376, 397, 406; P-40E of destroyed, 501n. 24


INDEX

Wright Field Material Division,

IIO,

245

XB-24,18 XB-29,447n.12,458n¡46 Yamamoto, Isoroku: anticipates American air attack on Japan, 39; argues for seizure of Philippines, 39; cancels carrier operations and carrier training for Luzon attack, 171; at Iwakuni conference, 183; and map exercises for southern operations, 37; opposes proposed Tripartite Pact, 29; and Pearl Harbor attack plan, 39, 96, 99, 105, 258; and Philippines direct attack plan, 17D-7I; proposes attacks on Philippines and Singapore air forces, 39; seeks early decisive battle, 98; urges preparations for war with U.S., 39 Yamashita, Tomayuki, 191 Yasunobu, Takeo, 267 Yokokawa, Kazuo, 215-16, 332 Yokomizo, Koshir6, 342 Yokosuka K6kutai, 22

Yokosuka Naval Air Station, 21-22 Yokoyama, Tamotsu, 22, 251,290,400, 501n. 26; and banquet for pilots, 202-203; briefs pilots on Luzon mission, 250-51, 252: and carrier training for pilots, 151, 161, 462n. 55; in combat over Clark Field, 358-59, 496n. 4; at IIth Air Fleet study meeting, 165-66; and ground gunnery practice, 217; in Iba Field attack, 342,348; and Luzon direct attack plan, 167-68; return to Formosa from mission, 399; and 3d kii training program, 150; and 12 shi carrier fighter, 22; victory claims of, 496n. 4; at Yokosuka Naval Air Station, 21; and Zero range, 149,202 Yonai, Mitsumasa, 19, 187 Yoshida, Zengo, 19,27,29 Young, Sig, 303, 304, 379 Zambales mountains, 405 ZB-3A, 23, 24 ZO-19E ,23 Zuiho, 148,159-61,167,171, 465n. 42

557


ISBN 1-58544-246-1

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December 8, 1941 : MacArthur's Pearl Harbor  

Rod Hall Collection

December 8, 1941 : MacArthur's Pearl Harbor  

Rod Hall Collection