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HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES Periods of History.-The Philippines' Pre-Spanish Era.-The Spanish Regime in the Islands.-The Erstwhile Philippine Repuhlic.-The American Administration.-The Commonwealth vf the Philippines. PERIODS OF HISTORY.- Unlike the General History of the world which divides itself into Ancient, Medieval and Modern, the History of the Philip~ines is marked with five distinct epochs, viz.: (1) The Pre-Spanish Era; (2) the Spanish Regime; (3) the Erstwhile Philippine Republic; (4) the American Administration; and (5) the Commonwealth of the Philippines, leading to complete Philippine Independence. "It is noteworthy that the Philippines have thus been touched by three civilizations-(a) the Abo?'iginal and the Oriental, (b) the Latin and the European; and (c) the Anglo-Saxon and the distinctly merican . One has been that of the patriarchal, the second that of the ?nonarchical, and the last, that of the democmtic form of government." (') C H APTE R I

THE PHILIPPINES' PRE-SPANISH ERA lIINDU, Chinese and Japanese sources only can be used with advange to look into the ancient history of the Philippines. The Hindus, who now occupy the land badly called East-India, came after 2,000 B.C. from North-west and took POssession, after a hard struggle with the dark-color ed natives Dasyu, of t he Pandschab or Punjab (sanskrit : Pantschanada), that is, the land of five rivers. The Hindus (Sindu) called themselves Arya (Aryans); they were of a light color and formed a trunk (I)

Malcolm: Philippine Government, p. 8

of the Indogermanic race. In time these intruders spread to the South and East, and occupied the country of the ri ver Ganges. The Vedic system of Brahmanism was the prehistoric religilln of the Hindus . Among the states which the Hindus from Ganges southward formed was the most powerful kingdom of Magadha with the royal residence at Radschagriha. Westward from Magadha lived the Kasi with the capital Varanasi (today: Benares), and eastward on both banks of the Ganges the Anga, with the capital Tschampa



(near the modern Bhawalpur). Northward on t he other bank of the Ganges were situated the kingdoms of Vridschi and Mithila. The name Hindu , or Sindu, is derived from the ri ver Indu s or Sind (sanskrit: Sindhu, t his is river) . The language of the Hindu s was Sansk1路it. Brihedratha (1327-1324 B.C.) was t he founder of the kingdom and t he fi rst dyn asty (1327-1207) of Magadha. The people li ved in' villages, some 0f which wel'e surrounded with ramparts as defense against rapacious neighbors. In the second chapter of Genesis is said: "the name of the r iver is Pishon which compasses the whole land of Chawilah where there is gold, bedorah (sanskrit: badam,-this is the cotton-tree), and shohant, or the onyx stone." Pishon is the Ganges and Chawilah is the western India, also called "Ophir. " South of India lies the islan d of Cey lon (Sanskrit: Lanka or Singhala). The chief occupation of the Hindus was agriculture and cattle raising; besides t his, they had horses as draught-animals, sheep and goats. The second dynasty Barhadratha reigned from 1208-803 B.C. in Magadha. The thil'd dynasty Pradjota (803-665) was fo llowed by the dynasty Saisnaga (665403). Under the reign of king Bimbisara (603-551) came Buddha ("Siddhattha Sakya," later on called "Gauta路rna Sramana" and "Sakya Muni/' born 723-died 543), the founder of Buddhism, to Magadha, and the king with thousands of his subjects were converted to the new religion . The Egyptians, Tyrians and Chinese had now entered in commercial relations with the Hindus. Hindu colonists visited the islands of Suma-drah, Ja-vah, and

Prony or Poni (Borneo). Buddhism, as taught by its founder, obliged its fo llowers to a strict, moral life and was almost in every way opposed to Brahmanism with its spirit of caste. Since Bimbisara's son , Adschatasatru (551522), was a lso a convert to the teaching of Buddha, many adherents of the old religion left the country and went to Sumadrah, Ja-vah and Prony where t hey obliged the dark-skinned natives whom they called Dasyu t o retire to t he hilIs or deserts. Under Cisunaga (471-453) had Hindus come to the land northward of Prony ,-Ma-yi-ya, where they had met Chinese and dark skinned Dasyu (Ayta or Aetas). Kalasoka (450-416) left the old capital Rad schagriha and built the new capital Pataliputra (PaJibothra) not far from the present Patna. The kingdoms of Vridschi, Bharata and Kosala and others had been under Adschatasatru united with Magadha. In Suraschtra (Guzarat, Gujarat) reigned the family Pandu, a prince of which had gone to Ceylon in 543 B.C. and had founded a kingdom there, spreading Aryan culture and customs. Chinese merchants had come during the reign of the emperor Lingwarng (571-544) to the land Ma-hi, which was the Chinese name for the Sanskrit name "Ma-yi-ya" and which was the name given to the middle part (with Manila) of what was under emperor Wuti (140-86) called Laoshun (later Lo-zon, Lusong and Luzon) . Chinese traders had also now arrived in Prony (now, "Brunei" or "Borneo") and in Pulilu (sanskrit: Puhi-Iu, now Bohol) . Nanda, a brigand chief, had in 403 B.C. killed the youngest son of Kalasoka and usurped the throne of Magadha (403-377). Under him em-


igrated many Hindus to the island of Sumadrah from where the first Hindu settlers after a terrible fight with the newcomers went to Ma-yi-ya, from which no doubt the name of Manila (Ma-ni-la) is derived. The intruders chased the dark-skinned Ayta (Dasyu) to the hills and mountains and occupied the valleys and the shores. These Hindu wanderers came now also to Pa-lao-yo (Palawan 01' Paragua) . Dasasiddhika (359-352) was the last king of Nanda's house; his barber, Indradatta, fell in love with Queen Sunanda, and killed the king, usurping the throne of Magadha (352-340). His son Dhanananda (340-317) was the richest king of the Hindus. Tschandragupta (317291) founded a new dynasty, Maurja (317-173). He delivered India from the Greek-Macedonian power into which some states had fallen during the expedition of Alexander the Great. His son, Vindusara (291-260), maintained diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria. His son, Asgka (260-219) soon became a follower of Buddha (in 254 B.C.) and under him spread Buddhism all over the country. Asoka built many monasteries (Viharas). Although he did not persecute the adherents of Brahmanism, since his time many dissatisfied Hindus, even such of the better class, left their homes and went to Sumadrah, Ja-vah, and Ma-yiya. In Suma-drah and Ja-vah were Hindu principalities formed, and from time to time sailed Hindus to the northern island, to Say-bu-ya (Cebu), Puhilu (Bohol), Li-tey (Leyte), Pa-lao-yu (Paragua), San-ga (Samar), Limasira (Negros), Ma-yi-ya, etc. Everywhere the newcomers drove t he darkski nned Dasyu and e\'ell descendants



of the first immigrants to the hills, King Devanamprija-Tischja, of Ceylon (Lanka), 245-205 , favored much Buddhism and Ceylon became a principal seat. Precious stones, gold, cotton goods, arms, sandals, earthenware, glass, silk, tea, spices, etc., were brought by Chinese and Hindus to the northern islands,-the present Philippines. Shortly after the death of Asoka, direct relations of Hindus with these islands were discontinued, and descendants of Suma-drah and J a-vah. Hindus occasionally sent boats with newcomers to the Philippine shores. Claudius Ptolemaeus, who was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer, living about 295-265 B.C. at Alexandria, Egypt, called a group of islands to the north of Borneo "Insulae Manilae," which shows that time the letters "y" in Ma-yi-ya were already changed to "n" and "1," thus reading correctly "Ma-ni-la." Ptolemaeus, no doubt, had obtained his information from Arabs who in turn had obtained it from Hindus. The present Negritos are the descendants of the dark skinned Dasyu or Ayta (Aetas) mixed with other blood, and the present Igorrote tribes are descendants of the first Aryan immigrants mixed with blood of Suma-drah tribes whereas the civilized Filipinos-Tagalos, Pampangos, Ilocanos, Pangasinanes Visayans Bicolanos, etc., are more or less pure descendants of the succeeding Aryan immigrants mixed later or often with Chillese blood. The Aryans (Hindus) called the descendants of these immigrants Mo-Arya (Ma-Alaya, Malaya) as they called the peninsula to the south of Siam, where Aryans from Ceylon (Lanka) had t





founded colonies, Ma-Lanka (Malaka, Malakka.) From the time of emperor Wuti (140-86) Chinese traders visited frequently Lao-shun and Ma-hi , and Chinese settlers formed in time the bulk of its progressive colonists. Buddha (this is the enlightened) had t aught the belief in one God, and declared Love the source of all virtues. Buddhism had soon become corrupted and its founder was made one of the many Gods. The adherents of Buddhism accepted customs of other nations a nd the Hindu emigrants to Malakka, Suma-drah, Ja-vah, Ma-hi, etc., became t he worst polytheists. Sanskrit (this is: beautifully 1'egulated) ceased in the fourth century B.C. to be the popular language, and local dialects took its place, whilst Sanskrit continued at the schools and in the writings of Brahmanism and was made later on the court-language. For hundreds of years ther e happened nothing of importance with reference to the Philippine Isla nds. Under Mahmud Ghasni (998-1030 A.D.) was Mohammedanism brought to India and spread gradually all over the country. From here Mohammedanism was propagated to the Malakka peninsula, Suma-drah, J a-vah, Prony and the other islands of the Indian archipelago. From 1214-1236 were Mohammedan principalities founded at Atchen (Suma-drah), Dchokyakarta (Ja-vah) , Menado (Ze-lebis ), Pru-ny (Borneo), Dcho-hor (Malakka) and in Mag-Indana, So-luk (Jolo) and Ter-nate. The title of the rulers of these principalities was "Radchah", in some principalities later on changed to "Sultan". Tchaochu-kua (died 1274) wrote in 1271 A.

D. under emperor Tutsong (1265-1275) about the Chinese trade, telling something of Chinese relations to the land of Ma-yi* and other islands; he had been in India and probably also in KoIn 1382 came Mohammedan rea. Ma-Arya (Malaya) to Ma-ind-uro (Mindoro) and Lu-yu-ban (Lubang). In Lu-yu-ban the Mohammedans built forts with high stone walls, and from here they went to Lo-zon where radchah (rajah) Avi-jir-koya of May-nila (1379-1385) fell in battle. May-nila was at that time the capital of a small principality towards the south of the present city of Manila, whilst another radchah (rajah) resided at Tun-duk (Tondo) . The chief of the intruders, Ahmed, became radchah (rajah) of Maynila. His 14th successor, Soliman ben Mahmaud (1558-1571), was killed by the Spanish invaders under Martin de Goiti. In 1392 were Malakka, Suma-drah, Ja-vah, Pruney, Zelebis, MagIndana, So-l uk, Ter-nate, Ambo-yna, Se-rain, Hal-ma-hey-ra (Dochilolo), Ty-mor, etc., ' entirely, but only small parts of Lo-zon, Ma-ind-uro, Say-bu, Puhilul, lJi-tey, San-gar, Lima-siya, Palao-yu, and Pan-yay, converted to the faith of the Arabian prophet. The Chinese traders saw in the coming of Mohammedan Ma-Arya to the shores of the Philippine Islands a menace to their commerce and existence. The Chinese believed, when they saw that fanatic messengers were passing to and from, between the islands and the Malakka peninsula, that a plot was being formed to destroy them. Chinese relations to the people of the islands became now shorter. Ferdinand Magellan (1521) and Miguel de Legaspi • Philippines



(1565) came at the right time to the and will in t ime take a very important Philippine Islands. If they had not par t in t he enlightenment of the Orient come, Mohammedanism would have and in t he pr ogress and civilization of taken hold of all the islands, and the t he world . ., poor inhabitants would not so quickly Dr. F eodorovitch 's narrations are have come to the light of progress, indeed praiseworthy. They attest his culture and prosperity. high intellect and the variety of his Mohammedan rulers had highly ele- act ivit ies. No doubt ever y Filipmo vated in Europe (Spain) to a great would appreciate t he keen inter est this position among nations, but in the presbyter had t aken in tracing back Asiatic archipelago had Mohammeda- the origin of the Filipino race. nism done very little. It had kept conOther writ ers say : quered lands only in tyrannical submisAs to Early Inhabitants, that long sion. before the discover y of t he islands by Many words in the native F ilipino F erdinand Magellan in March, 1521, dialects can be traced to a Sanskrit the archipelago was inhabited by three origin, and the system of writing which distinct classes of peoples-the Negrithe Filipinos used at the coming of the tos or A etas, the Ea"ly Malayans or Spaniards was of Hindu origin. (See "uncivilized tribes," and the Cultured page 10.) There were in 1565 about Malayans. 50,000 D a s y u (Ayta,-"negritos") , The A etas.- Th e a eta~ are the aborig ines 100,000 of the first Arya immigrants, of these islands . This means t hat, so far as and 400,000 of the late Arya immi- is kn own, they have always lived here. But grants, with 20,000 Chinese living th ey are not all alike, there are at least tw o groups of them. in the Philippine Islands which should One group the better be called Ma-hi or Ma-A" ya Spa niards called Islands. Negritos, because they were short The feudal systems early introduced and black. The in Japan made civil wars and uproars men are on I y common events in that country so that about one hunno relations existed bet ween these isdred an d fortylands and Japan prior to the Spanish fi ve centimeters conquest. Aryan wanderers certainly tall; the women had settled down in Formosa and in are still sho rte r. They have dark the southern Japanese Islands where skins , f lat noses, their traces can be found t o-day. and black hair, Climatic influences, exposure to the w hich is short tropical sun, customs, and t he living and kinky. The together with peoples of different people who live origins formed the complexion of the in the Zambal es Mountains belong different F ilipino tribes, but Negritos to this group . A Negr ito Woman were the first inhabitants of this archipelago whilst the rest of the Filipinos . Fl'om the " Relations oC P hili ppine History o f times preceding the S lln nish Conquest" by the la le Dr. are of Arya or Indogermanic origin, Feodor Feodorovitch, Baron de Stun I'd,

6 The other group of Aetas

are short, like the Negritos, but theill hair i 5 straight, and their skin


t he

Apayaos northern Luzon are of t h is type. They are tall and slender, w i t h Io n g, s h a r p faces and highbridged noses. T heil' eyes are set close together. T he il' hair is Ion g and wavy. T he color of bheil' skin is not uniform i some of t hem are very dark, and others are

i n

is a lighter hrowll. They h a ve round faces, t hie k lips, and small noses. Theil' eyes are brown and aret set far apart. To this group be~ long the Mang.4 Typical M (tlay Boat ya n people, who live in northern Mindoro. The Aetas are slowly disappearing. Once on a time they wandered through the iOl'e5ts of light complexion. on all the larger islands. Then the I ndoneThe later sians came, and later the Malays. Many of the Aetas were taken by them as servants or I n d 0 11 e s ian slaves. The others fled deeper into the woods peoples w h o came to the and mountai ns. As t he population increased, Phi 1 i p pines the forests became sm aller, because more land was cultivated by t he I ndonesians a nd Malays. were not of p u re stock, for The Aetas became fewer a nd fewer, and today they are found chiefly in the mountains they had been of Luzon, Panay, Negros, Mindoro, Pa lawan, III i xed with and Mindanao. the Mongols. The Indone sians.-A second group of fi rst Th e Mongol inhabitants of the Philippines aTe the I ndopeoples lived nesians. It is believed that I ndonesians lived originally ill originally in south-eastern Asia and in the centl'al Asia. island!)' southwest of the Philippines. From Fro m there, there they made their way to t he Philippines. several thouThey did not, however, a ll come at one time. sand yea r ~ There were many waves of peop le t hat came in. \Ve do not know just when the first I ndoago, they began to spr ead Tlesians arrived at the P hi lippines; but it was many thousand!)' cr.f years ago. Some people out in man y AN IGOROT WOMAN, believe t hey came by boats. Other s believe d i 11 'e c t i ons. a representative type of they came by land, which was qu ite possible, So me of t h em for we know that the Ph ilippines were once east- the mountain peoples of wen t s a part of the continent of Asia. ward, m aking the Cordillera M1ountain . Peoples of pure Indonesian stock can still their way in to be traced in these Islands. T hey a r e to be J apan, Formosa, the P h ilippines, a nd other isfo u nd in the mountains of eastern Mindanao, lands. T hose who came to Fonnosa and the Panay, NegTos, and northern L uzon. T he P hili pp ines m ixed with the first grou ps of Mandayas in eastern Mindanao, and !I.'orne of


Indonesians, whcI had already come to these islands from the south. Other Mongols. who had spread into southeastern .A.sia mixed with the Indonesian!'; This exthere. plains why the later groups of people who came into t he Philippines from the southwest were not pure Indonesians.





fer til e lands. Those that came first were rather primitive. Most of the primitive Malays of the present day Ii ve in the mountains. They are not so primitive as the A e ta s. They build houses of boards, and they cultivate the i l' land. They raise maize, camotes, mountain l' ice, A g1'OUp of Moros to b a c co, and The M alays .-Most of the people who many vegetables. But they still have some are found to-day in the valleys and plains barbarous customs. They are pagans. Very few of them have become I Christians or of the Philippines are Malays. They were Mchammedans. The Subanuns of Mindanao il'om the south, from the Malay Penin- and the Tagbanuas of Palawan are of this sula and the Malay Archipelago. They type. came in waves, and spread over the The Malays who came later were semicivilized . The Ifugaos and Igol'ots of northern Luzon, fol' examp le, understand il'l'igatioD. Th ey have converted their mountains into terraces for growing rice. Water is carried to these tel'l'aces by ditches and flumes, so that two crops are often produced in a year. The terraces of the Ifugaos are said to be t he largest in the world. After the primitive and the semi-civilized Malays, there came others \vho were still more civilized . These newcomers had better weapons. They put on more clothes. They hart markets, and weights and measures. Th~y were intelligent and industriom.. They were civilized. The civilized Malays are the ancestors of many of the present Christian and Mohammedan Filipinos. They were neither Christian nor Mohammedan when they first came. They were pagan. But later, Mohammedan }:"riests came from the south and preached to them t he religion of Mohammed. Still later, Spanish priests from Europe preached to them the religion of Christ. \Vhen the Spaniards first found these cultured Malayans, they were Moro women wear a sarong ancl few in number. Now they are many. They a long-s leeved, tight waist.



live along the coasts and in many of the river valleys and plains throughout the islands. Just when the Malays arrived in the PhiHppines is not known.

Vle on ly know tha t as

early as t he fif th century of t he Christian

civilization. The Malays that came to the Philippines at a later period gave s igns of t his Hindu influence. They were, therefore, better civilized than those who had come earli er.

Era, they were found by the Hindus on the island of J ava. This wa s about a thousand years before the Portuguese navigator Vasco de Gama reached India. From Java the Malays probably went to Borneo, and from Bol'nep to the Philippines. It took them many yeaTs to reach these shores. Some of the civilized Malays probably came as late as the fourte enth or fifteenth century, but most of them w er e here at a much earlier period t han that.

The contact between the groups.-When the Malays came to the Philippine5.', they found A etas and Indonesians already here. Some places the n ewcomers occupied peacefully. In other places they met opposition i but they had more knowledge of warfare than the first inhabitants, and better weapons, and were pften 'able to make slaves or servants of the >conquered peoples.

The civilized Malays traveled in a large and swift kind of native boat, called ba'rangay . '"

lived in the plains. These primitive Malays becam e serfs and worked the land~ of their conquerors. Only those peoples who lived in

In each boat was a datu, or chief, with his follower s. Some of the Malays arrived at Luzon, by way of Borneo, Balabac, P alawan, th e Calami an I slands, and Mindoro. Others reached Mindanao, by way of the Sulu Archipelago and Basilan. From Mindanao they came to the Visayan Islands. In t his manner the Malay wanderers found a new home.

The civilized Malays who came last also conquered many of the primitive Malays who

the mountains and forests were not conquered by t he cultured Malays. Later the civilized Malays in the south were converted to Mohammedani ~m i those in the north became Christians.

The chiefs, the

privileged classes, the serfs, and the slaves were nearly a ll converted and civilized.


thos.e who lived in the mountains and forests

Hindu CuUure.-More than two thousand y ears ago Ind ia had a won derful civilization. At that time the Hindus had many great cities. They built large stone houses and pa.l aces. They had systems of writing. * '" They developed poetry and philosophy. They had two great religions __ Brahmanism and Buddhis.m. About fifteen hundred years ago this civilization of the Hindus spread over Burma, S iam, and the island of Java. At that time Java was inhabited by Malays. The neighboring islands of Malaysia were also occupied by the same kind of people. In this way the Malayans were greatly affected by Hindu

· .see

a t¥pical Malay boat on page 6. • • See also palle 10.

remained pagans. The civilized Filipinos have become so mixed and blen ded that to-day the descendants of the primitive Malays cannot be distinguished from those of the cultured Malays. Those whose ancestors were Euuopeans, Indonesians. or Aetas can sometimes be told by their different features.

Men who make a study pf

races believe that in the future there will be a common Malay type, which may be called the Filipino race. (2)

(2 ) From the Brief History of the Philippines. pp. 1-9. by Prof. Leandro H . Fernandez, of the Univer· sity of the Philippines.



The "Filikoned the pin 08,'J in time by the the restrictposition of ed sense of the sun and the w 0 r d, shadow, by were the culthe cocks' tured Malacrow, all d yan tribes, by the han'who, in the est season_ courseof They a Iso their migrahad their tion from own system th e Malay of weights Pen insula, and measlanded 0 n ures, and a the s e ispeculiar lands, bringphonetic aling wit h phabet.> them their ReI igion. h 0 us ehold -The Filipb e longi ngs, A MORO VINTA OR PARAO inos of olden their effects, time believthe customs and the laws of their ed in a Supreme Being called "Bath acountry and the legends of their ances- la" (in Tagalog) or "Cabunian" (in Vitors, which ultimately formed the seed sayan), meaning God . The tradition of the social growth of the present-day of the "bambu," believed to be the Filipinos. origin of man; that of the "baliti", Social and Economic Conditions.- a powerful fetich, and that of the "ticThe Spaniards found the Filipinos then balang", a monstrous being, are but possessing considerable wealth. They instances of their many superstitions. had industries, government, religion Like the Ancient Romans and Persians, and culture of their own. Their chief the Filipinos believed in the existence occupations were agriculture, fishing, of evil and good spirits; thus, infusing weaving and some manufacturing. into their minds an element of fear Their trade was done generally in the which made them the easy objects of form of a barter or exchange of goods. conversion to Christianity by the early At that time there was no money in Spanish missionaries. Government.-Their government, esexistence, but they used beads, gold pecially in the matters of legislation and dusts and other metals in lieu thereof. judicial procedure, resembled that of Many of them were expert sea-farer s, using paraos in their voyages from one the Ancient Romans, except that "there island to another. They divided the were no kings or lords throughout year into twelve lunar months, and recO See ne..xt page





Ancient Laws.-The natives' laws throughout the islands were based upon traditions and customs of the ancestors, promulgated by the chief after consultation with the elders, and same were strictly observed and respected until the first years of Spanish rule. Among the laws then in force were Classes of Society.-There were three those governing the respect of parents conditions of persons among the an- and elders, adoptiori, marriage, husband cient Filipinos, viz : the nobles or head- and wife, property, contracts and partmen; the freemen; and the slaves . The nerships, whjch it is said could be nobles were the datus or rajahs; the favorably compared with those of the freemen (called "Maharlika," in Ta- ancient Greeks and Romans . Partnergalog, or "Tirnawa," in Visayan) were ships were formed and the respective the descendants and relatives of the obligations of the partners enforced. According to headmen. They usually did not pay Penalties were severe. tribute to the chiefs, and could own the Penal Code of Calantiao, written their land and slaves, but had to ac- in 1433, the penalties were death, incompany the headman in war at their cineration, mutilation of the fingers, own expense. The slaves were either slavery, flagellation, being bitten by absolute or semi-slaves, who were made ants, swimming for a fixed time, and such by reason of birth, indebtedness, other discretionar y penalties. Notcaptivity in war, or as a punishment withstanding the seemingly cruel and for offenses. illogical penalties, "the scale of penal-

in t he manner of any kingdom or r epublic; but in every island, and in each province, many chiefs were recognized by the nati ves themselves." Such ch iefs were called "Datus" or "Rajahs", and they ruled over their own "barangays, " or groups of people.


ties and the manner of their execution stand out in bold relief not only as against Greek and Roman laws but also as against prior and contemporaneous Spanish laws, and the proceedings adopted to determine the author of the theft, in case he was not known, compare favorably with the tortures to which the suspected persons were subjected under the Fuero J uzgo and The Partidas," The usual procedure is described by Father Colin as follows: "For the determination of their suits, both civil and criminal, there was no other judge than the said chief, with the assistance of some old men of the same barangay. With them the suit was determined in the following form: They had the opponents summoned, and endeavored to have them come to an But if they would not agreement. agree, then an oath was administered to each one, to the effect that he would abide by what ~vas determined summarily. If the proof was equal (on both sides). the difference was split; but if it were unequal, the sentence was given in favor of the one who conquered. If the one who was defeated res isted, the judge made himself a party to the cause, and all of them at once attacked with the armed band the one defeated, and execution to the required amount was levied upon him. The judge received the larger share of this amount, and some was paid to the witnesses of the one who won the su it, while the poor litigant received the least. "In criminal causes there were wide distinctions made because of the rank of the murderer and the slain; and if the latter were a chief, all his kinsmen



went to hunt for the murderer and his relatives, and both sides engaged in war, until mediators undertook to declare the quantity of gold due for that murdel', in accordance with the appraisals which the old men said ought to be paid according to their custom. One half of that amount belonged to the chiefs and the other half was divided among the wife, children, and relatives of the deceased."

Old Filipino Oath.- The oath taken by the principales of Manila and Tondo in promising obedience to the Catholic Kings of Spain in 1571, was as follows: "Mny the sun divide us in halves, the alligntors bite us, the wo1nen 1'efuse us their fnvors nnd refuse to love us well, if we do not keep our ~()O'1'd. IJ

The Blood Compact.-The oath of friendship or reconcilliation between two enemies was solemnized by blood compnct, that is, taking from each party a few drops of blood which they both drink together with "tuba" (palm wine) , (3) In l'esume, the early Filipinos were by no means savages; they had a culture of their own; they had shown high intelligence and moral virtues, They recognized woman's place in society, Husband and wife toiled for a common benefit. When the curtain of the history of the Philippines was first raised by the advent of the Spaniards in the 16th century, the Filipinos were already in a degree of civilization, (4) ( 3) Paterno. Ln Ant.igua Civiliznci6n de FiliJ)in ll ~. (jl Malcolm, Philippine Government; and Je rnl'gll ll. PhiJinpine H iSlor)'.





THE SPANISH REGIME IN THE ISLANDS Di&overy of the Philjppines.-As a result of the search for the Spice Islands, Hernando Magalhaes (Ferdinand Magellan), a P ortuguese navigator in the employ of Spain, who sailed from Guadalquivir on August 19, 1519, with the ships "S. Antonio," "Concepcion," "Santiago," "Victoria" and "La Trinidad" un d e r his com man d, discovered these Islands on March 16, 152l. FERDINAND Prof. Leandro H. Fernandez, dean of the College of Liberal Art", University of the Philippi nes, in his Brief History of the Philippines, says as follows: UFerdinand MCLuellan.-About twelve years before Columbus discovered America (1492) . a bo)'l named Ferdinand Magellan was born in the little town of Sahrosa, in Portugal. The father belonged to the fourth order of Portuguese nobility, and the boy was brought up as a page in the court of the queen. There he learned astronomy and navigatipn. He went to In dia as a soldier. While in the East, he was sent on various expeditions to Sofala, Malakka, Java, an~ the Molukkas. He was a good soldier, and was made captain. Magellan' s change of allegiance.-Ferdinand Magellan was a brave man. He fou~ht in many battles for his kinm and exposed himself to danger again and again to prove

his loyalty. But he had many enemies, who tried to discredit him with the King. They were successful at last and Magellan lost the royal favor. Consequently, he left Portugal and went to &pain, were he became a subject of Charles V. Early in his service to his new king he asked for a commission to try to find another route to the In dies by sa iling west.



or Spice

l slands.-In 1512, fourteen years after their discovery of the new route to India, the Portuguese discovered the Molukkas, or Spice Islands, the much-desired land of pepper, cinnamon, and MAGELLAN cloves. But at this time nobody knew the exact location of these islands. The Portuguese navigato rs had found them by sailing east. Magellan believed that he could reach th em by sailing west. He though these is路 lands were so far to the east that th ey were really on the western side of the Line of Demarcation, and belonged to Spain j if this was so, the we stern route ought to be shorter than the eastel'll route.

THE VOYAGE OF MAGELLAN 1\1[agellan in search of the western route.'Vith the ' help of his friends Magellan succeeded in laying his plan before the king. He proposed to sail westward. 'Vhen he reached America, he would go south un t il h e found a passage' to the west. This passage would lead him to the Indies. At first the king would not listen to him. But several infl'uential men supported the darin g explorer. They believed that he was 1~



right. Among these men were the bishop of Burgos, the astronomer Ruy' Faieiro, and the wealthy merchant Christopher de Haro. After much persuasion the king accepted. the proposition. He agreed to furnish the necessary money. ships, and men. Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy Faleiro were made joint captains of the expedition, and were to share in the profits. They were also to receive, for themselves and their heirs, the government of any lands they might discover, with the title of uadelantados." The fleet.-Everything was made ready for the voyage, and the order was issued at Barcelona for the departure of the expedition. Faleiro had finally decided not to go, and Magellan was in sale command. He had five sh ips, the Trin'idad, the Victo1"ia, the San Antonio, the Concepcion, and the Santiago. His flagship was the Trinidad. He had about two hundred and seventy men. Thirty-seven of these 'w ere Portuguese; about thirty were Italians; nineteen were Frenchmen; most of the others were Spaniards.

The t'rip to Port Saint Julian..-\\'ith his five vesse ls Magellan sa il ed from the city of Sevi lle on the tenth of August, 1519. His course lay by the Canary Islands, where he stopped for a few days. On the twenty-ninth of November he reached South America, and tu rned southward. In February, 1520, he came to the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, which 'h e entered and explored. Some of his men thought that at last a westward passage was found, but they were disappointed. The crew were getting disheartened, but Magellan's courage never faltered; he bravely kept on sailing to the south. In March, 1520, he arrived at POl路t Saint Julian. The mutiny.-At Port Saint Julian he had serious trouble w ith his crew. There were several men who were jealous of him and tried to break up the expedition. These men told the sa ilors that if they went farther to the south, they would soon have no food; that it was impossible to go far south on account of the cold climate; and that there was no hope of finding a passage to the west. Many of the sailors believed this and mutinied. But Magellan was not afraid. He told his men that he was going to continue the voyage

to the south till he reached the end of South America or found a strait. He suppressed the mutiny and ordered some of the leaders to be executed.

The discovery of the strait.-Magellan was so long delayed by the difficulties with his crew that he did nob leave Port Saint Julian until late in August, 1520. Near Cape Santa Cruz the ship Santiago was wrecked. This made the sailors more discouraged than ever, but Magellan continued sailing southward. At last, late in October, he found the opening he was looking for. A cape at the entrance h~ called the Cape of the Eleven Thousand Virgins. On entering the passage he found it to be long and wide. To the south, at his left, lay an island inhabited by savages. He caned the island Tierra del Fuego, because of the many lights on the shore. It took him more than a month to make his way through the strait. He called the Strait "All the Saints," but it now bears his own name, in honor of his discovery. He completed his passage through the strait on the twenty-eighth day of November. He and his men had suffered much; the ship San Antonio had deserted. The Pacific.-Magellan now began the long voyage across the ocean. His voyage was so smooth and peaceful that he called the body of water the "Pacific." \\7 e must not think Magellan knew that the Pacific was a great ocean. He supposed that by sailing to the north he should soon come to the Indies. So he turned his ships first in that direction and then toward the west. He expected every day to find the Spice Islands; but he sailed on and on without an'iving at the desired land. The scurvy broke out among his crew, because of bad and insufficient food. They suffered terribly from this disease, and twenty of them died. But in spite of these hardships the brave commander kept his face westward. For more than three months he saw no land except too small uninhabited islands, which had neither food nor fresh water. In his disappointment he called these islands the UUnfortunates." The Lad路rones .-Early in March, 1521, he touched at several small inhabited islands.





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Magellan's route on his vO'IJage of The natives came out in their little boats, and Magellan was able to obtain supplies of food and water. There were so many small sailboats in the harbol' t hat Magellan called the islands the Isles of Sails i but the natives stole one of his boats, and he changed the name to the "Ladrones," or I sla nds of Thieves.

MAGELLAN IN THE PHILIPPINES The discove'ry of the Philippines.-From the Ladrones Magellan continued to sail west. He was st ill looking for the Spice Islands. On the sixteenth of March, 1521, he sighted an island on which there were lofty mountains. He afterwards learned that this island was called Zamal; it is now called: Samar. On the following day Magellan landed his worn-out sailors on an island named Humunu or Homonhon, and had two huts built for the sick. This island was not inhabited; but

discovery ,

some natives came fr om t he island of Suluan, in a native prall. These were the first Filipinos seen by th e Spaniards. Naming the new islands.- After about eight days Magellan decided to leave the place because o~ the difficulty in getting food. He sailed to Limasawa, a small island south of Leyte. Here he found a prosperous Filipino village. The Filipinos were cultivating rice and breadfruit_ They had coconuts, oranges, and bananas, as ' well as citron and ginger. On this island Magellan found Rajah Calambu and Rajah Siagu, two Filipino chiefs from Mindanao. These Filipino chieftains were friendly' to the Spaniards; they f easted them a nd exchang ed presents. Before leaving Limasawa, Magellan had Mass c~ lebrated, the first ever celebrated in the Philippines. He erected a cros s, and took possession of the Islands for the king of Spain. He called the Islands the Archipelago



of Saint Lazarus, because it was on t he day of this saint that he reached these shores. Magellan in Cebu.-From the inhabitants of Limasawa, Magellan learned of t he large and rich town of Cebu. Being in great need of food, and unable to obtain a sufficient amount in Lamasawa, h e was anxious to go to Cebu.

The deftt" of Magellan.- I f you look at the map of the Philippines, you will observe that close to Cebu there is a small island called Mactan.

With one of the chiefs as guide, and accompanied by several Filipinos, he set sail for Cebu. This town~' according to the reports of some of Magellan's men, was strongly defended. The king was Rajah Humabon, a powerful chief who had under him as many as twol thousand 路w arriors with lances. In Cebu alone he had eight subordinate chiefs. Several of the neighboring islands belonged to him. The Cebuans seemed to be familiar with the neighboring countries. They knew of China and of the M路olukkas. This would indicate that they had commercial dealings with these countries. Several days bef.ore Magellan came to Cebu, a junk from Siam had anchored in the port. A Moro from the junk remained at Cebu to trade in gold and slaves. Brass gongs made in China werei found in the town. There were other signs, too, that extensive commercial relations existed. Rajah Humabon tried to make Magellan pay tribute. He said) that it was a custom followed by all vessels enteri ng his port. Magellan refused to pay the tribute, declaring that the king of Spai n was the greatest king of aIL Afte:q a time, Humabon became friend ly with the newcomers and exchanged presents w ith them. The Spaniards were allowed to land and visit the town. Trading then began. Spanish bells, minol's, glass beads, red caps, and other trifles were exchanged for the native rice, swine, goats, and fowl s. We should remember that the king of Spain desired Magellan to spread Christianity. Magellan, soon after landing at Cebu, had Mass celebrated. This pleased the people, and after a w hile they desired to be taught the newcomers' relig路ion. Soon more than eight hun dred Cebuans, includi ng Rajah Humabon, were baptized. The queen was also baptized and received an image of the Child J esus.

Mon wrnent to Magellan where he was killed on 111 a,ctan 1sland At the time that Magellan was in Cebu, the island of Mra ctan must have been a pros~ perous community. It had several chieftains, some of whom refused to recognize the king of Spain. Magellan burned one of the villages on this island because its inhabitants refused to obey him. One day a fr iendl y chief of Mactan sent one of his sons to Magellan to ask for help. This chief was called Zula. He was an enemy of Lapulapu, the chief of another village on the sa me island . Magellan was glad to lend aid to his new ally. With three boatloads of Spaniards and twenty boatloads of Cebuans, h e started for Mactan. At dawn on the fol~ lowing day he led out his forces against Lapu~ lapu. But Lapulapu's men proved to be brave and able fighters. They' routed the Cebuans a nd drove t he S paniar ds back to their boats.


Magellan himself was killed. A monument marks the spot where this boldest adventurer and most daring navigator of his day fell. (See 16. ) The vengeance 0/ a slave.-After the death of Magellan, the remaining crew chose Duarte Barboza and J uan Serrano as commanders. Barboza began to treat M"agellan's slave harshly. This slave was a Malay who acted as interpreter between the Spaniards and the Filipinos. To revenge himself on Barboza, he went to the king of Cebu and advised him to seize the ships of the Spaniards. A plot was laid. At a banquet twenty-three of the Spaniards, including Barboza, were killed. Juan Serrano was captured.


established. The native chief s acknowledged the king of Spain and promised to obey him. The 'return trip.-It was decided to send the Trinidad back to Spain bY' way of Mexico. The Victoria was to return by way of the Cape of Good Hope. The Trinidad failed to accomplish the return trip; after great hardships she' fell into Portuguese hands. The Victoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian de Elcano, crossed the Indian Ocean and rounded the Cape of Good Hope. At the Cape


The Spice Islands at last.-Let us not forget that .M agellan was looking for the Spice Islands, and not for the Philippines. He was in search of, a western route to the Indies. On his way he discovered the Philippines acCidentally. After his death the one hundred and fifteen men left of the expedition prepared to resume the voyage. They burned the Concepcion and sailed in the two remainin g ships, t he Trinidad and the Victoria. They passed along the western coast of Mindanao, Cagayan, Sulu, and Palawan. Still seeking fori the famous Spice Islands, they' were guided to the city of Brunei, on the large island of Borneo. At that time Brunei was a prosperous Mohammedan town containing more than twenty-five thousand families . The house of the ki ng was made of stone. There was a brick fort, defended by about sixty brass and iron cannon. The town had an extensive trade in ginger, gums, camphor, and Sulu pearls. From Borneo the two vessels sailed eastward and passed by the Sulu Archipelago. They touched again at Mindanao. Here they captured some natives, who guided t hem to the Spice I s lands. At last, on the eight of November, 1521, they arrived at Tidore. Once in the Molukkas, they began to exchange presents and to trade with the natives. A rich cargo of spices, sandalwood, and gold was obtained. I n Tidore a trading station was

SEBASTIAN DE ELCANO Verde Islands the ship barely escaped seizureby the Portuguese. De Elcano, however, was too clever to be caught. On the sixth of Sep~ tember, 1522, he reached Salllucar de Bal'l'ameda. The circumnavigation of the earth had been accomplished. The good ship l'icto'ria had circled the globe. Of the five vesselsthat had left Seville more than three years before, one only, the Victoria, r eturned. Of the two hundred and seventy men who had set out on the expedition, only eighteen saW" their native land again."



Conquest.-Magellan reached the Ph 1ippines March 16, 1521, a nd landed on the Island of Malhon (Homonhon), south of Samar. Later, he and hi s men proceeded to Cebu, where he made a

MIGUEL LOPE Z DE LEGASPI The First Span is h Governor-General

blood compact of peace" with Rajah Humabon, but in a fight against the Chief of Mactan Island, Magellan was killed. Many of his men were massacr ed in Cebu, and t he rest returned to Spain by the ship "Victoria." King Philip II, of Spain, induced with repugnant moti ves of an unselfi sh desire for t he increase of the Holy Catholi c faith, a selfish desire for commerce, and ambition for political aggrandizement, ordered t he viceCroy of Mex ico to send a n expedit ion in 1559 (I

Sl'(' pict\II't" on " age 12.

to explore the Philippines. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, a Spaniard, then chief clerk of the city of Mexico (born 1502) was sent with an Augustinian monk of said city, Andres de Urdaneta (born 1498) , who was appointed chief navigator a nd spiritual head of Legaspi's expedition. They sailed from Mexico November 21, 1564, and arrived at Cebu February 13, 1565. In Cebu, Legaspi made friends with the native chief, Tupas, and other Cebuans, who were easily converted and baptized. In 1568, the Portuguese attacked Legaspi at Cebu, but they failed. Two year s after , Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo arrived in Manila and conquered most of Luzon. They defeated Li-Ma-Hong, '"* a Chinese pirate, who attack Manila in 1574. Rajah Solim:J.n was then chief of old Manila, and Rajah Lacandola, his uncle, was chief of the village of Tondo, with whom the Spaniards made a blood-compact. In June of that same year, Legaspi organized the city of Manila, and when the rest of the Islands acknowledged the force of the Spanish arms, the sovereignty of Spain was proclaimed . The Encomienda System.-Seeing many of the Spanish soldiers were poor, starving and stealing from the nat ives, Legaspi thought it advisable to grant each of them a tract of land, called an "encomienda," with the people living on it. The Spaniard, to whom an encomienda was granted, was known as Hencomendero." The encomenderos had the duties to protect the people of their respective encomiendas, act as thei r governors and judges, and f urnish them religious instructions, in return for which they were to collect .." See "tory on Ilage H).



surrender of the Islands from the Spaniards. Upon refusal of the Spaniards, he attacked Manila with a force of four thousand Chinese soldiers and sailo1's. The Spaniards made a brave stand. But he could have easily captured the city with his formidable army had it not been for the timely arrival of Salcedo who came hurriedly to Manila from Vigan to reinforce the few Spaniards who were defending the capital. The Chinese pirate was unable to subdue the city, and he fin~lly withdrew his army by sailing northward along the Zambales coast and landing in Lingayen, Pangasinan, where he made his camp. Salcedo, with a force of 250 Spanish soldiers and 1,500 Filipinos, followed him there and in the battle that ensued the pirate was completely defeated. Hurriedly leaving the place with the remnants of his soldiers, he set sail out to the China Sea and has never been hea r d of since then.


the tribute for themselves, for the government and for the church. The tribute was an annual tax paid by every Filipino male between sixteen and sixty years of age. But the excessive tribute the encomenderos collected from women, children and slaves, caused the first revolts in 1Iocos Norte in 1589. In 1591 there were about 267 encomiendas, of which 31 belonged to the king, the rest to officers and favorites of the king, or the governors. CHINESE AND MORO PIRATES Soon after the conquest of the Philippines by the Spanial'ds, Chinese and Mora piracies held sway, the latter extending down almost to the end of the eighteenth century. In the y,=ar 1574 Limahong, a notorious Chinese pirate who had been infesting the China Sea, came to the Philippines and demanded the

LI MA HONG Moro piracies gave the Spanish government the greatest trouble and worry. They lasted almost throughout the whole of the Spanish domination. A whole chapter may be devoted




to describing these piracies, so much so that the powers of the King, save where it some historians called them by the dignified was otherwise specially provided. His il1ame of H\Val's with the Moros." Emauthority was supreme and completebarking in their swift vin tas, * the Moro pialmost absolute-practically unlimited. l'ates wou ld swoop down on a peaceful village . at the coast of any of the is lands from Min- The functions of t he Governor-General included, as Captain-General, the chief danao to Luzon, surp rise the inhabitants the recommand of t he military and naval of, pillage and plunder the vi llage, burn the houses and carry away ma ny' of the terrified forces of the Island s, and had complete inhabitants to sell them into slavery in Jol0 control over all executive matters. He or Borneo. The ruins of watchtowers in had judicial powers too. For a long many of the coast towns and villages in the period of time t he Governor-General Philippines testify sil ently but eloquentl y to was President of the Audiencia (Suthose eventful days when Mora piracies \"ere preme Court). But an appeal could be rampant. These towers were erected for the taken from the decision of the Goverpurpose of watching the appl'oach of Moro vintas and give the alarm to the inhabitants nor-General to the Council of Adminof the village when they wel'e sighted at the istration or to the supreme Spanish horizon. government, according to the nature of

The Spanish Governol's.-The Governor-General was the per sonal r epr esentative of the Spanish Crown in the Philippine Islands. He possessed all

the case. (5) Legaspi became the first GovernorGeneral of the Islands, with the title of Adelantado. From the time he landed

â&#x20AC;˘ See picture on page 9.

(") Malcolm, P hilippine Government.


at Cebu in 1565 up to 1899, when Diego de los Rios left the Philippines, there were ninety-one Spanish GovernorsGeneral of the Islands. The following is a list of all of them, giving some principal events during their administrations in the Philippines: (6) MIGUEL LOPEZ DE LEGASPI (1564-1574) GUIDO DE LA VEZARES, governor from 1574 to 1575. FRANCISCO SANDE, governor from 1575 to 1580. Manila was rebuilt and the first horses brought by him to the Philippines from China. GONZALO RONQUILLO DE PEiMLOSA, governor from 1580 to 1583, brought 600 Spanish soldiers to the islands, organized the towns of Lalloc and Iloilo, and sent an expedition to Borneo and l'eplaced Sultan Sirela on the throne; and drove the Japanese pirates from Cagayan Valley (N. Luzon). DIEGO RON'QUILLO (1583-1584). SANTIAGO DE VERA, acting governor from 1584 to 1590 and chief justice of the first Audiencia (Supl'eme Court), had the first stone house built in Manila. GOMEZ PEREZ DASMARINAS, governor from 1590 to 1593, had a conflict with the friars . He constructed the Manila "T aIls and Fort Santiago; conquered the Negl'itos of Zambalesj built 200 ships for the purpose of sending an expp,dition to Moluccas Islands j etc . He was killed by his Chinese boatmen at the island of Maricaban (off Batangas) in 1593. PEDRO DE ROXAS (1593). LUIS PEREZ DASMARINAS (son of Gomez Perez Dasmariiias), governor from 1593 to 1595. DUTing same period, Antonio de Morga, lieutenant governor and judge of the Supl'eme Court, wrote the first full history of the Philippines in Spanish times, entitled "Los Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas". and defeated the Dutch in the naval battle near the island of COl'l'egidol' in 1600. ANTONIO DE MORGA (1595-1596) . FRANCISCO TELLO DE GUZMAN, governor from 1596 to 1602. College of San (8) Jernegan. Philippine History.


Jose was founded by the Jesuits, and the Archbishopric of Manila was created. PEDRO BRAVO DE ACUNA, governor from 1602 to 1606. During this period many excitements took place. The Chinese revolted in Manila and were defeated; about 20,000 of them were killed by the Spaniards. In 1606 Acuna made a great expedition against the Moluccas, capturing Tidol' and Ternate. CRISTOBAL TELLEZ DE ALMANZA (1606-1608) . RODRIGO VIVERO (1608-1609). JUAN DE SILVA, governor frOl~ 1609 to 1616. There was again a naval battle with the Dutch neal' Mal'iveles in 1610. The Dutch were defeated and goods to the value of half a million pesos captured. A. great fleet was built. Silva sailed to attack the Dutch, in 1616, with five thousand Spaniards and Filipinos, and died at Malacca. A. VIVERO (1616-1618). ALONSO FAJARDO DE TENA, governor from 1618 to 1624. A revolt arose in Bohol in 1621, caused by heavy taxes and forced labor. The rebels were defeated, but renewed the revolt in Leyte under Bancao, chief of Limasaua, who was killed, Fajardo lessened the labor tax. FERNANDO DE SILVA (1625-1626). JUAN NINO DE TABORA, governor from 1626 to 1632, built many ships, also the first stone bridge across the Pasig River in 1631. He brought the "Virgin of Antipolo" to the Philippines. JUAN CEREZO (1633-1635). 5EBASTIAN HURTADO DE CORCUERA. governor from 1635 to 1644. The ma~足 saCl'e of 1603 greatly reduced the number of Chinese in Manila, but the immigration continued in such large numbers that by 1639 there were more thaJl 30,000 Chinese in the Islands . In this year another Chinese rebellion broke out in Manila and the neighboring provinces. The chief cause of thi5' revolt was an order of Governor Hurtado de Corcuera compelling the Chinese to go to work in Calamba. An additional cause was the har~ 1'assing of the Chinese for delinquency in paying their licenses and tribute.



About 20,000 Chinese were killed and seven milli on pesos' worth of property dest royed. (Fernandez, B-rie/ History 0/ the Phibippines, pp. 97路98.) DIEGO DE FAJARDO, governor from 1644 to 1653. Forced la bor in shipyard s caused the revo lt of S'umoroy in Sama1'; other revolts were caused by forced labor and taxes in Luzon and Mindanao. In ] 645 occulTed a great earthquake, killin g about 600 people and destroying many buildings in Manila. SAB I NIA NO MANRIQUE DE LARA, govel'f101' .fl'om 1653 to 1663. In 1660, about 1,000 natives of Pampanga revolted because of the hardsh ips of forced labor in cutting t imber for ships. De Lara, quietened them by diplomacy. About 800 natives of ll oeos Sur were killed by Manzano with the rebels. There was frequently a conflict of authority, which resulted in quarrels betwen the governors and the church authorities.


ALFONSO FUERTES (1689-1690\. FAUSTO CRUZAT Y GONGORA, governor from 1690 to 1701. During his administration many good laws were adopted, among which were (1) The equalization of the taxes of the rich and the poor: (2) the prohibition of provincial governors to engage in trade; (3) farmers were ordered to cultivate the land; (4) reforms were made in the prisons; (5) the Spaniards were forbidden to live in the pueblos; and (6) the Christian natives were forbidden to speak or trade with the people of the wild tribes; etc. DOMINGO ZABALBURU (1701-1709). MARTIN DE URSUA (1709-1715). JOSE TORR ALBA (1715-1717). FERNANDO MANUEL DE BUSTAMANTE, gove rnor from 1717 to 1719, compel1ed the people to pay their debts to the government, and fortified Zamboanga. The friar s incited a rebellion against Bustamante, as a consequence of which a mob kiIled him on the palace stairs. FRANCISCO DE LA CUESTA (1719-1721). TORIBIO JOSE DE CORSI6 Y CAMPO (1721-1729) .



1739 ) .

GASPAR DE TORRES (1739-1745) . JUA N ARCHEDERRA (1745-1750) . JOSE FRANCISCO DE OBANDO (17501754) .





MIGUEL LINO DE EZPELETA, first Philippine born governor, ruled from 1759 to 1761.


A Spnnish Gf.Llleon, used in the t'rade between M.anila and Acapulco DiEGO DE SALCEDO, governor from 1663 to 1668. He tried to keep the galleon trade for himself, and was seized by consp irators and sent to Mexico, dying on the ocean.

1764) .






(1764-1765) .

JOSE DE RAON, governor from 1765 to 1770. The Jesuits were expelled from the Philippines by order of the king during Raon's government.



DE ANDA, governor from 1770 to 1776, repaired the \Valls of Manila, built many ships, and greatly increased the public revenues. He encouraged agriculture, and had Spanish language taught in the schools. PEDRO DE SARlO (1776-1778). JOSE DE VASCO Y VARGAS, governor from 1778 to 1787, offered prizes to those who excelled in agriculture, and formed the uSociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais," and the tobacco monopoly. PEDRO DE SARlO (1787-1788) . FELIX BERENGUER Y MARQUINA (1788-1793) . RAFAEL DE AGUILAR, governor from 1793 to 1806, encouraged the cultivation of silk, cinnamon, cotton, and cacao; built a road from Manila to Cavite, and was the first to light the streets of Manila. He exc1 uded fOl'eigners from settling in the Philippines, His sala ry was f'20,OOO a year. MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS (1806-1810) . MANUEL GONZALES DE AGUILAR (1810-1813) . JOSE GARDOQUI DE GARAVEITIA (18131816) . MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS (1816-1822) . JUAN ANTONIO MARTINEZ (1822-1824). MARIANO RICAFORT, goveinor from 1824 to 1830, tr ied to im prove the morals of the people, aboli shed the imprisonment of laborers for debt, and encouraged agriculture and industry, PASCU AL ENRILE, governor from 1830 to 1835, had new maps and charts of the Philippines made, and built great highways in Luzon . GABRIEL DE TORRES (1835). JOAQUIN DE CRAME (1835). PEDRO ANTONIO DE SALAZAR (18351837) . ANDRES GARCIA CAMBA (1837-1838). LUIS LARDIZABAL, governor from 1838 to 1841. MARCELINO ORAA (1841-1843). FRANCISCO DE PAULA DE ALCALA (1843-1844) . NARCISO CLA VERlA, governor from 1844 to 1849, reformed the calendar, droppinl;

December 31, 1844, so that the Philippines calendar should not be one day behind Europe, gave surnames to many thousands of Filipinos, required the governors to have experience in the law and to stop private trading, The first steamers wel'e used in the Philippines in 1848. In Claveria's time there were thirty-one provinces in the entire archipelago; the salaries of the provincial governors were from P300 to P3,OOO pel' annum,

ANTONIO M. BLANCO (1849-1850). ANTONIO DE URBIZTONDO, governor from 1850 to 1853, captured .J 010 in a great expedition with severe-fighting in 1850. The Banco Espanol-Filipino was established under Ul'biztondo in 1852. MANUEL PAVIA (1854). MANUEL CRESPO (1854-1856). FERNANDO DE NORZAGARAY (18571860) . JOSE DE LEMERY E. IBARROLA NEY Y GONZALES (1861-1862). RAFAEL DE ECHAGUE Y BERHINHA N (1862-1865) . JUAN', DE LARA E IRIGOYEN (18651866) . JOAQUIN DEL SOLAR E. IBANEZ (1865). JOSE DE LA GANDARA Y NAVARRO (1866-1869) . CARLOS DE LA TORRE, first democratic governor-general from 1869 to 1871. The leaders of La Torre's party said : "We hope that under his rule individual rights may be proclaimed in the Philippines." After La Torre's rule, the succeeding governors became harsh. RAFAEL DE IZQ UIERDO, governor trom 1871 to 1873, was a proud, harsh man who did not believe in political liberty. During his government, the Cavite insUlTection took place, the conspirators planned to mutiny the military ganisons of Cavite and Manila on the evening of January 20, 1872, with the object of freeing' the Philippines from the tyrannical rule of Spanish Governors in the Islands. The plan was not a success, as a result of which the three Filipino priestsBurgos, Gomez, and Zamora-were accused, and although they pleaded to he





innoce n t , th ey were sen tenced to d ea t h, havin g been exec uted on t he Field of Bagurnbaya n, Manila, FebTUal'Y 17, 1872. JUAN DE ALAMINOS Y VIVORA (187318 74) . JOSE MALCAMPO Y MONJE (1874-1877) . DOMI N GO MORIONES Y MURILLO (1877188 0). FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA (18801883 ) . JOAQUIN JOVELLAR Y SOLER (18831885). EMILIO TERRERO Y PERINAT (18851888) . VALERIANO WEYLER Y NICOLAO (1888路 1891). EULOGIO DES PUJOL Y DUSAY (18911893 ) . RAMON BLANCO Y ERENAS, governor from 1893 to 1896, was a kind and just man. He believed in liberal ideas, and for thi s Teason was di sliked by those in the islands who approved of the old way of subjugating the Filipinos. Blanco desired to attach the Filipinos to Spain by ties of affection and was opposed to any violence. When Father Gil denoun-


ced the existence of the Katipunan to Governor Blanco, the latter appeared tobe the onl~ cool-headed man in Manila. A period of terror reigned in the city, Every Filipino, whether connected 'w ith the association (Katipunan) 01' not, fear-ed, for his safety. But the last week of August, 1896, as many as three hundred men were under arrest. During the month of September many more were arrested, and thirty-seven were executed. Blanco, who was then governor, granted Dr. Jose Rizal's Tequest to go to Cuba as a sur路 geon in the Spanish hospitals and permitted him to return to Manila from his exile at Dapitan (Mindanao) so as to enable him to take a steamer to Cuba by way of Spain. But unfortunately Rizal reached Manila about two weeks before Father Gil made his discovery of the Ka路 tipunan. Governor Blanco was convinced that Rizal had nothing to do with it, and after about a monbh's delay allowed him to start on his trip. Rizal's enemies, however, used every' means within their power to implicate him in the uprising. They sent a message by cable to Spain. As a result of this intriguing, Rizal was


DR. JOSE RIZAL Y MERCADO Aut.hor of "Noli Me Tangere" and "Filibusterismo"

imprisoned on his arrival in Spain and was soon sent back to Manila. He was tried by a court-martial for sedition and rebellion. CAMILO G. DE POLA VIEJ A, governor from 1896 to 1897, assumed office on December 13, 1896. Dr. Rizal "'las condemned to death, after a mock trial by the courtmartial, and early in the morning of the thirtieth of December, 1896, he was taken to the Luneta (Bagumbayan) and shot to death. Early in 1897 Governor-General Polavieja, at the head of about 28,000, took the field against the insurrectionists. H e tried to put down the rebellion in Bulaca n, Morang, and Cavite. H e fought many pitched battles. In Cavite his anny was aided by the Spanish squadron. Here, after about three months of hard campaigning, he def eated with heavy loss the forces of General Aguinaldo, who had once driven the Spaniards Qut of the province.

FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA, governor from 1897 to 1898. In April, 1897, Primo de Rivera, who had been governorgeneral of the Philippines from 1880 to 1883, returned to rule the Islands for the second time. Spain was beginning to feel the drain of war, for a widespread rebellion had broken out in Cuba a year before the uprising in the Philippines. The new governor tried to make peace. He offered pardon to all who wo uld lay down their arms. Although many Filipinos took advantage of this amnesty, many more chose to continue the strugg le. Rivera became convinced that drasr tic measures were necessary. He commanded in person the Spanish forces operating in Cavite. He attacked the town s of I ndang, Naic, Alfonso, Maragon don, Mendez-Nunez, and others. At the same time he sent General Monet to Zambales and Pangasinan, and had General Nunez conduct the campaign in Nueva Ecija. I n th'ese campaigns many brave men, both Spaniards and Filipinos, gave up their lives. Finally Aguinaldo and his staff withdrew to the mountains of Bulacan . It was in these mountains called Biac-na-Bato at Bulacan where Aguinaldo issued a proclamation declaring that the Filipino!:. desired to be free and independent. This proclamation was translated into English, French , and Visayan. It is said that the Filipinos had long been deprived of their freedom, but that now they were going to show the world their ability to fOl1n all independent government of their own. Through the mediat ion of Pedro A. Paterno, * a di stingui!:.hed Filipino of Manila who had been educated in Spain, who offered his services to Governor-General PI1:imo de Rivera, the Pact of Biac-na-Bato was signed on the fourteenth of December, 1897. On the sixteenth of said month, Aguinaldo proclaimed the restoration of peace, and a week later he and forty other insurgent leaders left for Calumpit, and from there went to Dagupan. They reached the port of Sual early in the morning of the twenty-seventh of De~

See p ictur(' on page 55.


CO :o.I ~ ION \\ E A LTH


cember, an d on th e s ame day embarked fo r Hong kong. Other Filipino general s rema ined in the Islands to see that th e F ilipino part of the agreement was f ulf illed. BASILI O AUG USTI N, was appoi nted governor-general in 1898. F E RMI N J A UD EN E S, bei ng th e last Spani sh governor-gene ral to Tule the i&lands in a very short time du rin g the war with the Uni ted Sta tes in 1898.

Provincial Administration.-The Islands were di vided for admini strative purposes int o provinces and districts. Alcaldes Mayores (successors to the "encomenderos" ), with executive and j udicial powers, were appointed. They wer e, in other words, the provincial govern or s. They received small salaries but wer e privileged to engage in trade, making the office very remunerative for t hem. When the executive and judicial functions were separated in Jun e, 1886, eighteen civil governors wer e appointed to the principal provinces. Civil governors of the first class received a salary of 1"4,500 per annum; t hose of the second class, 1'4,000; and those of the third P3 ,500, with li beral allowances. In 1893 the establishment of a provincial council in the capi tal of the province was authorized. There were nine members, four of which were elected by the capitanes of t he municipal councils for a term of six years, while the rest were ex-officio members. Municipal Administration.-The pueblo (town) was the term applied to what i~ now called the "municipality." It ordinarily embraced an area of so many square miles and was divided into numerous flbarangays" (or Hbarrios") of about fifty families each. The chief officer of the municipali ty was former-

ly called the "gobernadorcillo" (petty governor), and later, "capitan municipal" (municipal captain). He was the r epresentative of the provincial governor, t he arbiter of his subjects' questions, and was responsible for the collection of taxes. He was also under obligation to assist the parish priest and to entertain all visiting officials. Hi s position was honorary. The annual elections for "gobernadorcillo" were held in the same manner all over the archipelago. Thirteen e12ctors, composed of six "cabezas de barangay", six of the ex-gobernadorcillos, and the actual gobernadorcillo, were first chosen by lot in the presence of the provincial governor (or his deputy), the parish priest and the clerk, acting as canvassers. Each elector was allowed to write on a piece of paper three names of the candidates for "gobernadorcillo", and the candidate who obtained the most votes was forthwith named "gobernadorcillo" for t he coming year, subject to the approval of the Governor-General or his representative. There were other municipal officers elected in the same manner after the new "gobernadorcillo" was chosen. By Royal Decree of May 19, 1893, a municipal council of five, consisting of the "captain" and four "lieutenants," was constituted. The term of office was four years. The officers together with two substitutes, were elected by twelve delegates of the '~principalia" (municipal officials). The "tenientes" (deputies), the chief of police, chief of fields, the chief of cattle, and Hcabezas de barangay" were also prominent officials of the town, who assisted the gobernadorcillo in the discharge of his office. The "algua-


ciles" were but subordinate employees who were always busy taking orders of the "gobernadorcillo" or "capitan municipal." Filipino Representation in the Cortes. -When Napoleon Bonaparte, the Emperor of France, conquered Spain in 1808, it induced the Spanish government to offer Filipinos parliamentary representation in the Co?路tes in 1809. Yentura de los Reyes, of Manila, was the first Filipino delegate to go to Spain in 1810. The Philippines did enjoy this right on ly for three periods of time: First from 1810 to 1813; second, from 1820 to 1823; and the last, from 1834 to 1837. In 1837 a law was passed, excluding the Philippine deputies from the Co?路tes. After that year many attempts were made to revive the right, but failed. As a last effort, through the activities of the Filipino Association of Madrid and the review "La Solidaridad," fifty-two petitions praying for the restoration of parliamentary representation for the Philippines, were presented to the Cortes by Deputy Emilio Junoy in its session of February 21, 1895. The same deputy shortly thereafter submitted a bill, providing for thirty-one deputies and eleven senators for the Archipelago, which received scant consideration from the government. The Filipino prayer eloquently stated by Marcelo del Pilar was "in exchange for the loyalty of so many generations, in exchange for so much blood shed for Spain, the present generation does not ask for any thing which will mean a sacrifice to the metropolis of its ideals, nothing which should impose an>' burden on its intereRts at all; it does not ask anything but a little consideration; it only asks to ,



Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H . del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce

have its voice heard; that it be allo,,'ed to express its necessities by means of representatives freely elected by the vote of the interested parties." But the grant of what to the Filipinos appeared as a natural right, failed. And the failure brought an end to peaceful agitation, caused minor revolts, and eventually came to the one of the fagots which kindled the national conflagration. (7) Spaniards and Filipinos were equal before the law but, socially, the former treated the latter as inferior. All the higher positions were filled by the Spaniards, while the Filipinos, except in some very rare cases, were given share in the petty offices only. However, in spite of all these, the victors Quoled from Malcolm. Phili ppine Gover nment. pp. 97-98.

(1 )



and the vanquished, the oppressors and the oppressed, worked harmoniously for a common benefit up to the time when the Spanish yoke could no longer be tolerated. It was only when Spanish despotism weighed heavily on their shoulders that the Filipinos showed signs of deep animosity in frequent outbreaks and revolts, for conditions, economic and governmental, were such that it was impossible for the people to bear their misfortune without at least manifesting a protest against the harsh and arbitrary rule to which they were subjected. Philippine representation in the Cortes, liberty of press, of cults and of associations; the discontinuance of certain governmental proceedings by which a man was con-

demned without being heard; the inviolability of the domicile and correspondence on mere secret denunciations; the secularization of the parishes; the great facilities and few obstacles for agriculture, ind ustry and commerce; and the equalization of the Filipinos to the Spaniards in all political and civil rights-these were what they asked for but to which the Spaniards turned deaf ears. It was only when Spain spurned their humble petitions for the exercise of such rights that they, as a people, appealed to the court of arms for the absolute dissolution of all political ties, and the trial was in progress when Dewey's guns in the Battle of Manila Bay heralded the dawn of a new era in the annals of the Philippines.*

• Adjutant E. Hannaford, in his book entitled "The Picturesque Philippines," described Aguinaldo and the Insurrection of 1896 as follows:

e verybody had gradually been taken by a young Tagal with s ome training in Spanish military tactics, a s rr.all lande d proprietor of Imus, his native pueblo in Cavite province, named Emilio Aguinaldo, who ten years before had bC(!n a ploddmg s tudent at the threshold of the Univers ity at Manila. and later was the "little governor" or his town, and then its municipal captain. Aguinaldo was born about 1870. He is de· scribed a s weighing scarcely one hundred pounds, being undersized for even a Tagal. The accounts that made him teach a term or two in a pueblo school possibly confounded him with his cousin, Baldomero Aguinaldo, who w as a pedagogue for years. One lege nd respect· ing him is that when a Spanish officer with a file of n a tive sold iers came to apprehend him. Abruinaldo shot t.he office l· with hi s pis to l, then turned to the amazed sqund n nd m a de the m a n i mpas sioned address. with such effect that they de cided to quit the service of their Spanis h o ppressors, and on the spot chose him their cap ta in fo r revolutionary s ervice. His asce ndancy over t he minds of his countryme n cannot be lightly explained away. The superstition that held him to be an antin~· anting -man h e lped with the more ignorant, but hIS r eputation for COUrage and generalship counted for va s tly m ore, s waying all class es. Judged by the test of adapting limited m eans to comprehe nSIve c nds . Agulna ldo's ca pacity could not be doubted. The Tagals t rus te d him impl icitl y and the serious minded ness which he brought to his undertaking makes a creditable con· trast with many later flippant references to him on the part of uninformed people. The s truggle continl.l:ed mo re than fifteen months. when notwithstandin g the reIDforcements that had come from Spain, amountins: to nearly t hir t y thous and men. .Governor-General Riv~rtl ha d so we aried of it that he Induced a wealhy nabv,," of Manila named Paterno, to negotiate a peace. On December '14, 1897, was signed the treaty of Biacnabai:.? lhe outcome or which General Francis V . Greene. ID li n offici a l report t o the American government, s~m. madzed (Sentembp". 1898 ) a s follows : " It required that Aguinaldo and the other ins urgent lea de rs s hould leave the country, the government agreeing to pay them $800.000 in s ilve r. and promising to int roduce numerous reforms, including representation in t~e Spanilb Cortes. freedom of the press. amnesty for all msurgent.~ . and the expulsion or secularization of the monastIC: orders. Aguinaldo and his associates went to Hong-


Governor-Genera l.

Despu jol,



emin ent

examp le of h ow a jus t adminis trator might be overbor ne f or s eUis h e nda, by an in corrigible bureaucracy a n d t he fri ars. The Filipin os idolize d him a s their s avior, a nd w he n he lef t, reca lle d by cable, an innume rable multitude cl·o\...·ded t he s ho r e to wa ve fnrewdls, and ever y steamer be lo ng ing to the po'1; accompanied him Iar out to sea. This was late in 1892 . By the year 1896 ominous whis pe rings began to circ ulate at Manila, n oting among othel' thi ngs t he p eCUllar n. g h l li fe" seen h igh u p o n t he m ounta in-s ides in t he interior, and s udden ly goi n g out. M e n shook t h e ir h eads at m e n tion of t he gathering strength of the Katipunan, o r Lc:!ague of Blood, the secret r e volutionary society t ha t t he governme n t had s trive n in vain, by craft an d c r ue lty, to stam p o ut . That in the finan cially important mestizo-C hi no class certa in individua ls were kn own to be seri o us ly dis afCected was a fa ct working both ways; f o r, t ho ugh w ith characteris tic c unning these kep t in the bac k-g ro und, man y high·g rade natives rllth<!l" than nffiliat<! in any way with so desp ised an e le me n t ut first he ld aloof. Cons ide ring how feeble class dis tinctio ns are in Manila , the extent to which it ma k<!s a virtue or racial antipathies is re mark· able . . The ng itation set on f oot by the rich m estizoes and creo les a t Ma drid for colonial reform was a flat failUI·C. t he o n ly s ign ifi canl re" pon se it ca lh:d fOI· th b c i n~ t~ at. politica l righ ts were gai ne d not by begging . but b y fi g hti n g for the m- a bruta l re buff th a t lar gely de cided the co urse of s ome. In August, 1896, the expected bappened. A r evolutio n broke o ut in the province of Cavite, a nd in the foll owing Decembe r Governo r-General Blanco, unwilling to le nd himself to a policy of indiscriminate vengeance, was r e place d by Polavieja, and the l a tter in a f e w mo nths by Rivera. Meanwhile the leadersh i p of t he re volt.. the fury of which as tonis hf!d


Kong bank. and a lawsuit shol路tly arose between Aguinaldo and one of his subordinate chiefs . named Arlacho. Artacho s ued for Ii division of the money among the insurgents, accordin g to rank. Then Aguinaldo claimed tbat the m oney was a trust fund, arid was to remain on deposit until it was seen w hether the Spaniards would carry out their promised reforms, a nd if they failed to do so, it was to be used t o defray the expenses or a new insurrection. The suit was settled out of court by paying Artacho $5,000. No steps 'Were taken to introduce the reforms, more than two thouland insurgents who had been deported to Fernando Po and othe r places were still kept in confinement, and Aguinaldo is now u"ing the money to carry on the operations of another insu rrection. "On th e twenty-fourth of April Aguinaldo met the United States consul and others at S ingapore," continues General Greene, "and offered to begin a new insu rrection in conjunction with the operations of the Unired States navy at Manila. Thi:s was telegraphed to Commodore Dewey at Hong-Kong. ami, by his consent or at his request. Aguinaldo left Singapore for HongKong on April 26th , and when the dispatch-boat Hug h McCulloch returned to Hong_Kong eady in May to carry

In Aguinaldo's True Version of the Philippine Revolution, published at Tarlac, September 23, 1899, of t he Biacnabato treaty he says:-


the news of Commodore Dewey's victory, it took AIrUinaldo and se"cnteen other r evolutionary chiefs on board, and brought them to Manila bay. 'i'hey landed Rt Cavite. and Admiral Dewey allowed them to take such guns. ammunition and stores as he did nOL rC<juire for himself. With these and some other arms which be h a d brought from H ong-Kong Aguinaldo armed his followers, who rapidly assembled at Cavite, a nd in a few wel"'ks he bega n mo ving against the Spaniards. Part of them su",'t;:ndt::I'o:d, jofinDg mm more arms, and tne others retreated 'to Manila. Soon afterward two ship, the private property of Senor' Agoncillo and other insurgent sympathizers. were converted into crUisers, and sent with insurgent troops to Subic Bay and oth er places to capture provinces outside of Manila. They were successful. the native militia in Spanish service capitulating with their arms in n early every case without serious resistance. Between 2,000 and 3,000 of the native troops in the Span ish service sut'l'endered during t he months of June and July. They captured the waterworks of Manila, and cut oCt the water supply, and if it had been in the dry season it would have inflicted gl'eat sufferi ng on the inhabitants for lack of water."

Secondly. The money was all to be delivered to me personally, and I was to settle without in terference with my sompani ons an d the other revolutionists, IIDon Pedro Alejandro PaterThirdly. Before the Philno came several times to ippine .revolutionists should Biak-na-bato to make proposievacuate Biak-na-bato, Captain tions of peace which, after General Don Primo de Rivera five months of lengthy dewas to sen d me two Spanish liberations, was concluded and generals who were to remain signed on the 14th of Decemas hostages t ill I and my COTllber of the said year, 1897, on panions reached Hongkong the following basis: an d t he first installment of the indemnification, that is Fi rstly. I was to be free to live abroad with the com$40 0,000 had been received. panions who were willing to F01.l/J'thly. It was also agreed follow me ; and in Hongkong, to suppress the religious sowhich I had dec ided on a s a cities in t he Islands, and that. place of residence, the paypolitical and administrative ment of $800,000 indemn ificaautonomy should be establishtion money was to be made in ed, although by request of three ins talments, $400,000 on GEN. EMILIO AGUINALDO General Primo de Rivera receipt of a ll the arms that As he appeared in his milita'l'Y these latter conditions were Were in Biacnabato, $200,000 uniform during the R evolution not put dOWll in writi ng, owing when the number of arm s 0/ 1897 to hi s assertion that otherdelivered up should amount to wise the treaty would be in too humili ating 800, and the remaining $200,000 on the total a form for the Spanish government, while number of the same reachin g 1000, when, as on the other hand he guaranteed on his word a thank offering, the T e Deurn should be cele- as gentleman and officer the fulfilment of brated in the cathedral of Manila. The las t the sam\:!. two weeks of the month of February were General Primo de Rivera paid the first infixed upon as the final term for the delivering stallment of $400,000, while the two generals were still detained as hostages. (See picture up of the anns. No . 3 on page 31 .)



On our s id e, we the revolutionists, fulfilled the co ndition of delivering up the arm s, the number of which exceeded one thousand, a fact that was known to everybody and published in the papers of Manila. But th e capta in genera l failed to carry out the rest of the con di tion s, namely. the payment of ihe other in staU ments, the suppression of tho.'! friars and the reiol'ms agreed upon, although the Te Deum was sung. This caused great grief to me and my companions, grief which changed into despair on receiv ing the letter of Lieutenant Colonel Don Miguel Primo de Rivera, nephew of the captain genera l and his private secretary, informing us thati neither

Let us, however, conclude with the remark that the Filipinos will never forget the fact that they owe an everlasting gratitude to Spain for all the good things she had done in these islands for over three hundred years, and tha t it is only wise for the peoples of both countries to bury into oblivion all sad incidents of the past.

MONUMENT TO DR. JOSE RIZAL F'01'e1nost Filipino B el'o, Physician, LillgHist, .""'ovelist and A.'1"tisf.

MONUMENT TO ANDRES BONIFACIO Founder and Sup1'eme Head of the Ka.tipunan K. K. K. ,iii M. A . N. B.

my companions nor I could ever return to Manila."






Causes of Revolution against Spain. of Pedro A. Paterno. It provided, -There had been several outbreaks and among other things, that the Filipinos J'evolts against the Spanish government should stop fighting, surrendel' their in the Philippines, the causes of which forts and about 1,000 rifles, and that General Aguinaldo have already been and his officers briefly mentioned in FATHER OF THE KATIPUNAN should leave the isthe foregoing chaplands, having fixed ter. The uprising upon Hongkong as of 1872 in Cavite their place of rescost the lives of the idence; while the three prominent Fi!路 Spaniards agreed Ipmo clergymento pay Aguinaldo Burgos, Gomez, and and his officers Zamora, which $800,000.00 (Mexievent produced a can), besides $900.great change in the 000 for those who sentiments of the had lost pl'operty people; while the through the rebelrevol uti on of 1896 lion. The Filipinos initiated by the their part of 3{ept "Katipunan" under the agreement and the leadership, first, Govel'llor - General of Andres BonifaPrimo de Rivera cio, and later, of p aid Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo, 400,000 pesos, but caused the martyrthe former made dom of Dr. Jose no refolms, and Rizal, the author of instead, he executed ANDRES BONI FACIO the two patriotic 'a nd impl~soned novels known as several F ilipinos who had taken part "Noli Me Tangere" and "El Fi!ibuste:rismo." in the revolution of 1896. As result The "Pact of Biak-na-Bato." -The "Pact of Biak-na-Bato" was a treaty of the violation of the Pact of Biak-naof peace between General Emilio Agui- bato by the Government, the Filipinaldo and Govel'llor-General Primo de nos were forced to resume their fight Rivera, signed at Biak-na-Bato on December 14, 1897, through the mediation against the Spaniards in April of 1898.





A group of Generals and Officers of the Philippin e Revolutionary Government who were sent to HongkoJlg' as a result of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. posing with the representatives of the Spanish Government. HongkonJI 1&!17-189a~


(1) General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, President of the Philippine Republic; (2) Hon. P edro Alejanw'O Paterno. /Ucdi~tor; (3) Lieutenant-Colonel Miguel P rimo de Rivera, \ 011 Captain G6'ncral. Prime Miniatot amd Dictator o.f Spai?l) ; (4 ) Mr. Celestino Espinosa. C( oj Cavalry ; (5 ) }.' of W ar Antonio Peti ~ (6) General Vicente Lucban: ('7) General Ma:riano Llanera: (8) General Antonio MonteneR"I'o; (0) General Gregol'io H. del Pilar ~ (10) Dr. J,taximino Patel'no ~ (11). 141'. Pl"imit.ivo Arlacho; (12) Colonel Agapit.o Bonzon; (1 3) GenCI'al Monico Estrella; (14) Mr. Celestino Aragon: 1I5.) Colonel Legu.spi; ( Hi) Cnlonel Wen_ ceslao Viniegra; (17) Ge neral Manuel Tinio: (20) Mr. Agustin de In Rosa : (21) un identi fied; (22) Mr. I!:scolal'Jtico Viola; (23 ) Major Bellito N nti vidad: (Z~ ) DI路. Anl,l~_ t.acio Francisco ; (25) Mr. L('on Nov('nnl'io. 5 1'0'1'(' /.41'11 to GeneraL Ricar l lJ: (26) Valentin Dius : (27 ) Govt'rnor Linl') Violo: (28) MI'. Curios Romluillo, ;cmrn a1J's t; (29) Mr. ---..,. 4l1n1lnaldo. Auu; (80 ) 'IIIajoT 'M."xlmo Kllhht Ling; (31) Csnl'ra! T 8 m 2 Mnncardo - (S21 Mr Rlsnl'd? Degg 19R 0' Me ' p.a oudd?:> e ,,' , C ' n









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Why Admiral Dewey Came to Manila. modore Dewey who was then stationed -In 1898 there was also an insur- at Hongkong, was immediately ordered rection in Cuba against Spain. The to come to the Philippines and attack Cubans were fighting the Spanish fleet in Mafor their independence, nila. which the U nit e d Gen. Aguinaldo and States asked Spain to his men, who were grant but the latter rea lso in Hongkong, refused. Because of the turned to the islands sympathy the United and cooperated with the States had for the sufAmerican forces, whose fering people of Cuba; attitude led them to bebecause of the inj ury lieve that they came for caused to American capital and business by the sacred cause of th e the said insurrection; Filipino people. and because of the desThe following is a truction of the Amercopy of a document ican battleship "Maine" published in "Mis Mein the harbor of Havamorias sabre la Revoluna by a submarine cion Filipina" by Don mine, the United States Felipe G. Calderon, declared war on Spain and began fighting on which is self-explanaADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY April 21, 1898. Comtory:




1 have the honor to report that I sent you the 27th instant and confirmed in my dispatch No, 211 of that date, a telegram, which deciphered, ?"ead as follows: 011

"Secretary of State, Washington, General Aguinaldo gone my instance Hongkong arrange with Dewey cooperation ins?t1'gents M anilfL, Pratt" The facts a're these: On the evening of Satu,rday, the 23rd instant, I was confidentia.lly info'rmed of the a1"1'ival he're, incognito, of the supreme leade1' 0/ the Philippine insu"gents, General EmUio Aguinaldo, by Mr. H. W , Bray, an English gentleman of high 'tanding who, a/te'l' f ifteen yeu1's, resident merchant and a planter in the Philippines, had been c01npelled by the disturbed condition of things resulting /'rom, Spanish misntle

to abandon his p"01Jerty and leave there and from whom I had previously obtained muck valuable information /01' Commodore Dewey regarding forti fications, coal deposits, etc" at differ ent points in. the islands, B eing aware of the g1'eat 'P1'estige of General Aguinaldo with the insurgents, and that no one, either at horne or abroad, could e~ert over them the same influence and control that he could, I detennined at once to see him, and, at my request, a secret interview was acc01'dingly arranged f01' the following morning, Sunday, the 24th, in which, besides General Aguinaldo, were only present the Gene1'al's trusted advise1's and Mr, Bray, who acted as inte1'preter. A t this interview after lea'rning from General Aguinaldo the state of and object Bought to be obtained by the present insurrectionary movement, which though absent fl'om the Philippines, he was still directing, I took it




1tpOn rnysel/, w hilst explaining that I had no

Spanish fleet took place the same da As a result of this battle, ten Spani ships were destroyed, and about s' hundred Spaniards were killed, but n American. After the said battle Governor-Gen <eral Basilio AUg'ustin and Archbisho Bernardino N ozaleda issued proclamations calJing on the Filipinos to aid the Spaniards in the war ag'ainst the Americans, but Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo did no longer believe what the Spaniards Pratt." tried to promise him, so he decided to fight with the Americans, reorganized The Commodore's reply reading thus: his army and won several battles ((Tell Aguinaldo come soon as possible. I received it la te that night, and at once !lgainst the Spaniards in the territories communicated it to General Aguinaldo, who, outside of Manila. with his aide-de-camp and private seC1"etary The Revolutionary Government.-ID oll under MS1(.med names, I succeeded in getting off by the British steamer uMalacca," the honest belief that the Filipinos had accomplished their mission in freeing 'which leftJ there on Tuesday, the 26th. J'llSt p?'em'ous to his dep{Jffture, I had a themselves from the Spanish sovereignFie-cond and last interview with General Agui- ty and it being necessary to maintaiD naldo, the particular of which I shall give you peace and order, a dictatorial governhy next. mail. ment was established on May 24, 1898 The General impressed me as a man of i . upon the advice of Don Ambrosi telligence, ability and courage, and worthy the Rianzares Bautista, with Emilio Agui confidence that htul been placed in him. naldo as Dictator. Later, the lnde I think that in arranging for his direct cooperation with the commander 0/ our forces, endence of the Philippines was pr 1 have prevented possible conflict 0/ actio~ claimed by General Aguinaldo in Cavi and facilitated the work 0/ occupying and on June 12; and afterwards the Dicta administering the Philippines. torial Government gave way to the I f this course 0/ m.ine m.eets with the GovRevolutionary Government on Jun ernment's approval, lt8 I trust it may, I shall be fully satisfied; to Mr. Bray, however, J 23rd, 1898. The Revolutionary Con consider there is due some special r ecognition gress, which, according to F. D. MiJlet, lor most valuable services rendered. a journalist, was composed of "del How that r ecognition can best be made, 1 egates exceptionally alert, keen, and leave to you to decide . 1 have, etc . inteIJigent in appearance," assembled E. Spencer Pratt, at the church .of Barasoain (Malolos, United States Consul-General Bulacan), on September 15th; the pol The Battle of Manila Bay.- Early in itical Constitution was approved on the morning' of May 1, 1898, Commo- November 29, 1898, and promulgated dore Dewey, with his fleet of six ships, by the President on January 21, 189~. found himself in the Manila Bay, where The English version of said Const! a battle between his squadron and a tution is as follows: authority to speak for the Government to point out the danger 0/ continuing independent action at this stage j and having convinced him of the expediency of cooperating with our fleet, then at Hongkong, and obtained the CtS8u1'ance of his willingness to proceed thitker and conjer with Commodo1'e Dewey to that end should t he latter so desire, I telegraphed the Commodo-re the same day as follows, th'rough owr Consul Gene1'al at H ongkong: IIAguinaldo, inswrgent leader, he're. Will come Hongkong with Commodo're jar genel'at coope1'ation insurgen~s Manila if arrange desiHd. Telegraph.






REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Don EMILIO AGUINALDO Y FAMY, President of the Revolutronary Government of the Philippines, and Captain-General and Commanderin-Chief of the Army_ KNOw ALL PHILIPPINE CIT-. tatives of the Nation, in the exercise of :lENS: That the Assembly of Represen- its sovereignty, has decreed and I have

) 36


sanctioned the political constitution of the State. Therefore: I command all the military and civil authorities of any class or rank, to keep it and cause it to be kept, complied with and executed in all its parts, because it is the sovereign will of the Philippine people. Done at Malolos on the 21st day of January in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-nine.

responsible, and is exercised by three distinct

powers, which are denominated legislative, executive and judicial. Two or morp. of these powers shall never be vested in one person or corporation; neither shall the legislature be vested in one individual alone.

TITLE III Religion

ART. 5. The state recognizes the equality of all religious worships and the separa路 tion of . the church and the state.




The Filipinos and their National aad Individual Rights ART.


The following are Filipinos:

1st. All persons born in Philippine territory. A vessel flying the Philippine flag shall, for this purpose, be considered a. portion of the Philippine territory.

WE, the Representatives of the Philippine people, lawfully convened, in order to establish justice, provide for 2nd. The offspring of a F'ilipino father common defense, promote the general and mother although born outside the Philwelfare and insure the benefits of lib- ippine territory. erty, imploring the aid of the Sover3rd. Foreigners who have , obtained cer" eign Legislator of the Universe for the tificates of naturalization. attaintment of these ends, have voted, 4th. Those who, without it, may have decreed and sanctioned the following: gained Hvecindad" (domicile) in any town of

POLITICAL CONSTITUTION TITLE I The Republic ARTICLE 1. The political association of all 'the F ilipinos constitutes a nation, the State of which is denominated Philippine Republic. ART. 2. The Philippine Republic is free a nd independent. ART. 3. Sovereignty in the people.



TITLE II The Governm e nt

ART. 4. The government of the republic is popular, r epresentative, altexmative and

the Philippine territory. It is understood that domicile is gain路 ed by staying two years without interruption in one locality of the Philippine territory, having an open abode and known mode of living and contributing to all the charges of the nation. The nationality of the Filipino is lost in accordance with the laws. ART. 7. No Filipino nor foreigner shall be arrested nor imprisoned unless on account of crime, and in accordance with the laws.

ART. 8. Any person arrested shall be discharged or delivered over to the judicial authority within twenty-four hours follow" ing the arrest.


Any arrest shall be held without effect or shall be carried to commitment within seventy路two hours after the detained has been delivered over to a competent j udge. The party interested shall receive notice of the order whieh may be issued within the same time.

ART. 9. No Filipino can become a prisone r unless by virtue of the mandate of a competeIl:t judge. The decree by which may be issued the mandate shall be ratified or eon firmed, having helrd the presumed criminal within seventy-two hours following the act of commit..ment. ART. 10. No one can enter the domicile of a Filipino or foreign resident in the Philippines without his consent, except in urgent cues of fire, fiood, earthquake, or other similar dangel', or of unlawful aggression proceeding from within or in order to assist a. person within calling for help. Outside of these cases, the entrance in the domicile of a Filipino or foreign resident of the Philippines and the searching of the papers or effects can only be decreed by a competent judge and executed during the day. The searching of the papers and effects shaJJ take place always in the presence of the party interested or of an individual of his family, and, in their absence, of two resident Witnesses of the same place. Notwithstanding, when a delinquent may

be found in flagrante and pursued by the authority with its agents may take refuge in his domicile, he may be followed into the same only for the purpose of apprehension.

If he should take refuge in the domicile of another, notification to the owner of the latter shall precede.

ART. 11.

No Filipino can be compelled

to make change of his domicile or residence unless by virtue of an exec utive sentence.

ART. 12. In no case can there be detained nor opened by the governing authority the


correspondence confided to the post-office, nor can that of the telegraph or telephone be detained. But, by virtue of a decree of a competent judge, can be detained any correspondence and also opened in the presence of the aC-t cused that which may be conveyed by the post-office. ART. 13. Any decree of imprisonment, of search of abode, or of detention of the correspondence written, telegraphed, or telephoned shall be justified. When the decree may fall short of this requisite, or when the motives in which it may be founded may be judicially declared unlawful or notoriously insufficient, the person who may have been imprisoned, or whose ,imprisonment maw not harve been ratified within the term prescribed in article 9, or whose domicile may be forcibly entered, or whose correspondence may be detained, shall have the right to demand the responsibilities which ensue. ART. 14. No Filipino shan be prosecuted nor sentenced, unl ess by a judge or tribunal to whom, by virtue of the laws which pre路 cede the crime, is delegated its cognizance, and in the form which the latter prescribe. ART. 15. Any person detained or imprisoned, without the legal formalities, unless in the cases provided in this constitution, shall be discharged upon their own petition or that of any Filipino. The laws shaH determine the form of proreeding summarily in this case, as well as the personal and pecuniary penalties incuITed by him who may order, execute, or cause to be executed, the illegal detention or impris.onment. ART. 16. No person shall be deprived te1l'\Porarily or permanently of his property or rights, nor disturbed in the possession of them, unless by virtue of a judicial sentence. Those functionaries who under any pretext infringe this provision shall be personally responsible for the damage caused.



ART. 17. No person shan be deprived of his property unless t hrough necessity and common welfare, previously justified and declared by the proper authority, providing in路 demnity to the owner previous to t he de-I privation. ART. 18. No person shall be obliged to pay contribution which tr.ay not have be~n voted by the assembly or by the popu lar corporations legally authorized to impose it, and wh ich exaction shall n ot be made in the fann prescribed by Jaw. ART. 19. No Filipino who may be in the full enjoyment of his civil a nd political right.s shall be hindered in t h e free exercise of the

same. ART. 20. Neither .:;hall a ny Filipino be deprived of:

1st. The right of expressing liberally his ideas and opinions either by word or by writing, avail ing himself of th~ press or of any ot,h er similar means. 2nd. The right of assoc iating himself with an the objects of human life which may not be contrary to public moral; and, finally. 3rd. Of the right to direct petitions. individually or collectively, to the public powers and to the authoritie s. The right of petition shall not be exercised by any class of a rmed force. ART. 21. The exercise of the rights expressed in the preceding article shall be subj ect to the general provisions which regulate them.

AR1\. 22. Those crimes which are committed upon the occasion of the exercise of the rights gran ted in this title shall be punished by the tribunal s in accordance w ith the common laws. ART. 23. Any Filipino can found and maintain establishments of instruction or .,f education , in accordance with the provisions which are established. Popular education shall be obligatory and gratuitous in the schools of the nation.

ART. 24. Any foreigner may establilk himself liberall y in the Philippine territol'7 subject to the provi!';ions which regulate tb! matter, exercising the1'ein hi!:> industry or d. votin g himself to any profession in the elo ercise of which the laws may not Tequirt diplomas of fitness issued by the national authorities. ART. 25. No Filipino wh o is in the full enjoy ment of his political and civil rights shall b e hindered from going freely from the territory, n or from r emoving hi s residence or property to a foreign country, except the obligations of contributing to the military serv ice and th e maintenance of the publie taxes.

ART. 26. The foreigner who may not have b ecome naturalized shall not exercise in the Philippines any office which may have a ttached to it authority 01' juris dict ion. ART. 27. Every Filipino is obliged to d efend the country with arms when he may be called upon by the laws; and to contribute to the expenses of the state (government) in proportion to his property. ART. 28. The enumeration of the righ granted in this title does not imply the pr hibition of any other not expressly delegated

29. P revious authorization sh not be necessary in order to prosecute befo the ordinary tribunals the public function aries, whatever may be the crime which the ART.

commit. A superior mandate shall not exempt fro responsibility in cases of manifest infraction clear and detenninate, of a constitution prOVISIon. In the other cases it shall exemp only the agents who may not exercise th authority. ART. 30. The guarantees provided in a ticles 7, 8, 9, 10 and II, and paragraphs 1 and 2 of the 20th article, shall not be sUB pended in the Republic nor any part of it unless temporarily and by means of ala" when the security of the state shall deman it in extraordinary circumstances.


It being promulgated in the territory to which it may apply, the special law shall govern during the suspension according to the circumstances which demand it. The latter as well a s the former shall be voted in the national assembly, and in case the assembly may be closed the government is authorized to issue it in conjunction with the permanent commission without prej udice to ~onvoking th e former within the shortest time and giving them information of what may have been done. But neither by the one nor the other law can there be suspended any other guarantees than those delegated in the first paragraph of this article nor authorizing the government to banish from the country or trans~ port any Filipino. In no case can the military or civil chiefs establish any other penalty than that previously prescribed by the law.

ART. 31. In the Philippine Republic no one can be tried by private laws nor special tri1:luna ls. No person c'an have priviieges npr enj oy emoluments which may not be compensation for public service and which are fixed by law. "EI f uero de guerra y marina" (the jurisdiction, privileges, and power~ of army and navy) shall extend solely to the crimes and faults which may have in~ limate connection with the military and maritime discipline. ART. 32. No Filipino can establish "rnayorazgos" nor inst itutions "vinculadoras" (title of perpetual successio n by eldest son, nor institutions entailed) of property, nor accept honors, "condecoraciones" (insignia or decoration of orders) or titles of honor and nobility from foreign nations without The authorization of the government.

Neither can the government establish the instit utions mentioned in t he preceding para~ graph, nor grant honors "condecoraciones" or titles of honor and nobility to any Fili~ pino. NOtwithstanding the nation may reward by a special law, voted by the assembly, emi~ nent services which may be rendered by the citizens to their country.


Legislative Power

ART. 33. The legislative power shall be exercised by an assembly of the representatives of the nation. The assembly shall be organized in the form and under the conditions determined by the law which may be issued to that effect. ART . 34. The members of the assembly shall represent the entire nation, and not exclusively those who elect them. ART. 35. No reprebentative shall be subjected to any imperative mandate of his electors. ART. 36. The assembly shall meet every year. It is the prerogative of the President of the republic to convoke it, suspend and close its sessions and adjourn it, in concurrence with the same or with the perJllanent commission in its default, and within legal terms. ART. 37. The assembly shall be open at least three months each year, not including in th is time that which is consumed in its organization. The President of the Republic shall convoke it, at the latest, by the 15th of April. ART. 38. In an extraordinary case he can convoke it outside of the legal period, with the concurrence of the permanent commis路 sion, and prolong the legislature, when the term does not exceed one month nor takes place more than twice in the same legislature. ART. 39. The national assembly, together with the extraordinary representatives, shall form the constituents in order to proceed to the modification of the constitution and to the election of the new President ot the Republic, convoked at least one month prev~ ious to the termination of the powers of the former. In th e case of the death or of the resignation of the President of the Republic, the assembly shall meet immediately b~r its own right and at the request of its president or of that of the permanent commission . ART. 40. In the meantime, while the ap~ pointment of the new Pl'esident of the Re-



public proceeds, the president of the supremo court of justice s hall exercise his function3, his pl ace be ing filled by one of the mem bers of this tribunal, in accordance with the laws.

ART. 41. Any meeting of the assemblY' which may be held outside of the ordinary period of the legislature shall be null and void. That which is provided by a rt. 39 is excepted, and in that the assembly is constituted a tribunal of justice, not being allowed to exercise in such ('ase other than judicial functions. ART. 42. The sessions of the assembly shall be public. Notwithstanding, they can he secret at t he petition of a certain number of its m embers, fixed by the regulations, it being decided afterwards by an absolute majority of t he votes of t he members present whether the disc uss ion of the same matter be continued in public. ART. 43. The President of the Republic shall communicate with the assembly by means of messages, which shall be read from the rostrum by a secretary of the government. The secretaries of the government shall have entranc e into the assembly, with the right to the floor whenever they ask it, and shall cause themselves to be represented in the discussion of any p,a rticular project by commissioners de sig nated by decree of the President of the Republic.

ART. 44. The assembly shall constitute itself a. tribunal of justice in order to try the crimes co mmitted against the security of the s tate by the President of the Republi c and individuals of the Counsel of Government, by the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, by the Procurer-General (SolicitorGeneral) of the nation by means of a decree of the same, or of the permanent commission in its absence, or of t he Pre ~ ident of the Republic at the proposal of the Solicitor-General, or of th e counsel of the government. The laws shall determine the mode of procedure for the accusation, preparation for trial, and pardon. ART. 45. No member of the assembly can be prosecuted nor molested for the opinions which he may expr ess nor for the votes which he may cast in the exercise of his office.

ART. 46. No member of an assembly caa be prosecuted in a criminal matter without authorization of the same, or of the penn.. nent commission, to whom shall immediate., be given information of the act for proper disposition.

The arrest, detention, or apprehension of a member of the assembly can not take plaee without previous authorization of the same or of the permanent commission; but having onee notified the assembly of the decree of arrest, shall incur responsibility if, within two daya following the notification, it may not authorize the arrest or give reasons upon which its refusal is founded.

ART. 47. The National Assembly shall have. besides, the following powers: 1. To frame regulations for its interior government. 2. To examine the legality of the elec~ tions and the legal qualifications of the mem路 bers elected. 3. Upon its organization to appoint ita President, Vice-President and Secretaries. Until the assembly may' be dissolved, ita President, Vice-President and Secretaries shall continue exercising their offices during the four legislatures; and 4. To accept the resignations presented by its members, and grant leaves of absence subject to the regulations. ART. 48. No project can become a law be. fore being voted upon by the assembly. In order to pass the laws there shall be required in the assembly at least a fourth part of the total number of members, whose elections may have been approved and who may have taken the oath of office. ART. 49. No proposed law can be approv~ ed by the assembly without having been voted upon as a whole, and article by article. ART. 50. The assemblies shall have the right of censure and each one of its members the right to be heard. ART. 51. The proposal of the laws b.. longs to the President of the Republic and to the assembly. ART. 52. The representative of the assembly who accepts of the government pension. employment, or commission with a salary,


shall be understood to have renounced his of-


TITLE VII The Executive Power

fice. The employment of the secretary of the government of the republic and other offices presc.ribed in special laws are excepted from this provision. ART. 53. The office of representative shall be for a term of four years, and those who may exercise it have the right, by way of remuneration according to the circumstances, to a sum determined by the law. Those who may absent themselves during the whole of the legislature shall not be entitled to this remuneration but. will recover this right if they assist in those which follow.

ART. 56. The executive power shall reside in the President of t he Republic, who exercises it through his secretaries. ART. 57. The conduct of the interests peculiar to the towns, the provinces, and of -".he state belonging respectively to the popular assemblies, to the provincial asemblies and to the active administration with reference to laws, and upon the basis of the most ample "descentralizaci6n" (distribution) and administrative autonomy.


The President of the Republic

TITLE VIII The Permanent Commission

ART. 54. The assembly, before the closing of its sessions, shall elect seven of its members in order to constitute a permanent commission during the period of its bein.'!' closed, the latter being obliged in its first Bwion to designate a president and a secretary. ART. 55. The fo llowing are the functions 01 the permanent commission in the absence of the assembly: 1. To declare whether or not there is sufficient reason to proceed against the President of the Republic, the representatives, secretaries of the government, President of the Supreme Court of Justice, and the Procurer-General in the cases provided by this constitution. 2. To convoke the assembly to an extraordinary meeting in those cases in which it should constitute a tribunal of justi~e . 3. To transact the business which may remain pending for consideration. 4. To convoke the assembly to extraordinary sessions when the exigency of the case may demand j and 5. To substitute the assembly in its functions in accordance with the constitution, exeeption being made of the right to make and Jl8,8s the laws. The permanent commission shall meet whenever it may be convoked by him who preBides in accordance with this constitution.

ART. 58. The President of t he Rep ublic shall be elected by an absolute majority of votes by the assembly and the representatives specially met (convened) in constitutive chamber. His term of office shall be for four years and he will be reeligible. ART. 59. The Pre&ident of the Republic shall have t he proposal of the laws as well as the members of the assembly, and shall promulgate the laws when they have been passed and approved by the latter and shall watch over and insure their execution. ART. 60. The power of causing the laws to be executed extends itself to all that which conduces to the preservation of public order in the interior and the in te rnational security. ART. 61. The President of the Republic shall promulgate the laws within twenty' days following the time when they have been transmitted by the assembly definitely approved. ART. 62. If within this time they may not be promulgated, it shall devolve upon the President to return them to the assembly with justification of the causes of their detention, proceeding in such case to their revision, and it shall not be considered that it insists upon them, if it does not reproduce them by a vote of at least two-thirds of the members of the assembly present. Reproducing the law in the form indicated, the government shall promulgate it within ten days, announcing his nonconformity.




'I n the same manner the government shall become obligated if he allows to pass the term of twenty days without returning the law to the assembly. ART. 63. When the promulgation of a laW' may have been declared urgent by a vote expressed by an absolute majority of the votes of the assembly the President can call upon them by a message, stating his reasons for a new deliberation, which can not be denied, and the same law being approved anew, shall be promulgated within the legal term, without prejudice to the President's announcing his nonconformity.

ART. 64. The promulgation of the laws shall take place by means of their publication in the official periodical of the Republic and shan take effect after thirty days from the date of publication.

ART. 65. The President of the Republic shall have command of the anny' and navy, making and ratifying treaties of peace. with the previous concurrence of the assembly. ART. 66. Treaties of peace shall not be binding until passed by the assembly. ART. 67. In addition to t he necessary powers for the execution of the laws, the President of t h e Republic shall have the following: 1. To confer civil and military employment with reference to the laws. 2. To appoint the secretaries of the government. 3. To direct diplomatic and commercial relations with foreign powers.


To see to it that in the entire terri-

tory may be administered speedy and complete justice. 5. To pardon delinquents in accordance with the laws, excepting the provision relat ive to the secretaries of the government. 6. To preside over national assemblies and to receive the envoy'S and representatives of the foreign powers authorized to meet him. ART. 68. The President of the Republic shall need be authorized by a special law: 1. In order to alienate, cede, or exchange any part of the Philippine territory. 2. In order to annex any other territory to that of the Philippines.

3. In order to admit foreign troops into the Philippine territory. 4. In order to ratify treaties of alliance, offensive and defensive j special treaties of commerce those which stipulate to give subsidy to a foreign power-and all those which may bind individually the Filipinos. In no case can the secret articles of a treaty r epeal those which are public. . 5. In order to grant amnesties and general pardons. 6. In order to coin money. ART. 69. To the President of the Republic belongs the power of dictating regulations for compliance and application of the laws in accordance with the requisites which the same prescribe. ART. 70. The Pr."ident of the Republic can, with the previous concurrence adopted by a majority of the votes of the representatives, adjourn the assembly before the expiration of the legal term of its office. In this case they shall be called for new elections within a term of three months. ART. 71. The President of the RepUblic shall be responsible only in cases of high treason. ART. 72. The compensation of the President of the Republic shan be fixed by a special law, which can not be changed until the end of the presidential tenn of office.

TITLE IX The Secretaries of th~ Government

ART. 73. The Council of the government (cabinet) shan be composed of a President and seven Secretaries, who shall have charge of the offices of-Foreign Affairs, Interior, Finance, Army and Navy, Public Instruction, Communications and Public Works, and Agriculture, Industry and Commerce.

ART. 74. All that which the President may order or provide in the exercise of his authority shall be signed by the Secretary to whom it belongs. No public officer shall give compliance to any which lacks this requisite.


ART. 75. The Secretaries of the governent are responsible joint1y to the assembly for the general policy of the government and dividually for their personal acts. To the Procurer-General of the nation beongs the accusation of them, and to the ssembly their trial. The laws shall determine the cases of resonsibility of the secretaries of the governent, the penalties to which they are subject, nd the mode of procedure against them. ART. 76. If they should be convicted by e assembly, in order to pardon them, there all precede the petition of an absolute maority of the representatives.

TITLE X The Judicial Power

77. To the tribunals belongs excluthe power of applying the laws in the name of the nation in civil and criminal trials. The same codes shall govern in the entire Republic without prejudice to modifications which for particular circumstances the laws may prescribe. In them shall not be established more than one jurisdiction for all the c'itizens in comon trials, civil and criminal. ART. 78. The tribunals .hall not apply the general and municipal regulations only 10 far as they conform with the laws. AlT. 79. The exercise of the judicial po"er resides in the Supreme Court of Justice and in the tribunals which are prescribed by the laws. ART.


The composition, organization, and other attributes shall be governed by the organic laws which may be determined. ART. 80. The President of the Supreme Court of Justice and the Procurer-General mall be appointed by the na.tional a.sembly in concurrence with the President of the Republic and Secretaries of the government, and shall have absolute independence of the executive and legislative powers. Aar. 81. Any citizen can institute a public: Prosecution against any of the members of the judicial power for the crimes they may commit in the exercise of their office.


Provincial and Popular Auembliea ART. 82. The organization and powers of the provincial and popular assemblies will be regUlated by their respective laws. The latter shall be regulated according to the following principles:

1. Government and management of the interests peculiar to the provinces or towns, by their respective corporations, the principle of popular and direct election being the basis for the organization of said corporations. 2. Publicity of the sessions within the limits prescribed by the laws. 8. Publicity of the budgets, aC'7ounts, and important decisions. 4. Intervention of the government, and in the proper case of the national assembly in order to prevent the provincial and municipal corporations from exceeding their powers, to the prejudice of general and individual interests. 5. Determination of their powers in the matter of taxes, in order that the provincial and municipal taxation may never be in conflict with the system of taxation of the State.

TITLE XII The Adminiatration of State ART. 83 . The government shall present yearly to the assembly budgets of revenue and expenses, setting forth the alterations made in those of the preceding year and including the balance of the last fiscal year in accordance with law.

'When the assembly holds its sessions, the budgets will be presented to it within ten days following its meeting. ART. 84. No payment shall be made except in accordance with the law of budgets or other special laws, in the form and und er the responsibilities fixed thereby. ART. 85. It is necessary that the government be authorized by law in order to dispose of the goods and properties of the State or to secure a loan upon the credit of the nation.



ART. 86. The public debt which is contracted by the government of the republic in accordance with this constitution shall be under the special guaranty of the nation. No indebtedness shall be created unless at the same t ime the resources with which to pay it are voted. ART. 87. All the laws relating to revenue, public expenditures, or public credit shall be considered as a part of t ho se of the budgets, an d shall be published as s uch. ART. 88. The assembly shall fix each year, at the request of the President of t he Rep ublic, the military forces of land and sea. TITLE XIII Reform. in the Constitution

ART. 89. The assembly, upon its own rno.. tion or at the proposal of the President of the Republic, can resolve the reform of the constitution, prescribing for that purpose the article or articles which should be modified. ART. 90. The declaration having been made, the President of the Republic shall dissolve the assembly and convoke the "constituyente" (constituting power), which shall meet within three months following. In the convocation shall be inserted the resolution referred to in the preceding article. TITLE XIV The Observan ce and Oath of the Constitution. and Languages ART. 91. The President of the Republic, the government, the assembly, and all the Filipino citizens, shall faithfully guard the constitution; and the legislative power, immediately after t he approval of the law of budgets, shall examine as to whether the constitution has been exactly observed and as to whether its infractions have been corrected, providing that which is most practicable in order that the responsibility of the transgressors may be made effective. ART. 92. Neither the President of the Republic nor any other public functionary can enter upon the performance of his du ty without previously taking the oath.

Such oath shall be taken by the Presid.. of the Republic before the national assembly. The other functionaries of the nation shaD take it before the authorities determined by law. ART. 93. The use of the languages spok. en in the Philippines is optional. It can only be regulated by the law, and solely as to the acts of public authority and judicial affairs. For the purpose of these acts shall be used at present the Castillian language. TEMPORARY PROVISIONS ART. 94. In the meantime and without prejudice to the 48th article and the commis路 sions which may be appointed by the assembly for the preparations of the organic laws for the development and a pplica tion of the righb granted the Filipino citizens. and fOl" the regime of the public powers determined by the constitution, the laws in force in these islands before their emancipation shall be considered as the laws of the RepUblic.

In like manner shall be considered in force the provis ions of the civil code in respect to marriage and civil registry, suspended by the general government of the islands. the instruc路 tions of the 26th of April, 1888, in order to carry into effect articles 77 , 78, 79 and 82 of said code j the law of civil registry' of the 17th of June 1870, r eferred to by article 332 of the same, and tne regulations of the 13th of December, 1870, for the execution of this law, without prejudice to the local chiefs continuing in charge of the entries in the civil registry and intervening in the celebration of the marriage of Catholics. ART. 95. Pending the approval and en路 forcement of the laws referred to in the preceding article the provisions of the Spanish laws temporarily enforced by said article may be modified by special laws.

ART. 96. After promulgating the laWS which the assembly may approve in accord' ance with the 94th article, the government of the republic is authorized to issue the decrees and regulations necessary for the immediate fonnation of all the organizations o~ state.



ART. 101. Notwithstanding the provisions of arts. 62 and 63, the laws returned by the President of the Republic to congress can not AGUINALDO'S ADVISER be reproduced until the legislature of the fol.., lowing year, the President and his council of government being responsible for the suspension. If the reproduction be made, the promulgation will be compulsory within ten days, the President stating his nonconformity if he so desires. If the reproduction be made in subsequent legislatures, it will be considered a s being voted for the first time.

ART. 97. The President of the Revolutionary Government shall at once assume the title

of President of the Republic. and shall exercise said office until the constituting assembly meets and elects the person who is to fill said office definitely. ART.


This con-

gress, with the members who compose it, and those who may be returned by election or decree, shall continue for four years-that is to say, the whole of the present legislature, beginning the 15th of April of next year.

ART. 99. Notwithstanding the general rule established in the 2nd paragraph of the 4th article, during the time the country may APOLIN ARlO have to struggle for its independence the government is hereby authorized to determine, at the close of congress, whatever questions and difficulties, not provided for by law, may arise from unfore-

seen events, by means of decrees, which may be communicated to the permanent commission and to the assembly on its first meeting. The execution of the 5th article of title III is hereby suspended until the ART.



From the 24th of May last, on which MABINI date the dictatorial government was organized in Cavite, all the buildings, properties, and other belongings possessed by the religious corporations in these islands will be understood as restored to the Filipino government. BARASOAlN, January 20, 1899.


Meeting of the constituting assembly.

In the meantime, the municipalities of those places which may require the spiritual offices of a Filipino priest shall provide for his maintenance.








Abella. Mariano

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ac1ipay, Gregorio

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 . 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.




Surna mes )

46. 47 . 48. 49.

Ag uilera. Gregorio Alandi, Sofio Albert, Jose Alejandrino, Jose Alindada, Raymundo Apaci.ble, Leon Arejola, T oma. BailoD, Patricio

50. 5 '1 . 52.

53. 54.

55. 56. 57.

Barcelona, Santiago Barreto, Alberto

58. 59.

Basa, Jose Bautista, Ambrosio Rianzare. Bauti.ta, Ari.ton ,-- - - - - - - - - -

Bautista, Felix Belarmina, Vito Benite:t, Higinio Sueneamino, Felipe Burgos, Manuel Xerea Calderon. Felipe Calleja, Marcial Canon, Fernando C •• tro, _SebadiaD de Cbuidian, T ele.foro

26. Cordero, Gi"aciano

27. Corone l, Jose 28. Cris61ogo, Mena. 29. Criso.tomo, Mariano 30. Fe liciano, Antonio


31. Fernandez, Jose

L eading Author of the Constitution

32. Ferrer, Felix Pascual 33. Figueroa, Melecio 34. Foz, Vicente 35. Gahriel, Perfecto 36. Garcia, MaTtin 37. Gella, Ariston 38. Gomez, Manuel Martinez 39. Gonzales , Joaquin 40. Gonzales. Lucas Maninang 41. Gonzales, Teodoro 42· Cuerrero, Leon 43. Herrera, Arsenio Cruz 44. Icasiano, Santiago 45. Itagan, Hugo


60. 61. 62. 63 . 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84.

85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92.

Infan te, Jose R. Javier, Salvador Conzalea Laurel, Scotero Legarda, Benito Leon, Ceferino de Lerma, Jose M. Lopez, Mariano Lukban, Justo Luna. Antonio Luna, Joaquin Luna, Jo se Magsalin. Hopolito Manday, Juan Nepomuceno, Juan Ocampo, Pablo Oliveros, Jose F. Pagulayan, Vicente Guzman Paras, Ricardo Paredes, Isidro Paterno, Pedro A. Pilar, Pio del Prado, Vicente del Rama, Esteban de la Resurreccion. Narciso HidallG Rosario, Arcadio del Rosario, Lorenzo del Rosario, Mariano V. del Rosario, Mateo del Rosario, Salvador V. del Rosario, Simplicio del Rosario. Toma. C. del Salamanca, Jose Samson, Domingo Sandiko, Teodoro San tiago, Jose Somoza, Vicente Tavera, Trinidad H. Pardo de Tecson, Pablo Roque Teodoro, Basilio Torres, lsidoro Tuason, Jose Tuasott, Juan Ubaldo, Mateo Gutierre. Velarde, Aguedo Vi.Ilamor, Ignacio Vina, Jose M. de I. Zaragoza, MigudI





. e



~ 2i













"Admirable was the constitution then drafted, Statesmanlike were the proclamations issued," said former Justice George A, Malcolm, who, quoting Senator Hoar's statement, continued: "If they were found in our own history of our own revolutionary time we should be proud to have them stand side by side with those great state papers which Chatham declared were equal to the master pieces of antiquity, (8)

My government has' promulgated the political conJtitu.tion oj the Philipp'Ute Republle. which is today enthusiastically proclairned by the 1Jeople, because of its conviction that it. duty is to intel'pret faithfully the aspi'l 'atioM of that people---a. people making superhuman efforts to revindicate their sove1'eignty and theh- nation~ ality beloTe the civili::ed powers . To this end of the govern路 ment today 'recognized and observed antony cultwl'ed na路 tions, they have ada'}Jted the /01'm




compatible with their aspira.tions, endeavoring to adjnst thei'l' actions to the dictates of reason and of righ!:, ill o1'der to demonstrate their aptitude f01' civil life.

"In spite of 'the circumstances which then existed, when it seemed as if nothing could stand, when everything was totA nd taking the libe'rty to tering in its foundations, notify Your Excellency, 1 when the very secular inconstantly hope that, rioinG stitutions and all which justice to the Philippine peowith more zeal respected ple, you will be pleased to inthe past was threatened f01'm the government of 1I0ur with death and destrucnation that the desir'1 of tion, it was yet possible mine, upon being accQ1'ded to frame with serenity official 'reco gnition is to conand rectitude a Constitut1'ibute to the"bes t of its scantion, which was reflexFELIPE AGONCILLO ty ability to the establishive, rigid, formal, alone in its class, a beautiful and imperish- ment oj a general peace. May God keep Your Excellency many yea'fS. able document which constitutes according to the Message of Aguinaldo, 'the EMILlO AGUINALDO most glorius token of the noble aspimtions of the Philippine Revolution and an i1'1'efutable p1'oof bef01'e the civilized w01'ld of the cultu1'e and capacity of the Filipino people for self-government: a

Constitution which established-one is forced to admit-in spite of its being provisional, the first democratic republic in the Orient, for even the Constitution of Japan of the year 1889 can not resist a favorable comparison with the provisional Constitution of Malolos,"(9) In a letter to General Otis, forwarding a copy of the constitution, Aguinaldo said: (8)


Philippine Government,

p. 163.

Foreign delegates were appointed to make known to the civilized nations of the world the true character of the country's aspirations and the capacity of the Filipinos for self-governme!'t, and to ask official recognition of the In'dependence of the Philippines, Am,ong the leading diplomatic representatIves appointed were Apacible, Del Pan, Regidor, Ponce, Luna! Lozada, and Agoncillo, who did theIr utmost to secu,re such recognition of the new repubhc, but their efforts were unsuccessful be( A) Kalaw, La Constitucion de Malolos. p. 33, Quoted in MsJeolm, PhUippirle Government. p. 161.



cause of the hostilities that broke out had considered the Americans their allater between the American and the Fi- lies in that war against Spain." Such were the causes of the war against the lipino armed forces . (10) The United States claimed sovereign- United States and the failure on the part of the Filipinos ty over the Philippines to enforce the Malolos despite the fact that Constitution. Generals Men'it, Anderson and Otis had The fierce battle of proclaimed to the FiliFebruary 4 and 5, 1899, between the p!no people t hat American and Filipino " America did not forces caused the decome to conquer terfeat of Aguinaldo's itol'ies, but to free army with a loss of the inhabitants (of several thousand men. he islands) f1'om the 0pp1'esswn 0 f the At Zapote Bridg'e 'panish rule."(ll) The (Bacoor, Cavite), the Filipinos refused to Filipino forces mad., recognize the right of a heroic defense agsovereignty of the ainst an attack by United States over the General Lawton's arPhilippines, say i n g my ill the month or that "they had not June that same year, ANTONIO Ma. REGIDOR taKen up arms In ordel' as a result of which to make the Americans their masters many were killed on both sides. instead of the Spaniards, but to make With respect to the revolutionar, themselves free and independent, and ;government and the insurrection ag\ ..... } "In the mIdst of ,the events connect(.-d with .he Htablishmcnt of the .Philippine Republic, came the Ull·ft\.'ICOU1C news that Spain had ceded the Arcbipelaeo to the Unitt!d :States. On the !ourth of January. 18~9, l'mldent iV1CKinley instructed General Otis. who was In command of the American forc(.os in the Islands, !tat the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines must be recognized. This meant, of course, that oppo:ution to American rule would result in war, On the twenty-first of January, Preside nt Aguinaldo proclaimed the Constitution. .and immedl.u.tely began VI~paralions for wal'. The l<~ilip ino s l'dused to recognizl:: the ~i~ht. ()( IOYereignty ol the United States over lhe PhIlipPines, _taring that the Islanders had repealedly made known \heir desire to be hee and independent; that they were alzudy slarting a government. of their own; that t?ey bad sacrificed many lives on the field ol battle, against Spanish dominion. until, one by one, the provinces had fallen into their hands: that wh(!n Manila calHtulated. the Fili}lino [ol'ees ",el'e in control of the greater parb of the Archipelago; that Spain held nothing but Manila and n few isolated places. For these reasons the leotolulionaTY Govel'nment claimed that Spain had _ no Dloral right to cede the Philippines to the Umted Stales, since the islands had Virtually passed (com ~er. control," _ Fernandez. B rief HistorlJ of the PhilIPptWte, pp,


"When Commodore Dewey entered Manila Bay, he eattr.e to destroy the Spanish Reet, not to conquer the Philippines. That the United States should retain the Arthipelago was never considered. eit.her by Dewey 01"

by the Filipinos. Indeed. in the summer ol 1898 t~e American people and· their government were not partIe-ularly interested in the Philippines; lor they knew Iiltle about the country or its inhabitants. Consequent~ Iy, neither the lIeet no r the army interfered wi~h the nctivities of President Aguinaldo and t he RevolutIonary Government. The Filipinos regarded this noninterlerence on the part ol the Americans as a silent npproval of their plnns for independence. They called the Americans their allies and deliverers. They be-lieved t hat their independence was assured. They worked hard, therelol'e, to perfect the organization of tho Filipino government." ld .. pp. ~61 - 26i. "'After destroying the Spanish squadron. Dewey re-mnined in the Manila Bay in pursuance of orders from Wnshinsrton. By the end of ,July nbout eight thousand five hundred American soldiers had arrived in the P hilippineI'. On the thirteenth of August, 1898, aiter little res istance. Manila capitulated. and the American forces entered the Walled City. The Filipinos participated in the attack, hut werc not allowed to enter the city . • • . • The American force s in Manila gradually extended their lines in the outskirts. and the Filipino forces drew closer to the city. A conflict was expected at an,. m oment. On t he night of the fourth of February. 1899, a Filipino lieutenant attempted to cross the San Juan BridJre. The American sentry ordered him to halt. and on his relusnl shot and killed him. That was the signal for the beginning of the war. - l d .• pp. 257 a11d ~6S. (I]) Felipe G. Calderon's "'Mis Memorias sobre In Revolucion Filipina." pAge 139.



ainst the United States, Edwin Wildman, author of the book entitled "Aguinaldo", says as follows:

would only indefinitely postpone the struggle.

Our troops . were suffering u~der the exposure to the unaccustomed heat and rains, harassed in their trenches ami IIGeneral Wesley Merritt, compoorly protected and inadequately mander of the Department of the . HERO OF TILA PASS fed. Decisive action was th erefore Pacific, had arrived on July 25, I I He was instructed by the President necessary to compel the enemy to to occupy the Islands by the Amergive up the city and bring to an ican land forces ; the powers of end the intolerable conditions. the military to be supreme and General Merritt issued, August immediately operate upon the po9, a general order, copies of which litical condition of the inhabitwere sent to Aguinaldo, as Aguiants. General Andersan was in naldo had not called upon him nor command of the Second Division offered his services in any way. of the Eighth Army Corps, with The order was an appeal to the General Greene and General Machonor and pride of the Insurgent Arthur commanding brigades. army to conduct themselves as become representatives of a higher General Anderson l'eques ted Aguicivilization, that the inhabitants naldo to permit. the American might be impressed with the lofty troops to take a position between motives of the mission of the Am~ the Insurgent lines which surericans in the Islands. It also caul'ounded Manila and remove his tiot1拢d all American soldiers troops to he right across the Paagainst committing any act of sig River. This enabled our forces pillage. 01' violence, and W8Sj a to fOI'm paI't of and complete the cordon around the city. tacit hint to the Insurgents to follow suit. On August 7, Admiral Dewey Aguinaldo requested of General and General Merritt sent to the Greene that his troop should enter Governor-General Jaudennes a Manila with the Americans. On GEN. OR~GORIO DEL PILIR joint note notifying him to reAug. 12 he repeated this request, move from the city within forty eight hours all non -combatants, as operations through a staff officer, to General Anagainst the defences of Manila might begin derson. Night after night the desultory at any time after the expiration of that time. firing continued from the Spanish trenches, A reply was received the same day to the ef- and one by one our men were being needfect that the Spanish were without places of lessly 5(l.crificed. General Merritt and Adrefuge for the increased numbers of wounded, mil'al Dewe y therefore decided to move路 joint~ sick women, and children now lodged within ly upon Manila the morning of August 13. the walls. On the 9th day of August a fOl'mal ~dmil"al Dewey w~uld have preferred the presence of the M onadnock, as the comjoint demand for the surrender of the city was sent to JaudenneR. The demand called manders of the German battleships in the bay were showing unconcealed sympathy for attention to the hopelessnes of the struggle the Spani sh. The English cruiser Immor~ on the part of the Spaniards, pointing out that every consideration of humanity detalite, however, significantly took a position manded that the city should not be subj ected between the Concord and the German flag~ to bombardment under such circumstances. ship Kaisel', and set at rest in the minds Jaudennes replied that the oounc il of of the Americans the likelihood of German interference. Our squadron ranged itself defence had declared that the demand could not be g-ranted, but that he W'ould be along the front of the walled city and the willing to consult his government if shore, and shelled the old fort at Malate and allowed time to. do so. Admiral Dewey and the Spanish trenches.* The land forces im~ General Merritt declined, believing that it .S~ picture on page 96.



mediately moved upon the &pan ish, and in a quick, decisive charge routed the Spanish and pushed forward to th~ walls of the old city. A preconceived plan, arranged by M. Andre, the Belgian ('cnsul, was then carried out, and the white flag was raised on the walls of Manila. The battle caused considerable loss of life, but the Spaniards refused to surrender without a shot of resistantoa in order to save their "honor" and presumab!y the necks of the officials when th2Y returned to Madrid. Early on the morning of the 13th Aguinaldo was notified by General Anderson not to let his troops enter Manila without the permission of the American commander, and that on the south side of the Pasig, Insurgent troops would be under fire. Aguinaldo replied that it was too late; his forces had already been ordered into action. He further stated that his troops were forced by means of violence to retire from positions taken, and that he had given strict orders to his chiefs to respect the American forces end aid them in case they were attacked by The Insurgents mixed a common enemy. freely with our troops, doing fighting whenever it was possible, sometimes side by side with the Americans, sometimes at the head of a charge, and sometimes in detached companies. Several thousand succeeded in entering Manila. They plundered many houses in the suburbs and occupied several convents and churches and many private residences. On the evening of the battle, General Anderson had notified Aguinaldo that trouble Was threatened between the two forces, and requested him to try to prevent it, and that the Insurgents should not force themselves into the city until the Americans received full surrender, after which negotiations would be in order. Colonel Hale arrested and disarmed a company of Insurgents who Were trying to force their way into the city. Believing them innocent of hostile intentions, he released them, but retained their rifles. The Insurgents were greatly disappointed in not Ulsharing in tne plunder of the city,"


and Aguinaldo Wl10te General Anderson that the Insurgents, who had so long been besieging Manila, had always been promised that they could appeal' in it, and that for that reason he did not deem it prudent to issue orders to the contrary, as they might be disobeyed. He requested that his troops be allowed to occupy Manila, as they had many times given proofs of their friendship, ceding the positions requested by General Anderson. Buencamino was sent to Manila to represent Aguinaldo and hold a conference with General Anderson . After a parley of several hours, Buencamino promised to have路 the Insurgent troops withdrawn from Manila. The promise was not kept. General Merritt, on the 14th of August, issued a pro .... clamation addressed to the people of the Philippines, in which he stated that the United States had not come to wage war upon the Filipinos, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religiou~ rights; that the existing laws. would be admini stered by the officers of the United States; that the ports would be open to trade and that all people, so long as they preserved the peace and performed their duties toward the representatives of the United States, would not be disturbed in theiI~ property, except in so far as it was found necessary for the good of the service of the' United States and the benefit of the people of the Philippines. In forming this proclamation, General Merritt consulted with Aguinaldo's commissioners and modified the original document to conform somewhat to their suggestions and wishes. The Filipinos held the waterworks and pumping station, and the water was turned off, putting the hot sweltering city into terrible straits. Aguinaldo demanded that if his troops were withdrawn from Manila, he should hold Paco and Malate, two of the mo:;t important suburbs; that he should hold certain convents in the city; that \ve exercise sovereignty over the city only; that General Merritt should consult him about all civil ap ...



pointmentSj that the Filipinos should have the right at all times to enter the river and harbor i that the arms taken from the Filipinos be returned to them; that Filipino off ice rs be permitted to enter the city with or without arms; t hat the Filipinos be permitted to share in the bounty of the captured city, that all negotiations be put in writing and confirmed by the commander of the American forces. General Anderson referred the demand to General Merritt, who conferred with Admiral Dewey. The situation was becoming critical, and Dewey cabled to Washington for instructions. The president rep lied that there must be no joint occupation of Manila; that Insurgents and all others must recognize t he authority of the United States, and that any means must be used necessary to that end. General Merritt thereupon replied, August 20, to Aguinaldo, announcing that t he Filipinos must withdraw from Manila and all its s uburbs j they must repair the pumping station and turn on the water, for which service they should be paid, they would be given free navigation of the Pasig; Filipino officers would be perm itted entrance and departure to and from Manila with or without arms; but as the major gen eral had taken for his own use the palace at Malacafian, it could not be tUl'ned over to the Filipinos; the convents held by the Insurgents at Malate, Ennita, and Paco must be evacuated: civil offices were to be filled by Americans, but recommendations of Filipinos for appointments to subordinate offices would be g ladly received; American sold iers without arms must be permitted to pass through the Filipino lines j and t he hundred and fifty arms taken from the Filipinos would be returned. General Merritt's reply was not satisfac~ tory. Aguinaldo adhered to his demand that Filipino ships should be permitted and protected in the river and bay and waters controlled by us. He also asked for the a ssurance that in case the Americans should retUrn the city to Spain, the Insurgents should

be left in the possession of the positions they then held. General Merritt replied that the protection asked of the American squadron was entirely within the jurisdiction of Admiral Dewey ; that a joint occupation of Manila was impossible, and that Aguinaldo must withdraw his troops from the remaining positions in in which he had left detachments. He also told Agunaldo that as a military representative, it was impossibe for him to make any promises in the event of a conclusion of a treaty of peace between Spain and the United States, but that he could rely upon the beneficent purposes of the United States. Aguinaldo realized that he was losing ground and that his demands had not been effective. He wrote General Merritt to that effect, and called his attention to services rendered in the siege of Manila. He admitted that a dual occupation was not desirable, and promised to withdraw the Insurgents from the city and most of the suburbs, but r equested that Admiral Dewey give free navigation to his boats and that we restore the positions he had relinquished, in the event our treaty with Spain resulted in a recognition of her dominion in the Philippines. Not a moment was lost by the Insurgents in strengthening their positions, and large s upplies of arms reached them. The Junta at Hong-Kong had not been idle. Arms and war munitions were sent to Dagupan and conveyed down the railway to the Insurgent headquarters at Malolos, for the Insurgents had repaired and taken possession of the entire line from Dagupan to Caloocan, just outside of Manila. Manager Higgins was permitted to continue in the direction of the railroad, but guards of Insurgent soldiers were placed on all the trains, and the road was operated for the benefit of the Insurgent government. Aguinaldo had kept together his army of from thirty thousand to forty thousand men, had equipped them from all possible sources; had taken up the reins of the Spanish government and controlled the Island of Luzon,


outside of Manila; had complete telegraphic communication with the chieftains of the provinces; had uniformed hi s troops and established a revolutionary government, which was apparently acceptable to the Filipinos of the Island. It is perhaps futile to sp,eculate upon what might have been accomplished at this period had the American government been represented by diplomats instead of soldiers in the Philippines . Aguinaldo had, however, comp'l ied with our demands; he had opened a passage for us through his troops, laid siege to Manila, and assisted materially In expediting its surrender. The services of the Insurgents were valuable; they made our victory over the weak colonial forces of the Island easy, and therefore deserved, at that time, more consideration than they received. Had Aguinaldo and his coterie of generals been bound to us by gratitude and allied to us by a recognition of Upart of the rights of a friendly people," war might have been averted; the revolutionary government might have expired of ennui, and instead of an angry and suspicious population pitted against us we might have had a large number of loyal troops, local governors, and petty Tagalog officials to assist us in controlling affairs in the Philippines. The crisis was at hand and our diplomacy was not equal to the occasion. It was of an order below that e-xercised by the Filipinos themselvc~. Thrown upon their own resources, ignored by the American authorities, they became obatreperous and sullen, unreasonable and assertive. This was the situation that confronted Major General E. S. Otis, who relieved General Merritt on the- 29th of August, 1898. \Vhen General Otis took command, he told Aguinaldo that the recognition of belligerency was a government function, and not a military one; that only his government eould do that, and that unless the Insurgent forces were withdrawn from Manila, its sub-


urbs and defences, he would be obliged to resort to forcible action. Aguinaldo sent two commissioners to treat with General Otis and request that he withdraw tho::! letter and issue another eliminating the threat to use force, claiming that the letter a3 written would incite the Insurgents to open hostility. General Otis refused to withdraw the letter, but acceded to the commissioners' desires and wrote another requesting the Insurgents to withdraw their troops. Aguinaldo replied by stating that he had given orders that t roops should be withdrawn from "some of the suburbs and to a point where contact would be more difficult, in ordel' to avoid all occasion for conflict." The fight between the conservative and radical elements of the Malolos cabinet threatened to break into an open row. Mabini, Buencamino, and Pilar were anxious to precipitate ,h ostilities with the Americans, while Arellano, Tavera, the Rosarios, and Sandico believed the diplomacy would accomplish them what war would fail in utterly. Aguinaldo executed a coup, dismissed his cabinet, and guided by the skilled hand of Paterno, secured a new cabinet with Paterno as prime minister. Aguinaldo's removal from Bacoor to Malolos was celebrated like a Roman triumph. The day was made a great fiesta. Filipino national airs were played, and dignified ceremonies, orations, feasting, and jollity prevailed. Thousands upon thousands of natives assembled to honor Aguinaldo. The towns en route and beyond Malolos were decorated in gala attire. Triumphal arches were erected, and s inging, dancing and feasting were the order of the day. At San Fernando a sumptuous banquet was given. Numerous American officers were invited and attended. Aguinaldo presided. During the dinner he was unusually silent. Despite many efforts it seemed impossible to arouse



untruthful stories have beem published. Will the Americans please be charitable and hear bo!h sides be/ore condemning the Filipinos?" Aguinaldo was both willing and anxious to a vo id hos tilities, at least until the decision of the Paris conference was known . Into all parts of Luzon and to the principal ports of the so uthern islands he sent small detachments of Tagalogs. His relatives were given important pos itions. Baldomero Aguinaldo was made commander-in-chief of the south zone. His n e phew was given an important command in the Cagayan province to the north, a nd his cousin, Gen eral Paua, was put in command of the Camarines. Proclamations declaring the Fili路 pinos independent were distributed throughout the Archipelago. Civhimself. il governm.mts The unofficial oppositron that existed in were established the United States to the demands made by recognizing the our Paris commissioners for the Philippines Malolos presidaroused great excitement in the Filipino ency, "the mil路 tamp. Every speech that bolstered up the itary to take insurgents' asp irations was tl~nsmitted to precedence in the Hong Kong and sent over to Manila, rec eivcase of war." ing publication in the Republica. F ilipina or The( skillful aid La Independef7l.Cia. of General Luna On September 24, Aguinaldo said to the Hon. was brought into John Barrett, who was in the Philippines: requisition. He "Please inform the President, Congress , and organized the In路 the American people, that we; Offe flrne friends surgents upon an of the Americans. We trust them to save us army basis. He GEN. JOSE IG N ACID from Spanish misrule. All allegations 0/ treagave command to PAUA chery towatrd the A rnericans atre. unfounded Filipinos who had and unjust. I have never given an order, nor held petty offices under the crown forces, and taken a step. that could be called treacherous. soon succeeded in converting a disorganized T he only reason we are slow to evacuate our ' positions around Manila is because we a1路e horde of armed natives into a disciplined and fearful Spain may yet try to occupy the same. c::\refully distributed force. Luna was a TheA rticles of capitulations say the A mer- radical element from the start, and eager to wan8 will retain the. ClI1"m8 of the Spaniard test the efficiency of his organization. The Philippina, a merchant ship captured when either force leaves. America interfered in Cuba for humanity's sake. For the same from the Spanish, which figured in the 8u" 1"eMan it cannot retain these I slands. It is bic Bay incid ent, was armed with two a-inch a mistake,for the Americans to think we wish guns; sh e visited the various ports of the to fight them. A II OUT hopes and plans a,re hlands, and distributed companies of Tagalog soldiers to insure the allegiance of r.entercd i71 opposition to Spanish rule. Many his interest or inspire a flicker of enthusiasm on his countenance. Toasts went round. Several Americans made guarded speeches. Aguinaldo remained impassive. Finally Major Byrnes, who spoke Spanish and some Tagalog, arose and made a very warm speech praising the valor and loyalty of the Filipinos. Sti ll Aguinaldo sat unmo ved. Major Byrnes contin ued, and just at the close of h is remarks, referred t>o the generous intentions and disinterested purp,o ses of the United States in the Philippines. &uddenly Aguinaldo's face was wreathed in smil es. Without a moment's warning he jumped on his chair and gave a yell like a co llege boy. "Champagne, champagne, champagne !" he cried out, reaching over a nd sha king Major HYl'nes' hand . It is about the only incident on record in which Aguinaldo exhibited a spontane'Ous and warm regard for American occupation, although it is possible h e misconstrued Major Byrnes' remark to please



The revolutionary govwere distributed. el'nment was recognized by the Filipinos and native races, in some instances willingly, in ,others by force. Police and civil guard': were established in the principal towns, and the l'ailroad was utilized at will by the Insurgent officials. The Filipino farmers were' taken into the army, drilled and organized nnd sent back to their crops. The women worked in the fields in the enforced absence of their husbands and preparations were made, stores were husbanded, and munitions brought in t 0 the Islands preparatory to a military campaign. In Manila secret agents of the Insurgent government raised large sums, sometime<; by voluntary subscription, sometimes by intimidation. The wealthy Chinese in Manila and throughout the Islands were induced to contribute largely to the r~volutional'Y cause. Paterno, the mediator, th~ publicist, the rich steamship owner and planter, who had cried out with The revolutionary govequal fervor, "Viva los Fiernment was universally lipinos," and IIViva la Esrecognized throughout the pana," was again the foJd PEDRO A . PATERNO Islands, except in Manila and installed as president and seaports still held by of the r evolutionary conthe Spanish. gress, which voted AguiThe period from our military occupation naldo a salary of $25,000 a year and $50,000 of Manila up to the outbreak was one of for expenses. More parades at Malolos and th(> mo st interesting and complex lin the San Fernando were given, banquets were trend of events. At Malolos the keenest minds held, and dances followed. Enthusiasm was in the Filipino race were bending every ef- rampant. Th e Filipinos, anxious to impress fort to eXtend and solidify the pOW!er of the Americans, invited them freely to witness Aguinaldo throughout the Archipelago. Three their ceremon ies. They were l'eceived with thousand miles of telegraph wire was in congreat cordiality and enthusiasm, and given trol of the Insurgent government. Swift runners brought and carried messages into places 0,ÂŁ honor at dinners and social functhe most remote part of the Islands. Cap- tions. The hospitality of the Filipinos was tured launches and Chinese junks plied be- boundless and their pride limitless. * * * Aguinaldo's presence upon any occasion tween the various ports and islands, and prowas marked with the utmost ceremony and clamations, orders, arms, and ammunition

the natives, oollect funds, and establish th~ Filipino government. The t : legraph lin ~s destroyed during the jnsun'ection of 1897 were rebuilt, and a postal service was created. A set of stamps; was printed, and :l stamp tax enforced. The season was an especially prosperous one for the Filipinos. The for,eig'l'l merchant ships were permit.. ted to carry on an unrestricted trade, and free from the seve r e Spanish revenue taxes took active advantage of the opportunity. The Filipinos, relieved of the burdens imposed upon them by the friars and the Spaniards, realized the full benefit of their industry and the sale of their products. The Insurgent government levied a small export tax, but its principal source of revenue at that time was from contl'ibutions of the rich half-castes and the Chinese merchants. Large amounts were also taken from the friars, and sympathizers in Manila secretly contributed to the cause.



parade. The people worshipped him and covered his path with f!lowers, the children dropped on their knees at his approach, and the natives doffed their hats in reverence. Theil' love of feasts, music, and dancing was given full rein, and Aguinaldo made' triumphal tours in the cities along the railroad line, his appearance arousing the Filipinos to a fervor resembling religious frenzy. Triumphal floral arches were erected, mass meetings of enormous proportions were held, and the prettiest girls in the village, dressed in the colors of the Filipino flag blended with the stars and stripes, were hailed and cheered with delight, for the Filipino leaders assured the inhabitants that the Americans sanctioned their government. So generally was this accepted that in one instance a governor of a northern province, upon learning in December of the signing of the Treaty of Peace at Paris, disbanded the Insurgent militia and proclaimed a civil government. The spirit of liberty dominated the hearts of the people, and the vanity of power took possession of Aguinaldo and the Filipino leaders. Our advice and friendship, our indulgence--even the presence of Americans at their functions-were construed as a recognition of their Independence. The universal sentiment of the Insurgent officers, civil and military, and of leading townspeople proved to be virtually the same. They all declared they would accept nothing short of independence, but desired the protection of the United States at sea. Aguinaldo had an organized military force in every province of the north. Insurgent soldiers were everywhere, anns were plentiful and ammunition abundant. There w'ere rifles enough for all, principally Remingtons, but many Mausel'S. In every quarter there were at least as many rifles as soldiers in the garrison. Ammunition was so plentiful that the native used it freely in hun ting for deer. Colonel Tirona claimed that two hundred thousand men from all the Islands could be put into the field well armed i and Reveral other Insurgent officers, independently questioned, gave the same figure. Every officer carried a Spanish s'\\"Ord and revolver constantly, but regarded them with contempt, preferring the bolo at dose qual'-

ters. The military spirit pervaded the north where every town and barrio had organized companies, even enlisting the children, who were drilled every day. Arms and ammunition continued to find their way into Luzon. On the 27th of August the Abby, alias PlUlig, flying the American flag, having received American register at Canton, arrived at Batangas. It was commanded by an American, and delivered to the Insurgents about 500 rifles, 500,000 rounds of ammunition, two lMaxim guns, and 2000 rounds of Maxim ammunition . Accompany路 ing the expedition was another American whose purpose was to instrnct the FilipinO in the use of the rapid-firing guns. Adminl Dewey, through information received from Consul General Wildman, sent the McCulloch to Batangas in SeptembcJ.-, and seized the /Abby, but not until her cargo was landed. Arms even found their way into Manila Bay on merchant ships, and , ..'ere landed under false labels. Funeral processions became so numerous in Manila that they aroused suspicions, and not without cause. In a number of instances caskets in hearses were found to be filled with Mausers, destin ed ostensibly for a suburban native cemetery. The north of Luzon was ready for war. T"h e revolutionary government controlled the old Spanish fortifications, and enlisted in its cause the wild tribes of the mountains. On October 5, 1898, La Independen";I>, the organ of the Filipino Republic, was started in Manila. General Luna was its editor-inchief. Assoc)ated with him were; Marciano V. del Rosario, Vito Belarmino, and other members of the revolutionary congress. La ilndependencia began its career by hurling defiance to all who opposed the "final aspirations" qf the Filipinos. uGoverning all Luzon, we wish to show all nations that we are capable of governing ourselves," said La independencia. "We salute America, that powerful country with which we unite the bonds of sincer路 est friendship. Together we have fought, and in days of extreme danger we have felt our hearts beat in unison. Having declared war against Spain in the name of humanity, and being designated the champion of people oppressed by the Spanish government, she


doe$ not come here to make war against any party, nor to seize one strip of territory; her mission is greater and more generous, being inspired always by the Monroe Doct rine. Our cause should have her sympathy, that due to a young people who aspire to independence, having confidence in their own efforts, and nobleness of their cause. Our highest aim should be received with generous sympathy by the free nations. The independence of the United States met with the help and sympathy of the generous French.

"We salute the foreign nations, especially those who ho ld interests in the Philippines, expressing to them our strongest desire to continue in peace on the basis of our independence. We salute also our president, CitI izcn Aguinaldo, the life and soul of the reI vo!ution, and the government whose policy i is the attraction for worth, honesty, and just, ice, also our val.orous and suffering army whose chiefs and soldiers have fought and will fight to gain their nationality. We send our respects to the press of the P.hilippine8 and foreign parts, recommending ourself to their acquaintance." This publication had a large circulation, and day after day was an ardent champion of Filipino independence. Its office was the gathering-place of the Filipino leaders, and its editorials and con-espondence were prepared and gone over with the greatest deliberation and painstaking. Published within the Alllerican lines and circulated freely il). the city, it excited the people and aroused the Spanish residents to a point of frenzy. After several weeks General Otis suppressed the publication. It~ offices and plant were thereupon removed to Malolos. La Independencia played a very important part in the revolution. * * * The Manila sympathizers told the revo}Jltionists that the American commander was a Catholic, nnd was in a daily communication with the archbishop; that the Church of Rome kept him in power, and that it was his aim to restore the old regime of Catholic orders in the I slands; that through Archbishop Nozeleda he had won over Arellano who was the attorney for the archbishop. and that the Church and State were in league as of


old. Further, that the American Army chaplains were Catholics, and held services with the &pan ish priests in the cathedral. Another point of discord was the coming of Chinese coolies, who flocked to the Islands by thousands to take places as servants and day laborers, and to profit by the high prices ~nd disturbed ' conditions. The industrious and cheap-living Chinaman had always been a cause of irritation to the Tagalog, and his presence in the Islands was never wholly acceptable to the Filipino. General Otis, therefore, to solve the problem and conciliate the Filipinos issued an order enforcing the Chinese Exclusion Act, excepting only previous residents of Manila who had migrated during and just preceding the American occupation of Cavite and Manila. * ,., * There were nume,rous Spanish gan;sons throughout the I slands, and the fact that we pennitted them to remain unmolested annoyed the Insurgents. General Otis held . that pending the signing of the Peace Treaty, all territory outside of Manila was still under Spanish jurisdiction. Six hundred Spanish soldiers were besieged at Santa Cruz, in Laguna de Bay; Alba y was held by a Spanish garrison; also the principal town of Nailu and South Camarines and Nueva Caceres, the provinces of North and South Ilocos, Isabela, and Cagaya.n were held by the Spanish. Two hundred and fiity crown soldiers were at Morong, and as far as could be ascertained the Spanish garrisons in Cebu, Iloilo, Leyte, and Mindanao still held out. Because our forces had ceased to operate against the Spaniard s, the Filipino leader;::; were tortured with the fear that we would return the Islands to S pain. They failed to r ea liz e that we did n ot cherish the bitter enmity toward Spain t hat possessed them, nor could they comprehend why, on the eve of an overvvhelming victory, we should cease in the prosecution of a campaign that offered assured success. Aguinaldo and the Insurgent leaders ,,"ere anxious for the absolute annihilation of Spanish power. They did not fear us, but entertained a terrible dread of Spanish methods. "The Filipinos desire to live in peace and harmony with the Americans," wlIote Aguinaldo, October 22, 1898,



"because they will take care that the Philippines do not return under the odious Spanish dominion." It was very clear that the Filipino leaders were determined upon in dependence; were opposed in'ewocably to the return of Spanish rule; were willing to allow us to protect them in the accomplishment of thei r ambitions. They knew what they did not want, but varied in t heir statements of what

they did want. The outcome of the peace Conference was awaited with great impatience. Felipe Agon路 cillo had been sent to Paris to secure a h earing in t he interests of the Filipino govern-


Much to his chagrin he was given

no place in the commission .

The Asiatic coast a dventure rs, clinging to the skirts of F ilipino aspiratiom., profiting in pocket, agi tated the press of America with stories of the greatness of Aguinaldo an d the fitness of the Filipinos f.or se lf-government. The superfic ial fanatic in th e United States took up the cry and demanded for th e fledgling government national recognition. "We want facts to strengthen t he argu!1lents for your wished -fOl' independence in the coming election," wrote t he president of an American league to Aguinaldo. On a trip to Dagupan, in company with Mr. Ho race Higg ins, the general director of the railway, we discovered at Malolos that Aguinaldo had placed a guard of six Insur ... gents upon the car ah ead of us, to uinsure our safety," \ve were politely informed. Our protectors, however, spent mo st of their time in watching our actions. At Dagupan I saw several \good-sized sai lingships, war "canoes rigged with canvas, and large cascoes anchored in t h e Dagupan River, flying the Insurgent flag. Miles of track along the railroad had b een stri~p e d of the fish-plates, whi ch were taken by the Insurgents and m a de into crude bolos, or daggers, with wood en or carabao horn handles and bamboo sheaths. Large quantities of telegraph wire had been stolen and wound a10U d bamboo for cannons or used in the extension of In surgent telegraph Jines. Mr. Higgins was powerless to prevent their depredations.

General Whittier, ex-collector of the port, visited Malolos and endeavored to find out precisely what Aguinaldo repre&ented, that he might present his views before the Faris commission. Aguinaldo told him that hi s people were divided jnto two parties, those in favor of absolute independence and those of an American protectorate; that the parties were about equal j that he was waiting to see which would have the majority, and in that case would take a position. General Whittier pointed out to Aguinaldo the advantage of American sovereignty. Aguj路 naldo replied that lithe civilized nations would see that our possessions were not taken from us." Geneal Whittier asked him what he expected of America. liTo furnish the navy, while the Filipinos held all the country and administered civil offices with its own people." . HAnd what would Americ,a get from this?" General Whittier asked. "Th~t would be .a detail that would be settled herea.tter," replied Aguinaldo. Bu.encamino, Aguinaldo's chief adviser at this time told General Whittier he was sure the President was in favor of an American protectorate. Thus the house was divided against itae[f. In America a policy was rapidly crystalliz~ ing. President .1 McKinley made a tour of the country, delivering speeches and gathering the consensus of opinion of the people e;verywhere. He became convinced that the sentiment of the country was in favor of the retention of the Philippines. The Americans were imbued with the spirit of the IIWhite Man's Burden," and liked the idea of extending the sovereignty of the republic over a people suffering under the atrocities of mediaeval rule. They favored intervention in Cuba, and they were not willing that the flag should be lowered in the Philippines. The victory of Dewey was the pride of every American, and the vast majority was desirous of extending our domain in th e Orient. The sentimentalist and th e humanitarian realized the opportunity to free a suffering people from the tyrannies of an unjust government, and the American busines3 man saw opportunities to broaden his commercial relation! and contvol a n ew and productive field . As soon as it became evident to the Insurgents that the Americans were opposed to


the restoration of Spanish sovereignty, that question caused to be a factor in the situation. 'Vhile it became apparent to the American people and the commissioners in Paris that our duty was to retai n the Philippines, it became evident that the Insurgents proposed to contest our occupation and demand the recognition of the Filipino republic. The erstwhile lieutenant of the crown forces had become a brigadier g-eneral of th E> Filipino army ; the lay-reader of the Spanish p~iests had clothed himself in t he robes of his superior; the law student had become a judge; the tiller of soil and the bearer of burdens. had become soldi ers of the republic; a nd t h e rebel chieftain, who was prolific in his protestations of friendship and gratitude to the "great North American nation," aspired to be the "George Washing1Jon of his people." Despite these dec laration s, our army r :.> mained idle and extended 00 the Filipino friendly consideration . Our soldiers were barricaded in old buildings, impFovised shacks, or upon the open field; t hey slept on hard floors and stretched out upon t he uncovel'ed ground; they guarded over the proerty of the insurrectionists a nd the Spaniards with equal vigilance. Lib erty and license as ractised by the Old-World invading armies were unknown. Ill-clothed, unkempt, and aressed in rough campaign suits, the appearlnce of the American soldier provoked the contempt of the dapper Filipino general. he Spanish taught them a n ew word, "Yanos," and they app lied it to the American with contempt. On December 10 the treaty of peace with Spain was signed in Paris, and its terms "ere soon known to the Insurgent government. The greatest activity followed. . A lar~ residence was rented in Manila and the Filipino Club was formed. All prominent Insu.rgent officials became members. The club worked in close sy mpathy with the revolutionary governme;nt, and while ostensibly devoted to social and athletic diversions, its chief O<!cupabion was \the promulgation of the doctrine of independence, and the organ ization of a semi-military league in the city. From time to time our polioer unearthed small native ann Chinese shops, llihere, in inconspicuous and inaccessible back


rooms, bolos were being made and Insurgent uniforms manufactured. At this time the Spanish generals, holding the southern islands pending the signing of the treaty of peace, released large numbers of n ative soldiers wh o had been serving in the Spanish army. These were shipped to Manila, where. finding themselves without payor means of support, they wfent over to the Insurgent army, many of these being given important commissions in recognition of their military experience. The Insurgents in Panay began to make t hemselves heard. The Spanish force, then, was eight hundred, but over two hundred were sick or wounded. The Insurgents harassed them incessantly, assembling in large numbers across the river opposite Iloilo at ~0 10 , wh ere th~y were strongly intrenched. The Spanish gunboats commanded the river and chec ked t he attempt on the part of theInsurgents to cross the river and stonn Iloilo. Early in December, the business men of the city sent a petition to General Otis asking fur !American prfOtection, stating that the Insurg-en ts were reported to be favorab le for annexation. General Otis reported this to Washington, and was instructed to send troops, but avoid a conflict with the Insurgents. General Rios. ho,vever, did not wait for the arrival of our forces, but evacuated Iloilo on the 23rd of December and handed th e town over} to the Insurgents, who immediately took possession. General Miller, who had charge of the Iloilo expedition, took aboard two hundred discharged nat ive crown soldiers, who had been dumped into Manila, and were anxious, they said, to return to their homes in Panay. The act was intended as a n expression of kindness on our part to assist a penniless body of men to return to their homes. H ad General Mil..

9.IaTPlos pa.Ipunq OM.1 asaq1 111tn. UA\OU}f .tat we~8 pledged to Aguinaldo, and that their IE"ader bore instructions to General Araneta, the Insurgent commander of the forces in Panay, to resist American occupation, the destination of these cunning Tagalogs would have been in Fort Santiago. But he was ignorant of the mutinous intent of his guests, and they were landed upon the coast of Panay, near Iloilo, promising to prepare the



way for our coming. They disappeared, and promptly joined their brothers in arms, and subsequently caused a great deal of trouble in Panay. In reflecting upon, how the native juggled \vith our credulity and ignorance, were the results not so serious it would almost encroach upon the ludicrous, Chattering and prattling in a dozen jargons, their language as incomprehensible as their character, we accepted their protesta.tions and vows of friendship, while they plotted and planned to thwart our intentions. When time shall have healed the wound, it will be the theme for the opera bauffe. On the 28th of December, 1898, the ATizona and Pennsylvania anchored off Point Luzaron, thirty miles from noilo, and the Baltimore and Newport entered the harbor. An aid from the Insurgent brigadier, General Delgado, sought an interview with Gen· eral Miller, and asked him our intentions. Upon informing the Insurgent general that our troops had come to occupy the city, Delgado replied that he could yield nothing without instructions from Aguinaldo. The president of the Insurgent government, Pres· ident Lopez, further notified General Mil· ler that the people would consent to no foreign interference, without express orders from the central government at Luzon. The leading foreign business men of Manila pe· titioned General Miller to consider the de· mand of the Insurgents. Upon learning the conditions and the probable result of for· cible occupation of Iloilo, General Otis ins· tructed General Miller, in accordance with a despatch from Washington, not to be in haste, but to remain in the harbor with his force and await further orders. General Otis transmitted a modified copy of President McKinley's proclamation, December 21, for MiUer's instruction. The proclamation was pubHshed by General Miller and distrib· buted among the Insurgents and 'I'esidents of Iloilo. It caused the utmost c~mstemation, and brought forth a tirade of abuse and defiance against the American government. The proclamation announced that by the treaty of peace between Spain and the United States, the future control, disposi· tion, and government of the Philippine Is-

lands were ceded to the United &tates; that the actual occupation and administration of the entire Archipelago became, therefore~ immediately necessary, and that the military government was to be extended with all pog.. sible des patch over the entire territory. The private, personal, and religious rights and relations of the inhabitants were guaranteed. Inhabitants, either by active aid or honest sub· mission, who cooperated with the government were promised support and protection, but all others were warned that they would be brought within the lawful rule of the United States. The civil and municipal govern· ments were to be operated by officers, chosen as far as practicable from the inhabitants of the Islands. Arbitrary rule was to be su bstituted by the mild sway of justice, and the greatest good of those governed was promised. The proclamation was sneered and laughed at, and copies of it were sent to Malolos. The Insurgents raised their flag over the old Spanish fort, dug trenches, fortified the harbor, sunk cascoes loaded with stones at the mouth of the Talana River, for they were now in absolute possession of the Island of Panay. Foreign vessels continued to trade with Iloilo, took and landed cargoes, assuming all risks, and thus large amounts of money reached the Insurgent treasury. Under the same conditions ships were going and coming from most of the ports through· out Luzorl and the southern islands. The crops had been large, and the trade was most profitable to both the foreigners and the Filipinos, w~o leJVied duties upon the foreigners and a war tax upon the inhabit· ants. Before issuing the President's proclamation in Manila, General ntis counselled with a number of the leading "Pacificos" and pro· minent Filipinos of the city. Upon learning from an Iloilo messenger the final intentions of the United States, there arose the utmost confusion among the revolutionists, who plainly told General Otis that the document would not be received with favor. The contents of the Iloilo proclamation upset the Ma· 1010s congress, and the entire cabinet was: overthrown. Mabini regained his power over the deputies, was elected president of the


congress and Minister of Foreign Affairs, and proclaimed a policy of independence or death. Teodoro Sandi co appeared upon the seene again, and was drawn to the side of the uIrreconcilables" and made Minister of the Interior; Baldomero Aguinaldo was appointed Minister of War; General Trias, Minister of Finance; Gregorio Gonzaga, fonnerly Spanish Attorney General of the Vizcayas, was made Minister of Public Works. Aguialdo and Paterno withdrew to Santa Ana, and the status of the dictatorial president vas in durance for some days, for it was aid he strenuously opposed the warlike atitude of Mabini. The "Pacificos" were uterly routed, and the military element was in the ascendant. Mabini, the "Irreconcilable," demanded the recognition of the independence of the Philippines, and announced that h e would only release the Spanish prisoners upon the receipt of propositions directly from &pain, which recognized the Filipinos as belligerents. The friars, he said, would not be released, seeing that they had acted as papal agents during the war, except upon the following conditions: firstly, the apostolic delegate must ask for their liberty in the name of the Pope; secondly, all bills and pontifical decrees granting special privileges to the religious orders must be removed j thirdly, all rites of the secular clergy must be respected; fourthly, no friar may hold any parish, cathedral, episcopate, or diocesan prefennents; fifthly. all such prefennents to be held by native or naturalized Filipino clergy; and' tizthly, rules for the election of bishops must be fixed. Mabini started out with a high hand. Aguinaldo was given little consideration. Even Were he anxious for more moderation, as was generally believed at the time, his counsel was ignored. We began to discriminate between the real Aguinaldo and the composite that had fooled us. In the midst of his uproar General Otis, on January 4, issued a proclamation amending the President's instructions to the Secretary of War. It varied little, however, from the Original, issued at Iloilo, and already in the hands of the Malolos government, except what is atated that the controlling elements among


the Filipinos would be given civil positions; that considerable of the' military force of the Islands would be drawn from the inhabitants, and that the aim of the American government was to eventually give the people as free and independent a government as is enjoyed by the most favored provinces of the world. The proclamation of- General Otis was gratifying to foreign resid ents and American troops in the Philippines. It assured them that the government was determined to "see the thing through," but as a pacific measure it was absolutely va lueless. Conservative business men, long residents of the Philip~ pines, predicted an immediate outbreak of hostilities. The natives tore the proclamation from the walls and trampled upon it. Many of the wealthy Filipinos transferred their property to Spanish attorneys, and thousands of natives left the city to join the Insurgents. The E scolta, the main thorough ~ fare of Manila, was rife with rumors that attempts would be made to burn the city and that an uprising of the natives might be expected at any moment. Even the Filipino women declared, in a paper drawn up and signed by a luge number, that they would resist the Americans, side by side with their husbands and sons, and would shed every drop of blood in their veins for the independence of their country. La lndependencia was violent in its abuse of the Americans, and exhorted every man, woman and child to arm themselves and die for liberty. Spanish sympathizers and haIf~ castes told the Filipinos that Americans sought the Islands to satisfy the greed and ambition of political office-seekers, and t hat the American people did not favor the subjugation of the Filipinos. Mabini advocated a declaration of war. Former subterfuges that the Filipino army only aimed to defend itself against the crown forces shaul? we turn the Islands back to Spain, were brushed aside, and independence or death was the unqualified demand set forth. On the day following General Otis' pro~ clamation Aguinaldo caused to be posted in the streets of Manila, and distributed generally, a virtual declaration of war. In this document he reviewed the events, from the beginning, pointed out the assistance his



troops had been to our forces, called attention t o the action of Admiral Dewey ill seizing his launches, protested against the a ction of General Ot is in forcin g him t o withdraw his f or ces, rei te r a ted his a ssertions t hat consular promises had bee n given him, ref erred to our operat ions in Iloilo harbor, anrl c,o n cluded by threatening. ho stilities if w e. att emp t ed to occupy Iloilo. An official m anifes to was published s imultaneously, :in which Ag uin a ldo protested against General Ot is signing himself the military governor of th e Philippine I slands. He declared that h e had nev er by word or WTiting recognized t he sovereignty of the United States in the Philippines, but on th e con t rary, in all his offi cia l proclamations had p r oclaimed the liberty and independence of t he Filipinos, and that h e s olemnly pro t ested against the claims of the Unit ed States. "Ther.e must be no t urning back in the path we have already e n ter erd," concluded the manifest o. Aguin aldo then addressed a letter to foreigners in Manila, offering them protection should hostilities occur between the Filipinos and Americans. General Otis order ed Aguinaldo' s proclamat ion torn down and destroyed. The month of January, 1889, was a reign of t error. The American volunteers, chafing u nder r estraint a nd taunted by the Filipinos, w ere difficult to control. The Insurgent n ewspapers were violent and uncompromisin g , and accl.l sed the Americans of unjust t reatment and the American soldiers of indiscriminate use of force against innocent Filipino resident s. They complained against t he shooting of stragglers who passed in the vicinit y of American fortifications. The native popula tion was between the devil and the deep sea. Terrorized by the Insurgents, and distru sted by the' American soldiers, they were in a state of sullen fear. Those employed by Americans were bullied and tyrannized by the revolutionists into leaving their posts, and extortionate demands for money were enforced against every Filipino of prominence. Hundreds of natives were pressed into the Insurgent army, and fearing assassination at the hand of the Katipunans, it became impossible to hire natives to perform the most trifling services. Even the Chinese shared this feeling of terror and huddled to-



gether in their quarters, afraid to stir outs ide of the s e-ction of th e city where they outnumbered the Filipinos. ft is an open question wh ether or not the breach between us and the Filipinos at that time could have been heaLed. Our policy wa s formulated and a.nnounced. Theirs was apparent. We well knew what they demanded. It simply remained to be seen whether they would "see the error of their ways," or whether they would persist in an unequal struggle. :President McKinley thought that they would realize OUl; benevolent purpose and recognize that before we could give them good government our sovereignty must be conceded and unquestioned. He urged th!it tact and kindness was most essential at that time, as we had accepted the Philippines from a high sense of duty in the interests of their inhabitants and for humanity and civilization. He was both right and wrong. The Filipinos rerused to see conditions from our point of view, and we declined to acknowledge their claims. A peace commission was arranged in hopes of arriving at something definite. Brigadier General R. P . Hughes, Colonel James F. Smith, and Lieutenant Colonel E. H . Crowder were named by Ge~eral Otis. Aguinal:do appointed Florentino Torres, Eufrasio Flores, and Manuel Arguelles. The committees met daily for nearly three weeks. The Filipinos maintained that all territory outside of Manila belonged to the Insurgents by right of occupancy and conquest; that the Filipinos were engaged in a war with Spain just as America was, and that while America had taken Cavite and Manila, the Filipinos had taken the rest of the Archipelago. Colonel Crowder questioned the force of their arguments, and asked them how they could prove that they had captured the territory they claimed. IIW路e can prove it by seven thousand prisoners," a Filipino commissioner replied. The efforts of the commission were frui~ less. They were unable to convince the Filipinos that freedom did not necessarily mean national freedom; that self-government did not imply路 national governmentj that the rec路 ognition of the rights of the Filipinos did


Dot call for a recognition of the sovereignty of the Filipino reJ>ublic. The man who supported the Filipino claim with the greatest ability and the most uncom~ promising stu bbornness was Torres. As in the case of Arellano, Torres was one of the first to withdraw from the revolutionists and accept a judgeship by appointnrent of General Otis. Before the fall of Manila Torres held a judicial position at Cebu, under the Spanish government. While the commissioners were talking peace, the Malolos congress promulgated, on January 21, the HConstitution of the Republica F ilipina." Aguinaldo promptly trans~ mitted a copy to General Otis, and n otified him to the effect that the recognition of the Filipinos' constitution was the proper method to insure general peace. Article 2 stated that liThe Philippine republic is free and indepen dent." The constitution, while rather hazy on the question oi popular suffrage, was very clear as to the rights of the executive, whose election was to be by the maj ority of Congress. Separation of the Church and State was specified, and the property of the religious corporations was to be "returned to the state. tl Personal freedom, the inviolability of home, correspondence, effects, the telegraph and telephone, and the person of the Filipino were guaranteed, also free speech, a free press, and free education. IIAr_ bitrary penalties," IIPrivate laws." "Special tribunals," and IIUnearned emoluments" were declared unconstitutional. In many parts the constitution was modelled upon American lines, but was non-committal and general upon points relative to the exact part t he people were to take in the elections. lithe assembly shall represent the entire nation and not exclusively those who elect them" (Article 34). lilt is the prerogative of the President to convoke it, suspend and dose its sessions, and dissolve it" (Article

86). In the Senate of the United States and in BOrne of the newspapers of America there appeared expressions of sympathy with Filipino aspirations. Numerous Americans were Opposed to t he idea of making war u pon a people who made such a favorable It was contrary to our traditions to oppose


a country striving for independence, but it was not at variance with our Constitution to . put down a rebellious faction. Expressions of opinion, opposing the course of the American government, were transmitted by Agoncillo, at that time in Washington, and by other revolutionary representatives, to the Hong-Kong Junta, who promptly forwarded them to Malolos. Consul General Wildman had repeated evidence of the operations of the Junta and their associatien with American and English adventures, but was powerless to take action against them, except in so far as the apprehending of the shipments of arms, in which he largely succeeded. IIWe have arms enough in Luzon now," said one of the paid agents of the Junta to a neWipaper correspondent. 'rwe are not trying to send any more. Consul Wildman is having all his pains for nothing. Admiral Dewey's ships cannot patrol the whole coast of Luzon." From a score 01 sources statements were transmitted to Aguinaldo and Mabini that the majority of the American people were in favor of recognizing the independence of the Filipinos; and that in order to solve th e perplexing question our government would sell the Philippines to Germany or Japan or some foreign power, but that in any ev:ent the status of the friars would not be interfered with. There were the pitch balls t hat th e rev olutionary leaders threw out among the people. Agoncillo, Aguinaldo's Ministelo Plenipotentiary, on January 11, 1899, published and submitted a "Memorandum relative to the right of the Philippine Republic to Recognition," addressed to the Secretary of &tate. Agoncillo stated that the Filipinos, having expelled the government of Spain from the Islands, were entitled to recognition as an independent republic. The plea was not officially recognized by the State Department. Three other commissioners from the r evolutionary government appeared at V-lashington, Dr. Lozada, Juan Luna, and Captain Martin Burgos. None of these emissaries, nor their protests against the ratification of the- Treaty of Paris received official recognition by the American government nor the favorable attention of Congress.



It was apparent to everyone in Manila that ~ clash was close at hand; it became evident to the American government that the military commissions appointed by General Otis were inadequate and ineffective. The President, therefore, appointed a civil commission cons isting of Jacob G. Schurman, president of Corn ell Un iv ersity. to be the president of the commission; Admiral George Dewey. Major General E. S. Otis, the Hon. Charl es Denby. Ex-Minister to China, and Dean C. 'Worcester, professor in Michigan University and the author of a work on the Philippine Islands. This commission was instructed to investigate a nd r ecomm end the best methods to "facilitate the mo st humane, pacific, and effective extension of authority throughout the I sland s:' The commission was given no powers oth er than that of investigation and recommendation, "without interference with the military authorities of the United States now in oontrol of the Philippines." The appointment of the commission was looked upon by the Ins urgents a s a subterfuge. La Independencia said: liThe Filipinos naturally suspect this n ew attempt to humbug. Both Dewey and Pratt promised us independence if the Filipino republic was stab le. The Filipinos arc disillusioned. They believe the commission is a ruse to gain time until they have accumulated formidable forces, when America, abusing her strength, will b egin a war to ratify h er sovereignty." In the closing days of January t h e atmosphere was charged with rumors. So high was public tension that a dog fight in the streets of Manila one day was mistaken for an uprising, a nd brought forth a call to arms. A storm was gathering, a nd everyone felt it. Nightly knifing affairs k ept t h e inhab itants at a fighting pitch. Every white man carried a loaded revolver, and mo st of the n atives secreted b olos or knives in their clothes. On t he outposts of the two armies constant friction occurred, and shooting and stabbing were resorted to when one party or th e other en croached too far upon the neutra l zone estab lished between the forces. Privates and officers called out to each other threats and tau n ts across the n eutral zone, and it became evident to every one in Manila

that the least spark would start a ration.


General Otis was not blind to the condition s, and made preparations to resist an attack. He sent from Manila many of the discharged native &panish troops which Gen eral Rios had brou ght into the city. Th wealthy Filipinos of Manila did not dare t openly ally themselves with the revolution ists, who boasted that they would drive th invaders from the soil, nor did they wish to dese rt Itheir property. They made a de perate struggle to balance themselves bet路 ween conflicting interests. At the end 0 January not a Filipino remained an outspol,en friend of American sovereignty. Ou Ifavoid-a-conflict policy" placed the Amer icans in a humiliating position. Challenge and insults were hurled at our troops unti it was actually b elieved by the natives tha we did not dare fight. Some of the mos intelligent of the Manila Filipinos shared the belief, and anticipating our defeat, hastene to Malolos with their valuables for pro tee tion. Americans crossing the Insurgent lin were arrested. Newspaper corresponden with cameras were confined in the MaIolo convents, and a party of American enginee was detained by Aguinaldo. Colonel San Miguel commanded the Insur gents to the east of Manila. Facing hi troops was General MacArthur's division. T strengthen our positi1on in the viCinity 0 Santa Mesa, a suburb of Manila, the Nebra kans encamped upon an advantageous ris of gro und that commanded t h e old Spani al'senal occupied by the In surgents acro t.he San Juan creek east of Manila. T guns of the Utah battery were placed in fav orable positions. The arrival of t he NebI' kans infuriate d the Insurgen ts, and dispute and friction r esulted. With our outposts 0 one side of the little San Juan bridge an t he Insurgents just across the stream, th two forces were. placed in close quarters, an both parties were instructed to maintain thei positio n s. Not being able to cross the bridge the Insurgent oolonel, San Mig uel , repeated ly permitted his outposts to cross the cree~ and come over the line of delimitation int American territory.


General MacArthur finally, February 2, sent a Jetter to Colonel San Miguel, pointing out to him that armed Filipinos were infringing upon the neutral zone, and that his conunand occupied a village in front of blockhouse No. 7, at a point considerably more than one hundred yards on the American side of the line, and infonning him SAN JUAN BRIDGE '짜HERE that the Insurgents were very active in exhibiting hostile intentions. uThis party must be withdrawn to your side of the line at once/' General MacArthur wrote. !lAnd from this date if the line is crossed by your men with a11ns in their hands they must be regarded as subject to such action as I may deem necessary." Colonel San Miguel wrote an answer in the presence of Major Strong, saying: "In reply to yours of this date, in which you inform me that my soldiers have been passing the line of demarcation fixed by agreement, I desire to say this is foreign to my wishes, and I shall give immediate orders in the premises that they retire."

It was said in Manila that at th is time a telegram was received from Agoncillo by Aguinaldo, saying, "If you want independence you must fight for it." I was unable t() verify the rumor, but an American officer assured me he saw a copy of it. Agoncillo. at any rate, had sufficient discouragement at Washington to arrive at such an opinion. Persistent reports were in circulation t hat an attack would be made on Manila. The Americans were kept in readiness, and orders were quietly given to strengthen various positions in our lines Private Grayson of company D, First Nebraska, on Saturday night, February 4, fired 3


the shot that formally opened the conflict. He killed an Insurgent lieutenant and a private who entered our territory at blockhouse No.7, at the poi n t mentioned in the c o r r e spondence 0 f General MacArthur to Colonel San Miguel. Private Grayson, in an in t e r vi ew,. said of this important incid.. en t: ~'About eight O'clock, THE TROUBLE STARTED Miller and I were c a utiously pacing our district. We came to a fence and were trying to see what the Filipinos were up to. Suddenly, near at hand, on our left, there was a low but unmistakable Filipino outpost signal whistle. It was immediately answered by a similar whistle about twenty-five yards to the right. Then a r ed lantern flashed its signal from blockhouse No. 7. We had never seen such a. sign used before. In a moment something rose slowly up not twenty-five feet in front of us. It was a Filipino. I yelled 'halt,' made it pretty loud, for I was accustomed to challenging the officer of the guard in apPl'oved military style. I challenged him with another loud 'halt'. Then he shouted 'halto' to me. Well, I thought the best thing to do was to shoot him. He dl'opped. If I didn't kill him, 1 guess he died of fright. Then two Filipinos sprang out of the gateway about fifteen feet from us. I called 'halt' and Miller fired and dropped one. I saw that another was left. Well, I think I got my second Filipino that time. We retreated to where our six other fellows were, and I said: 'Line up, fellows the "niggers" are in here all through these yards.' We then retreated to the pipe line and got behind the water main and stayed there all night. It was some minutes after our second shots before the Filipinos began firing."



O l~



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In Manila at t he n ews of the outbreak of hostilities the excite ment was in tense. The theaters a nd concert ha lls were in full blast and hundre ds of Amelricans and Filipinos were enjoy in g t he festivities. At t h e alarm both forces made a rush for their posts. Carriages, street~carsJ and horses, irrespective of the o\vmers, were pressed in to service. Manager Higgins and his w ife of the Manila and Dagupan Railway were in Manila . H e succeeded in getting an engine through the lines t o his home in Calaocan :where he had left his children. Within a few minutes after the first sh ot the crack of the Springfield and t he ping of the Mauser ran along t he entire lines. The Nebraskans of General Hale's bri gade~ under Colonel John M. Stotsenberg, bore the brunt of t he first fighting. Yelling and shouting, San Miguel's forces m ade a desperate attempt to cross the San Juan River an d bridge. The Utah battery opened on the enemy's position across the stream and drove them back in confusion. All night the Nebraskans and Insurgents kept up a fearful fusillade across the San Juan creek and bridge. The Filipinos attempted to cross the Stream in C'ascoes, but were forced to retire. They then made a stand




in blockhouse No.7, which commanded an eminence to the left of the bridge, and from there and from the old Spanish arsenal up the Santa Mesa road across t he bridge they kept up a hot fire until daylight. In the af· t ernoon of the n ext day, Sunday, a detach· ment of the Tenn essees crossed t he river 8 mile to the right of the bridge, and moved upon the left fla nk of San Miguel's forces, enfilading their intren chmen ts, driving them into the open, exposing them to the Nebra· kan s' fire, two companies of which forced the enemy's position at the San Juan bridge and scattering them in all directions, taki the arsenal after a stubborn fight. The U battery shelled blockhouse No.7, and the Nebraskans moved up the hill and drove th Insurgents out, chasing them across the ope country, up the ravines and over the hill to the reservoir, two miles from the bridge. The reservoir is located on the brow 0 a hill, and is a natural fort, high earthwor E'xtending around its entire surface. Rest ing until Monday at noon, Hale's brigade ad vanced in a line of skirmishers up to th base of the hill upon which the reservoir i! built. The Utah battery took a position com· manding the enemy, and sent in a numbeJ




of well-placed shells which drove terror to :he hearts of the Filipinos. Simultaneously the Nebraskans charged up the steep incline lIn der a hot fire, and with fixed bayonets jrove t he enemy back from the breastworks in confusion. Through the thickets, over ;he rocks and hedges, and pell-meII ove.r the walls of the vauJted reservoir, the Nebraskans plunged with fearful recklessness. ~ontesting every inch of the ground, the I n3u rgents gradually retreated, leaving sev!nty-nine dead upon the top of the reser\'Oil'. Following up this position Colonel Stotsenberg, at nine o'clock Monday morn路 llIg, with a battalion of Nebraskans and i'oung's battery, started for the pumping sta:ion four mile. down the Santa Mesa road, dong which ran t he water ma ins. The Inmrgents opened fire from protected positions, )ut the taste of American warfare they had ilie day before made them disinclined to chaIenge a battle in t he open. Two companies If the Colorados took a parallel position in the Idvan ce which completely commanded t he idge along which t he r oad ran. T wo killed Ind t hree wo unded compri sed the casualt ies ,f the day_ An iving at the pumping station, t was discover e d that sever al impo rtant

parts of the machinery were miss ing; but sO hasty had been the Insurgents' retreat that the plant was not seriously crippled, and the parts were soon found. Several of the native operators came out of hidin g, and some were captured. The machinery was soon put in order, and the waterworks was st arted. The important movement was conduc te d with a spirit and fearlessness that a stound ed the Filipinos and scattered them in f right across the Mariquina Valley and over the hills of Antipoio. The insurgent defenses to the south of Manila were strong enough, if protected by artillery. to withstand almost any force. Besides six substantial blockhouses closely placed, there existed a perfect network of trenches sunk six feet deep. Back of these ran a continual line of earthworks protecting a deep trench from the bay to San Pedro Macati. The Insurgents fairly furrowed the g'l 'ound with pits, and threw up field works wh ich they considered impregnable. They believed themselves prepared to resist artil路 ler y fire, but they evidently did not count upon the close proximity of Dewey's ships. On Sunday morning the M onadnock moved over a longside t he Malate suburbs, and





off and chased by the Idahos toward Santa Ana. Two Krupp guns were captured, King's brigade drove the Insurgents out of Santa Ana and l)Ushed on two miles to the walls of Guadalupe and the headquarters of Pia del Pilar at San Pedro Makati. Santa An a was burned by the r etr eating Filipinos. The American loss was seven. One hundred and fifty-six Filipinos were buried by our Brigadier General Charles King, was statroops the next day. tioned to the left of General ,Qvenshine, Colonel Funston gave the Filipinos a sharp reaching to the Pasig Rive!". Two hundred and t hirty of t he I nstil'gents opened fire in chase over the Caloocan to the north of Mathe vicinity of blockhouse No. II. Six com., nila road on the evening of t he outbreak. panies of the Washingtons lan d the Fir90t On Sunday' morning General H. G. Otis' Idahos, with Hawthorn's battery. consisting brigade drove the Insurgents out of the blockhouses and advanced th~ugh a hard, of the Astor guns, started across the Santa un even country, up a gradual slope toward Ana bridge and th e little estuary , a branch La Lorna cemetery and the Chinese church. of the Pas ig, that divided the two forces. The Insurgents made a d'etermine:d Sjtand The Washingtons plunged in to the creek and behind the w.alls of the old cemetery, and dashed across the r ice fields, but to the left were sending a hot fire into the Third Artilthe Insu rgents held the old convent of Concord~a and the Norwegian C!onsul(s wall-1 lery from the La Lorna church. Grant's enclose d house. General King ordered the battlery three shells over the Pennsylvanians, Californians to mOve on the Convent and Con- and Utahs and South Dakotas as they made a charge through the barb wire of fences and sul's house, and with a determined rush, underbrush, an d aided by the Montanas, under heavy fire, they surround ed the Insurgents, dislodged them, and they were cut Third Artillery, and Dakotas, who da shed up

threw a rain of she ll into the enemy's position that put the "fear of God into them," as one private expressed it. Gener a l Ovenshin e's brigade immediately followed up the naval action and drove the enemy pell-mell out of their fortifications, through Pasay and across the fields and t hrough t he jung les and marshes to Parafiaque.


the ridge and through the cemetry. fell upon the Insurgents from three sides and drove them out of the church and mud forts, and chased them across the great rice fields toward Caloocan, and up the Novaliches road until they disappeared in the woods. Our losses in the general advance were about one hundred and sixty killed, and about as many wounded. \:'\'e buried over seven hundred of the enemy's dead, found on the field. The following Friday, February 10, General MacAl路thur's left advanced on Caloocan, the Monudnoc/c shelling the Insurgents' positions for thirty minutes. In two hours Funston 'w as in Caloocan, Major Kobbe with the Third Artillery having flanked the enemy with the Kansas and Montanas, while Major Bell made a daring movement to the l;ght and diverted the Insurgents' fire. The line swung like a great pendulum, and the enemy fell back in confusion, burning the town as they retreated across the fields toward the Novaliches road . Eighty of our men were killed and thirty wounded. Seventy-nine dead Our lnsul'g'ents were found in the field. losses in these engagements were twelve officers, fifty-nine privates and two hundred and si>..1;y-four wounded . Our lines now extended from Caloocan in a semicircle around the CIty to Pasay, with a four-mile protruding angle reaching to the pumping station, occupying all the strong positions previously held by the Insurgents, and controlling the Pasig Rivel' with the Laguna de Bay. In the meantime, on February I San Roque, a little nipa-hut town across a nan-ow neck of land from Cavite, was attacked by Colonel Loper, with a detachment of troops. The previous day, Admiral Dewey I under a flag of truce, gave the Insurgents an opportunity to surrender ; but taking advantage of the twenty-four hours al1owed, they saturated the principal buildings with kerosene, and at the approach of our men, burned the town and escaped to the

hills. The Insurgent loss in the week's fighting has been estimated from one thousand to three thousand, but the first figure is probably nearer the truth. The Filipino soldiers showed a great deal of grit and, considering the ~eat odds they fought against, made a hard


fight. The American artillery demoralized them, and the flank movements and enfilading tactics of the infantry aroused the greatest consternation among the rebel forces."

With the scanty re-

II HERO OF lilAPASS II sources of the Filipino troops their defeat was naturally inevitable, yet they fought undel' the conviction that their duty and dignity as Filipinos demanded of them the sacrifice of defending to the best of their ability the liberties of theilcountry. In November, after the battle of Zapote Bridge, the American army again defeated Gen_ Aguinaldo in several battles and [drove him and his forces to Tarlac, thence to Cabanatuan, until he was GEH. GREGO RIO DEL PILAR finally fo rced to find shelter in the mountains of northern Luzon. It waS! on hi s retreat from TIocos region to Cagayan valley that the youngest geneIJ."al of his army, Gregorio del Pilar, commanding the rear guard, was killed by the American detachment headed by Lieut. Dennis P . Quinlan '(lately Colonel of the U. S. Army in the P hilippines) at the place called Tila Pass. On March 23, 1901, General Funston, with a force of eighty-eight men, captured General Aguinaldo at Palanan, Isabela, which event accelerated the close of the war. ( 12) (!~I The Capture of General AC'uinaldo.-During all the changes since the early part of 1900, General Aguinaldo had been at the little town of Palanan. The Americans learned of his whereabouts through an intercepted communication from him to one of his gen-



~rals. Plans ior his capture were fo rmed immediately. General Funston and four American oUicers, w ith 11 company of Mncl\bebes, embarked on the liic/;;sbu rg. pussed through the Strait of San Bern ardino, and sa iled up the custerll const of Luzon. On the night of the fourteent h of March, 1901, lh e~' landed at Casiguran Bay, about one hundred miles south of Pnlanan. From there

they made their way by land to Aguinaldo's hiding place. On the twenty-thi rd of March, by m ean s of a

ruse t hey captured Aguinaldo, and brought him back to Manila. On the nineteenth of April, Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the United States. H e advised his people to Collow the same course. With the capture of Agui naldo the war began to s ubs ide. By the end of June, 1901, Malvar and Lucball were t he o nly generals of any strength who bad not sur re ndered.-Fernandez, Brief History of the Philip.. pines. pp. 271-272.

General M. T inio and his Mi litary Staff, from an old photograph. Th6 Tinio Brigade, in the words 0/ Lieutenant-Colonel Juan ViUamor, chronicle-r of the revolution, fought valiantly in defense of the invaded fatherland.



General Aguinaldo ' took the oath of allegiance to the United States on April 19, 1901, and with the amnesty proclamation issued by President Roosevelt On July 4, 1902, harmonious relations between the Americans and the Filipinos led to the establishment of complete peace and order.

recognizing the authority of the Filipino government then established. Provincial and municipal elections were held in accOl'dance with the decrees of June 18 and 20, 1898; the, schools were reopened; the sending of correspondence and telegraphic dispatches bet wee n the provinces and SUMMARY municipalities was For a period of carried on successfulIy; the importance of 'more than a yea!' the revolutionary govsanitation was recogernment was in connized; the roads and trol of the entire Philpridges and public buildings destroyed i p pin e Archipelago save the city of Manand neglected during ila, and the chiefs of GEN. MIGUEL MALVAR the revolution were rethe va rio u s nonThe last general to sun'ender paired and preserved; Christian tribes of northern Luzon as the Spanish system of taxation was conwell as the Mohammedan chiefs of tinued; bonds were issued, and complete Mindanao, who never submitted to order and perfect tranquility reigned Spanish domination, sent messages. in the Philippines.

• AGUINALDO'S LAST PROCLAMATrON TO THE FILIPINO PEOPLE "MALACAfl'AN PALACE, Manila, April 19, 1901. "I believe I am not in error in presuming that the unhappy late to which my adverse fortune has led me is not a surprise to those who have been familiar with the progress of the war. The lessons taught with a lull meaning". and which have recently come to my knowledge, suggest with irresistible force that a complete termination of hostilities and lasting peace are not o nly desirable but absolutely essential to the welfare of the Philippine Is lands. "The Filipinos have never been dismayed at their weakness, nor have they faltered in following the path pointed out hy their fortitude and courage. The time haa come, however, in which they find their advance along this path to be impeded by an irresistible force, Which, while it restrains them, yet en lightens their minds and opens to them another course, presenting them the cause of peace. This cause has been joyfully @ltIbraced by the maj()rity ()f my fellow-countrymen. who have I\lready united around the glorious sovereign banner of the United States. In this banner they repOae their tl'"USt. and believe that under its protection

the Filipino people will nttain all those promised liberties which they are beginning to enjoy. The country has declared unmistakably in favor of peace. So be it. There has been enough blood. enough tears. and enough desolation . This 9o'ish cannot be ignored by the men still in arms if they are animated by u desire to serve our noble people, which has thus clearly manif~ted its will. So do I respect this will, now that it is known to me. "After mature denbel·ation, I resolutely proclaim to the world that I cannot refuse to heed the voice of a people longing for peace, nor the lamentations ot thousands of families yearning to see their dear onee enjoying the libE:rty and the promised generosity of the great American nation. ·'By acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the Philippine Archipelago. as I now do and without any reservation whatsoever, I believe that I am serving thee, my beloved country. May happiness be thine!



The following documents have been published by Don Felipe G. Calderon in his uMis Memorias Sobre la Revolucion Fiiipina," which letters form a part of the report "To the American People", presented before the Congress of t11e United States by Mr. Agoncillo in his capacity as Minir:.ter Plenipotentiary of the Philippine Revolutionary Government:

transmit his letter to yoU with a request that you would show due regard for French interests. Yours s incerely George Dewey REAR ADMIRAL,

U. S . N AVY,

His Excellency, General D. Emilio Aguinaldo, Bacoor.


UNITED STATES NAVAL FORCE ON ASIATIC STATION Flagship "Olvmpia" Cavite. P. I.. June 16. 1898 Dear General Aguinaldo, I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 15th and wiU take pleasure in transmitting the enclosed decrees to my Government. The letters which accompanied the above have been forwarded to British Consul at Manila. as requested. Yours sincerely,

George Dewev nEAn ,\D;utnAI..,

u. S. NAVY

His Excellency, General Don Emilio Aguinaldo, Bacoor.

UNITED STATES NAVAL FORCE ON ASIATIC STATION Flagship "Olympia" Cnvite, P. I., June 23, 1898 Dear General Aguinaldo, Mr. Rawson 路Walker. the British Consul and Acting United States Gonsul at Mani la, req u csts me to ask that you grant passes (1) Ior Ml'. Fitton to go to Malabon in a British launch and bring back to Manila SOtne Chinese who desire to go to Hongkong, list ot whom is enelosed. (2) for Messrs. Charles T. Broyud. George Moore and Robert Braugh to return to their duties in the railway depot at Caloocan.

Cavite Arsenal, Luzon, P. I. , July 6th, 1898. Sr. D. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, Commanding Philippine Forces. General, I am encouraged by the friendly sentiments elt路 pressed by your Excellency in your welcome letter, received on t h e 5th instan t , to endeavour to com e to s definite understanding, which I hope will be advantageous to botb. Very soon we e.,''(pect a large addition to our forces :md it must be apparent to you as a military officer that we sball require much more in which to camp our soldiers, and a lso store room for supplies. For this, I should like to have your Excellency's advice and cooperation as you are best acquainted with the resoqrce!l oI this country, It must be appal'(~nt to you that we do not intend to remain here inactive but to move promptly against our Common Enemy. But for a short we must organize and land supplies, also retain a place for storing them near our fleet and transports. 1 am solicitous to avoid any conflict of authoritY which might result from having two sets of milital')' officers exercising command in the same place. I am also anxious to avoid sickness by taking sani路 tal'Y precautions. Your sanitary medical officers have bcen making voluntary inspections with mine, and fear epidemic disease iI the vicinity is not made clean. \VouJd it not be well to have prisoners wOI'k to this end under the advice of the surgeon? I aga in renew my assurance of distinguished considerations. am, with great resllect, Thomas M. Anderson BRICADIER-GENERAI.., U. S.



I am, vel'Y sincerely, HEADQUARTERS

Georfje Dewey


His Exccllency, General D.

Emilio Aguinaldo, Cavite.

UNITED STATES NAVAL FORCE ON ASI ATIC STATION Flagship "OIY11Ipia" Cavitc, P. 1.. July 16, 1898. Dear Ge nel'fll Aguinaldo, I send hGrewith a copy of a letter from the French Consul at MlIlliJa regarding the taking of the steamel' "Compania de Filipinas". I replied to him that t he forces undel' my command were in no way concerned in this affair, but that I would







Cavite Arsenal, P. I ., July 14th, 1898, Sr. D. Emilio Aguinaldo, Commanding Gcncral, Philippine Forces. Genel'a\, Wishing to get complcte information of the approaches to Manila, from every direction, I. thel'efOl'e, have :he honor to request that you give my officers all pOSSible assistance in making reconnaissance of the lines and ap路 proaches and that you favor them with YOUl' advice. Officers coming from me will bear a note to that effect. 'Vith great resp~ct, Thomas M. Anderson BRiCAOIEU CENERAL, U. S. \'O LUN'IEER5 CO;\I MANOING










Cnvite Arsenal. P. I. , July 19th. 1898. Sr. Don Emilio Aguinaldo, Commanding General. Philippine


General, I bave the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 18th instant. Your offer of assistance i<; appreciated and your assurances of good. will are most rratifying. The difficulty of collecting supplies re路 lerred to by you is apprehended and will be considered In fixin g compensation . As a medium of communication with your people we tri.ll be pleased lo have you assure them that t here will be no confiscation of their property; that onr requisi路 lions will be reasonable, and that a rail' compensation will always be given. I remain, General. With all respect, your obedient servant.

Thomas lIf. Anderson U. S. VOLUNTEERS COJII:\l AN DI NC






Cavite Arsenal, P. I ., July 19th, 1898. Sr. Don Emilio Aguinaldo, Commanding General, Philippine Forces. Ceneral. The bearer, Major J. F. Bell, U. S. Army, was sent by major general Wesley Merritt, U. S. Army. to col-

leet for bim, by the time of his personal arrival cer-

Lain information concerning the topography of the country surrounding Manila. I would be obliged if you would permit him t o see YOUI' maps and place at his disposal any infor mat ion you may have on the above subject; and also give him a letter or pass, addressed to you r subot'dinates, which will authorize them to furnish him with any information they can on these subjects a nd to facilitate Ids passage along the lines upon a reconna issance at'ound Manila on which I propose to send him. I remain, with great respect, Your obedient servant. Th.oma.s M. Andersoll BRIGADIER- GENERAL, U. S. \'Ol. U~TEERS COMMANDINC.




Cavile Arsenal, P. I., 23rd July, 1898. Sr. Don Emil1'b Aguinaldo. Commanding General, P h ilipp ine Forces. Genet'al, When I came here three weeks ago I requested your Excellency to give what assistance you could to procure means of transportation for t.he American Army, as it was a fight ibl t he causc of your peoplc. So far we ha ve l'eceived no response. As you represent your people, I now h ave the honor to make requisition on you Ior 500 horses, 50 oxen and oxical路ts. If you cannot secure these, I will ha ve to pass you nnd make requisition directly on the people. I beg leave to request nn answer at your ear liest convenience. I remain, with great respect, Tho?lllUJ lt1. Anderson. DRICADII::R-GEN拢RAL, U. S. VOLUNTEERS CO)'UlANDING












Proto col of Peace


Protocol>, of Peace I





Protocol of Peace.-On July 18, 1898, Duke. de Almodovar, the Minister of State at Madrid, sent a telegram to the Spanish Ambassador at Paris with the object of finding out if France, through her Ambassador at Washington, Mr. Cambon, could' transmit to the President of the United States a message of the Spanish Government relative to the preliminary peace negotiations. After several communications, a; "protocol of peace" between the United States and Spain was signed on August 12, 1898, but the news of the signing of said document did not reach Manila before August 13, when ten thousand American soldiers captured the city. Said protocol reads in full as follows :

PROTOCOL OF PEACE His Excellency Jules Cambon, ambassador ex t raordinary and plenipote ntiary of the Re~ public of Fra nce a t Washington, and William R.

Day, secretary of St a te of the United

States, respective ly pos sess ing for this pur pose


authority of the

Government of

Spain and Government of the United States, have concluded and signed the following articles, embodying the term s on which the two Governments h ave agreed in respect to the matters hereinafte r set forth, having in view the establis hment of peace between the two cou n tries , that is to say: ARTICLE



Spain w ill cede to the United States the island 01 Porto R ico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and also an island in the Lad-rones to be sel路 ected by the United States. ARTICLE


The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace 'Which shall determine the control, disposition and Government of the Philippines. A RTICLE


Spain will immediately evacuate CUbCll, PO'tto R ico and other islands, now under Spanish sot'ereignty in the West Indies.. and to this end, each G01:ernment will, within ten days after the signing 01 this protocol, appoint Commissioners, and the commissioners so appointed sho.ll, within thirty days (];fter the signing of this protocol, meet at H avana for the purpose of u1'ranging and carrying out the details of the aforesaid evacuation 01 Cuba and the adjacent Spanish islands; and each Gov ernment will, within ten days after the signing of t hi.c: p'rotocol, also appoint other commissioners, who shall, within thirty da1Js after the signing of this P1'otocol, meet at San Juan, in. Porto Rico; 101' the pU1-pose of arranging and ca1路rying out the details of the al01'esaid evacuation of P01'tO R ico and other islands, now under Spanish sove1路eignty in the liV est Indies , ARTICLE V


Spain will 'relinquish all 01 her sove'reignty over and title to Cuba.

Spain and the United States will each appoint not more than ji'Ve commissioners to t"'eaty 0/ peace, and the commissioners so appointed shall tneet at Pa1'is not later than Oc-





P rotocol of Peace



tober 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, which t'r eaty shall be subject to ratification according to the 'respective constitutional for-rns of the two countries .

ARTICLE VI Upon the conclusion and signing of this protocol, hostilities between the two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effect shall be given as soon as possible by each Gove'1'nment to the Corlllmande'1's of its military and naval forces. Done at Wa shington, in duplicate, in French and in English, by the Undersigne d ho have hereunto set the ir han ds and seals he 12 th day of August, 1898. (Sgd.) JULES CAMBON (Sgd.) WILLIAM R. DaY

The Treaty of Paris.-As provided for in Articles IV and V of the preceding protocol, the two peace commissions assembled at Paris, France, the latter part of September, 1898. The American Commissioners were: DAY, Secretary of State, w ho resigned to become President of the Commission ;


HON. CUSHMAN K, DAVIS, Senator; RON, WILLIAM P. FRYE, Senator; RON. GEORGE GRAY, Senator; RON. WHITELAW REm, former Minister to France, members.

The Spanish Commissioners were: HO N. EUGENIO MONTERO RIOS, President of the Senate, president of the Commission; HON, BUENAVE NTURA ABARZUZA, Senator ; lION. JOSE DE GARNICA y DIAZ, Associate Jus路 ticej HON. 'VENCESLAO RAl\flREZ DE VILLA-URRUTIA, Minister Plenipotentiary to the Belgian Courtj and CENERAL RAFAEL CERERO Y SAENZ, members.


Trea.ty of Pa.ris


The Philippine question was taken up before the two peace commissions on October 31st. There had been divergence of opinion among the American Commissioners. Some favored demanding the entire Philippine Archipelago from Spain, while the others thought it advisable to only retain the Island of Luzon and certain other islands. But, after most thorough consideration of the s ubj ect, the Americans reached the conclusion that the cession must be of the .uhole Archipelago, to which Spain, opposed tenaciously maintaining that the peace protocol only contemplated a temporary occupation of the City of Manila and did not affect the Spanish sovereignty in the Philippines. However, the treaty of peace was concluded between the United States and Spain and signed at Paris by the plenipotentiaries on December 10, 1898. The treaty provided among other things, that Spain should cede to the United States the Philippine Islands, that t he United States should pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000.00) and that the civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories thus ceded to the United States should be determined by t he Congress. The said "Treaty of Paris" was ratified by the U. S. Senate on February 6, 1899, and by the Cortes of Spain on March 19, same year. The ratifications were exchanged on April 11, 1899, and the treaty publicly proclaimed. On March 2, the Congress of the United States voted the sum of $20,000,000.00 and paid it over to Spain on May 1, 1899.

78 Trooty of Paris


THE TREATY OF PARIS (U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 30, Page 1754)


eluded and signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at Paris on the tenth day of December, 1898, the o riginal of which Convention being in the English and Spanish language. ii, word for word, as follows: The United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the

name of her augus t son Don Alfonso XIII, desiring to e nd the state of war now existing between the two countries, have for that purpose appointed as plenipotentiaries: The President of the United States. William R. Day, Cushman K. Davis. William P. Frye, George Gray and Whitelaw Reid. citizen s of the United States; And Her Majesty Spain ,

the Queen Regent of

Don E ugenio Montero Rios. president of the Senate; Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza, se nator of the Kingdom and ex-ministe'r of the Crown; Don Jose de Garnica. deputy to the Corte s and associate justice of the s upreme court; Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa Urrutia, e nvoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Brussels, and Don Rafael Cerero, General of Division; Who, having asse mbled in Paris, and having exchanged their full powers which were found to be in due and proper form, have, after discussion of the matters before them, agreed upon the following articles: ARTICLE


Spain r elinq uishes all claim of sovereignty over an d title to Cuba.

And as the island is, upon its evacuation by Spain , to be occupied by the United States, the United States will, so long as such occupation shall last, assume and discharge the oblig'ations that may under international law result from the fact of its occupation for the protecl,on of life and property, ARTICLE


Spain cedes to the United States the I sland of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the We5t Indies, and t.he I sland of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones. ARTICLE


Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine I slands, and comprehending the islands lying within th e follow in g lines: A line running from west to east along .:>r near the twentieth parallel of north latitude, and through tl"le middle of the navigable channel of Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth to the one hundred and twenty~ seventh degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence along the one hundred and twenty-seventh degree m eridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel of four de~ grees and forty-five minutes north latitude,

Treaty of Paris



thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty路five minutes north lat itude to its intersection with the meridian of long itude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes east of Greenwich, thence along the meridian of longitude one hundred a nd nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes east of Greenwich to the pal'allel of latitude seven degrees and for ty minutes north, thence nlong the par nliel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes north to its in tersection with the one hundred and sixteenth degree meridian 0 f longitude east of Greenwich, thence by a direct line to the intersection of t he tenth degree -parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and t hen ce along t he one hundred and e ighteenth degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of beginning. The United States wi ll pay to Spain the sum of twentv路million dollars, within three months after 'the excha nge of the ratifications of t he present treaty,

IV The Uni te d States will, for the term of ten years from the date of the exc hange of the ratification::> of th e pi'esent treaty, admit Spanish ships and merchandise to t he ports of the Philip pine Islands on the same term'3 as shi ps and merchandise of t he United Staies. ARTICLE

V The United States will, upon t he signature of the present treaty, send back to Spain, at its own cost, the Spa n ish soldiers taken as prison el's of war on the capture of Manila by t he American fOl'ces , The arms oi the soldiers in question shall be r esto red tt) them. ARTICLE

Spain will, upon the exchange of the ratif ication s of the present treaty, proceed to evacuate t he Philippin es, as well as the Is路 land of Guam, on te rm s similar to those agreed upon by t he Commis&ioners appointed to anange fOl' t he evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands in the \Vest Indi es, unde!.' the protocol of August twe lfth, eigh teen hundred and ninety-eight, which is to continue


Treaty oj Parii'


in force till its provisions are completely executed, The t ime within which the evacuation of the Philippine Islands a nd Guam shall be completed shall be fixed by the two Governments. Stands of coio rs, uncaptured war vessels, small arms, guns of all calibers, with their cal'l'iages and accessories, powder, ammunition, live stock, and mater ials and supplies of all kinds, belonging to t he land and naval forces of Spain in the Philippines and Guam, ramain the property of Spain. Pieces f)f heavy ordnance, exclusive of field artillery, in the fortifications and coast defenses, shall remain in their emplacements for the term of six month s, to be reckoned from the exchange of ratifications of the treaty; anti the United States ma y, in the meantime, purchase such material fro m Spain, if a satisfactory agreement be t.ween the two Governments on the subject shall be reached, ARTICLE VI Spain will, upon the signature of the present treaty, release all prisoners of war, and a ll persons detained or imprisoned for political offenses, in connection with the insurrections in Cuba and the Philippines and the war with the United States,

Reciprocally, the United States wi1I release all persons made prisoners of war by the American forces, and will undertake to obtain the release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insllrgents in Cuba and the :Philippines, The Government of the United States will, at its own cost, r etu rn to Spain and the Government of S'Pain will, at its OW11 cost, return to t he United States, Cuba, P orto Rico, and the Philippines according to the situatio n of the ir r espective homes, prisoners released or caused to be l'eleased by them, respectively, und er th is article, ARTICLE VII

The U ni ted States and Spain mutually relinquish all claims for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of eit her Government, or of its citizens or subjects, against the other Government that may have arisen since the beginning of the 1ate insurrection in Cuba and prior to the exchange of ratif-

807'roo.tll of Paris


ications of the present treaty, including all claims for indemnity for the cost of the war. The United States will adjudicate and settle the claims of its citizens against S'p,ain relinquished in this article.

VIII In conformity with the provisions of Art~ icles One, Two, and Three of this treaty, Spain reli nquishes in Cuba, and cedes in Porto Rico and other I slands in the 'Vest Indies, in the Island of Guam, and in the Philip~ pine Archip elago, all t he buildings, wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public highways, and other immovable property which, in con~ fo rmity with law, belong to the public domain, and as such belong to the Crown of Spain. And it is hereby declared that the relinquishm en t or cession, as- t he case may be, to which the preceding paragraph refers, can not in an y r espect impair the property or righ ts which by law b elong to the peaceful possession of prope rty of all kinds, of provinces, municipalities, public 01' private estab~ lishments, ecclessiastical or civic bodies, or any other associations having legal capacity to acquire and possess property in the aforesaid ten'i tol'ies renounced or ceded, or of private individ uals, of whatsoever nationality such individu als may be . ARTICLE

The aforesaid r elinquishment or cession, as the case may be, includes all documents exclUSively r eferring to the sovereignty relin~ quished or ceded that may exist in the archives of the P eninsula. Where any document in such archives only in part relates to said sovereignty, a copy of such part will be furnished whenever it shall be requested. Like rule s shall be reciprocally observ.ed in favor of &pain in r espect of documents in the archives of the islands above referred to. In the aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, are also included such rights as the Crown of Spain and its authorities possess in r espect of the official archives and r ecords, executive, as well as judicial, in the islands above referred to, which relate to said islands or the rights and

property of their inhabitants. Such archives and records shall be carefully preserved, and private persons shall without distinctions have the right to require, in accordance with law, authenticated copies of the contracts, wills, and other instruments fonning part of notarial protocols or files, or which may be contained in executive or judicial archives, be the latter in Spain or in the islands afore~ said. ARTICLE


Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes 01' cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including th e right to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds; and they shall also have the rig ht to carry on their indust ry, commerce, and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they may presel've their aUegiance to the Crown of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of ratification of this treaty, a declaration of their decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory' in which they may reside." The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the telTitories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress. ARTICLE X

The inhabitants of the tenitories over :which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exercise of their religion. ARTICLE


The Spaniards residing in the territories over which Spain by this treaty cedes or relinquishes her sovereignty shall be subject in matters civil as well as criminal to the juris.. diction of the courts of the country where-in they reside, pursuant to the ordinary laws governing the same; and they shall have the right to appear before such courts, and to

â&#x20AC;˘ An agreement ol March 29. 1900, extended t he time for making declaration for six months after April 11. 1900.

Treaty of Paris



ursue the same course as citizens of the ountry to which the courts belong, ARTICLE


J udicial proceedings pending at the time

rf the excha.nge of ratifications of this treaty n the terrItories over which Spain relinuishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be deermined according to the following rules:

1. J udgments rendered either in civil suits between private individuals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned and with espect to which there is no recourSe or right of review under the Srpanish law, shaH e deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due form by competent authority in the ~ rri to r~ within which such judgments should be earned out,

2. Civil suits between private individuals ",..hich may on the date mentioned be unde,ermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before the court in which they may then be pending or in the court that may be substitutId therefor. 3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the Supreme Court of Spain against citizens of the tenitory which, by this treaty, ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until final judgment; but, such judgment having been render ed, the execution thereof sha ll be commit t ed to the competent a uth ority of the place in which the case arose. ARTI CLE


The rights of property secured by copyrights and patents acquired by Spaniards in ~he Island of Cuba, and in Porto Rico, the Philippin es, and other ceded territories, at :he t ime of the excha nge of t he ratifications )[ this t r eaty, shall continue to be respected. 3panish scien tific, literary, and artistic works, lot subversive of pu blic order in the terri';()ries in question, shall continue to be adnitted free of duty into such territories, for .he period of ten years, to be reckoned from .he dat e of t he exchange of the ratif ications )f this t r eaty.

Treaty of Paris


ARTICLE XIV &pain shall have the power to establish consular offices in the ports and places of the territories, the sovereignty over which has been either relinquished or ceded by thp. presen t treaty, ARTICLE XV The Government of each country will, for the term of ten years, accol'd to the mei'chant vessels of the other country the same treatment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and clearance dues, light dues, and tonnage duties, as it accords to its own merchant vessels, not engaged in thecoastwise trade. This article may at any time be terminated on six months' notice given by either government to the other. ARTICLE


It is understood that any obligations assumed in this treaty by the United &tates with respect to Cuba are limited to the time of its occupancy t hereof; but it ",ill upon the termination of such occupancy, advise any govel'nment established in the island to assume the same obligations. ARTICLE


The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at 'W ashington within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible. I n f a ith w h e r eo f , we the respec t ive p lenipo t e ntia ries, h ave s ig n e d this treaty and have h e r e unto a ffi xed o u r seats . D o n e in duplicate at Paris, the tenth day of D e cem b e r , in t h e year of our Lord one thou sand e ight hund red and n inety-eig h t. (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL)





Mil. Govt.


Mil. Covt.

And whereas the said Convention has been duly ratified on both parts, and the rati.8.cations of the two Governments were exchanged in the City of Washington on the ele~ venth day of April, one thousand e ight hundred and ninety-nine: Now, therefore, be it known that I, William McKinley, President of the United States of America, have caused the said convention to be made public, to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United St.ates and the citizens thereof. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington this eleventh day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine, and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-third . WILLIAM McKINLEY B.Y the President: JOHN HAY, Secreta ry of State.

Milital'Y liovernment.-On August itary Governor in the Philippines, in 13, 1898, General Merritt assumed the exercising all the three powers, orduties of Military Governor of the is- ganized provost marshall and other courts; promulgatlands. Hi s proclaed important laws mation " T o the peoby means of genple of the PhilipFirst American Military eral orders; and apGovernor of the Philippin es pines," simi1ar jn pointed American phraseology to the arm y officers to in s t r u c t ion s uf fill offices in the 'President McKinci vii branch of govley, consisted mainern men t as the ly of an en umeranecessities of the tion of the funda situation demandmental rules of ined. The promulgaternational law contion of a tariff; the cern ing the rights organization of the and dut ies of a schools, of the judimilitary occupant. ciary, and of local 'The military power, governments; t 11 e wh en exercised 111 negotiation of the a territory und er Bates Treaty; and military occupation the sanction of the incl udes, as a gen Negros Constitution eral rule, the legiswere some of the '\ati ve, executive and military accomplishjudicial au thority ; ments of a civil naMAJOR-GENERAL \ VESLEY MERRrTT so, the Military ture worthy of speM ilita'r]J Gove1'1t01' i'rom August 19, cial mention . .Commander or Mil1898 , to August 28, J.898

.1liLitary Government



First Phil. Com'm ission



Military Governor f 'rom M ay 6, 1900,

to July 8, 1901.

Philippin es; Rear-Admiral George Dewey, Commander of the Asiatic SquaMAJOR-GENERAL ELWELL S. OTIS dron; Charles Denby, former Minister Military Governor from August 29, 1898, to May 5, 1900. to China; and the Hon. Dean C. Worcester, a Professo r of the University With the establishment of the Phil- of Michigan, later a member of the ippine Commission on September 1, Philippine Commission and Secretary 1900, the Military Commander or Milit- of the Interior. These gentlemen ary Governor in the islands lost his reached Manila on March 4, 1899. legislative power; and, with the inauThe Commission issued a proclamaguration of a Civil Governor on July tion to the people of the Philippine Is4, 1901, he gave up a portion of his executive authority. In a year later lands, on April 4 of same year, in order he relinquished all civil power , except as to enl ighten t hem and to win their conto the Moro Province which he conti- fidence, exhibiting the liberal, friendly, nually exercised until September, 1914. and beneficent attitude of the United States to the Filipino people. The The First Philippine Commission.- Commission was recall ed in September, For the purpose of finding out the 1899. truth about the Philippin es and to reThe said Commission recommended a commend a form of government, President McKinley sent a body of men to territorial form of government, with these islands in the early part of 1899. an elected lower chamber and an upper Said commi ssion was composed of Mr. chamber, half elected and half nomJacob Gould Schurman, the President inated ; and it r eported, among other of Cornell University; Major-General things, that the Filipinos were wholly Elwell S. Otis, Military Governor of the unprepared for independence.



rHE FIRST PHILIPPINE OOMMI SSION This photogl'aph ta ke n in t h e room w h er e the commission he ld its hearings is the only onc ever obtained by the late Dean C. \Vorc ~ter, a u t.hor of "'I' he Phillppines P ast and P:- esent ," which shows nil th e membcl's. From left to rij.!bt: P rofessor Dean C. 'Vorceslur, Colonel Ohar les Denby, P resident Jacob Gould Sch urman, 1'.1r. J ohn R. McArthur. SecretaTY to t he Commission , Adm iral Georg e D ewey, a n d Gener a l E. S. Otis .

TH E S E COND PHILIP PIN E COMMISSION Fl'om le f t to right: General Luke E . W r ig ht. Professor Denn C. Wor cester, Professor Bernard Moses. J udge 'Villiam H . T a ft. a nd J u dge Henry C. Ide.

McKinley' s Message


Presiden t McKinley's Message of December 5, 1899, reads in part as

'allows :

"The islands were ceded by the GovernDlent of Spain, which h ad been in undisputed assesS ion of them for centuries. They were ..:rented not merely by our authorized comiss'ioners in Par is, under the direction of the xecutive, but by the constitutional and wellnsidered action of the r epresentatives of he people of the United States in both ouses of Congress. I h ad every reason to el ieve and I still beli eve that this transfer of ve l'eignty \vas in accordance with the wishes ld the aspirations of th e gr eat mass of the Hipino people.

"From the ea rlies t mom ent no opportunity as lost of assuring the people of the lands, of our ardent desire for their elfare and of the intention of t his Governcnt to do everything possible to advance their terests. In my order of the 19th of May S98, the commandel; 0/ the military expedi'on dislJatched to the Philippines was inructed to decla-re that we ca.-me not to make. ar 'if-pan the people 0/ that c01('ntry, l'no'1' pan any pa'1路ty 0'1' faction among them, but protect them in thei;' homes, in thei1' entIJllments, and in thei1' personal and 1'eligious "gilts." That there should be no doubt as to the paramoun t authority there, on the 17t h r August it was directed that 'there must be no joint occupation with the insurgents;' at the United States m ust preserve the ace and protect persons and property within e territory occupied by t heir military and val forces; that the insurgents an d all others Wit recog ni ze the military occupation and thority of the United States. As early as cember 4, before the cession, and in anti'pation of that event, the commander in M a~ ila ,vas urged to resto re peace a nd tl'anquil. and to und ertake the establi shment of a eficent government, which should afford e fullest secu rity for life and property, uO n th e 21st of December, after the treaty signed, the Commander of the forces of pation was instructed Ito announce and 1aim in the most public manner that we Olne, not as invaders and conquerors, but as




friends to protect the natives in t heir homes, in their emp loyments, and in their personal and religious rights. On the same day, wh ile ordering General Otis to see that the peace should be preserved in Iloilo, he was admonished that: 'It is most important that there should be no conflict with the insurgents.' On the 1st day of J anuary, 1899, urgent orders were reiterated that the kindly intentions of this Government should be in every possible way communicated to the insurgents. * * ,~ liThe future government of the Philippines rests with the Congress of the United States. F ew gl'aver responsibilities have ever been confided to us. If we accept them in a spirit worthy of our race and our traditions, a great opportunity comes with them. The islands lie un der the shelter of our flag. They are ou rs by every title of law and equity, They cannot be abandoned, If we desert them we leave them at once to anarchy' and finally to barbarism. We fling them, a golden apple of discord, among the r ival powers, no one of which could permit another to seize then":. unf}uestioned. Their rich plains and valleys would be the scene of endless s'tJ..ife and bloodshed. The advent of Dewey's fleet in 1\1::1ni1a Bay instead of being as we hope, the dawn of a new day of freedom and progress, will have been the beginning of an era of misery and violence worse than any which has darkened their unhappy past. The suggestion has been made that we could renounce our authority over the islands and, giving them independence, could retain a pro tectorate ove r t hem. This proposition will not be f ound, 1 am sure, worthy of your serious attention, Such an arrangement would involve at the outset a cruel breach of faith . It would place the peaceable and loyal majority, who ask nothing better than to accept our authority, at the mercy of the minority of armed insu r gents. It would make us responsihle for the acts of t he insul'gent leaders and give us no power to control them. It would charge us with the task of protecting them against each other and defend ing them against any foreign power with which they chose to quarrel. In short, it would take from the congress of the United States the power of declaring war and vest that tremendous pre-




rogative in the Tagal leader of the hour. "It does not see m desirab le that I should recommend a t this time a specific and final form of government for these islands. When peace shall be restored i t will he the duty of Congress to construct a plan of government which shall establ ish and maintain freedom and order and peace in t he Philippines. The insurrection is still existing. and when it terminates further information will be required as to the actual condition of affairs before inaugurating a permanent scheme of civil governP1e nt. The full report of the Commission , now in preparation, wiU contain information and s uggestions which 'wjll be of value to Congress, and which I will transmit as soon as it is completed. As long as the insurrection continues the military arm must necessaril y be supreme. But there is no reason why steps should not be t aken from time t o time to. inaugurate governments essentially popular in their forms as fast as territory is held and controlled by our t ro ops. To this end I am considering the advisability of the return of t he Commission J or such of t he members thereof as can be secured, to aid the ex. isting authorities and facilitate th is work throughout t h e islands. I have believed that reconstruction should not begin by the establishment of one central civil government, for a ll the islands J with its seat at Manila, but rather that t he work should be commenced by building up from the bottom J first establishing municipal governments and then provincial governments, a central government at last to follow.

IIUnti l Congress shall have ma de known the formal expression of its will I shall use the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes to uphold the sovereignty of the United States in t hose distant islands as in a ll other places where our flag rightfully floats. I shall put at the disposal of the Army and Navy all the means which the liberality of Congress and the people have provided to cause this unprovoked and wasteful insurrection to cease. If any orders of mine were required to insure the merciful

Phil . Com.

conduct of military a nd naval operations, the, would not be lacking j but every step of tilt progress of our troops has been marked ~ a humanity which has surpassed even Ull the misguided insurgents. The truest kind ness to them will be a swif t and effective defeat of their present leader. The hour 0: victory will be the hour of clemency and re construction.

"No effort will be spared to build up thi waste places deso lated by war and by long years of misgoverrunent. We shall not wait lor t he end of the strife to begin the beneficent work. We shall continue, as we have beguu 1 to open the schools and the churches, to se' the courts in operation, to foster industry anI trade and agricultureJ and in every way it our power to make these people whom Prov~ idence has brought within our jurisdiction feel that it is their liberty and not our power their welfare and not our gainJ we are seek ing to enhance. Our flag has n ever wavec over any community but in blessing. I be lieve the Filipinos will soon recognize the fae that it ha s not lost its gift of benediction it its world-wide journey to their shores. * * "

The Second Philippine Commission.~ On March 16, 1900, President Me Kinley appointed a new Commission with Mr. Taft as president, to establisl the form of civil government recom mended by the first Philippine Corrunis sion . The second Commission was com posed of Messrs. William H. Tall Dean C. Worcester (reappointed) Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, all' Bernard Moses. (See Photograph 0: page 84). The McKinley Instructions. - Til President's letter to Secretary of Wa Root, of April 7, 1900, giving instrU( tions for the guidance of the Philippin Commission-the principles of GO\



llment to be observed in t he Philipne Islands, in general, and t he plat.rID of the present administration, in

McKinley 111struct iond


particular ,-is reproduced herein below as t ransmitted by t he War Department to the president of said commission:


l,Vashingtol't, AP1'il 7, 1900 S ir: t r a n smi t t o y o u he r e with the i n~ ­ uction s of th e P residen t fo r th e guid ance yo urself a n d yo u r associa t es as C o mm is mers to t he P hilipp ine I s lan d s, Ve r y r esp ectfully ,

E LI HU ROOT, Sec'tetary of Wa'1'. on. WILLIA M H. T AF T ,

President, Board of Commissioners to the Philippine Islands. EXECUTIVE MANS ION, A1)n~l 7,


SIR : In the message transmitted to Congress on the 5th of December, 199, I said, speaking of the P h il!pine I slands: II As long as the insurIttion continues the military arm must ecessarily be supreme. But there is no etson why steps should not be taken from e to time to inaugurate governments esSltially popular in their form as fast as mtol'Y is held and controlled by our troops. â&#x20AC;˘ this end I am considering the advisability t the return of the Commission, or such of ~ members thereof as can be secured, to the existing authorities and facilitate thi::; ...k throughout the I slands." To give effect to the inten t ion thus ex_ed , I have appointed Hon. W i11iam H. taft, of Oh ioj Prof. Dean C. Worcester , of !itbigan ; Hon. Luke E. 'Vl' ight, of TennesII; Hon. Hen ry C. I de, of Vermont; and 'tot. Ber nard Moses, of Californ ia, Commisto the Ph ilippine I slands, to con tin ue .. perfect the work of organizing and estab4ing civi l government already commenced , the military authorities, subject in all reserta to any laws which Congress may her eIter enact.


The Commissioners named will meet and act as a board, and the Hon. William H. Taft is designated as president of the Board. It is IJl'obab le that the transfer of authority from military commanders to civil officers will be gradual and will occupy a considerable period. Its successful accomplishment and the maintenance of peace and order in the meantime will require the most perfect cooperation between the civil and military authorities in the I slands, and both should be directed during the tran s ition period by the same executive department, The Commission will therefore report to the Secretary of War, and all their actions will be subject to your approval and control. You will instruct the Commission to proceed to t he city of Ma n ila, where they witI make their pr incipal office, and to communicate with the mil itary governor of the PhiJippine Islands, whom you will at the same time direct to render to them every assistance within his power in the performance of their duties. Without hampering them by too specific instructions, they should in general be enjoined, after making themselves familial' with the conditions and needs of the country, to devote their attention in the first instance to the establishment of '11Pw icip(l1 QO?Je"'/nu!1zfs. in which the natives <of the islands, both in the cities and in the rural communities, shall be afforded the 07}portunity ~o '1nanage their own local affa1''1's to the fullest extent of which they are COJpable, and subject to the least degree of supervision amd control which a ca'1'eful study of their capacities and obse1'vations , of the workings of 'native cont'1'ol show to be consistent 'wi th the maintenance of law, Moder, and loyalty. T J-.e next subject in order of importance should be the organization of government in

88 McKinley



the larger administrative divisions corresponding to counties, departments, or provinces, in which the common interests of many or several municipalities falling within the same tribal lines, or the same natural geographical limits, may best be subserved by a c'Ommon administration. "\Vhenever the commission is of the opinion that the condition of affairs in the islands is such that the central administration may safely be transferred from military to civil control, they will report that conclusion to you, with their recomm endations as to the form of central government to be established for the purpose of taking over the control. Beginning with the 1st day of S'eptember, 1900, the authority to exercise, subject to my approval, through the Secretary of War, that part of the power of government in the Philippine Islands which is of a legislativ~ nature is to be transferred from the military governor of the islands to this commission, to be thereafter exel'cised by them in the place and stead of the military governor, under such rules and regulations as you shall prescribe, until the establishment of the civil central government for the islands contemplated in the last foregoing paragraph, or until Congress shall otherwise provide. Exercise of this legislative authority will include the making of rules and orders, having the effect of law, for the raising of i'evenue by taxes, customs duties, and imposts ; the appropriation and expenditure of public funds of the islands; the establishment of an educational system throughout the islands; the establishment of a system to secure an efficient civil service; the organization and establishment of courts; the organization and establishment of municipal and departmental governments, and all other matters of a civil nature for which the military governor is now competent to provide by rules or orders of a legislative character. The commission will also have power dur路 ing the same period to appoint to office such officers under the judicial, educational, and civil service systems and in the municipal and departmental governments as shall be provided for. Until the complete transfer of control the military governor will remain the

McKinley Inst.

chief executive head of the government of the islands, and will exet'cise the executive authority now possessed by him and not herein expressly assigned to the commission, sub. ject, however, to the rules and orders enact. ed by the commission in the exercise of the legislative powers conferred upon them. In the meantime the municipal and department_ al governments will continue to report to the military governor and be subject to his administrative supervision and control, under your direction, but that supervision and con_ trol will be confined within the narrowest limits consistent with the requirement that the powers of government in the municipalities and departments shall be honestly and effectively exercised and that law and order and individual freedom shall be maintained. All legislative rules and orders, establishments of government, and appointments to office by the commission will take effect immedjately, or at such times as they shall designate, subject to your approval and actio!!. upon the coming in of the commission's reports which are to be made from time to time as their action is taken. Wherever civil governments are constituted under the direction of the com mission, such military posts, galTisons, and forces will be continued for the suppression of insurrection and brigandage, and the maintenance of law and order as the military commander shall deem requisite, and the military forces shall be at all times subject under his orders to the call of the civil authorities for the maintenance of law and order and the enforcement of their authority. In the establishment of municipal governments the commission will take as the basis of their work the governments established by the military governor under his order of August 8, 1899, and under the report of the board constituted by the military governor by his order of January 29, 1900, to formulate and report a plan of municipal government, of which his honor Cayetano Arellano, president of the audiencia, was chairman, and they will give to the conclusions of that board the weight and consideration which the high character and distinguished abilities of its members justify.

,\1 cK i'1lll'y l1l$tructions



In the constitution of department 01' proincial governments, they will give especial ttention to the existing government of the sland of Negl'os, constituted, with the nproval of the people of that Island, under e order of the military governor of July 2, 1899, and after verifying, so far as may e practicable, the reports of the successful orking of that government, they will be uided by the experience thus acquired, so far s it may be applicable to the conditions existg in other portion3 uf the Philipines, Tho;::y 'ill avail t.hemselves to the fullest degTEt! ractica'~le of the conclusions rea:l.ed by ih.,; reviou3 commissiot1 to the PhiEpmes,

In the distribution of powers among the vernments organized by the commission, the resumption is always to be in favor of the alIer subdivision, so that all the powers whieh can properly be exercised by the municipal government shall be vested in that government, and all the powers of a more general character which can be exercised by the departmental government shall be vested in that government, and so that in the governmental system, which is the result of the process, the central government of the islands, following the example of the distribution of the powers between the States and the Nafional Government of the United States, shall have no direct administration except of matters of purely general concern, and shall have only such supervision and control over local governments as may be necessary to secure and enforce faithful and efficient administration by local officers,

The many different degrees of civilization and varieties of custom and capacity among the people of the different islands preclude rery definite instruction as to the part which the people shall take in the selection of their WIn officers; but these general rules are to be observed: That in all cases the municipal officers, who administer the local affairs of the people, are to be selected by the people, and that wherever officers of more extended jurisdiction are to be selected in any way, natives of the islands are to be preferred, and "if they can be found competent and willing to perform the duties, they are to receive the offices in preference to any others. It will be necessary to fill some offices for the present with Americans, which, after a

McKinley fn structWns


time, may well be filled by natives of the islands, As soon as practicable a system for ascertaining the merit and fitness of candidates for civil offices should be put in force. An indispensable qualification for an offices and positions of trust and authority in the islands must be absolute and unconditional loyalty to the United States, and absolute and unhampered authority and power to remove and punish any officer deviating from that standard must at all times be retained in the hands of the central authority of the islands.

In all the f01'ms of government and adm1nist1'ative provisions which they are authorized to p1'escribe, the commission should bear in mind that the gove1-nment which they are establishing is designed not for our satisfaction, or f01' the expression of our theoretical views, but f01' the happiness, peace, and prospe";ty of the people of the Philippine I slands, and the measures adopted should be made to conform to their customs, their habits, and even thei1' prejudices, to the fullest extent conswtent with the accomplishment of the indispemsable requisites of just and effective government. At the same time the commission should bear in mind, and the people of the islands should be made plainly to understand, that the?"e are ce?"tain great principles of gove1'1~ment which have been made the basis of OU1' governmental system which we deem essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of individual f?"eedorn, and of which they have, unfortunately, been denied the experience possessed by us; that theTe are also certain practical 1''tties of gove1-n1nent which we have found to be essential to the 1)1"eSe?"vation of t hese great p?"inci1Jles of liberty and law, and that these principles and these 1'ules of government must be established and maintained in thei1' islands for the sake of their libe'rty and happiness, however much they may conflict with the custom..s 01' laws of procedure with which the'll a1'e familiar, It is evident that the most enlightened thought of the Philippine Islands fully appreciates the importance of these principles and rules, and they will inevitably within a short time command universal assent. Upon every division and branch of the government of the Philippines, therefore, must be imposed these inviolable rules:


AlaKi1/lell ["8(.


That no person shall be deprived of life, libe1'ty, 01' propc1'ty without due p1'ocess of law; that pr iv ate property shall not be taken f01' public use w ithout just compensation; that in all criminal prosecll.tions the accused t;hall enjo y the ?'ight to a speedy and public t?'ial. to be infor med of the natu/I'e and cause of t he accusation, to be con fTonted with the witnesses against II im, to have compulsory process f0 1' obtaining witnesses in his favo?', and to have th e assist ance of coun sel fM' his defense j that excessive bail shall n ot be 'reqU1'?'e d, no)' excessive f ines imposed, n o)' c)'uel and unusual punis hment inflict ed; that no pe1'son shall be 'Put twice in j eopa?'dy f01' the same offense, 0'1' be compelled in any c?'iminal case to be a witness against himself; that the right t o be seCU1'e against unreason able sea1'ches an d seizm'es shall not be v iolated; that n eithe1' slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist exce pt as a punismnent fM crime ; that no bi ll of attainder, or ex-post facto law shall be passed; that no law shall be passed abridging the j1'eedom of speech or of the press, or of th e rights of the people to peaceably assemble an d peti tion the Gov ernment for a redre~s of g1'iev ances ; that no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohUnting the free exercise thereof, and that the j1'e e exerc1'se and enjoyment of 1'eligioll.s prof ession and worship without discrimination 01' p'refe1'ence shall forever be allowed. It will be the duty of the commission to make a thorough investigation into t he titles of th e large tracts <Yf land held or claimed by indivi duals or by religious orders j into the justice of the claim~ and complaints made again st such landholders by the people of the islands 01' any part of t he people, and to seek by wise and peaceable measures a just settlement of the controversies and redress of wrongs which have caused strife and bloodshed in the past, In the performance of this duty the commission is enjoined to see that no injustice is done; to have regard for substantial right and equity, disregarding technicalities so far as substantial right permits, and to observe the following rules:

That the provision of the treaty of Paris. pledging the United S tates to the protection 11/ all rights of p-r operty in the islands, and as well the principle of our own Government which prohibits the taking of private prop-



e..,'ty without d'ue process 0/ law, shall not b. violated; that the welfare of the people oj islands, which should be a pwrwmount consi4er(/'tion, shall be attained consistently 'Wit~ this 1'ule of p..,'operty 1'ight; that if it become! n ecessary f01' the 1mblic inte1'est of the people of the islands to dis1JOSe of claims to property which the c(l'nl/mission finds to be not lawful!lI acquire_,l ana held disposition shall be mad. the1'eof by due legal pl'~edure, in which there shaU be full opportunity l OT Jab' and in•. pa1,tial heaTing and judgment; that (f fila same public inte'rests requi1'e the extinguishm ent of prOlJe1'ty 1'ights lawfully acquil'ed an d held du e compens(btion shall be 1nade Old of the publio treasury therefor; that no form of 1'eligion and no ministe1' of religion shaU be fon;ed upon any community or u.pon any ci tiz en of the islands; that upon the othe,. hand no 'minister of religion shall be inter· f C1'ed with or molested in following his calling, and that the separation between stat. and chu1'ch shall be real, entire, and absolute. It will be the duty of the Commission to promote an d extend, and, as they find occasion, to improve, the system of education already inaugurated by the military authorities. In doing this they should regard as of first importance the extension of a system of primary education which shall be free to a ll, and which sha ll tend to fit the people for the duties of citizenship and for the ord inary avocations of a civilized community. This instruction should be given in the first instan ce in every part of the islands in the language of the people, In view of the great number of languages spoken by the different tribes it is especially important to the pro8-' perit; of the islands that a common mediu~ of communication may be established, and It is obviously desirable that this medium should be the English language, Especial attention should be at once given to affording full opportunity to all the people of the islands to acquire the use of the English language, It may well be that the main changes wh~eh should be made in the system of taxation and in the body of the laws under which the people are governed, except such changes a! have already been made bv the military g01· ernment, should be relegated to the civil go". ernment which is to be established under the auspices of the Commission. It will, however,


,\fcKrnley Instructions



the duty of t he Commission to inquire dilently as to whether there are any further anges which ought not to be delayed j and so, they are authorized to make such anges, subject to your approval. In doing they are to bear in mind t hat taxes which d to penalize or repress industry and enprise arc to be avoided; that prOVlSlOm: Jl' taxation should be ~imple, so that they tay be understood by the people; that they lould affect the fewest practicable subjects : taxation which will serve for the general iStribution of the burden. The main body of the laws whIch l"t:gulate fie rights and obligations of the people should ~ maintained with as little interference as 3ssible. Changes made should be mainly in (Ocedure, and in the criminal laws to secure leedy and impartial trials, and at the same me effective admini stration and respect for dh-idual rights. In dealing with th e uncivilized tribes of e islands the Commiss ion should adopt the me course followed by Congress in permitg the tribes of our North American Inns to maintain their tribal organization d government, and under which many of se tribes are now living in peace and COHtment, surrounded by a civilization to ich they are unable or unwilling to conrm. Such tribal governments should, hower, be subjected to wise and firm regulans; and, withou.t undue or pet ty interferee, constant and active effort should be e;xised to prevent barbarous practices and 1troduce civilized customs. Upon all officers and empl oyees of the bited States, both civil and military, should f impressed a sense of the duty to observe (It merely the material but the personal and OCial rights of the people of the islands, and treat them with the same courtesy and rea· ect for their personal dig nity which the peale of the United States are accustomed to equire from each other. The articles of capitulation of the city of anila on the 13th of August. 1898, concludwith these word s :

"This city, ,i ts inhabi tants, i ts cll lO'ckes and 'religious wo'rship, its educational establishments, and its 1)1··i vate l}1"Operty of edl descriptions, are placed under the special .a.fegua1·d of the faith and h01i01' of the American Anny."


War against U. S.


I b e lieve that this pledge ha s heen f a it h~ ful1y kept. As high and sacr e d an obliga· tion r ests upon the Government of the United States to give protection for prop erty and life , civil ar1;d religious freedom, and wise, firm , and un se lfish guidance in the paths of peace and prosperity to a ll the people of the Philippine Islands. 1 cha rge this Commission to labor for the full performance of this obligation, which concerns the honor and conscience of their country, in the firm hope that through their labors all the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands may come to look back with g r at itude to the day when God gave victory to American arms at Manila a nd set their land under the sovereignty and the protection of the people of the Un ited States.


The Seoretary of War Washington, D. C.

The War against the United States. -As we have already stated in the previous chapter, the good and honest intentions of the American government were misunderstood by t he Filipinos, who fought for the indep€ndence of their country. Having established a republican form of government which the Americans r efu sed to recognize, the Filipinos in upholding the dig nity of their own governm ent f ound it necessary to maintain their own freedom. H ence, the armed conflict between t he American and Filipino f orces when t he latter found out that a treaty of peace ceding the Philippines t o the United States was concluded at Par is on the day of December , 1898. Consequently the peri od of American administration in the Islands started with bloody r esistance f rom the natives. It was a war between a de facto government and a sovereign nation, which from the interl),at ional point of view was but an in surrection. With regard to this point, we wish to quote herein some interesting facts from the book entitled "The Picturesque Philippines" written by Adjutant E. H annaford. as follows:


The H/ar


"Between July, 1898, and February, 1899, the barefoot, half-naked Filipinos in the trenches at Man ila changed from allies of the Americans to rivals, and fro m rivals to SWO.fn enemies fighting to the death. rhe clash of arms began at 8 :45 o'clock on Saturday evening, February 4, 1899. Early next morning, Sunday, February 5th, the American volunteers were advancing, while the cruiser Chaffleston and gunboats ConcoTd and Cullao, in Manila bay, had opened fire on the ins urgent line to the north of the city, and the monito!' Monadnock on the line to t he south. During the da y the Amel'icans carried several mil es of intrenchn1en ts, and occupied a number of native villages immediately south and east of the city, being aided materially by the gunboat L aguna de Bay. A vitally important movement was effected on the sixth, when the troops under Brigadier-General H ale captured the outlying waterwork at Santolan, w ith a loss of three each killed and wounded.

The War

Schurman, Professor Dean C. Worcester and Hon. Charles Denby, constituting the civil members of the Philippine Commission sent out by President McKinley (the other memo bel'S being M'ajor-General Otis and Admiral Dewey), arrived in Manila March 4th, and a month later the, Commission issued its friendly proclamation to the natives, but without effecting any change in the situation. Meantime, on February 11th, Iloilo, the second port in the Philippines, had been occupied, the insurgents firing the town and retreating to some native towns neal' by. On February 24th a commission of four from N egros reached Manila, and pledged the island's allegiance to the United States, and a battalion was sent there on March 4th. On the twenty-fifth the gunboat Pet"el took the town of Cebu, on Cebu island, without forcible resistance, occupation by troops following later.

Campaigning against the insurgents was ex路 tremely arduous work, and not unti l the twentysixth of March were they With Major-G ene r al driven out of Polo, twel"e MacArthur in command, miles north of Manila. On th e American column the twenty-seventh Maristarted north on F ebruary lao, foul' miles north of 7th. Colonel Funston's Polo, was occupied after Kansas regiment charged a further struggle, and MAJ.-GEN. HENRY W . LAWTON a considerable body of the Marilao was captured on enemy, drove them into the thirty-first, their intrenchments, and punished them sev路路 While Mac-Arthur's men were resting erely. February 10th Caloocan was shelled M; and up toward Malolos, Majo,r -General for several hours, from Manila bay', by the Lawton conducted an expedition to the M onadnoclc and Cha'rwston, as well as by the southern and eastern shores of Laguna df' artillery on land, and late in the afternoon Bay. H e took Santa Cruz April 10th, and it was occupied at the point of the bayonet, next day captured a lot of barges and one the r ebels firing the town. Malabon, near Spanis h gunboat on the lake. This was the Caloocan, was shelled on the eleventh by the second raid in the direction of the fertile, and twoQ vessels last named, and on the twelfth populous lake country, the first having taken the enemy evacuated it. place on March 13th to 15th, under cornma nil In Manila a threatening conspiracy was nipped in the bud by the arrest, on February of Brigadier-General \Vheaton, who, advanc15th, of one hundred and fifty) ringleaders, ing along the Pasig, preceded by the gunboat Laguna de Bay, firing right and left, took Guain spite of which came the incendiary night fires of February 22nd that year. Dr. J. G. dalupe, Pasig, Pateros, which was burned, Ta-

Wa.r against U. S.


~ig and other towns upon or near the Pasig telta. General Lawton, abandoning the towns te had captured, retu rned to Manila April 17th, .nd five days later started, by way of N ovalihes, for Norzagaray, some thirty miles northast of Manila. The forces disputing h is ad-ance were easily brushed aside, a nd moving . . estward from Norzagaray, on May 1st he ook t he town of Baliuag. In the meanwhile \VO or three days had been lost by MacArhur in a movement toward the northeast, !'ith view to a junction with Lawton, and on ~pril 23rd, in the vicinity of Quingua, four oiles from Malolos, Colonel J ohn 1\1. Stotenburg was killed.

War U. S.


Calumpit, expeIling the enemy from three suc" cessi\'e lines of trenches. On May 4th Gen .. eral MacArthur's column d islodged th e in~ surgqnts under General Luna from t h eir stron~ intrenchment two miles south of Santo Tom~s, northwest of Apalit, and after repairing the bridge entered Santo Tomas at noon, to f ind the town on fire. In th e afternoon the co lumn advanced to S'an Fernando, two m iles f urther, where similar sce n es were enacted. Here MacArthur's headquarters re~ mained for eleven weeks.

At Manila, the Spanish had transferred the Supreme Court to the American authorities (who promptly appointed six new judges, Hale's brigade r eached the v icinity of Cathree A mericans and three natives) on April arnpit April 25th, capttu'ing- the outer enches. During the night the partially des16th . Four days preceding that date Lieurayed bridge over the Quing ua river was tenant James C. Gil more, of the gunboat ~epai J'edJ enabling WheaYO?' ktown, and a party of ;on's brigad e to cross, thirteen had landed in md after a most determinBaler bay, midway the n resistance t he Filipinos, easter coast of Luzon, In the twenty-sixth, were and been captuTed. They driven from Calumpit. Adwere Tescued by a troop of mncing along the railroad scouts conunanded by Col10 the south bank of the onel Luther R. Hare, in the Grande de Pam.panga, latter part of Decembel', reaching Mani la on Jan.. General Wheaton found t h e 1.1ary 7th of the f ollowing enemy so stron gly intrenyear. On April 28th enIched on the north side that voys from the insurgent rifle-fire and artilIery failGeneral Luna requested an ed to di slodge them. The armistice for three weeks, bridge over th e river wa s to enable the Revolutionary badly damage d, and to Congress to determine ,vheass it in face of the enet.her ot' not to continue the my'S fire was imposs ibl e. war, and s imilar requests At 10 o'clock the next forewere made on May 2nd, noon Colonel Funston callBRIG.-GEN. FREDERICK FUNSTON 13th and 19t h. fd for volunteers to cross On the twenty-fourth of May the last Spanthe river. From t he number who offered he IeIf'Cted two, who swam across and fastened ish garrison remaining in the archipelago was one end of a r ope t.o a tree on the opposite w ithdrawn, by arrangements with besiegin g ba nk. By means of the rope attached to an insurgents. This was at Zamboanga, in Mintmprovised raft several companies of the Kan- danao . During May a marked di vergence sas regiment crossed the river, and gained a had developed between t he views of the civil ;POsition enabling them to enfi lade the insurmembers of the Philippine Commission and nts. The remainder of the brigade, after a those of t he Military Governor, Major-Gen:precarious crossing on th e bridge, encountertd reinforcements coming to Calumpit from eral Otis, Admiral Dewey, t he remaining lJacabebe, a f ew miles 路w estward. These they member of the Commission, having started forced back, t.hen advanced to Apalit, north of 110me on the Olympia on May 20th. His suc"





The War


ceSS01' in command of the Asiatic squadron, Rear-Admiral John C. Watson, reached Manila on the twe ntie t h of the follow in g month. Taking up the main stor y of the campaign, Lawton's division returned on the twentyfourth of May from an expeditiona ry movement eastward from San Fernando, again joining MacArthur there. June ::Srd to 6th Lawton made a laborious expedition ea stward from Manila along the northern shore of Laguna de Bay, in the fruitless endeavor to drive the FIlipino Genera l Pio del Pilar down into the Morang peninsula, and bag his forces there. Cainta, Taytay, Antipolo, Teresa and Morong were occupied in succession, but only Morang was garrisoned. On June 10th the irrepressible Lawton undertook a movement to crush the insurgents t hreatening Manila fr om the south. A feint movement toward the lake, followed by most rapid counter-marching, failed to cut off t he insurgents, owing chiefly to the awful heat.

On June 13th the hardest battle yet fought occurred at a strategic position above Bacoor, once celebrated for the annihilation there of a Spanish battalion in 1896. It was the crossing of the Zapote river. After fifteen hours'

fighting, part of it decidedly fierce, the ins urgents were forced from their position and driven southward. Following up this success, General Wheaton's brigade,' on the fifteenth, occupied Imus, fifteen miles from Manila. On the nineteenth, in r epelling an attack directed toward Imus, ' Vheaton lost twenty-eight men. The second week of July brought rains so extraordinary for even the rainy season as to veto aggressive campaigning for months. 'Vhen the campaign thus closed, the situation was such! as to prove conclusively the need of a largely incrcas\::d force. On the ninth of August MacArthur moved from San Fernando, and after a l'unning fight of thn:e days he captured Angeles, nine miles further north on the railroad. H ere he established headquarters for the rest of the rainy season, subject constantly to great annoyance in protecting his communications. Once the insurgents descended on the railroad twelve miles in his rear, and tore up three miles of it, and on September 22nd, not far from Angeles, they blew up a train bringing American supplies, and killed six soldiers and six native mechaniCS" MacArthur dr..>ve the rebels out of their position at Parae, a few miles northwestward


I War (lD(li7l8t U. S.



FEL]PE BUENbAM I NO lb was at om time n mern?el' oC J\guina!" 40'$ eabinet end aCC0;l;rl'pnnICd A(nlmaldo. ~ mother and son wh en hey surren.dered In order to pbtaln A rner can protection.

n September 28tht nd three weeks later r.ith General Lawton ma de a fur t her advance p the railroad. 'W ith the a pproac of the d r),! season a cti ve perations were r esumed. During the first ~n [ ays of October - Genera l Schwan, operatmg SOUth Lu..zon, olpt ured Rosa rio a nd Ma lan. November ,f'th an expedition on tran sarts, dispatche4 to the north under General eaton, captqred Dagupan. On the f ourent~ Major ~l entered Tarlac. That same y, in 8 bris"- fight near San Jacinto Maj or . ohn A. Log.n was killed. On the twenty" fourth Generjll Otis reported tne capture of ;he Prasiden.t of t he Filipino Congress, the Secretary State and the Treasurerj also . at the whOle of Central Luzon was in the lands of the American authorities. In May .f the nex~ year General Funston captured ¡.he archive~ of the Filipino government. On 'he eleftllthl of December General Otis, by di'ection of ':President McKinley opened the lhilippiDe ports to commerce. The same day ienera! Til'fD8, eomrnanding the rebels in Ca-





U'cu agaitl.8t U . S.


gayan, surrendered the entire province to Captain McCalla, of the cruiser Newa'rk. On the nineteenth, when about to order a n attack on the rebels at San Mateo, Genera l Lawton 'vas shot, dying immediately. The fighting had resolved into skirmishin g, the work of the soldiers now being t o garrison towns and run down guerrillas a nd b an~ dits. However, General Otis recommended that for a time a large repressive force be retained, and on Apri l 1, 1900, there were nearly 65,000 soldiers in the islands. On April 7th General Otis, at h is own re.. quest, was relieved of command in the Philippines, the order going into effect May' 1st, when he was succeeded by General MacArthur. On June 1st General MacArthur issued a pro.clamation of the amnesty with unconriitional pardon to all Filipinos who would renounce the insurrection within ninety days, and it was accepted by many of the leaders. Among the latter was General Pio del Pilar, captured J une 8th at San Pedro Makati, who used his influence to induce other insurgents to ac.. cept it. General Pantaleon Garcia meantime had been captured in Jaen, central Luzon, on J une 5th. On F ebr uary 6th the President appoint ed Ju dge W illiam H. Taft,*. of Ohio, at t he head of a new Philippine Commission, to inaugurate a civi l government to supersede the mil .. itary, t he other members of the Commission being Professor Bernard Moses, of the University of Californ ia ; P rofessor Dean C. \Vorcestel', of Michigan; Hon. Luke E. "'right, of Tennesseej and J udge Henry C. Ide, of Vermont. This Commission sailed f r om San Francisco April 17th, arriving at Manila ear" ly in t he month of J une, though not officially assum ing their admin istrative dut ies until the first of September. The intervening time was s pent in becoming f amili ar with det a ils of th e great t ask confront ing them . Mea nt ime Gener al Ot is had approved of a plan of muni cipa l government giving the Filipinos th e right of suf f rage, and schools were being established as r apidly as possible. This, of course, unde r direction of military authority, which seemed the greatest obstacle in the â&#x20AC;˘ See picture on t he n ext pa ge.


War agui1UJt



HOD. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Head of the Second !Philippine Commission, and First Civil Governor of the Philippines

way of pacification, owing to a lack of confidence in the soldiers on the part of the inhab itants. The country is now r eported to be quieting down and reverting to normal con-

ditions, and optimists pI路... ~ .iIIIIliI er administrative holds in store for the peace, but unexampled

onl ~

oJivil Government


Cil)!1 GOVtlrltment


The Civil Government.-The new Commission arrived in Manila June 3, 1900. On September 1, it began its legislative and executive duties. From September 1, 1900, to July 3, 1901, the Commanding General of the American Army con tinued t o exercise civil executive powers. On July 4, 1901, 1111'. William H, T af t became the first Civtl Governor of the Philippines in the period of American administration.




lVa..'1liill.ut()'Il, June !H, 1901.

On a nd after the 4th of July. l~Ol. until it shall be oth er wise ol.'dcl'ed, Lhc Pl'e~idcnt of the Philipvine Com. mission w ill cxel'ei~ \..he l'xccutive authority in all civil a fbi l's in the government of the Philippine 1M-lands h~rc to(ol'e exel'ciSL'(1 in such nUsh'S by the 1IlilHaI,}, {;OVCrllOr of th e P h ilippines, and to !.hat end Ute Han '.VilJinm I-I. T aft, President of the said Commission. is h;'reby I\,Illointcd Civil Governor of the Philippine Is· lands , Such executive authority will be exercised under, ~!nd in conformity to, t he inSti'uclions to the PhLippine (;ommissioners, dated April 7, 1900, and subject to the npPlUvnl and contr(ll of the St.-eretary of War of the U ni ted Sbtes, T he municipal and provincial civil s;tovernm ents, which hnve been, or llhnU hereafter be, esta_ hiished in snid Isla'nd.." and all persons perrorm,nR' duties ap pertaining to the offices of civil government in said !slnnds. will, in respect of such duties, report to the Ci vil Governor,

By an order of the President effecth-e September I, 1901, the Insular organization was completed, making t he four members of. the Commission secretaries 0 1' heads of four Executive Departments-Pu0lic Instruction, Finance and Justice, Commerce and P olice, and Interior, On October 29, 1901, a Vice-Govel'Dor was appointed. APP01NTMENT OF 'rHE VICE.GOVERNOR

The p ower to appoint civil officer.. , heretofore vested in th e Phili ppine Commission, or in the Milita.I·Y Gov· Cl nol', will be exel'cil;cd by the Civil Governor with the advice and con sen t or the Commission,

WHITE HOUSE, n'ashillgtf»l, Octobe1' i9, 1901.

The Mili tal'Y Go\'ernor of the Philirmines is hereby rdieved Cro m the pcri(l I"lJ1n.nce, on and after the said 4th dny of July, or the civil duties hereinbefore described, but his D\lth ority w ill con t inue to be exercised as hereto· fore, in those di st.l'i ct.S in which insurrection against the authority of t h e Uni ted SULl'.es continues to exist. or in Id.ich publi c OJ'del' is n ot sufficientl}' I'cstQl't..q to enable Ill"Ovincial civ il governments to be established under the instructions to the Commission dated April 7, 1900,

By "iI't;u(! of the


vested in me as President

of the United Stales. the HOl'lOl'nble Luke E. Wright is appointed Vicc·Covcl'1'I01'


authority to act as

Civil Cowl'nor of the! Phllippine Isla nds whene ver th e Civil GOVel'1l01' is ine:lJ)ncil&te<t by illness



that Ilis tcmpol'ru'Y absence from the seat of Irovernmen\ will mnke it necessary fO l' the Vice-Governor to e:;elcise such )'lowers and duties,

By the Presiden t:

ELIHU ROOT, Secreta.ry of Wa.r.



W a r a g ai1!8t



H on . W ILLIA M HOWARD TAFT Hea d o f the S econd IP hilip pin e C ommi ss ion, and First Civ il G overn o r of the Philippines

way of pacification. ow ing to a lack of confidence in the soldiers on the part of the inhabitants. The country is now reported to be qui etin g down and reverting to normal COD-



ditions, and optimists urea._ er administra t ive holds in store for the peace, but une..xampled

Civil Govcl"llmcnt


Civil G01IernlllettL

The Civil Government.-The new Commission anived in Manila June 3, 1900. On September 1, it began its legislative and executive duties. From September 1, 1900, to July 3, 1901, the Conunanding General of the American Army continued to exercise civil executive powers. On July 4, 1901, Mr. William H. Taft became the first Civll Governor of the Philippines in the period of American administration.






IVa.sJzi ....uton, June



On :ln~l a.fter the 4th or July, 1901, u.ntil it shall be otberwise ordered, the President. of the Phililllljne CommisSion will exct(tlSC the executive authority in all dvil nUni!'s in the govcrnment of the Philippine IsInnds beretofore exeJ'clse<l in s uch affairs by the l\1i1icary G(lVl.'rnor of the Philippines. find to that end the Hon William II. TaCt, Pr\lsident of the said Commission. is t't'rt:'by 1l11110inll'd Civi l Covemor of the Philippine IsInnd3, Such ~xccutive authority will be exercised under, and in conformity \.0, the instructions to the PhLippine rommissioners, dared April 7. 1900, and subject to the ftPI)n)vuJ and contr(ll of the Secretary of War of the Uniled Sbtes. The municipal and provincia} civil governments, which have been. or shan hereafter be, estaoiis-hed in said Islllnds, nnd all persons performing duties lPllertnining to the offices or civil government in said !.sJon&~. will, in respect or such duties. report 1.0 the ssid Civil Gov~rnor.

By an order of the President effecth-e September 1, 1901, the Insular organization was completed, making the foUl' members of路 the Commission secretaries 0)' heads of four Executive Departments-Public Instruction, Finance and Justice, Commerce and Police, and Interior. On October 29, 1901, a Vice-Governor was appointed. APPOINTMENT OF 'rHE VICE-GOVERNOR

The power to a.ppoint civil officers. he retofore vested in the Philippine cPmmission. or in the Military GovtrnOI', will be exel'cised b)' the Civil Governor with the idviee nnd <:on:;\en1 of the Commi:;sion, The Military GO\'crnor of the Phililmines is hereby ttlieved from the pel'fol'mnnce. on and after the said 4th dny of July, of lhc oivil duties hereinbefore described, but. his authorit.y will continue to be exercised ns hel'cOOfore. in those districL$ in which insul'rcct.ion against the nuthority of the Uniled Stntes continues to exist, or in ....路Uch J)Ublic order is not su({iciently restored to l'nable 11rovincial civil governments to be cstllblished under the instructions to the Commission dnted April 7, 1900. By the President:

EUHU ROOT, SUT6ta.ry of Wa.r,

WHITE HOUSE, li'asliillgt<m, October 99, 1901.

By virtue of the llUthol'iQ' vested in me as President. of the United StAtes, the HOMI'ubll! Luke E, Wright iii al)Poimed







Civil Govel'llor o拢 the PhiliDlline Islands whenever the Civil Governol' il:i inenpllcitated' by illness or CC'l'ti fies that his temlJornry nhscnce from lhe seat of govemment will make it necessr\l'y fol' the Vice-Governor to ("xcl'cise: such 1J0wcrs and duties.



Pha, Bm



A View oj the City oj Manila. in 1898

The Philippine BilI.-To provide for subsequently amended by said Congress the administration of t h e affairs of in 1913, 1922, 1930, and 1935. TIle civil goverrunent in t h e Philippines, the. full text of 5<'tid Tariff Act, as amendCongress of the United States of Amer- ed, is published herein from page 207 ica has enacted a law known as 1116 to page 255, inclusive. Philippine Bill, which was the fi r st orTIle full text of the Philippine Bill or ganic act in force in these islands from: Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, spon1902 to 1916. On August 5, 1909, the Congress of tile United States passed sored by Congressman Henry A. t he Philippine Tariff Act, which was Cooper, reads as fo]](}ws:



Be it en(tcted by the Senate c.nd House of R epresentati'VeB of the United States of America in Con y'ress assembled, That the action of the President of the United States in creating the Philippine Commission al~ d authorizing said Commission to exercise the powers of government to the extent an -I in the manner and fOl'm and subject to the l"e-

gulation and control set forth in the instruc~ tions of the P resident to the Philippine CO!l1~ mission, dated API;l seventh, nineteen hundred, and in creating the offices of Civil Governor and Vice-Governor of the Philippine Islands, and authorizing said Civil Governo!' and Vice-Governor to exercise the powers of government to the extent and in the manner


md form set forth in the Executive order fated June h...-enty-first, nineteen hundred and ne, and in establishing four Executive "'e partments of government in said Islands h set forth in the Act of the Philippine Comnission, entitled "An Act providing an organ zation for the Departments of the Interior, ,f Commerce and Police, of F inance and Jusice, an d of Public Instruction," enacted Septmbel' sixth, nineteen hundred and one, is ereby approved, ratified, and confirmed, and ntil otherwise provided by law the said I sm ds shall continue to be governed as therer and herein provided, and all laws passed ereafter by the Philippine Commission shall ave an enacting clause as follows: "By au~ority oj the United States, be it enacted by le Philippine Com:n~ission . " The provisions [ section eighteen hundred and ninety-one of le Revised Statutes of eighteen hundred and !\'enty-eight shall not apply to the Philippine ;lands. F uture appointments of Civil Governor, ice-Governor, members of said Commission ld heads of Executive Departments shall be ade by the President, by and with t he advice ld consent of the Senate. SEC. 2. That the action of the P resident . the United States heretofore taken by virIe of the autho~ ity vested in h im as Comander- in-Chief of" 'te Army and Navy, as :t forth in his order 01 路 T)\lly twelfth, eighteen mdred and ninety-eight~ whereby a tariff duties and taxes as set forth by said order as to be levied and collected at all ports and aces in the Philippine Islands upon passing to the occupation and possession of the rces of the United States, together with e subsequent amendments of said order, are reby approved, ratified, and confirmed, and e actions of the author ities of t he Govern~nt of the Philippine I slands, taken in a cl"da nce with the prov isions of said order d subsequent amendments, are her eby ap路 o\'ed: Provided. that nothing contained in is section shall be held to amend or repeal Act entitled "An Act temporarily to prole revenue for the Philippine I slands, a nd r other purposes," approved March eight, teen hundred and two.


SEC. 3. That the President of the United States. duri ng such time as and whenever the sovereignty and authority of the United States encounter al'med resistance in the Philippine Islands, until otherwise provided by Congress, shall continue to regulate and con路 trol commercial intercourse with and with in said Islands by such general rules and regulations as he, in his discretion, may deem most conducive to the public interests and the gen路 eral welfare. SEC. 4. That all inhabitants of the Philippine I slands continuing to reside therein who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April. eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in said I slands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninetyeigh t. SEC. 5. That no law shall be enatced in said Islands which shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property ,vithout due process of law, or deny to any person therein the equal protection of the la,ys. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf. That no person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law; and no person for the samp. offense shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment, nor sha ll be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. That all persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses.



That no law impairi ng the obli gation of contr acts shall be enacted. Th at no peTson sh a ll be imp r isoned f or debt. That t he pri vil ege of the writ of habeas corp us sha ll n ot be s uspended, un less when in cases of r ebellioll, insurrection , or invas ion t he publi c safety ma y requi re it, in either of which events the sa me ma y be suspended by the President, or by t he Govern or , with the a pproval of th e Phili pp ine Commission, whe r ever d ur ing such per iod t h e necessity for s uch s uspens ion sh a ll ex ist. T hat no ex-post facto law taind er sh all be enact ed.

0 1'

bill of a t -

T hat no law gra nting a t it le of nobility sh all be enacted, a nd no p erson ho ldin g any office of profit or t r ust in said I sla nd s, shall , withou t the consen t of th e Congress of th e U nited States, a ccept any present, emolument, off ice, or t itl e of any kind w hatever from any k ing, queen, prin ce, or f oreig n State. T h at excess ive ba il s hall not be required, nor excessive f ines imposed, nor cruel and unusua l punishment inflicted. That t h e ri ght to be secure again st unreason a bl e sea rches and seizures s hall not be viol a ted. That neith er s laver y, nor involuntary s ervit ud e, except a s a punis hment for crime whereof t he p a rty s hall have been duly convicted, shall ex ist in s aid I s land s. Th a t no law shall be passed abridging the f r eedom of speech or of th e press, or the right of th e peopl e peaceably t o assemble and petit ion th e Government f or redress of grieva n ces. That n o la'\" shall be made res pecting an establi shment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enj oyment of religiou s profession a nd wo rs hip, without discrimination or prefe rence, shall f orever be allowed. That no m oney shall be paid out of the Treas ul'y except in purs uance of an appropriat ion by law. That t he r ule of tax ation in said I slands sh a ll be uniform.

That no private or local bill which may be enacted into law shall embrace more than on e s ubject, and that subject shall be expressed in the title of the bill. That no warrant shall issue but upon prob able cause, s upported by oath 01' affirma tion , and par ticularly describin g the plae t o be searched and the person or things t be seized. That all money collected on any tax levie or a ssessed for a special purpose shall treated a s a special fund in t he Treasur) and paid out for s uch purpose only. SEC. 6. That whenever the existing in5m rection in the PhiJippine Islands shall hav cea sed and a condition of general and com plete peace shall have been establi sh ed there in and the fa ct shall be certified to the Pres ident by the Philippine Commission, tb Pres ident, upon being s atisfied thereof shall order a cens us of the Philippine Island to be taken by said Philippine Commission such census and its inquil'ies relating to th population shall take and make so far 8. practicable full report for all the inhabit ants, of name, age, sex, race, or tribe, wh ther native or forei g n born, literacy in Span ish, native dialect, or language, or in Eng !ish, school attendance, ownership of hom industrial and social â&#x20AC;˘ tatistics, and sue other informati on Se-l\.~l~telY for each islan each province, ar-:S municipality, 01' othe civil division, a s the President and said Co mission may deem necessary: P1'ovidr That the President may, upon the request said Commission, in his discretIOn, emplo the service of the Census Bureau in co piling and pl'omulgating the statistical i fOl'mation above provided for, and may co mit to such Bureau any part 01' portion such labor as to him may seem wise. SEC. 7. That two years after the conlpl tion and publication of the census, in c8 s uch condition of general and complete pea with recognition of the authority of th United States shall have continued in t territory of said Islands not inhabited Moros or other non-Christian tribes and su facts shall have been certiiied to the Pr


ident by the Philippine Commission, t he President upon being satisfied therl~of shall direct ..;aid Commission to call, and the Commission ,.,hall call, a general election for the choice 'J f delegates to a popular assembly of the ,eople of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be known as the Philippine Assembly. After said Assembly shall have convened and ol'ganized, all the legislative power heretofore con felTed on the Philippine Commission in all that part of :)aid I s land s not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes shall be vested in a Legislature consisting of two Houses-the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. Said Assembly shall consist of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred members to be apportioned by said Commission among the provinces as neady as practicable according to population: P1'ovided, That. no province shall have less than line member: and provided 1m' the)', That provinces entitled by population to more than line member may be divided into snch con\'enient di stricts as the said Commission may deem best. Public notice of such divi sion shall be given at least ninety days prior to such flection, and the election shall be held under rules and regulations to be prescribed by Jaw, The qualification of electors in such election ~ha ll be the same as is now provided by law in case of electors in municipal elections. The members of Assembly s hall hold office for two years from the first day of JanJiry next following their election, and their SUccessors shall be chosen by the people ~ery second year thereafter. No person Ihall be eligible to such election who is not 'qualified elector of the election district n which he may be chosen, owing allegiance o the United States, and twenty-five years f age. The Legislature shall hold annual sessions, ommencing on the first Monday of Febllary in each year and continuing not exeeding ninety days thereafter (Sundays and olidays not included): Provided, That ~e first meeting of the Legislatul路e shall he


held upon the call of the Governor within ninety days after the first election: and 1)rovided !llrthe1路, That if at the termination of any session the appropriations necessary for the support of Government shall not have been made, an amount equal to the sums appropriated in the last appropriation bills for such purposes shall be deemed to be appropriated; and until the Legislature shall act in such behalf the Treasurer may, with the advice of the Governor, make the payments necessary for the purposes aforesaid. The Legislature may be called in special session at any time by the Civil Governor fo~-, general legislatin, or for action on such specific subjects as he may designate. No special session shall continue longer than thirty days, exclussive of Sundays. The Assembly shall be the judge of the ejections, returns, and qualifications of its members. A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent membel路s. I t shall choose its speaker and othel' officers, and the salaries of its members and officers shall be fixed by law. It may determine the rule of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and vnth the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member, It s hall keep a journal of ;ts proceedings, 'which shall be published, and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, on the demand of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journaL SEC. 8. That at the same time with the first meeting of the Philippine Legislature, and biennially thereafter, there shall be chosen by said Legislature, each House voting sepa rately, two resident Commissioners to the United States, who sha ll be entitled to an official recognition as such by all departments upon presentation to t he President of a certificate of election by the Civil Governor of said I sland s, and each of whom shall be entitled to a salary payable monthly by the United States at the rate of fi\'~ thousand donal's per anum, and two thousand dollars additional to cover all expenses: Pro-



That no pel'son shall be eligible to such election who is not a qua lifi ed elector of said Islands, owing all egiance to the United States. and who is not t hirty years of age. 1lided.

SEC. 9. That th e Supreme Court a nd the Courts of First Instance of the Philippine I slands shall possess and exercise jurisdict ion as heretofore provided and such additional jurisdiction as shall hereafter be prescribed by the Government of said Islands, subject to the power of s aid Government to change the practice and method of procedure. The municip al cou rts of said Is1ands shall p ossess . and exercise jurisdIction as heretofore provided by t he Philippine Commission, subject in all matters to such alteration and amendment as may be hereafter enacted by law; and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court shall hereafter be a ppo inted by the President, by and with the advice an d con~ent of the Senate, and shall receive the c:ompensation heretofore prescribed by the Commission l~n颅 t il otherwise provided by Cong ress. The judges of the Court of Firs t Instance shall be appointed by the Civil Governor, by and with the advice and con sent of the Phili ppine Comrnission : PTovided, That the admiralty jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and Courts of First In stance sha11 not '1e chaNged except by Act of Congress. SEC. 10. That the Supreme Court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm the final judgments and decrees of the Supreme Court of the Philippine I slands in all actions, cases. causes. and proceedings now pending therein or hereafter determined thereby in which the Constitution 01' any statute, treaty, title, right, or privilege of the United States is involved, or in causes in \vh ich t he value in controversy exceeds twenty-five thousand dollars, or in wh ich t he title or possession of real estate exceeding in value the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, to be ascertained by the oath of either party 01' of other competent witnesses, is involved or brought in question; and s uch final judgments or decrees may and can be reviewed, revised, reversed, modified, or affirmed by sa id Sup r eme Court of the United States on

appeal or writ of error by the party ag_ grieved, in the same manner, under t he same regulations, and by the same procedure, at; far as applicable, a s the f inal judgments and decrees of the Circui t Courts of the Unit-cd States. SEC. 11. That the Government of the Philippine I slands is hereby authOl'ized to provide for the needs of commerce by improving the harbors and navigable waters of said Islands and to construct amd maintain in said navigable waters and upon the shore adjacent thereto bonded warehouses, Wharves, piers, light-houses, signal and life-saving stations, buoys, and like instruments of commerce, and to adopt and enforce regulations in regard thereto, including bonded warehouses wherein al'ticles not intended to be imported into said I slands nor mingled with the property therein, but brought into a port of sa id I slands for reshipment to another country may be deposited in bond and reshipp ed to another country without the payment of customs duties or charges. SEC. 12. That all the property and rights which may have been acquired in the Philippine I slands by the United States undeI' the treaty of peace with Spain, signed Decemher tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, except such land 01' other property as shall be designated by the President of the United States for military and other reservations of the Government of the United States, are hereby placed under the control of the Government of sa id I slands, to be administereJ for the benefit of the inhabitants thereof, except as provided in this Act. SEC. 13. That the Government of the Philippine I slands, subject to the provisions of this Act and except as herein provided. sh all classify according to its agricultural character and productiveness, and shall im路 mediately make rules and regulations for the lease, sale, or other disposition of the public lands other than timber or mineral land:,. but such rules and regulations shall not ga into effect or have the force of law until they have received the approval of the Pres' ident, and when approved by the President they shall be submitted by him to CongTes~ at the beginning of the next ensuing sessio!



reof and unless disapproved or amended Congress at said session they shall at the !'e of such period have the force and efct of law in the Philippine I slands: P ?'o. I'd, That a single homestead entry shall t exceed s ixteen hectares in extent. SEC. 14. Th at th e Government of the ih ilippine I slands is hereoy authorized an d powered to enact rules and regulations Id to prescribe terms and conditions to ene.e persons to perfect their title to public nds in said I slands, who, prior to the transr of sovere ignty from Spain to the Un itec. :ates, had fulfilled all or some of the contions r equired by the Spanish laws and Ira l decrees of the Kingdom of Spain for e acquisition of legal title thereto, yet Liled to secure conveyance of title; and the hilippine Commission is authorized to isle patents, without compensation, to any ltive of said I s lands, convey ing title to an y act of land not more t han sixteen hectares extent, wh ich were public lands and had 'en actually occupied by such native or his Icestors prior to and on the thirteenth of ugust, eighteen hundred and ninEty-eigh t. SEC. 15. That the Government of the hilippine I s lands is hereby authorized and npowered, on such terms as it may preribe, by general legislatio n, to provide for Ie grantin g or sale and conveyance to ac路 I occupants and settlers and other citizens said Islands such parts and port ions of le public domain , other than timber ann ineral lands, of the United- States in said lands a s it ma y deem wise, not exceeding ~teen hectares to anyone person and for e sale and conveyance of not more than le thousand and twenty-four hectares to 1~' corporation or association of persons: ~ovi,<l ed, That the grant or sale of such ifIds, whether the purchase price be paid once or in partial payments, shall be contioned upon actual and continued occuLncy, improvement, and cultivation of the 'emises sold for a period of not less than .e years, during which ti me the purchaser grantee ca n not alienate 01' encumber said nd or the title t hereto; but su ch restriction all not apply to t ran sfers of rights and Ie of inheritance under the laws for the tr ibution of the estates of descedents. SEC. 16. That in g rantin g or selling any rt of the public domain under the prov-


isions of the last precedi ng section. preference in all cases shall be given to actual occupants and settlers; and such publ ic lands of the United States in the actual possession or occupancy of any native of the Philippine Islands shall not be sold by sa id Government to a ny other person without the consent thereto of said prior occupant or settler first had and obtained: Provided. That the prior right hereby secured to an occupant of land, who can show no other proof of title than possession, shall llot apply to more than sixteen hectares in anyone tract. SEC. 17. That timber, trees, forests, and forest products on lands leased or demised by the Government of the Philippine I slands under the provis ions of this Act shall not be cut, destroyed, removed, or appropriated except by special permission of said Govern ment and under such regulations as it may prescribe. All moneys obtained from lease or s ale of any portion of the public domain or from licenses to cut timber by the Government of the Philippine Islands shall be covered into the Insular Treasury and be subject only to appropriation for insular purposes according to law. SEC. 18. That the forest Jaws an d regulations now in force in the Philippine Islands, with such modifications and amendments as may be made by the Government of said Islands, are hereby continued in force, and no timber lands forming part of the public domain shall be sold, leased, or ente red until the Government of said I slands, upon the certification of t he Forestry Bureau that said lands are more valuable for agriculture than fo r forest uses, shall declare such lands so certified to be agri cultural in character: Provided, That the said Government shall have the right and is hereby empowered to issue licenses to cut, ha rvest, or conect t imber or othe r forest products on reserved or unreserved public lands in said Islands in accordance with the f orest laws and regulations hereinbefore mentioned and under the provisions of this Act, and t he said Government n'la y lease land to any person or persons holding such licenses, sufficient for a mill site, not to exceed four hectares in extent, and may gl'ant rights of way to enable such person or persons to get access to the lands to which such licenses apply.



SEC. 19. That the beneficial use shall be the basis, the meaSUl'e, and the limit of all rights to water in said I sl ands, and the Govern ment of said I slands is hereby authorized to make such rul es and regulations for the use of water, and to make such reservations of public lands for t h e protection of t he water supply. and for other public purposes not in conflict with the provision s of this Act, as it may deem best for the public good. MI:\' ERAL LA NDS.

SEC. 20. That in al1 cases public lands in the Phi lippine I slands valu able for minerals shall be reserved from s ale, except as otherwise expressly directed by law. SEC. 21. That all valuable mineral deposits in public lands in the Philip p ine I sl and s, both surveyed and u nserveyed, a r e hereby declared to be free and open to exploration, occup ati on, and purchase, and the la nd in which they are found to occupation and purchase, by citizen s of the United Stat es, 01' of said I slands: Provided, That when on any lands in said I slands entered and occupied as agri cultura l lands under t he provis ion s of this Act, but not patented, mineral deposits have been foun d, the working of such mineral deposits is hereby forb idd en until t he person, association, or corporation who or which has entered and is occupying such lands s hall have paid to the Government of said I slands s uch additional s um or sums as will make t he total amount paid for the mineral claim 01' cla ims in which said deposits are located eq ual to the amount charged by the Government for t he s ame a s mineral cla ims. SEC. 22. That mining clai ms upon land containing ve in s or lodes of qua r tz or other rock in place beari ng gold , silver, ci nnabar, lead, tin, copper, or othe r valuable depos its, located after the passage of thi s A ct, whether located b y one 01' more persons qualified to locate the sa me under the preceding section, s hall be located in the following manner and under the follow ing con dition s: A ny person so qualified desiring to locate a mineral claim shall, s ubject to t he provis ions of t his Act with respect to land which may be used fo r mining, enter upon t he same a nd locate a plot of ground measuring, where poss ibl e, but not exceeding, one thou-


sand feet in length by one thousand feet in breadth, in as nearly a s possible a rectan. g ula r form; that is to say: All angles shall be right angles , except in cases where a boundary line of a previously surveyed claim is adopted as common to both claim!; but the lines need not necessarily be meri diona1. In defining the size of a minera claim, it shall be measured horizontally, ir respective of inequalities of the surface 0 the g round. SEC. 23. That a mineral claim shall marked by two posts placed as nearly poss ibl e on the line of the ledge or vein, an the posts s hall be numbered one and two and the distance between posts numbere one a nd two shall not exceed one thousan feet, the line between posts numbered one an two to be known as the location line j an upon posts numbered one and two shall written the name given to t he mineral clai the name of the locator, and the date of th location. Upon post numbered one ther s hall be written, in addition to the foregoing j'Initial post," the approximate compass bear in g of post numbered two, and a statemen of the numbe r of feet lying to the right an to the left of the line from post numbere one to post numbered two, thus: lIInitia post. Directi qn of post numbered two ..... . feet of t his claim lie on the right and .. . .. . feet on the left of the line from number on to number two post." All t h e particula. required to be put on number one and num bel' two posts shall be furnished by the 10 cator to the provincial secretary, or sue other officer as by the Philippine Govern ment may be described as mining recorde in wr iting, at the time the claim is recol'ded and s hall form a part of the record of sue claim. SEC. 24 . That when a claim has been 10 cated the holder shall immediately mark th I ine between post s numbered one and two 5 that it can be distinctly seen. The locato路 shall also place a post at the point where h has found minerals in place, on which shal be written "Discovery post". P 1路ovidtll That when the claim is s urveyed the sur veyor shall be guided by the records of th clai Ill, the sketch plan on the back of th declaration made by the owner when th! claim was recorded, posts numbered one an



and the notice on number one, initial

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SEC. 25. That it shall not be lawful to lve numbel' one post, but number two post ly be moved by the deputy mineral surVOl' when the distance between posts num·ed one and two exceeds one thousan d feet, order to place n umber two post one thould feet from number one post on the line location. When the distance between posts mbered one and two is less than one thould feet the deputy mineral surveyor shall I'e no authority to extend the claim beyond mbel' two. lEC. 26. That the Hlocation line" shall 'ern the direction of one side of the claim, m which the survey shall be extended acdin g to th is Act. lEC. 27. That the holder of a mineral illl shall be entitled to all minerals which y lie within his claim, but he sha ll not be itled to mine outside the boundary lines of claim continued vertically downward: Ivided. That this Act shall not prejudice rights of claim owners no r claim holders ose claims have been located under exng laws prior to t his Act. :EC. 28. That no minera l claim of the full ! shall be recorded without the applica1 being accompanied by an affidavit made the applicant or some person on his behalf nizant of the facts-that the legal notices posts have been put up; that mineral has n found in place on the claim proposed to recorded; that the ground applied for is ccupied by any other person. In the said laration shall be set out the name of the Iicant and the date of the location of the m. The words written on the number one number two posts shall be set out in full,


and as accurate a description as possible of the position of the claim given with referen ce to some natural object or permanent monuments. SEC. 29. That no mineral claim which at the date of its record is known by the locator to be less than a full-sized mineral claim shall be recorded without the word Ufraction" being added to the name of the claim, and the app lication being accompanied by an affidavit 01' solemn declaration made by the applicant or some person on his behalf cognizant of the facts: That the legal posts and notices have been put up; that mineral has been found in place on the fractional claim proposed to be recorded; that the ground applied for is unoccupied by any other person . In the said declaration shall be set out the name of the applicant and the date of the location of the claim. The words written on the posts numbered one and two shall be set out in full, and as accurate a description as possible of the position of the claim given. A sketch plan shall be drawn by the applicant on the back of the declaration , showing as near as may be the position of the adjoining mineral claims and the shape and size, expressed in feet, of the claim or fraction desired to be recorded: P 1·ovided, That the failure on the part of the locator of a mineraI claim to comply with any of the foregoing provisions of this section shall not be deemed to invalidate such location, if upon t he facts it shall appear that such locator has actually discovered mineral in place on sai d location, and that there has been on hi s part a bona, fide attempt to comply with the provisions of this Act, and that the . non-observance of t he formalities hereinbefore referred to is not of a character calculated to mislead other persons desiring to locate claims in the vicinity. SEC. 30. That in cases where, from the nature or shape of the ground, it is impossible to mark the location line of the claim as provided by this Act, then the claim may be marked by placing posts as nearly as possible to the location line, and noting the distance and direction such posts may be from such location line, which distance and direction shall be set out in the record of the claim. SEC. 31. That every person locating a mineral claim shall record the same with the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands



may be described as minIng recorder of t he di strict within which the same is s ituated, within thirty days after the location thereof. Such record shall be made in a book to be kept for the purpose in t he office of the sa id provincial secretary or s uch other office r as by said Government described a s mining recorder, in which shall be in serted the name of the claim l the name of eac h locator, the locality of the mine, the direction of the location line, t he length in feet, the date of location, and the date of the record. A claim wh ich shall not have been recorded within the prescribed period shall be deemed to have been abandoned. SEC. 32. That in case of any dispute a s to the location of a mineral claim the title to the claim shall he recognized according to t he priority of such location subject to any question as to the validity of the record itself and subject t o t he holder having complied with all the terms and conditions of this Act. SEC. 33. That no holder shall be entitled to hold in his, its, or their 0\\"11 name or in the name of any other person, corporation, or association mo r e t han one mineral claim on the s ame vein 01' lode. SEC. 34. That a holder may at any time aban don any mineral claim by giving notice, in writing, of such intention to abandon, to the provincial secreta ry or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder; and from the date of the record of such notice all his interest in s uch claim shall cease. SEC. 35. That proof of citizenship under the clauses of this Act relating to mineral lands may consist in toe case of an individual, of h is own affidavit thereof; in the case of an association of persons unincorpo rated, of the affidavit of t h eir auth orized agent made on his own knowledge or upon informat ion and belief; and in case of a corporation organized under the la ws of the United States, 01' of any State or Territory thereof, or of the Philippine I slands, by the filing of a certified copy of their charte r or certificate of incorporation . SEC. 36. That the United States Philippine Commission Ol' its successors may make regulations, not in conflict with the provision s of this Act, governing the location, manner of recording. and amount of work

necessary to hold possession of a mining cIai~ subject to the following requirements:

On each claim located after the passage 01 this Act, and until a patent has been issue4 therefor, not less than one hundl'ed dollan worth of labor shall be performed or impro\'ements made during each year: Provided, That upon a failure to comply with these conditions the claim or mine upon which such failure occul'l'ed shall be open to relocation ir the sa me manner as if no location of the sa had ever been made, provided that the ori inal locators, their heirs, assigns, or 1 representatives have not resumed work u the claim after failure and before such I tion. Upon the failure of anyone of seve coowners to contribute his proportion of expenditures required thereby, the coown who have performed the labor or made th improvements may, at the expiration of t year, give such delinquent coowner perso notice in writing, or notice by publication i the newspaper published nearest the clam and in two newspapers published at Manili one in the English language and the other i the Spanish language, to be designated by tb Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau ( Public Lands, for at least once a week f( ninety days, and if at the expiration of ninet days after s uch notice in writing or by pu' Ii cation such delinquent shall fail or refw to contribute his proportion of the expenditw required by this section his interest in tI claim shall become the property of his c owners who have made required expenditurE The period wtithin which the work requir路 to be done annually on all unpatented mi eral claims shall commence on the first ch of January succeeding the date of location such claims. SEC. 37. That a patent for any la" claimed and located for valuable mineral ( posits may be obtained in the following mB ner: Any person, association, or corporati authorized to locate a claim under this A havin'" claimed and located a piece of la fo r s;ch purposes, Who has or have campI: with t he terms of this Act, may file in t office of the provincial secretary, or Sl other officer as by the Government said I slands may be described as mining r order of the province wherein the II, claimed is located, an application for a pate


Ider oath, showing such compliance, togeer with a plat and field notes of the claim claims in common, made by or under the rection of the Chief of the Philippine InJar Bureau of Public Lands, showing acrately the boundaries of the claim, which all be di stinctly marked by monuments on e ground, and shall post a copy of such plat, gether with a notice of such application r a patent, in a conspicuous place on the land lbraced in such plat previous to the路 filling the application for a patent, and shall file affidavit of at least two persons that such bce has been duly posted, and shall file a py of the notice in such office, and shall ereupon be entitled to a patent for the land, the manner following: The provincial sectary, or such other officer as by the Philpine Government may be described as min;- recorder, upon the filing of such applicam, plat, field notes, notices, and affidavits, all publish a notice that such an applicaIn has been made, once a week for the peld of sixty days, in a newspaper to be by 11 designated as nearest to 'such claim and two newspapers published at Manila, one the English language and one in the SpanI langnage, to be designated by the Chief the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public nds; and he shall also post such notice in ; office for the same period. The claimt at the time of filing this application, or any time thereafter within the sixty days publication, shall file with the provincial oretary or such other officer as by the i1ippine Government may be described a,S ning recorder a certificate of the Chief of ~ Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands .it five hundl'ed dollars' worth of labor has ~n expended or improvements made upon ~ claim by himself or grantors; that the tt is correct, with such further description such reference to natural objects or perment monuments as shall identify the im, and furnish an accurate description to incorporated in the patent. At the expira~ n of the sixty days of publication the c1aim~ t shall file his affidavit, showing that the It and notice have been posted in a conspiJUs place on the claim during such period publication. If no adverse claim shall Ye been filed with the provincial secretary such other officer as by the Government said Islands may be described as mining


recorder at the expiration of the sixty days of publication, it shall be assumed that the applicant is entitled to a patent upon the payment to the pl'ovincial treasurer 01' the collectol' of internal revenue of five dollars per acre and that no adverse claim exists, and thereafter no objection from third parties to the issuance of a patent shall be heard, except it be shown that the apPlicant has failed to comply with the terms of this Act: Provided, That where the claimant for a patent is not a resident of or 路w ithin the province wherein the land containing the vein. ledge, 01' deposit sought to be patented is located, the application for patent and the affidavits required to be made in this section by the claimant for such patent may be made by his, her, or its authorized agent where said agent is conversant with the facts sought to be established by said affidavits. SEC. 38. That applicants for mineral patents, if residing beyond the limits of the province or military department wherein the claim is situated, may make the oath or affidavit required for proof of Citizenship before the clerk of any court of record, or before any notary public of any province of the Philippine I slands, or any other official in said Islands authorized by law to administer oaths. SEC. 39. That where an adverse claim is filed during the period of publication it shall be upon oath of the person or persons making the same, and shall show the nature, bound aries~ and extent of such adverse claim, and all proceedings, except the publication of notice and making- and filing of the affidavits thereof, shall be stayed until the controversy sha ll have been settled oJ' decided by a court of competent jurisdiction 01' the adverse claim waived. It shall be the duty of the adverse claimant, within thirty days after filing his claim, to commence proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction to determine the question of the right of possession, and prosecute the same with reasonable diligence to final judgment, and a failure so to do shall be a waiver of his adverse claim. After such judgment shall have been rendered the party entitled to the possession of the claim, or any portion thereof, may, without giving further notice, file a certified copy of the judgment roll with the provincial secretairy or such other officer as by the Government of the



Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder, together with the certificate of the Chief of the Philippine In sular Bureau of Public Lands that the requisite amount of labo r ha s been expended or improvements made thereon, and the desc ription required in other cases, and shall pay to the provincial treasurer or the collector of in ternal revenue of the province in which th e claim is s ituated, as the case may be, five dollars pel' acre for his claim, together with the proper fees, where upon the whole proceedings a'l ld the judgment roll shall be certified by the provincial sec retary Or such other officer a s by said Government may be desc ribed as milling recorder to the Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine I s lands, a nd a patent s hall issue thereon fo r the claim, 01' such portion th ereof as the applicant sh all appear, from the decision of the court, ri g htly to possess. The adverse claim may be verified by the oath of any duly author ized l agent or attorney in fact of the ad verse claimant cognizant of the facts stated; and the adverse claimant, if residing or at the tim e being beyond the limits of t he pl'ovince wherein the claim is s ituated, may make oath t o the adve rse claim before the clerk of any court of record, or any notary public of any province 01' military department of the Philippine I slands, or any other officer authorized to admini ste r oaths where the adverse claimant may then be. If it appears from the decision of the court that several parties are entitled to separate and diff.erent portion s of the claim, each party may pay f or his portion of the claim, with th e propel' fees, and file the certificate and descr iption by the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands, whereupon the provincial sec retary or s uch other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining l'ecorder sh all certify the proceedings and judgment 1'011 to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine Islands, a s in the preceding case, and patents shall issue to the several parties according to their respective rights. If in any action brought pursuant to this section, title to the ground in controversy sha ll not be established by either party, the court shall so find, and judgment shall be entered accordingly. In such case costs shall not be allowed to either party. and the claimant shall not proceed in the office of the provincial secretary or such

other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining recorder or be entitled to a patent for the ground in controversy until he shall have perfected his title. Nothing herein contained sh all be cons trued to prevent the alienation of a title conveyed by a patent for a mining claim to any person whatever. SEC. 40. That the description of mineral claims upon surveyed lands sha ll designate the location of the claim with l'eference to the lines of the public sUrveys, but need not conform therewith j but where a patent shall be issued for claims upon unsurveyed lands, the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands in extend ing the surveys shall adjust the same to the boundaries of such pat ented claim according to the plat or description thereof, but so as in no case to interfere with or change the location of any such patented claim. SEC. 41. That any person authorized to enter lands under this Act may enter and obtain patent to lands that are chiefly valuable for building' stone under the provisions of this Act relative to placer mineral claims. SEC. 42. That any person authorized to enter lands under this Act may enter and obtain patent to lands contain ing petroleum or other mineral oils and chiefly valuable therefo r under t he provisions of this Act relative to placel' mineral claims. SEC. 43. That 110 location of a placer claim shall exceed sixty-four hectares for any association of persons, irrespective of the number of persons composing such association, and no such location shall include more than eight hectares for an individual claimant. Such locations shall conform to the laws of the United States Philippine Commission, or its suc~essors, with reference to public surveys. and nothing in this section contained shall defeat or impair any bona fide ownershlp of land for agricultural purposes 01' authorize the sale of the improvements of any bona fide settler to any purcha~er. SEC. 44. That whE're placer claim3 are 10-cated upon surveyed lands and con~orm to legal subdivisions, no further surveyor plat shall be required, and all placer lIlining claims located after the date of passage of this Act shall conform as nearly as practicable to the Philippine system of publiC high land surveys and the regu lar subdivisions


)f such surveys; but ,.... here placer claims can lOt be conformed to legal subdivisions, sur-

iey and plat shall be made as on unsurveyed ands; and where by the segregation of min!ral lands in any legal subdivision a quantity of agricultural land less than sixteen hectares shall remain, such fractional portion of 19ricultural land may be entered by any party qualified by law for homestead purposes. SEC. 45. That where s~ch person or assoeiation, they and their gl'antors have held and ,,"ol'ked their claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the statute of limitations of the Philippine I slands, evidence of such possession and working of the claims for su(:h period shall be sufficient to establish a right to a patent thereto under this Act, in the absr.-nee of any adverse claim; but nothing in this Act shall be deemed to impair any lien which may have attached in any way what.ever prior to the issuance of a patent. SEC. 46. That the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands may appoint Cl)mpetent deputy mineral surveyors to survey mining claims. The expenses of the survey 路)f vein 01' lode claims and of the survey of ~Iacer claims, together with the cost of publication of notices, shall be paid by the appli~an ts, and they shall be at liberty to obtain the same at the most reasonable rates, and they shall also be at liberty to employ any such deputy mineral surveyor to make the ;llf\'ey. The Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands shall also have power to establish the maximum charges for surveys and publication of notices under this Act; and in case of excessive charges for publication he may designate any newspaper published in a province where mines are s ituated, or in Manila, for the publication of mining notices and fix the rates to be charged by such paper; and to the end that t he Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands may be fully info rmed on the subject such applicant shall 1i1e with the provincial secretary, or such <lthel' officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder, a sworn statement of all charges and fees paid by such applicant for publication and surveys, and of all fees and money paid the provincial treasurer or the collector <If internal revenue, as the case may be, which statement shall be transmitted, with the other


papers in the case, to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine Islands. SEC. 47. That all affidavits required to be made under this Act may be verified before any officer authorized to administer oaths within the province or military department where t he claims may be situated, and all testimony and proofs may be taken before any such officer, and, when duly certified by the officer taking the same, shall have the same force and effect as if taken before the proper provincial secretary 01' such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine I slands may be described as mining recorder. In cases of contest as to the Illineral or agricultural character of land the testimony and proofs may be taken as herein provided on personal notice of at least ten days to the oppos ing party; 01' if such party can not be found, then by publication at least once a week for th irty days in a newspaper to be designated by the provincial secretary or such other officer as by said Government may be described a s mining recorder published nearest to the location of such land and in two newspapers published in Manila, one in the English language and one in the Spanish language, to be designated by the Chief of the Philippine Insu lar Bureau of Public Lands; and the provincial sec retary 01' such other officer as by said Government may be described as mining recorder shall require proofs that such notice has been given. SEC. 48. That where non mineral land not contiguous to the vein or lode is used or occupied by the proprietor of such vein or lode for mining or milling purposes, such nonadjacent surface ground may be embraced and included in an application for a patent fol' such vein 01' lode, and the same may be patented therewith, subject to the same preliminary requirements as to survey and notice as are appli cable to veins or lodes; but no location of such nonadjacent land shall exceed two hectares, and payment for the same must be made at the same' rate as fixed by this Act for the superficies of the lode. The owner of a quartz mill or reduction works not o'Wl1ing a mine in connection therewith may also receive a patent for his mill site as provided in this section. SEC. 49. That as a condition of sale the Government of the Philippine Islands may provide rules for working, policing, and san-




jtation of mines, and l'ules concerning' easements, drainage, water rights, right of way. right of Government s urvey and inspection, and other necessary means to their complete deve lopm en t not incon sistent with the provision s of thi s A ct, and those conditions s hall be fully expressed in the patent. Th e Philippine Commission or its s uccessors are hereby furt her empowered to fix the bonds of deput y mineral surveyors. SEC. 50. That whenever by priority of p ossessi on rights to the use of water for mining, a g ri cultural, manufacturing, or other p urposes have vested and accrued and the same are recog niz ed and acknowl edg ed by the local customs, laws, and the decisions of courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and prot ected in th e same, and the right of way for the cons truction Of ditches and canals for the purposes herein specified is acknowledged and confirmed, but whenever any person, in the construction of any ditch or canal, injures or damages the possession of any settler on the public domain , the party committing such injury or damage shall be liable to the party injured for such injury or damage. SEC. 51. That all patents granted shall be s ubject to any vested and accrued water rights, or rig hts to ditches and reservoirs used in connection wit h such water rights as may have been a cquired under or recognized by the preceding section. SEC. 52. That the Government of the Philippine I slands is authorized to establish land districts and provide for the appointment of the necessary of ficers wherever they may deem the same necessary for the public convenience, and to further provide that in districts where land offices are established proceedings required by this Act to be had bef ore provincial officers shall be had before the prope r officers of such land offices. SEC. 53. That every person above the age of twenty-one years, who is a citizen of the United States, or of the Philippine Islands, or who has acquired the rights of a native of s aid I s lands under and by virtue of the treaty of Paris, or any association of persons severally qualified as above, shall, upon application to the proper provincial treasurer, have the right to enter any quality of vacant coal lands of said Islands not otherwise appropriated or reserved by competent authority,

not exceeding sixty-four hectares to such iI. dividual. person, or one hundred and twenty eight hectares to such association, upon pay ment to the provincial treasurer or the col lector of Internal Revenue, a s the case rna ' be of not less than twenty-five dollars pe' hectare for such lands, where the same . be situated more than fifteen miles from an completed railroad or available harbor navigable stream, and not less than fift dollars per hectare jor such lands as shall within fifteen miles of such road, harbor, stream: Provided, That such entries sh be taken in squares of sixteen or s ixty-fo hectares, in conformity with the rules an regulations governing the public-land su veys of the said Islands in plotting legal su divisions. SEC. 54. That any person or association persons, severally qualified as above provid who have opened and improved, or shall her after open and improve, any coal mine mines upon the public lands, and shall be actual possession of the same, shall be ent tled to a preference right of entry under ~ preceding section of the mines so opened a improved. SEC. 55. That all claims under the prece ing ' section must be presented to the prop provincial secretary within sixty days aft the date of actual possession and the co men cement of improvements on the land the filing of a declaratory statement ther for; and where the improvements shall ha been made prior to the expiration of thr months from the date of the passage of th Act, sixty days from the expiration of su three months shall be allowed for t he fili of a declaratory statement; and no sale u der the provisions of this Act shall be allow until the expiration of six months from t date of the passage of this Act. SEC. 56. That t he t hree preceding sectio shall be held to authorize only one entry the same person '01' association of person and no association of persons, any member which shall have taken the benefit of Sll sections, either as an individual or as a me bel' of any other association, shall enter hold any other lands under the provisio thereof; and no member of any associati which shall have taken the benefit of su section shall enter or hold any other Ian under their provisions; and all persons clai


ing under section fifty-eight shall be required to prove their respective rights and pay for the lands filed upon within one year from the time IJ1>escr ibed for filing their respective claims; and upon failure to file the proper notice or to pay for the land within the rered period, the sa me shall be subject to entry by any other qualified applicant. SEC. 57. That in case of conflicting claims upon coal lands where the improvements shall be commenced after the date of the passage of this Act, priority of possession and improvement, followed by proper filing and continued good faith, shall determine the preference right to purchase. And al so where improvements have already been made prior to the passage of this Act, divi sion of the land claimed may be made by legal subdivisions, which sha ll conform as nearly as practicable l':ith the subd ivis ions of land provided for in this Act, to include as near as may be the "aluable improvements of the respective parties. The Government of the Philippine Islands is authorized to issue all needful rules and regulations for carrying into effect the pl'ovisions of this and preceding sections relating to mineral lands . SEC, 58. That whenever it shall be made to appeal' to the secretary of any province or the commander of any military department in the Philippine Is lands that any lands within the province are sali ne in character, it shall be the duty of said provincial secretary or :ommander, under the regulations of the Government of the Philippine Islands, to take testimony in reference to such lands, to ascertain their t rue character, and to report the same to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine I s land s ; and if, upon such testimony, the Secretary of the Interior shall find that such lands are saline and incapable )f being pUl'chased under any of the laws relative to the public domain, then and in such :ase said lands shall be offered for sale at :he office of the provincia l secretary or such Jther officer as by the said Government may Je described as mining recorder of the provnee ot" department in which the same shall Je situated, as the case may be, under such ('egulations a s may be prescribed by said :;overnment and sold to the highest bidder, :01' cash, at a price of not less than three iollars per hectare; and in case such lands :ail to sell when so offered, then the same


s hall be su bject to private sale at such office, for cash, at a price not less than three dollars per hectare, in the same manner as other lands in the said Islands are sold. All executive proclamations relating to the sales of public sa line land s shall be publis hed in only two newspapers, one printed in the English language and one in th'e Spanish language, at Manila, which shall be designated by said Secretary of the Interior. SEC. 59. That no Act granting lands to provinces, districts, or municipalities to aid in the construction of roads, or for other public purposes, shall be so construed as to em brace mineral lands, which, in all cases, are reserved excl usively, unless otherwise specially provided in the Act or Acts making t he grant. SEC. 60. That nothing in this Act shall be construed to affect the rights of any person, partnership, or corporation having a valid, perfected min ing concession granted prior to April eleventh, e ighteen hundred and ninetynine, but all such concessions shall be conducted under the provisions of the law in force at the time they were granted, subject at all t imes to cancellation by reason of illegality in the procedure by which they were obtained , or for failure to comply with the conditions prescribed as requisite to their re .. tention in the laws under which they were granted: Provided, That the owner or owners of every such concess ion shall ca 11se the corners made by its boundaries to be distinctly marked with permanent monuments within six months after this Act has been promulgated in the Philippine I slands, and that any concessions the boundaries of 'which are not so marked within this period shall be free and open to explorations and purchase under the provisions of this Act. SEC. 61. That mmmg rights on public lands in the Philippine Islands shall, after the passage of this Act, be acquired only in accordance with its provisions. SEC. 62. That all proceedings for the cancellation of perfected Spanish concessions s hall be conducted in the courts of the Philippine Island s having jurisdiction of the subject-matter and of the parties, unless the United States Philippine Commission, or its successors, shall create special tribunals for the determination of such controversies.















SEC. 63. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby authori zed, su bject to the limitations and conditions prescribed in this Act, to acquire, receive, hold , maintai n, and convey title to rea l and personal property, an d may acquire real estate fo r pl.lbli c uses by t he exercise of the ri ght of eminent dom ain. SEC. 64. That the powers hereinbefore conferred in section sixty-three may also be exercised in respect of any land s, easpments. appurtenances, and hereditaments whirh, on the thirteenth of August, eighteen hundrC'd and ninety-eight, were owned or held by assoc iations, corporations, communities, religious orders, or pr ivate individuals in s uch large tracts or parcels and in s uch manner as in the opinion of the Commission in jurious ly to affect the peace and welfare of the people of the Philippine I slands. And for the pu!.路pose of providing funds to acquire the lands m en tioned in this section said Governm ent of the Philippine I slands is h ereby empowered to incur indebtedness, to borrow money, an d to issue, and to sell at not less th an par v:.tlue, in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value or the equivalent in value in money of said I slands, upon such terms and conditions as it may deem best, registered or coupon bonds of said Government for such amount as may be n ecessary, said bonds to be in denom inations of fifty dollars or any mu ltiple t h er eof, bearing interest at a Tate not exceeding fou r and a half per centum per annum, payable quarterly, and to be payable at the pleasure of said Government after dates named in said bonds not less than f ive nor more than thirty yea r s from the date of t heir issue, together with interest thel'eon, in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value or the equivalent in value in money of sa id I slan ds; and said bonds s hall be exempt from the payment of all taxes or duties of sai d Government, or any local authority therein, or of the Government of the United States, as well as from taxation in any form by or under State, munici pal, or local authority in the United States or the Philippine I slands. The moneys which may b e realized or

received from the issue and sale of said bond. shall be applied by the Government of the Phil ippine Islands to t he acquisition of the prop el'ty authorized by th is section, and to n other purposes. SEC. 65. That all lands acquired by virtu of the preceding section shall constitute c; part and portion of the public property 0 the Government of the Philippine I slands and may be held, sold, and conveyed, or lease temporarily for a period not exceeding th re years after their acquisition by said Govern ment on s uch terms and conditions a s it may prescribe, su bject to the limitations and con路 dit ions provided for in this Act : P'rov1'ded That all deferred payments and the interes thereon shan be payable in t he money pre scribed for the payment of principal and in terest of the bonds authorized to be issued i payment of said lands by the preceding sec tion and said deferred payments shall bea interest at the rate borne by the bonds. Al moneys realized or received from sales or: other disposition of s aid lands or by reaso thereof shall constitute a trust fund for th payment of principal and interest of said bonds, and also constitute a sinkin g fund fOl the payment of s aid bonds at their maturity Actual settlers and occupants at th e time said lands are acquired by the Govern ment shall have the preference over all others to lease, purchase, or acquire their holdings within such reasonable time as ma y be detel'mined by said Government. MUNICIPAL BONDS FOR PUBLICIMPROVEMENTS.

SEC. 66. That for the purpose of providing fund s to construct sewers, to furnish adequate sewer and drainage facil ities, to secure a sufficient supply of water, and to provide all kind s of mun icipal betterments and improvements in municipalities, the Government of the Philippine I slands, under such limitations, terms, and conditions as it may prescribe, with the consent and approval of the President and the Congress of the Un ited States, may permit any municipality of sa id Islands to incur indebtedness, borrow money, and to issue and sell (at not less than p ar value in gold coin of the United States) regi stered or coupon bonds in such amount and payable at s uch time as may be determined by the Gov-

THE AMERICAN ernment of said Islands, with interest thereon not to exceed five per centum pel' annum: Provided, That the entire indebtedness of any municipality under this section shall not exceed five per centum of the a ssessed valuation of the property in said municipality, and a ny obligation in excess of such limit shall be null and void. SEC. 67. That all municipal bonds shall be in denomination s of fifty dollars , or any mu ltip le thereof, bearing interest at a rate not exceeding five per centum pel' annum, payable quarterly, such bond s to be payable it the pleasure of the Government of the Philppine Islands, after dates named in said mnds not less than five nor more than hirty years from t he date of their issue, to~ether with the interest thereon, in gold coin )f the United States of the present standard If value, or its equivalent in value in money f the said I slands; and said bonds shall be xempt from the payment of all taxe s or duies of the Government of the Philippine Isands, or any local authority therein, or the ;overnment of the United States. SEC. 68. That all moneys which may be ealized or received from the issue and sale ( said bonds shall be utilized under author~ation of the Government of the Philippine slands in providing the municipal improvelents and betterment which induced the issue nd sale of said bonds, and for no other purose. SEC. 69. That the Government of the Phillpine I sland s shall, by the levy and collecon of taxes on the municipality, its inhaitants and their property, or by other means, lake adequate provision to meet the obligaon of the bonds of such municipality, and 1aU create a s inking fund sufficient to rete them and pay the interest thereon in ::COl'dance with the terms of issue: Prodecl, That if said bond s or any portion lereof shall be paid out of the iunds of the overnment of said i s lands, such municipaly shall reimburse said Government for the 1m thus paid, and said Government is here1 empowered t o collect said su m by the "Y and collection of taxes on such mu:ipality. SEC. 70. That for the purpose of providg funds to construct sewers in the city ~Ianila and to furnish it with an adequate Wer and drainage system and supply of



water the Government of the Philippine Islands, with the approval of the President of the United States first had, is hereby authorized to permit the city of Manila to incur ind ebtedness, to borrow money, and to issue and sell (at not less than par valu e in gold co in of the United States), upon such terms and conditions as it may deem best, registered or coupon bonds of the city of Manila to an amount not exceeding foul' million dollars, lawful money of t he United States, payable at such time or times as may be determined by sai d Government, ,vith interest thereon not to exceed five per centum per annum. SEC. 71. That said coupon or registered bonds shall be in denominations of fifty dollars or any multiple thereof, bearing interest at a rate not exceeding five per cen tum per annum, payable quarterly, such bonds to be payable at the pleasure of the Government of the Phil ippine Islands, after dates named in said bonds not less than five nor more than thirty years from the date of their iss ue, together with the interest thereon in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value, or the equivalent in value in money of the said I slands; and said bonds s hall be exempt from the payment of ~JI t axes or duties of the Government of the said I sla nd s, or of any local authority thel路ein. or of the Government of the United States. SEC. 72. That all moneys which may be realized or received from the issue and sale of said bonds shall be utilized under authorization of said Government of the Philippine Islands in providing a suitable sewer and drainage system and adequate supply of water for the city of Manila and for no other purpose. SEC. 73. That the Government of the Philippine I s land s shall. by the levy and collection of taxes on the city of Manila, its inhabitants and their property, or by other mean s, make adequate prov ision to meet the obligations of said bonds and shall create a sinking fund sufficient to retil路e them and pay the interest thereon in accordance 'with the terms of issue : Provided, That if sa id bonds or any portion thereof shall be paid out of the funds of the Government of sa id I slands, said city shall reimburse said Government fOl路 the sum thus paid, and sai d Government is hereby empowered to collect




said su m by the levy and collection of taxes on s aid city. FRANCH I SES.

SEC. 74. That t h e Government of the Philippine I slands may grant franchises, privileges, and concessions, including the authority to exercise the right of em inent domain for t he construction and operation of works of public utility and service, and may authorize sai d works to be constructed and maintained over and across the public property of the United States, including streets, highways, squares, and reservations, and over similar property of the Government of said I slands, and may adopt rules and regulations under which the provincia l and municipal governments of the Islands may grant the r ight to use and occupy such public property belongin g to sa id provinces or municipalities: Provided, That no pr ivate property shall b e ta ken fo r any purpose under this section without just compensation paid or tendered therefor, and that such authol'ity to take and occupy land s hall not authorize the taking, use Or occupation of any land pxcept s uch as is required fo r Uhe actual necE'ssary purposes for which the franchise is granted and that no franchise, privilege, or concession shall be gr anted to any corporation except under the conditions that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress of the United States, and that lands or rights of use and occupation of lands t hu s granted s hall t'evert t? the Governments by which they were respectively granted upon the termination of the fr an ch ises and concess ions under which they were granted or upon their revocation or repeal. That all franchises, privileges, or con cessions granted under this Act shall forbid the issue of stock or bonds except in exchange for actual cash, or for property at a fair valuation, equal to the par value of the stock or bonds so iss ued, shall forbid the declaring of stock or bond dividends, and in the case of pub lic-service corpor ations, shall provide for the effective regulation of the charges thereof, for the official inspection and regulation of the books and accounts of such corporations, and for the payment of a r easonable percentage of gross earnings into


the Treasury of the Philippine Islands or of the province or municipality within which s uch franchises are granted and exercised. P'rom'ded jwrthe'r, That it shall be unlawful for any corporation organized under this Act, or for any person, company, or corporation receiving any grant, franchise, or concession from the Government of said Islands, to use, employ, or contract for the labor of persons claimed or alleged to be held in involuntary servitude; and any person, company, or corpoal'tion so violating the provisions of this Act shall forfeit all charters, grants, franchises, and concess ions for doing business in said I slands, and in addition shall be deemed gu ilty of an offense, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten thousand dollars SEC. 75, That no corporation shall be authol'ized to conduct the business of buying and selling real estate or be permitted to hold or own real estate except such a s may be reasonably necessary to enable it to carry out the purposes for which it is created, and eve ry corporation authorized to engage in agriculture shall by its charter be restricted to the ownership and control of not to exceed one thousand and twenty-four hectR!l'es of land; and it shall be unlawful for any member of a corporation engagr.d in agriculture or mining and f or any corporation organized for any purpose except irrigation to be in any wise interested in any other corporation engaged in agriculture or in mining. Corporations, however, may loan funds upon real-estate security and purchase real estate when necessary for the coll~ction of loans, but they shall dispose of real estate so obtained within five year:; after receiving the title. Corporations not organized in the Philippine Islands, and doing business therei') shall be bound by the provisions of this section so far as they are applicable. COINAGE

SEC. 76, That the Government of t he Philippine I slands is hereby authorized to establish a mint at the city of Manila, in said I slands for coinage purposes, and the coins hereina'fter authorized may be coined at said mint. And the said Government is hereh! authorized to enact laws ne..:e5.!>81'Y for such.. establishment: PTovided, That the laWS


of the United States relating to mints and coinage, so far a s applicable, are hereby extended to the coinage of said Islands. SEC. 77. That the Government of the IPhilippine I s lands is authorized to coin, for use in said I slands, a coin of the denornination of fifty centavos and of the weight of one hundred and ninety-two and nine-tenths grains, a coin of the denomination of twenty centavos and of the weight of seventy-seven and sixteen one-hundredths grains, and a co in of t h e denomination of ten centavos and of the weight of thirty-eight and fifty-eight one-hundredths grains, and the standard of said silver coins shall be such that of one thousand parts by weight nine hundred shall be of pure metal and one hundred of alloy, and the alloy shall be of copper. SEC. 78. That the subsidiary silver coins authorized by the preceding section shall be coined under the authority of the Government of the Philippine Islands in such amounts as it may determine, with the approval of the Secretary of War of the United States, from silver bullion purchased by said Government, with the approval of the Secretary of War of the United States: Provided, That said Government may in addition and in its discretion recoin the Spanish-Filipino dollars and subsidiary silver coins iss ned under the authority of the Spanish Govel'l1ment for use in sai d Islands into the subsidiary coins provided for in the preceding sectiOn at such rate and under such regulations as it may prescribe. and the subsidia ry s ilver coins authorized by this section shall be legal tender in said Islands to the amount of ten dollars. SEC. 79. That the Government of the Philippine I slands is also authorized to issue minor coins of the denominations of one-half centavo. one centavo. and five centavos, and such minor coins sha ll be legal tender in said Islands for amounts not exceeding one dollar. The alloy of the five-centavo piece shall be of copper and nickel, to be composed of threefourths copper and one-fourth nickel. The alloy of the one-centavo and one-half-centavo pieces shall be ninety-five per centum of cop per and five per centum of t in and zinc, in such proportions as shall be determined by said Government. The weight of the fivecentavo piece shall be seventy- seven and sixteen-hundredths grains troy. and ..::...: the one-



centavo piece eighty grains troy. and of the (.ne-half-centavo piece forty grains troy SEC. 80. That for the purchase of metal for the subsidiary and minor coinage. authorized by the preceding sections, an appropriation may be made by the Government of the Philippine I slands from its current funds, which shall be reimbursed from the coinage under said sections; and the gain or seigniorage arising therefrom shall be paid into the Treasury of said Islands. SEC. 81. That the subsidiary and minor coinage hereinbefore autho'rized may be coined at the mint of the Government of the Philippine I slands at Manila, or arrangements may be made by the said Government with the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States for their coinage at any of the mints of the United States, at a charge covering the reasonable cost of the work. SEC. 82. That the subsidiary and minor coinage hereinbefore authorized shall bear devices and inscriptions to be prescribed by the Government of the Philippine I slands, and such devices and inscriptions shall express the sovereign ty of the United States, that it is a coin of the Philippine Islands, the denomination of the coin, and the year of the coinage. SEC. 83. That the Government of the Philippine Islands shall have the power to make all necessal'y appropriations and all proper regulations f01" the redemption and reissue of worn or defective coins and for carrying out all other provisions of this Act relating to coinage. SEC. 84. That the laws relating to entry. clearance, and manifests of steamsh ips and other vessels arriv ing from or going to foreign ports shall apply to voyages each way between the Philippine I slands and the United States and the possessions thereof, and all laws relating to the collection and protection of customs duties not inconsistent with the Act of Congress of March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, "temporarily to provide revenue fOI" the Philippine I slands," shall apply in the case of vessels and goods arriving from sai d Islanps in the United States and its aforesaid possessions. The laws relating to seamen on foreign voyages shall apply to seamen on vessels going from the United States and its possessions aforesaid t.o sa id hlands, the customs



officers there being fOl' this p urpose substituted for consular officers in foreign ports. The provisions of chapters six and seven, title forty-eight, Revised Statutes, so far as now in force, and any amendments t hereof, shall apply to vessels making voyages either way between ports of the United States 01' its aforesaid possessions and ports in said I slands; and the prov isions of law relating to the public health and quaran t ine sh all apply in the case of a ll vessels enteri ng a port of the United States or its aforesaid possessions from sa id Islands, where the customs officers at the port of departure shall perfonn the duties required by such law of consular officers in foreign ports. Section three thousand and five, Revi sed Statutes, as amended, and other existing laws concerning the transit of merchandise through the United States, shall apply to merchandise aniving at any port of the United States rlestined for any of its insular and continental possessions or destined from any of them to fo r eign countries. Nothing in this Act shall be held to repeal or alter any part of the Act of March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, aforesaid, or to apply to Guam, Tutuila, or Manua, except that section eight of an Act entitled "An Act to revise and amend the tariff laws of the Philippine Archipelago/' enacted by the Philippine Commission on the seventeenth of September, nineteen hundred and one, and approved by an Act entitled UAn Act temporarily to provide revenues for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, is hereby amended so as to authorize the Civil Governor thereof in his discretion to establish the equivalent rates of the money in circulation in said I slands with t he money of the United States as often as once in ten days. SEC. 85. That the Treasury of the Philippine I slands a nd such banking associations in said I slan ds with a paid-up capital of not less than two million dollars and chartered by the United Stat es or any State thereof as ma y be designated by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Treas ury of t he Un ited States shall be depositories of public money of the United States, subject to the provis ions of existing law governing such depositories in the United States: P"Ovided, That the Treasury of the Govern-


ment of sai d Islands shall not be required to deposit bonds in the Treasury of the United States, or to g ive other specific securities fot' the safekeepi ng of public money except as prescribed, in his discretion, by the Secretary of War. SEC. 86. That all Jaw s passed by the Government of the Philippine Island s sh all be reported to Congress, which hereby reserves the power an d authority to annul the same, and the Phi lippine Commission is hereby directed to make annual report of all its receipts and expen ditures to the Secretary of ¡War. BUREAU OF I NSULAR AFFAIRS .

SEC. 87. That the Division of Insu lar Affairs of the War Department, orga nized by the Secretary of War, is hereby contin ued until otherwise provided, and shall hereafter be known as the Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department. The business assigned to said Bureau shall embrace all matters pertaining to civil government in t he island possessions of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the War Department j and the Secretary of War is hereby auth orized to detail an officer of the Army whom he may cons ider especially we ll qualif ied, to a ct under the authority of the Secretary of War as the chief of said Bureau, and said officer while acting under said detail shall have the rank, pay, and allowances of a colonel. SEC. 88. That all Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed. ApPROVED, July 1, 1902.

The Philippine Assembly_-The Philippine Assembly was authorized by an act of Congress of the United States passed in 1902, empowering the President to establish a popular assembly in the Philippines two years after the publication .of a census. The census was taken in 1903, soon after the official declaration of the end of war, with General J. P. Sanger of the United States army as director of the census, assisted t'ly Henry Gannett, of the






ited States Geological Survey, and Victor Olmsted, of the Bureau of The report was published in 1905, in four volumes, both in Engish and Spanish, putting the population of the Philippines at 7,635,426 including the non-Christian tribes. On the 13th of July, 1907, the general election was held for members of the Philippine Assembly consisting of eighty districts, excluding the nonChristian provinces. Of the eighty members elected, the majority were in favor of ultimate independence. At first the members of the Assembly held office for two years, but their tenure of office was later extended to a period of four years. Since the passage of the Jones Law, however, the tena of office of the members of the

House of Representatives, which succeeded the Philippin e Assembly in 1916, was reduced to three years. The inauguration of the first Philippine Assembly took place in the Grand Opera House, on Rizal Avenue, Manila, on the sixteenth of October, 1907, with Secretary of War Taft, former Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, representing the President of the United States, as the Guest of Honor. Former Provincial Governor of Cebu, the Han. Sergio Osmefia, then only 29 years of age, was elected Speaker of said assembly. Speaker Osmefia has had the distinction of being the f irst presiding officer of the first convention of provincial governors held in Manila for the first time in the history of the Philippines on the



~~.-fo:~:<'~ ~.- {('.~~:;;" , \"~~~-",,t,t.:"







Dm'ing whose ad'minist'ration as Chief E,recutil'e of the, hnenc(Ln Nation the FililJino ~People we'l'e given nW1'e self-flollerlll1lU ]Jowers,




first of October, 1906, Hon. Winfred T. Denison , AUTHOR OF THE .JONES LAW Secretary of the Inand for fifteen years terior; (1907-1922) he ably Hon. Victorino Mapa, Semanaged the affairs cretary of Justice; of the Philippine AsHon. Rafael Palma, memsembly and t he House ber without portfolio; of Representatives. Hon. . Vicente Singsoll Prior to the inauEncarnacion) membelguration of the Phil,,~ ithout por tfolio; i ppine Assembly on Hon. Jaime C. de VeyOctober 16, 1907, t he ra, member without Commission was thE\ oOl'tfolio; and only law-making body Hon. Vicente . Ilustre, composed of f 0 u r member without portAmerican and t hree' fo lio. Filipino members. LatTh'e Jones Filipino memberSelf-governing powers ship was increased were given the Filipfrom .three to five. ThE1 â&#x20AC;˘ inos as soon as the Philippine Commission Hon . WILLIAM A. JONES American Congress in 1914, prior to t he was convinced of their enactment of the Jones experi ence and ability to handle their Law, was composed of t he following: own national affairs . The Jones Act, Governor-General Francis Burton Harris- Or the Act of Congress of August 29, on, President of. the Commission; 1916, r eorganizes the Government of the Vice-Governor H enderson S. Martin, SecPhilippine Islands, giving ample powretary of Public Instruct ion; ers to the Filipinos with a view to preHon. Clinton L. Riggs, Secretary of Comparing them for self-government. Said merce a n d Police; Act reads as follows:


Whe reas it was never the intention of the people of the United States in the incipiency of the wa1' with Spain to make it a w(tJr of conquest 01' 101' territorial aggrandizement; and

Whereas it is, a.s it has always been, the pU1-pose of the people 01 the United States to withdraw their sove1'eignty over the P hilippine I slands and to 'recognize their independence as soon as a st able


!1(H'ernment C(L'n be established the1"ein,' and Whereas for the speedy accomplishment of such; purpose it is de si?'wble to place in the hands of the people of the Philippines as large a control of their domestic affairs as can be given them withou t , in the meantime, impai?·ing the exercise of the ?'ights of sovereignty by the people of the United States, in order that, by the use and exe?'cise of popular f?·anchise (lfTld go'u ernmental powers, they may be the better prepan·ed to {u,Uy assume the responsibilities and e-njoy all the privilreges of complete independence: Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate (l.nd Hou se

f R epnsentatives of the United States of

1merica in Congress assembled : That the 1'O\'isions of this act and the name liThe !Philippines" as used in this act shall apply !to and include the Philippine IsI'ands ceded lo the United States government by the treaty of peace concluded between bhe United States and Spai n on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, the boundaries of which are set forth in article TIl of said treaty, together with those islands embraced }n the t r eaty between Spain and the United tates concluded at Washington on the seventh day of November, nineteen hundred. SEC. 2. That all inhabitants of the Philippine I slands who were Spanish su bjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in sai d is1ands, and their children born subsequent the reto, shall be deemed and held to be citi7;ens of the Phili ppine I sland s, except s uch as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crow n of Spain in accordance with the prov isions of t he b'eaty of peace between the United States and Spain, signed at P aris De«ember tenth, eighteen hundred and ninetyeight, and except such othel'S as have since hecome citizens of some other country; P?'o'idcd, Tha t the Philippine leg islature, he!J:ein provided fo t', is hereby authorized to provide lW law for the acqui sition of Philippine cit'~ensh ip by' those natives of t he Philippine I sands who do not come within the foregoing


provISions, the natives of the insular possessions of the United States, and such other persons residing in the Philippine I slands wh o are citizens of the United States, or who could become citizen s of the Un ited States under the laws of the United States if r esiding therein. SEC. 3. That no law shall be enacted in said islands which shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or deny to any person therein the equal protection of the laws. Private property s hall not be taken for public use without just compensation. Tha t in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a s peedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf. That no person sha ll be held to answer .for a cr iminal offense without due }H'ocess of law; and no person for the same offense shall be twice put in jeopardy of punish ment, nor shall be compelled in any crim inal cas€' to be a witness against himself, That all persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses. That no law imp airing the obligation of contracts shall be enacted . That no person shall be imprisoned for debt. That the pl'ivilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebe1iion, in surrection or invasion the public safety may require it, in either of which events the same may be suspended by the pres ident, or by the governor-general, wherever during such period the necessity for such sus pensi on shall exist. That no ex-post facto law 01' bill of attainder sha ll be enacted nor shall the la w of primogeniture ever be in force in the Ph ilippines. That no la w granting a title of nobility shall be enacted, and no person holding any office of profit or trust in said islands sha ll, without the consent of t he C'Ongress of the United States, accept any present, emolument,



office, or t itle of any kind wh atever from any king, queen, pr ince or fore ign State. T ha t excessive b ai l sh all not be r equ ired, nor excessive fi nes imposed, n or cruel a nd unusua l puni shment inf li cted. That the rig ht to be secu red against unreasonable searches a nd seizures shall not be violated. Th at slaver y sh all not exist in said islands ; nor sha ll involun tar y servitude exist therein except as a punishm ent for crime whereof the par ty sha ll h ave b een dul y convic ted. That no law shall be passed abridging the f reedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people pea ceably to assemble and petit ion t he government for r edress of grievances. Th at n o law sh all be ma de respecting an est ablish ment of r eligion or prohibiting th e free exercise t h er eof, a nd that the free exercise and en joyment of r elig ious profession and worsh ip, without di scrimination or preference, shall f or ever be al1 owed; and no religious test s hall be required f or the ex ercise of civil or pol it ica l rig hts. N o public money or propert y s hall ever be appropriated, applied, donated , or used, directly or indirectly, for the u se, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination , sectarian institution, or system of r elig ion, or for the use, benefit, or support of any priest, preacher, minister, or other r elig ious tea ch er or dignitary as such. Cont racting of polygamous or plural marriages h er eafter is pr ohibited. That no law shall be construed to permit polygamous or plural marriages. T hat n o m on ey s hall be paid out of the treasury except in pursuance of an appropr iat ion by law. That the rule of taxation in said islands sh a ll be uniform. That no bill whi ch may be enacted into law shall embrace more than one subject and that subject shall be expressed in the title of the bill. That no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized. That all money collected on any tax levied or a ssessed for a special purpose shall be treat ed a s a sp"ecial fund in the treasury and paid out for s u ch purpose only.

SEC. 4. That all expenses that may be incurred on account of the government of the Philippines for salaries of officials and the conduct of their offices and departments, and all expenses and obligations contracted for the internal improvement or development of th e is land s not , however, including defenses, barracks, and other works undertaken by the United States, shall, except as otherwise specifi ca lly provid ed by the congress, b e paid by the government of the Philippines. SEC. 5. That the statutory laws of the United States hereafter enacted shall not apply to the Philippine Islands except when they specifically so provided or it is so provided in thi s act. SEC. 6. That the laws now in force in the Philippines shall continue in force and effect, except a s altered, amended, or modified herein , un t il altered, amended. or repealed b:,>' the legislative authority herein provided or by act of Congress of the United States. SEC. 7. That the legislative authority herein provided shall have power, when not inconsistent with this act, by due enactment to amend, alter, modify, or repeal any law, civil or criminal, continued in force by this act as it may from time to time see fit. This power shall specifically extend with the limitation herein provided as to the tariff to all laws relating to revenue and taxation in effect in the Philippines. SEC. 8. That general legislative power, except as otherwise herein provided, is hereby granted to the Philippine legislature, authorized by this Act. SEC. 9. That all the property and rights which may have been acquired in the PhjJjppine Islands by the United States under the treaty of peace with Spain, signed December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, except such land or other property as has been or shall be designated by the president of the United States, for military and other reservations of the Government of the United States, and all lands which may have been subsequently acquired by the Government of the Philippine Islands by purchase under the provision s of sections sixty-three and sixty-four of the 路 Act of Congress approved July first nineteen hundred and two, except such as may have heretofore been sold and disposed of in accordance with the provisions of said


~\.('t ot' Congress, are hereby placed under the ("ontrol of the government of said islands to be administered or disposed of for the benefit of the inhabitants thereof, and the Philippine le({isiature shall have power to legislate with respect to all such matters as it may deem ad\"isable; but acts of the Philippine Legislature with reference to Jand of the public domain, timber and mining hereafter enacted, shall not have the force of law until approved by the President of the United States: Provided, That upon the approval of such an act by the Governor General, it shall be by him forth\'\;th transmitted to the President of the United States, and he shall approve or disapprove the same within six months from and after its enactment and submission for his approval, and if not disapproved within such time it shall become a law the same as if it had been specifically approved: Provided, further. That where lands in the Philippine Islands have been or may be reserved fo r any public purpose of the United States, and, being no longer required for the purpose for which reserved, have been or may be, by order of the President placed under the control of the government of said islands to be adminisbn'ed for the benefit of the inhab itants 'thereof, the order of the President shall be regarded as effectual to give the government of said islands full control and power to administer and dispose of such lands for the benefit of the inhabitants of sa id islands.

::lEC. 10.

That, while this Act provides that

~hilippine Govel'nment shall have the author-

ity to enact a tariff law, the trade relations bet\'.een the islands and the United States shall continue to be governed exclusively by aws of the Congress of the United States: Prot'idcd, That tarriff act or acts amendatory ~ the tariff of the Philippine I slands shall :lot become law until they receive the apJroval of the President of the United States, lor shall any act of the Philippine legisla:Ure affecting immigration or the currency ,r COinage laws of the Philippines become a aw until it has been approved by the Presdent of the United States: Provided further, l'hat the President she.ll approve or disap)rove any a ct mentioned in the foregoing -roviso w"ithin six months from and after its nactment and submission for his approval, nd if not disapproved within such time, it


shall become a law the same as if it had been specifically approved. SEC. 11. That no export duties shall be levied or collected on exports from the Philippine Islands, but taxes and assessments on property and license fees for franchises, and privileges, and internal taxes, direct or indirect, may be imposed for the purposes of the Philippine Government and the prOvincial and municipal governments thereof, respectively, as may be provided and defined by acts of the Philippine Legislature and, where necessary to anticipate taxes and revenues, bonds and other obligations may be issued by the Philippine Government or any provincial or municipal government therein, as may be provided by law and to protect the public credit: Provided, however, That the entire indebtedness of the Philippine Government c.reated by the路 authority conferred therein shall not exceed at anyone time the sum .,)f $15,000,000, exclusive of those obligations known as fl'ial' land bonds, nor that of any province or municipality a sum in excess of seven per centum of the aggregate tax valuation of its property at anyone time. SEC. 12. That general legislative powers in the Philippines except as herein otherwise provided, shall be vested in a legislature which shall consist of two houses, one the senate and the other the house of representatives, and the two houses shall be designated uThe Philippine Legislature:" Provided, That, until the Philippine Legislature as herein provided shall have beeJl ol'ganized, the existing Philippine Legislature shall have all legislative authority herein granted to the Government of the Philippine Islands, except such as may now be within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Philippine Commission, wh ich is so continued until the organization of the legislature herein provided for the Philippines. \Vhen the Philippine Legislature shall have been organized, the exclusive legislative jurisdiction and authority exercised by the Philippine Commission shall therafter be exercised by the Philippine Legislature. SEC. 13, That the members of the senate of the Philippines, except as herein provided, shall be ejected for terms of six and three years, as hereinafter provided, by the qualified electors of the Philippines. Each of the senatorial districts defined as hereinafter provided shall have the right to elect two senators. No per-



son shall be an elective member of the senate of the Philippines who is not a qualified elector and over thirty years of age, and who is not able to read and wl'ite ei th er the Spanish or English language, and who has not been a resident of the Ph illppines for at least two consecutive years and an actua l resident of the senatorial di strict from which chosen for a period of at least one year immediately prior to his election . SEC. 14. That the members of th e house of representatives s hall, except as herein provided, be elected triennially by the qualified elector s of t h e Ph ili ppines. Each of the r epresentative di stricts hereinafter provided for sha ll have the right to elect one representative. No person sha ll be an elective member of the house of representatives who is not a qualified elector and over twenty-five years of age, and who is not able (0 r ead and write either the Spanish or English language, and who has not been ' an actual resident of the di strict from which elected for at least one year immed iately prior to his election: Provided, That the members of the present assembly elected on the f irst Tuesday in June, 1916, shall be t he m embers of t he house of rep r esentativ es from th eir respective di stricts for the term expiri ng in 1919. SEC. 15, That at the first election held pursuant to this act, the qualified electors shall be those having the qualifications of voters unde r the present law; thereafter and until otherwise provided by the Philippine Legislature herein provided for the qualifica.t ions of voters fol' senators and repl'esentat ives in the Philippines and all officers elected by the people shall be as follows: Every male person who is not a citizen or s ubject of a foreign power.. twenty-one years of age or over (except insane and feebleminded persons and those conv icted in a court of competent jurisdiction of an infamous offense s ince t he thirteenth day of August, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight), who shall have been a resident of the Philippines for one year and of the municipality in which he shall offer to vote for six months next preceding the day of voting, and who is comprised within one of the following classes : (a) Those who under existing law are legal voters and have exercised the right of suffI路age.

(b) Those who own real property to the value of 500 pesos, or who annually pay 30 pesos or more of th e established taxes. (c) Th ose who are able to read and write either Spanish, English, or a native language. SEC. 16. That the Philippine I s lands shall be div ided into twelve senate di stricts, as follows : First district: Batanes, Cagayan, I s abela, Ilocos Norte, and Hocos Sur. Second district : La Union, Pangasinan, and Zambales_ Thi,"d dist)'ict: Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Bula can . F'ou?-th district: Bataan, Rizal, Manila and Laguna. Fifth d1'strict : Batangas, Mindoro, Taya路 bas, and Cavite. Sixth disi?"ict: Sorsogon, Albay, and Amb os Camal'ines. Seventh district: Iloilo and Capiz. E ighth dist"ict: Negros Occidental, Negros Orienta l, Ant ique, and Palawan. Ninth dist1'ict: Leyte and Samar. Tenth district: eebu. El eventh district : Surigao, Misamis and Bohol. Twelfth district: The Mountain Province, Baguio, Nueva Vizcaya, and the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. The representative districts shall be eightyone now provided by law, and three in the Mountain Provi nce, one in Nueva Vizcaya and five in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. The election under the provisions of this Act shall be held on the first Tuesday of October, nineteen hundred and sixteen, ~n颅 less the Governor-General in his discretion sh all fix another date not earlier than thirty nor later than s ixty days after the passage of this Act: P1'ovided, That the Governo rGeneral's proclamation shall be published at least thirty days prior to the date fixed for the election and there shall be chosen at such election one se nator from each senate distri~t for a term of three years and one for SIX yea rs, Thereafter one senator from eac~ d~s. trict sh all be elected from each senate dlstl'lct for a term of six years: Pr ovided, That the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands shall appoint, without the consent of the


senate and without restr iction as to residence, senators and representatives who will, in his opinion, best represent the senate district and those representative districts which may be included in the territory not n ow represented in the Philippine Assembly: P1·ovided !u1·ther, That thereafter elections shall be held on ly on :'>uch days and under such regulation s as to ballots, voting, and qualifications of electors as may be prescribed by the Phi!ippine Legislature, to which is hereby given authority to redistrict the Ph ilippine I slands, and modify, amend, or repeal any provision of this section, except such as refer to appointive senators and rep resentatives. SEC. 17. That t he terms of office of elective senators and representatives shall be six and three years, respectively, and shall begin on the date of their election. I n case of vacancy among the elective membel:s of the senate or in the house of representatives, special elections may be h eld in the districts wherein such vacancy occurred under such regulations as ma y be prescribed by law, but senators or representatives elected in such cases sha ll hold office on ly for the unexp ired portion of the term wherein the vaca ncy occurred. Senators and represen t atives appointed by t he GovernorGeneral sha ll hold office until removed by the Governor-General. SEC 18. That the senate and house of rep resentatives, respectively, shall be the sole 'udges of the elections, returns, and qualificaions of their elective lll em bers, and each house ay determi ne the rules of its proceedin gs, punish its members fo r disorderly behavior, lnd, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel ln elective member. Both hou ses shall con· ..ene at the capital on the sixteel"li& day of )ctober, next foHowin g the election and 01'~anize by the election of a speaker or a pretiding officer, a clerk, and a sergeant-at-arms ·'01' each house, and such other officers and asdstants as may be required. A majority of iach house shall constitute a quorum to do IUsin ess, but a smaller number lllay meet, adourn from day to day, and compel the attend,nee of absent members. The legislature shall old annual sessions, commencing on t he s ix· eenth day of October, or, if the sixteenth day :( October be a legal holiday, then on the first ay following which is not a legal holiday, in ach yea.r. The legislature may be called in pecial session at any time by the Governor-


General for general legislation, or fo r action on such specific subjects as he may designate. No spec ial session shall continue longer than thirty days, and no regular sess ion shan continue longer than one hundred days, exclusive of Sundays. The legislature is hereby given the power and authority to change t he date of the commencement of its annual sessions. The senators and representatives shall receive an annual compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the Philippine Islands. The senators and representatives shall in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sess ion of t heir l'espective houses and in going to and returnin g from same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questio·!l.ed in any other place. No senator or representative shall , during t he t ime for which he may have been elected, be eligible to any office the election to which is vested in the legislature, nor shall be appointed to any office of trust or profit which shall have been created or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term. SEC. 19 . That each house of the legislature shall keep a journal of its proceedings and, from time to time, publish the same and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question , shall upon demand of onefifth of those present, be entered on the journal and every bill and joint resolution, wh ich shall have passed both houses, sha ll , before it becomes a law, be presented to the GovernOl·-General. If he approves the sam e, he sha ll s ie-n it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections to t hat h ouse in which it shall have originated, which s hall enter the objections at large on its journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such r econsiderat ion, two-th irds of the members elected to t hat house sh all agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsiderd, and if approved by two-thirds of all t he members elected to that house it shall be sent to the Governor-Genera l, who, in case he shall then not approve, shall transmit the same to the President of the United States.





The Yote of each house shall be by the yeas at the termination of any fi~cal year the apand nays, and the nam es of the members vot- propriations necessary for the supoort of <rOY_ ing fol' and aga inst shall be entered on the ernment for the ensuing fiscal ye~r shall b not .journal. If the President of the United States have been made, the several sums appro~'l.Jlpro\路e the same, he sh all sign it and it priated in the last appropriation bills for shall become a law. If he sha ll not approve t he objects and purposes therein specified so same, he s hall return it to the Governor-Gen- far as the same may be done, shall be deemed to be reappropriated for the several objects eral. so stating, and it s hall not become a and purposes specified in said last approprial~nc Provided, That if any bill or joint resotion bill; and unti l the legislature shall act in lution shall not be returned b~r th e GovernorGeneral as herein provided within twen ty such behalf the treasurer shall, when so directed by the Governor-General, make the days (Sund a ys excepted) after it shall have been presented to him the same shall become payments, necessaTy fOT the purposes aforesaid. a Jaw in like manner SEC. 20. That at the as if he had signed it, first meeting of the unless t he legislature Philippine Legislature b~.. adjou rnment precreated by this Act and vent its return, in triennially thereafter, ...vh ich case it s hall bethere shall be chosen come a law unless vetoed by the Govby the legislature two el'llor-General within Resident Commissionthirty days after aders to the United State:; journment: P rovided who shal! hold their ful'ther, That the Presoffice fOT a term of ident of the United three years beginning States shall approve or with the fourth day of dis a pprove an act s ubMarch foIlo\ying their mitted t o him under election and who shall the provisions of this be entitled to an offi路 section ......' i t h i n s ix cial recognition as such months f r om and after by all departments its enactment and s ubupon presentation to mission for his apthe President of a cerproval; and if not approved within such tificate of election by time, it shall become a the Governor-General law the same as if it of said islands. Each had been spec ifically HON. MANUEL L. QUEZON of said Resident Com路 approved. The Gov- Resident Commissioner to the United States, missioners shall, in ernor-General s h a I I who brought the Jon es Law on hi s return addition to the salary have the power to veto to the Philippines and the sum in lieu of any particular item or items of an appropria- mileage now allowed by law, be allowed the same su m for stationery and for the pay of tion bilI, but the veto shaH not affect the item or items to which he does not object. necessary clerk hire as is now allowed to Th e ite m 01' item s objected to shall not take the members of the House of Representatives effect except in the manner heretofore pro- of the United States, to be paid out of the vided in this section as to bills and joint treasury of the United States, and the frank路 resolutions returned to the legislature with - ing priyiiege allowed by law to Members of out his app rova l. Congress. No person shall be eligible to All laws enacted by the Philippine Legiselection as Resident Commissioner who is latul"e shall be reported to the Congress of not a bona fide elector of said Islands and the United States, which hereby reserves the who does not owe allegiance to the United power and authority to annul the same. If States and who is not more than thirty yeaTS


of age and who does not read and write the English language. The present two Resident Commissioners shall hold office until the fourth of March, nineteen hundred and seventeen. In case of vacancy in the position of Resident Commissioner caused by resigna;ion or otherwise, the Governor-General may nake temporary appointments until the next neeting of the Philippine Legislature, which ;hall then fill such vacancy; but the Resident ~ommi ssio ner thus elected shall hold office mly for the unexpired portion of the term ,\'herein the vacancy occurred, SEC. 21. That the supreme executive power ihall be vested in an executive officer, whose Ifficial title shall be liThe Governor General If the Philippine Islands". He shall be apJointed by the President, by and with the adice and consent of the Senate of the United ,tates, and hold his office at the pleasure of he President and until his successor is choen and qualified. The Governor-General hall reside in the Philippine I slands during lis official incumbency, and maintain his ofice at the seat of the government. He shall, mless otherwise herein provided, appoint by .nd with the consent of the Philippine Senate, urh officers as may now be appointed by the ;overnor-General, or such as he is authorted by this act to appoint, or whom he may ereafter be authorized by law to appoint; ut appointments made while the senate is ot in session shall be effective either until lsapproval or until the next adjournment of be senate. He shall have general superision and control of all of the departments rid bureaus of the government in the Philipine Islands as far as is not inconsistent 'ith the provisions of this act, and shall be Jmmand el'-in-chief of all locally created rmed forces and militia. He is hereby ested with the excl usive power to grant ardons and reprieves and remit fines and )rieitul'es, and may veto any legis lation lacted as herein provided. He shall submit ithin ten days of the opening of each regar sessions of the Philippine Legislature a ldget of receipts and expenditures, which tall be the basis of the annual appropria hill. He shall commission all officers at he may be authorized to appoint, He all be respon s ible for the faithful execu)n of the laws of the Philippine I slands and the United States operative within the



Philippine Islands, and whenever it becomes necessary he may call upon the commanders of the military and naval forces of the United States in the islands, 01' summon th~ posse commitatus, or call out the militia or other 10ca1Jy created armed forces, to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion, insurrection, or rebellion; and he may, in case of rebellion 01' invasion or imminent danger thereof, when the public safety requires :t, suspend the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus, or place the islands, or any part thereof, under martial la,,,: P?'ovided, that whenever the Governor-General shall exercise this authority, he shall at once notify the President of the United States thereof, together with the attending facts and circumstances, and the President shall have power to modify or annul the action of the Governor-General. He shall annually and at such other times as he may be. required make such official report of the transactions of the Government of the Philippine Islands, to an executive department of the United States to be designated by the President, and his said annual report shall be transmitted to the Congress of the United States; and he shall perform such additional duties and functions as may in pursuance of law be delegated or assigned to rim by the President. SEC. 22, That, except as proyided otherwise in this Act, the executive departments of the Philippine Government sha11 continue as now authorized by law until otherwise provided by the Philippine Legislature. 'When the Philippine Legislature herein pl'ovided shall convene and organize, the Philippine Commission, as such, shall cease and the members thereof shall vacate their offices as membel'~ of said commiss ion: Prov-icled, That the heads of executive departments shall continue to exerc ise their executive functions until the heads of departmen ts pro"ided by the Philippine Legislature pursuant to the provisions of this Act are appointed and qualified, The Philippine Legislature may, thereafter by appropriate legislation, increase the number or abolish any of the executive departments, or make such changes in the names and duties thereof as it may see fit, and shall provide for the appointment



and removal of t he heads of the executive departments by the Governolo-Genel'al: Provided, That all executive f uncti ons of the Government must be directly under the GovernorGener al or w ithin one of t he executive departments under the superv ision and cont.rol of the Governor- General. There is hereby estab lished a bureR u, to be known as the Bu _ reau of Non-Ch ris tian Tribes, which said bureau shall be embraced in one of the executive departments to be designated by the GovernorGeneral, and s hall have general s upervision over the public affai r s of the inhabitants of the territory represented in t h e legislature by appointive senators and representatives. SEC. 23 . That there shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, a vice-governor of the Philippine I slands, who shall have all of the powers of the GovernorGeneral, in the case of a vacancy or tem pOTary removal, resignation, or d isability of the Governor-General, or in case of his temporary ab_ sence; and the said vice-governor s hall be t..~e head of tne exec,utive department, known as the department of public instruct ion, which shall include t h e t.ureau of education and the bureau of h ealth, and he may be asslg!'ec. such other exeCUl;;ve duties as t.he Governol'Genpl'al may deSl6"nate. Other bureaus nuw included 1TI the depa rtment of public instruction sha ll, until othel'wise provided by the P hilippine Legislature, be incl uded in t he department of the interior. The Presidf'nt may designate the head of an executive departmen t of the Philippin~ government to act a s Governor-General in the case of a vacancy, the temporary removal, res ignation or disab ility of the Governor-General and the vice-governor 01' t h eir temporary absence, and the head of the department thus des ignated sha ll exercise all the powers and perform all the riuties of the Governor_Gcmera} during such vacancy, disability or absence. SEC. 24, That there shall be appoint,ed by the President an auditor, who shall examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts from whatever sou rce of t he Philippine Government and of the provincial and municipal government3 of

the Philippines, i:.:.cluding trust funds, and funds derived from bond issues; and audit, in accordance with law and administrative regulation s, all expe'nditures of funds or prop. erty pertaining to or held in trust by the g ov ernment of the provinces or municipalities thereof. He shall perfonn a like duty with respect to all government branches. He shall keep the general accounts of the government and preserve the vouchers pertaining thereto.

It shall be the duty of the auditor to bring to the attention of the proper administrative office expenditures of funds or property which , in his opini on, ar e irregular, unnecessary, excessive, or extravagant. There shall be a deputy auditor appointed in the same manner as the auditor. The de· puty auditor s hall sign such official paper~ as the auditor may designate and perform such other duties as the auditor may pre. scribe, and in case of the death , resignation, sickness, or other absence of ' the auditor from his office, from any cause, the deputy auditor shall have charge of such office. In case of the abse,nce from duty, from any cause, of both the auditor and the deputy auditor, the Governor-General may designate an assistant, who shall have charge of th e office, The administrative jurisdiction of the auditor over accounts, whether of funds or prop· erty, and all vouchers and records pertahling thereto, shall be exclusive, With the ap· pl'oval of the Governor-General he shall from time to time make and promulgate general or special rules and regulations not inconsistent with law covering the method of accounting for public funds and property, and funds and property held in trust by the government o,r any of its branches: Pro~ided, That anr offJ~ I cer accountable for pubhc funds or pl'operty i may J'equire such additional reports or l'eturn~ i from his subordinates or ot~e}'s as ~e ma~ ~ deem necessary for his own mfonnatIon anc protection. The decisions of the auditor shall be fina' and conclusive upon the executive branches oj the government, except that appeal therefrorr may be taken by the party aggrieved or th€ j head of the department concerned within.on€ year, in the manner hereinafter prescl'lbed


The auditor shall, except as hereinafter pro\'itled, have like authority as that conferred bv law upon the several auditOl's of the UnitStates a.1d the Comptroller of the United States 'freai;ul'y and is authorized to communicate directly with any person having claims before him for settlement, 01' with any depal'tment, officer, 01' person having official relations with his office. As soon after the close of each fiscal year' 1S the accounts of said year may be examined and adjusted the auditor shall submit to the Governor-General ana the Secretary of "ar an annual repol't of the fiscal concerns of the government showing the receipts and disbUl'sements of the various departments and bureaus of the government and of the various o)'ovinces and municip::tlities and make ,!;uch Jther reports as may be required of him by the Govel'nol'-Genel'al or the Secl'etal'Y of \\"ar, In the execution of their duties the auditor lOd the deputy auditor are authorized to >UlTImon witnesses, administer oaths, and to take evidence, and, in the pursuance of these (l1'ovisions, may issue subpoenas and enforce the attendance of witnesses, as now provided '}'f law. The office of the auditor shall be under the reneral supervision of the Governor-General md shall consist of the auditor and deputy luditor and such necessary' assistants as may ~ prescribed by law. SEC, 25. That any person aggrieved by he action or decision of the auditor in the .ettlement of his account or claim may, within me year, take an appeal in writing to the ;o"ernor-Genel'al, which appeal shall speciciqlly set forth the particular action of thl' ,uditor to which exception is taken, with the eaSOll and authorities relied on for reversing uch decision, If the Governor_General shall confirm the :otion of the auditor, he shall so indorse the ppeal and transmit it to the auditor, and 1e action shall thereupon be final and conusive. Should the Governor-General fail to lstain the action of the auditor, he sha11 lrthwit.h transmit his grounds of disapproval I the Secretary of \far, together with the 'peal and the papers necessary to a proper



understanding of the matter, The decision of the Secretary of \\'ar in such case shall be final and conclusive. SEC. 26. That the supreme court and the courts of first instance of the Philippine Islands shall possess and exercise jurisdiction as heretofore provided and such additional jurisdiction as shall hereafter be prescribed by' law, Tlie municipal courts of said islands shall possess and exercise jurisdiction as now provided by law, subject in all matters to such alteration and amendment as may be hereafter enacted by law; and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court shall hereafter be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States. The judges of the courts of first instance shall be appointed by the Governor-General, by and with the advice and consent of the Philippine Senate: Provided, That the admiralty' jurisdiction of the supreme court and courts of first instance shall not be changed except by Act of Congress, That in all cases pending under the operation of existing laws, both criminal and civil, the jurisdiction shall continue until final judgment and determination. SEC. 27, That the Supreme Court of the United States shall have jursidiction to review, revise, reverse, modify, or affilm the final jud,e-ments and decrees of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in all actions. cases) causes, and proceedings now pending therein or hel'efater determined thereby in which the Constitution or any statute, treaty, title, right, or privilege of the United States is involved, or in causes in which the value in controversy exceeds $25,000, or in which the title or possession of real estate exceeding in value the SUIll of $25,000 to be ascertained by the oath of either party or of other competent witnesses, is involved or brought in question; and such final judgments or decrees may and can be reviewed, revised, reversed, modified, 01' affirmed by said Supreme Court of the United States on appeal or writ of enol' by the party aggrieved within the same time, in the same manner, under the same regulations, a'n d by the same procedure as fat' applicable as the final judgments and decrees of tfie district courts of the United States,



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SEC. 28. That the government of the Phil_ ippine Islands may grant franchises and rights, including the authority to exercise the right of eminent domain, for the construction and operation of works of public utility an j :.ervice, and may authorize said works to be constructed and maintained over and across t he public property of the United States, iuc1uding streets, highways. squares, and resenoations, and over similar property of the govelnment a! said islands, and may adopt rules and regulations under which the provincial and municipal governments of the islands may grant the right to use and occupy such public property belonging to said provinces or municipalities: Provided, That no private property shall be damaged aT taken for any purpose under this section without just compensation, and that such authority to take and occupy land shall not authorize the taking, use, or occupation of any land except such as is required for the actual necessary purpos€'s for which the franchise is granted, and th3.t no franchise or right shall be granted to ar.y indi\idual, firm, or corporation except under the conditions that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congr"ess nf the United States, and that lands or right of use and occupation of lands thus granted sha 1J revert to the governments by which they· were respectively granted upon the termination of the franchises and rights under which they were granted or upon their revocation or repeal. That all franchises or rights granted under this Act shal1 forbid the issue of stock or bonds except in exchange for actual cash or for property at a fair valuation equal to the par value of t he stock or bonds so issued; shall forbid the declaring of stock ot" bond dividends, and, in the Case of public service corporations, sha!I provide for the effective regulation of the charges thereof, for the official inspection and regulation of the books and accounts of such corporations, and for the payment of a reasonable percentage of gross earnings into the treasury of the Philippine Islands or of the province or municipality within which such franchises are granted and exercised: PrQl'icleri flu·tller.. That it shall be un!awful for any corporation organized und~r this Act, or for any person, company or


corporation receiving any grant, franchise, or concession from the government of said islands, to use, employ. or contract for the labor of persons held in involuntary servitude; and any person, company, or corporation so violating the provisions of this Act shall forfeit all charters, grants, or franchises for doing business in said islands, in an action or proceeding brought for that pur_ pose in any court of competent jurisdiction by any officer of the Philippine Government, or on the complaint 01 any citizen of the Philippines, under such regulations and rules as the Philippine Legislature shall prescribe, and in addition shall be deemed g uilty of an offense, and shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000. SEC. 29. That, except as in this Act otherwise provided, the salaries of all the officials of the Philippines not appointed by the President, including deputies, ass istants, and other employ·ees, shall be such and be so paid out of the revenues of t he Philippines as shall fl'om t ime to t ime be determined by the Philippine Legislature, and if the Legislaturp shall fail to make an appropriation for such salal'ies, the salaries so fixed s hall be paid without t he necessity of fUlther appropriations therefor. The salaries of all officers and all expenses of the offices of the various officials of the Philippines appointed as herein provided by the President shall also be paid out of the revenues of t he Philippines. The annual salaries of the f ollowing-named officials appointed by the President and so to be paid shall be: The Governor-General, $18,000; in addition thereto he shall be entitled to the occupancy of the buildings heretofore used by the chief executive of the Philippines, with the furniture and effects therein, free of rental; Vice-Governor, $10,000; chief justice of the Supreme Court, $8,000; associate justices of the supreme court, $7,500 each; auditor, $6,000; deputy auditor $3,000. SEC. 30. That the provisions of the foregoing section shall not apply to provincial, and municipal officials; their salaries and the cOl!1pens&tion of their deputies, assistants, and other help, as well as all other expenses incurred by the provinces and municipalities, shall be paid out of the provincial and municipal revenues in such manner as the Phil-



ippine Legislature s hall provi de. SEC. 31. That all laws or parts of laws a pplicable to the Philippines not in con flict wi th any of the pl'ovisions of thi s Act a r e her eby continued in force and effect.

ApP"ov ed, Augus t 29, 1916.

The P rogr ess of t he P hilippines.Since the Ameri can occupation of th e Phi lippines in 1898 man y great things have been accomplished t h ro ugh()ut the archipelago. Among those t hat merit speci al mention ar e t he establi shment of public schools and a st at e univer sity" t he buildin g of several bridges and thousands of mi les of good r oads through out the provinces, t he construction of harbor works and Pier 7, t he extension of l'ailways t hrough rich! agricultural land s, the introduction of irrigation system, the adopt ion of mod -

ern machineries for sugar refining, hemp stripping, etc., the construction of many government buildings such as the Legislative Building, Post -Office Building, provincial capitols and concret e school houses, the establishment of a postal savings bank and of the Ph ilippine National Bank, ann many 路other good t hings such a s those enumerated by the governors -general in t heir inaugural addresses. The Governors-General and their InaugUtal Addresses.-From William H. Taft to Frank Murphy there had been eleven American governors-general who ser ved in the Philippines ~rom 1901 tu 1935. Their names, photographs, terms .of office, and ina ugural addresses are given in their chronological oTder, as f ollows :


WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT Firs t Ame rican Civil G<Wernor of the Philippines Inau.gurated July 4, 1901 M.y



This ceremon y m a rks a new step tow aI'd ciyil government in t h e Ph il ippine I s lands. T he ul t imate and most im portan t step, of course, w ill be taken by t he Congress of the Un ited States, but vtith t h e consen t of th e Congress the President is seeki ng to m ake t h e I slands l'eady for its a ction. H owevel' provision al the cha nge ma de tod ay, th e P resident by f ixing th e natal day of th e Republi c a s its date ha s manifested h is view of its im portance an d hi s h ope t hat t h e day s o deal' t o Americans may p er haps be a lso associated in

t he minds of t he Filipino people with good fortune. The transfer to the Commission of t he leg islative power and cel'tain executive I, funct ions in civil af路 f airs under the milit路 ary g overnment on September first of last year, and now the tran sfer of civil execUt ive power in the pa路 . cified provin ces to a I civil g overnol", are SUC' cessive stages in a clearl y f ormulated plan I for making the terri- I t ory of th ese Islands r ipe fo r permanent civil g overnment on a mor e OJ" less popula r bas is. As a furth er s tep in the same direction, on September firs t next, at t he beginnin g of th e Commission's



~._ ('und Ieg-islative year, there will be added as members to that body by appointment of the rresident, Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, :-:eiior Don Beni to Legarda and Sefior Don Jose Luzuriaga. The in trod uction into the legislature of representative Filipinos, educated and able, will materi ally assist the ComOlj~sjon in its wOl'k by their intimate know]路 路.jy.e of the people and of local prejudices a nd :'Jnditions. On September first, also, the exe~uti\'e branch of the in sul ar government will :>e rendered more effici en t by the establishnent of four executive departments. The re ,dll be a department of t he interior, of which :ommissioner Dean C. Worcester w ill be head; 1 departmen t of commerce and police, of .rhich Commissioner Luke E. Wright wi ll be he head; a department of justice and finance, )f which Commissioner Henry C. I de -will be he head, and a department of public instrucinn, of which Commissioner Bernard Moses I"ill be the head. The foregoing announccnpnts are mad e by direction or th e Secr etary If \"ar. Since the above was written, in confirmation f the statement of the Pres id ent's purposes. -ith respect to the people of these I slands. r aYe this morning received the following teL gram from the Pres ident of the United 'tates :

"Washington July, 3-3 :45 p. m. TAFT, Manila. Upon t he assumption of your new dut ies as civil governQl' of the Philippine Islands I have great pleasure in send_ ing con gratulations to y"Ou and your associate commissioners and my thanks for t he good work already accomplished. I exten d to you my full confid ence and best wishes for stilI greater success in the larger responsibilities now devolved upon you and the assurance not only for myself but for my cou;ltrymen of good wi1l for the people of the Is]an d~! and th e hope that their participation in the government wh ich it is our purpose to develop among them, ma y lead to t heir highest advancem ent, ha pp iness, and prosperity. WILLIAM McKI NLEY." The e.xtent of the work which the Commis-

ADl\ll:"! I STRATlO N


s ion has done in civil gO\'ernments town s and provinces is considerable, but its scope and effect may' easily be e..xaggerated by those not fully acquainted with t he situation. Twenty-seven provinces have been organized under the general provincial act; bu t it has not been possible to fill the important office of supervisol' jn eight or nine of th em becau se a supervisor must be a ci\ il engineer. \Ve have sent to America for competent persons, whose arrival we look for this month. As the supervisor is pne of the three members of the governing provincial board, his absence necessarily cripples the administration. Of the 27 provinces organized, fonl', possibly five and smalI parts of two others in which armed insurrection continues. will remain undel' the executive jurisdi~tion of the military governor and commanding general. Th ere are 16 provinces or districts in which there is entire freedom from insul'l'ectio!1 which t he Commiss ion has not had time to 0)'_ ganize. Of t he unorganized provinces and districts including Mindoro and Paragua, the latter just occupied by the army, there are four that are not ready for civil government. I n the organized provinces nearly all the towns have been organized under the municipal code; and some towns have been similarly organized in unorganized provinces. I t was 110t supposed that either the municipal code or the provincial government act would fotID perfect gov~ ernments, though it was possible to make the former much more complete than the latte!', f or here had b een two experiments in mun icinal governments under the administration of General Otis and General Mac-Arthur befol'e the a ct was tentative. The result of the southern trip of the Commi ssion was a amendment and there will doubtless be others. Governmen t is a practical, not a theoretical, problem; and th e successful application of a new system to a people like this must be brought about by observing closely the opera ~ tion of simple laws and making changes or additions as experience shows their necessity. The ena ctment of the law in its first form and appointments under it are but one of sevel'al steps in a successful organIzation. The conditions under which the municipal and provincial governments of t h e I slands are to have t h eir fi rst real test are trying. The jll


four year!!' war has pauperized many, and its indirect effect in destroying the habits of industry of those who have been prevented from working in the fields, or who have been leading the irresponsible life of guerrillas is even more disastrous. Not only war, but a lso t he dea th f rom disea se of a Jru'ge pl'ecen tage of the cal'abaos which are indis pensab] e t o t he cultivation of rice and are greatly needed in all agricul t ure ha s lal'gel:{ reduced th e acreage of rice and other staple products. llhen the pest of locusts ha s been very' severe. In one province, and perhaps more, gaunt fam ine may have t o be reckoned with. Poverty and suffering in a country where ladronism has always existed are sure to make ladrones. 'With the change made t o-day, the civil governments must prepare to stand alone and not depend on the army to police the provinces a nd towns. The concentration of the army in larger garrisons where, in cases of emergency only, they can be called on to assist t he local police may be expected, but the people must be enabled by' organization of native police under proper and reliable commanders to defend themselves against the turbulent and vicious of their own communities. Th e withdrawal of the army, the discharge of quasi civil duties of police will be accompanied also by the ceasing of the jurisdiction of military commissions to try ordinary criminal cases. They ha ve been most useful in puni&hing and repTessing crime. 'rVe have enacted a judiciary law and appointed judges under it who w ill succeed to this work. But the a doptio1). of a new civil code of procedure, a new criminal code and code of procedure, all of which are ready, may be delayed somewhd by t he needed public discussion of them. Until they are aU adopted, we shall not feel that t he chief s tep has been taken to'w ard securing the blessings of civil liberty to the people of the pacified provinces, the protection of life, liberty and property. The difficulties of official communication between provinces on the sea and between towns of the same province- similarly si tuated mu st be met by a pl'opel'ly organized fleet of small steamers or launches which shall , at th e sam e tim e, assist in tIl e revenue or post-

al service. Provincial govelnments, in many cases witkout such means of communicating with their numerous towns, are greatly im路 peded in their functions. Congress, in its wisdom, has delayed until its next session provision for the sale of public lands, of mining rights and the granting of franchises. All are necessary to give the country the benefit of American and foreign enterprise and the opportunity of lucrative labor to the people. Commercial railroads, street railroads, mortgage-loan companies or loan banks and steamship companies only await Government sanction to spring into being. These may remedy the poverty and suffering that a patient people have now to bear. The school system is hardly begun as an organized machine. One thousand American teachers will arrive in the next three montru. They must not only' teach English in the schools, but they must teach the Filipillo teachers. Schoolhouses are yet to be built; Our schoolrooms are yet to be equipped. most satisfactory ground for hope of success in our whole work is in the eagerness with which the Philippine .people even the humblest, seek for education. Then there is another kind of education of adults to which we look with confidence. It is tha t which comes from observation of the methods by which Americans in office discharge their duties. Up'on Americans who ac路 cept office under the civil govel'nment is im路 posed the responsibility of reaching the highest American standard of official duty. Whenever an American fails; \vhenever he allows himself to use his official position for private ends, even though it does not involve actual defalcation or the stealing of public property or money, he is recreant to his trust in a far higher degree than he would be were he to commit t he same offense in a similar office at home. Here he is the representative of the great Republic among a people untutored in the methods of free and honest government, and in so far as he fails in his duty', he vindicates the objection of those who have forcibly resisted OU1" tak ing control of these Islands and weakens the claim we make that we are here to secure good government for the Philippines.


The operation of the civil-service Act and the rules adopted for its enfol'cement have been the subject of some criticism; but I 'think that when they are fully understood, and when the Filipino, in seeking a position in executive offices where English is the only anguage spoken, fits himself, as he will with lis aptness for learning languages, in English, 1e will have nothing to complain of either in he justice of the examination and its markng or in the equality of salaries between him md Americans doing the same work. The :ivil-service Act is the bulwark of honesty md efficiency in the government. It avoids he most marked evil of American politics, the Ipoils system. Without it success in solving IUr problems would be entirely impossible. ;ornplaints of its severity and its unfortunate lperation in individual instances may give ,lausibility to attack upon it, but those who ire responsible for appointments can not be llinded to the fact that its preservation is ibsolutely essential to the welfare of these slands. If I have understood the decision of the ';upreme Court in t he recent so-called Porto ~ico cases, t he question of what duties shall Ie levied on imports into these Islands from he United States is committed to the discreion of Congress. '\Vithout assuming to ex_ Iress an opin ion on the much mooted issue of onstitutional law involved, r ventured to say hat the result is m ost beneficial to the people f these Islands. It seems to me that a deision that the same tariff was in force in hese Islands as in the United States and lust always be so, would have been detrirnent:J to the interests of t he islands. They ar.;} ,000 mi les from the coast of the United tates. The conditions prevailing in them 路l"e as different as possible from those in the rnited States. The application to them of high protective tariff carefully prepared to leet trade and the manufacturing condions in the United States would have ~ en a great hardsh ip. It is true that to Jgar and tobacco planters would have ~en opened a fine market, but it would have reatly reduced all trade between the Phil路pines and Chi na and other oriental countries ld all Eu r opean coun tries, and it would have


necessitated a heavy internal tax to pay the expenses of the central government. Now the people may reasonably entertain the hope that Congress will give them a tariff here suited to the best development of business in the Islands, and may infer from the liberal treatment accorded in its legislation to Porto Rican products impoded into the United States that Philippine products will have eqllally favol'able consideration, The finances of the insular government are at present in a satisfactory路 condition, though changes in laws made or about to be made may affect them considerably. There is now in the insular treasury a sum of money exceeding $3,700,000 in gold unappropriated. The engineers in the Manila harbor work have been authorized to make contracts involving a liability of $2,000,000 beyond the $1,000,000 already appropriated but this is the only liability of the government and it will not accrue for two years at least. The insular income, which is now about $10,000,000 gold, a year, is likely' to be reduced more than $1,000,000 by the provision of the provincial act which applies the proceeds of the internalrevenue taxes to the support of the provincial governments, Moreover, a new customs tariff is soon to be put in force, the immediate result of 'w hich may be to reduce the total amount of duties collected. It reduces the import tax on necessities and increases it on luxuries and roughly approximates, as nearly as a tariff of specific duties can to a purely revenue tariff of 25 per cent ad valorem. In addition to this, the cost of the illsular government is bound to increa5e as the establishment of peace and clvil government is extended through the Archipelago and the skeleton bureaus and departm ents now recognized in the law are enlarged and given a normal usefulness. Still the increase of business due to returning peace and pl'osperity will doubtless keep pace with the needs of the government. The conduct of t he civil and military branches of a mi litary government under in_ dependent hands is necessarily a delicate matter, It depends, as the President in his instructions says, upon the fullest cooperation between the military and the civil arms, and



I am glad to be ab le to s ay that I believe that there will be the same cooperation in the future as there has been in the past; that the possible friction which may arise between the subordinates of the respective arms will have no encoul'agements from those in 'whom is the ultimate responsibility. Th el'e is work enough and to spare for all who are concexned in the regeneration of these Islands. The burden of t he responsibility which, by taking the oath this day administered to me, r assume, I shall not dwell upon, except ~o say that no one, I think, realizes it morc keenly than I do. \"\ihil e I am pl'ofoundiy grateful to the President of the United Stat~f., for the personal trust he has expressed in appointing me to this high office, it is with no exultant spirit of confidence that I take u p the new duties and new tasks a ssigned to me. I must rely, as I do, upon the cooperation, energy, ability' now to be presented, upon the sympathetic and patriotic patience of those educated Filip in o people who ha ve- already renderE:d us such t r emendous aid, and upon the consciousness that earnest effort and honest purpose, wi th a saving of common

sense, have in the past soh'ed problems as new, as t hreatening and as difficult as the one before us. The high and sacred obligation to give pro· tection for property and life, civil and reli· gious freedom , and wise and unselfish guid· ance in the paths of peace and prospel'ity to all the people of the Philippine Is lands is charged u pon us, his representatives, by t.he Pl'esident of th e United States. May .we not be r ecreant to th is chargE' which, he truly says, concerns the honor and conscience of OIlr country. H e expresses the finn hope that through our " labors all the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands may come to look back with gratitude to the day' when God gave victory to American arms at Manila and set their lan d under the sovereignty and protection of the people of the United States." God grant that in sp ite of all the trials and perplexities. t he di sappoint ments and difficulties, with wh ich we are su re to be confronted, we may live to see ihis fervent hope made a livillg fact in the hea rts of a patriotic people linked within the indissoluble ties of affection to ou r cormnon and beloved country.



LUKE E. WRIGHT Second Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaug-ur:~ted February 1, 1904 Mi'



I n forma ll y a ssmlling the office of Civil Governor of the Philippine Islands, following the custom which obtains in t he Un ited States, I deem it propel' briefly to refer to existing conditions and to outli ne in a gen eral way the governmental poliCies whi ch, in my judg·ment. sho uld contl'ol in t he fut ure. It is peCUliarly appro-

priate on this occasion because, under th e Spanish regime, as I am informed, a changto' of governors-general. as a rule, indicated a revel'sal of policies , t heretofore obtaining' and a large change in the administrative per· sonnel all along the line. This being the usual course in the pa st, it is natural that the Filipino people I attach more I s hould than ordinary importance to a change of ad-



T'linistration. It seems to me desirable, there-ore, at the earliest 0PPol'hmity to emphas!ze f he fact that the wise, humane, and patriotic ~rinciples which controlled the admmistl'a路 tion of Gm'ernor Taft will not, at least con~ciously, be departed from by' me.

The CiL'il Commissionj Policy of ..1ttnwtionj Results The Commission came to these Islands. bearlng a message of peace and good will (l'om the American people to the Filipino people. Th e instructions which President McKinley gave us were definite and explicit and were made kno\....n to uS before we left the United States. "'e assumed the responsible duties with which he had honored us. fully understanding their tenor and assenting to their wisdom and justice. Whatever differ_ ences of opinion may exist as to the soundness of the policy enunciated in these instructions, there can be none among conscientious and honorable men that we were and are fully committed to their execution. \Ve understood fully that while opposition to American authority, when it took the form of an armed insurrection, must be met and put down by the mili tary forces of the United States ; at the -;ante time we realized with equal clearness that a true peace could only be established l)y obtaining the confidence and coopel-ation of the educated and patriotic Filipinos. We further believed that it was true American doctrine that the people affected by Govel'nment ,hould have as large a participation in that ~vern ment as they were capable of safel~r e-xercising in their own interests; and that the fullest opportunity should be given them 10 test their abilities by actual participation in the administration of t heil' own affairs. It '\\-as not believed to be either just or politic to impose upon them a government modeled strictly upon American lines and administered wholly by Americans. Acting upon these gene ral principles, Gov('rnor Taft and his colleagues, from the bel!'inning, have endeavored to pursue a policy Jf attraction; and at every step have invited il.nd welcomed the ad\'ice and assistan ce of those Filipinos whom they believed compe-

tent to be of sen'ice in establishin g good government here. It is not m~" purpose to glorify the work which has been already accomplished by Go\'el'nor Taft and the Commission. The future must largely determine whether we have \\"l'ought well 01' badly. We perhaps stand too near to the stirring events which have thronged the years of American occupation of these Islands to judge dispassionately the value of what has been accomplished. The substitution of American theories of go,-ern_ ment and methods of administration for those which had obtained for hundreds of years under the Spaniards has been carried on with the characteristic energy which is the distinguishing features of the American. And naturally there have arisen differel~ces of opinion as to the wisdom of our course not only among obsel'Ying foreigners and Americans but among Filipinos as well. There are not wanting critics in the former class whQ think the Commission has gone too fast and too far; and, on the other hand. there are n ot wanting impatient Filipinos who, forgetful of what has already been done, complain that we are moving too slowly'. This is not the occasion nor am I the proper person to discuss, upon their merits, these differences of opinion. That we have made mistakes I shall not controvert. The man or men, however, who do not make mistakes are only those who accomplish no serious or permanent work, I think, however, we may justly claim at least the benefits of good intentions and honest efforts. It seems to me, furthermore, that w"hen a comparison is made between the situation as it existed three years and a half ago and as it exists now, even the least observant 01' the most censorious must be struck with the mal'velous change for the better. Then there was a blaze of insurrection extending from one end of the Archipelago to the other; to-d<lY general peace prevails. Then life and property wel'e only secured in those towns gal'. l'isoned by American troops who occupied several hundred stations; today the number of our troops has been reduced by more than three-fourths, occupy only' a few strategic points, and yet with the exception of the occasional depredations committed here and



there by insignificant and fugitive bands of ladrones life and property are as secure in these Islands as in other well-ordered communities. I do not for a moment pretend that this gratifying change has resulted wholly from the labors of the Commission. Unquestionably in the mere s uppression of insurrection the chief credit is due to the efforts of ou r gall ant Anny and Navy. But r think I may say, without t he imputation of egotism or the desire to unduly' exalt the Commission, that but for its efforts to esta@ish in the minds of the intelligent and thoughtful Filipinos a conviction as to t he rectitude and benevolence of t he intentions of the American people with reference to them, and thereby securing, in a multitude of instance, their cordial and zealous cooperation in the estabJishment of peace and order, these gratifying conditions would not now exist. We have reposed trust and confidence in many Filipinos and it is but simple justice to say that rarely has that trust and confidence been abused. Today, pursuant to legislation enacted by the Commissio n, the Filipinos have in all their local affa irs self-government as Americans understand that term . They are largely represented upon the Commis sion, in the judiciary, and in a ll other branches of the government. They constitute the body of the Constabulary who have been for the past two years charged with the duty of maintaining order and have done and are doing most faithful and efficient service. They have the benefits of a comprehensive civil-service law which applies equally to them as to Americans. A pub1icschool system has been created and is being steadily extended with satisfactory results. When it is considered that so much has been accomplished among a people alien to us in traditions, customs, and language, I think I may fairly say in the first place, that we have not wrought wholly in vain; and in the next and most important place, that it furnished strikin g evidence of the adaptability and capacity of the Filipinos and warrants us in entertai nin g high hopes for their future.

Flltm'e 1¥o1'k; Rait1'oad Building; Agriculture

But it is not my purpose to deal further upon this subject nor to produce the impres. sion, by what has already been said, that the conditions which obtain in these Islands to-day are ideal in character, Real work, both for the American and the Filipino, lies in the future. Up to this time we have been going throllgh what may be aptly termed a period of JJolitical reconstruction. While there has not even as yet been a perfect adjustment on the part of the people to the new order of things, as I have already shown, we have made substantial progress in the right direction. From this time forward our labors must mainly be toward the consolidation, elaboration. and making permanent that which we have established and the building up and develop· ing the natural r'~sources of the Islands. Our first and most obvious need is an improved method of intercommunication among the pepple. \Ve especially must labor to begin GIn era of railroad building for Luzon, Min· danao, and several of the large islands of the Archipelago. I do not underestimate the value of sohools and other agencies of mo' dern civilization which lead the masses of the people to higher levels of living and thinking. but to my mind, so far as concerns these peo· pIe, nothing is of so much moment to them as railroads, While without them, much may be done, yet any progress must be slow, halt· ing, and unequal. With them we may not only hope for but confidently expect rapid and tremendous improvement. As matters standl except along that part of the coast line of the Islands accessible to vessels, there is practically no incentive offered to labor or production. Having no markets the inhabitants only' seek to produce enough to meet their simplest wants. Agricu lture under such cir' cumstances is primitive in character and exceedingly limited in extent. The mineral re· sources of the Islands remain undeveloped and vast forest of valuable timber almost unexplored and wholly untouched exist. It i. only within a comparatively recent period that we have been in a position to grant fran' chises for the construction of railroads and other works of internal improvement. We


have always recognized, however, the vital importance of the matter and have, from time to time. in our reports brought the subject to the attention of the authorities at Washington. When in that city last winter I had occasion to discuss this matt"'r with the President and then the Secretary of 'Var, Mr. Root. Both of them I found to be fully alive to our needs in this regard. The latter arranged several intel'views with prominent capita lists and railroad builders in the United States looking to the inauguration of a large railroad system in these Islands, and I am informed that, notwithstanding the enormous pressure of other business incident to his position, he has continued to urge upon capitalists at home the advantage of investment in !ailroads in these Islands. While it is 50mev.-hat premature to speak definitely, I feel much encouraged in the belief that in the not remote future we may hope for substantial benefits as the result of his efforts. And now that Governor Taft has succeeded him we have a right to feel doubly sanguine in this regard, for his colleagues know, as perhaps few can know, how near to his heart lies the prosperity and happiness of these people. The importance of developing agriculturE" tan not be overestimated. The people have been sorely afflicted in the last two years by the destruction of their crops by locusts, and to a large extent th~ lOSS of their horses and ~ttle by rinderpest. Through the liberality ~,f the American Congress, a large sum was placed at the disposal of the Insular Government to replace the cattle thus lost and to aid lnd prevent, as far as possible, suffering among the people. This fund has to a con sid~rable extent been expended in the building ,f impm'tant pu1;lic works, thus furnishing a )leans of livelihol)d to the people, especially n those sections most se riously affected by he loss of crop~ and cattle, and also in the mrcbase of carabaos. It has not in the past ~een nor will it in the future be the policy 路f the government to extend aid to the point 'f paupel'izing the people, but only to relieve heir actual necessities by enabling them to arn money by their labor. In a number of he provinces in ~hich rice has heretofore een the principal crop, the people have been


recently blessed with a bountiful yield of that cereal. Owing to a lack of cattle there still remains fallow. however, a considerable area of land formerly cultivated. As a result the importation of rice will still be necessalT, though not to such an extent as last year. It should be our endeavor to increase the production of this necessity of life by every means in our power, at least to the point of making the Islands self-supporting in this regard. The introduction of American agricultural machinery and methods of cultivation is very desirable and will be of immense benefit. The sugar and tobacco interests, I regret to say, are in a depressed and languishing condition. 'While what I have said as to rice production applies with almost equal force to them, and much may and must be done for their betterment by the Insular Government, still the fact remains that we can not hope for any real advance in these industries until they are given entri:lnce to the markets of the United States upon equitable terms, and for this boon we can only appeal to the Congress. Even were this granted, several years must elapse before the sugar and tobacco planters of these Islands could hope to produce as much as prior to the in surrection; nor so long as the introduction of Chinese and other contract labor is prohibited as at present, and as doubtless it will be permanently, is there the slightest danger of Philippine exportation of these articles injuriously affecting- prices to producers in the United States. I entertain the confident hope and belief that Con_ gress ,\ill not long hesitate in removing the insurmountable tariff barriers which now bar the way to the entrance of these important products.

The Friar Lands Among the last important official acts of Governor Taft was the conclusion of a preliminary contract for the purchase of what is known as the "friar lands." As soon as the necessary examination of titles and survey of these estates can be made, final conveyance \vill be given and these lands taken over by the Government. They will then be immediately offered for sale at cost price upon long time contract to the persons who have



heretofore occu pi ed t h em a s t enants. Paymen ts will be mad e in a nnual ins tallments at a ve ry low rate of interest, thereby enabling the pu r chaser s to become th e own er s of th eir holdi ngs by p aying a li ttle m ore than tha t form erly pa id as ren t . I n t his way we hop e and expect t o ;<;ettle f or all time one of the burnin g q uestion s in the Filipino mind. In making t hi s settlemen t th e Gove rnment ha s

been just, not to say liber al, to th e l'eHgious orders, and at t h e same t ime w ill conf er a s ubsta ntial benefit u pon th e occupants of the land . It is believed th at t he spirit which dictated t hi s transact ion w ill be fully' a pv recia ted, not alo ne by t hose immediatel y affected bu t ·will be a ccepted by the g reat mass of the Fili pinos a s a further evidence of t he kind feel ing a nd benefice·nt purpose of the Am er ica n Governm ent.

CU1'rency The Commiss ion perceived in the ver y beginn in g that one oi t he g r eat drawbacks to anythin g li ke the permanen t prosperity and progress of the I s lands was the lack of a stable CUlTency. The only circulating mediu m which t he Am erican s found here was an irredeema ble s ilver CUTrenc y" composed of Mex ican and Spa ni s h-Filipino coin. Th e general t endency of silver h as been for man y years downward, but w ith frequent and vio_ lent fluctu a t ions in pl" ice. The CU1Tency in circulati on, as a res ul t, rose or fell \vi t h the advance or decline of s ilver. All transactions, an d especially t hose in volving credits, \ver e consequ en t ly largel y s peculati ve; this h as been di sa strous to all bus in ess en t erprise. The Commission in its fir st r eport to the P resid en t urged legislati on by Co ngress which wou ld g ive to t he peopl e a silver cunency t o which th ey had al way'S been accustomed but r edeemabl e in g'old, t hus establi shin g and fi x ing a unifor m stable standard of values. The Congress of t he United St ates, on the 2nd cla y of March, 1903, passed an act the pl·ovisions of which s ubstant ially embodied th e r ecommendations of th e Commission, and prov ided for a new coinage of Philippine pesos r edeemable at the Insul a r Treasury in goM, which, together with the United States gold coin, are declared to be t he sole legal tender

of the Islands after a date to be fixed by the Conunission. Pursuant to this act, the In· sular Government, by proper legislation and executive order, has demonetized Mexican dollars and provided for a redemption and r ecoinage of the Spanish-Filipino currency. It has, however, met with considerable difficulty in immediately retiring the outstanding Mexican and Spanis h-Filipino coins, becauM the great mass of the people failed to undel'stand and appreciate the real value of the new CUrl'ency and rontinued to receive and use in their dai ly transactions the old upon a parit~ with the new coins. The difficulty of substituting the new currency for the old has fur· thermore been increased by reasons of the fact that certain business interests have found it to their advantage to buy the hemp, copra, and tobacco produced in the I slands in the old coins, which are much cheaper than the new, and thereafter to sell their purchases in foreign markets for gold. The Commission. however, has been thOl'oughly convinced that there could be no real and genuine business prosperity and progress so long as this state of affairs continued, and has therefore enacted legislation which will , after expiration of a few months, tend to make unprofitable the use of the old currency and thereby' make easy and certain the in troduction for the new and stable currency. T'h e importance of making effective the wise legislation of Congress above referred to can not be overstated. In my judgment we can not hope for any large revival of business and improvement in general conditions unW we have eliminated this disturbing; factor hom the business of the Islands. It will be the policy of the Commission to bring- about this result as rapidly as may be upon the lint's which it has already laid down.

F 1.6 t1.l1·e Policy Did time permit I might enumerate other matters of considerable though minor import. ance which call fo,1' future consideration, Enough, howevel', has been said to indicate the general lines of policy which it is believed will be pursued by the Government in the immediate future. I can not refrain, how' ever, from saying that the success or failure


.r)f the efforts of the represen tatives of the American Government in these Islands must yeI')" largely depend u pon t he attitude of the Filjpino people themselves; and, furthermore, that their attitude will in the nature of things in turn be lal'g"ely affected by the attitude of he .l,..mericans in these I slands toward the Filpion people. It has been perhaps not extraI dinary, in view of past events, that Amercans and Filipinos should, to some extent, still tand apart from each other. It .seems to me, (lWe\-er, that t he bne has passed, if it ever \:i;;;ted, for an attitude of reserve and disrust. The Americans who are here in t hese Islands with the legitimate and laudable pUl'. pose of aiding in their development and at the same time bettering t he ir own fortunes tan not fail to see th at t hey ca n onl y h ope to accomplish t he i r desires by establishing cordial personal a nd business I'elations w ith the people with whom they must necessaril~' come in contact. This is so obviously路 true that it does not require e laboration. Aside from this, every consideration of magnan imity and patriotism impels them to such a course. \\"e are strong; and F il ipinos are weak, We are just ly proud of our institutions and of the benefits and blessings which spring from them, \re have assumed control and government of these r~laJ1ds without consulting the wishes of their inhabitants, Are we not then in con~cience and honor bcun d to offer them the best we have to give? In in viting them to participate equa lly in our common birth r ight, we do rIOt make ourselves the poorer but therein the tiehel". We can not ignore the truth that in JUt" relations with these people the Americans 1el'e are qu ite as much on trial before the civilzed world as are the Filipinos. On the other iide. every F ili pino should turn a deaf ear o the sinister p ro m ptings of restless and sel路ish agitators a nd demagogues who strive to :eep alive prejudices born of the evil passions ngendered by war a nd, following the example f the wisest and most p a triotic of their coun'"nne n, should frank ly and loyally accept, the Itua tion as it is. Nothing can be accomplishd that is good by a .contrary路 cou rse. The


logic of event is inexorable. True patriotism, under existing conditions , is found in a loyal attitude to the Government. Every intelligent Filipino must realize that his people in their present stage of development are unable to stand alone and that in the very nature of things they must lean upon some stronger arm. It is suicidal, therefore, to repel the kindly advances made by those in authority or to engage in a policy of obstruction or agitation. There is no reason for antagonism. On the contrary, there is every reason against it. The coming of Americans to these I slands to build railroads and other works of public utility, to engage in agriculture, manufacturing, 01' the mechanical arts can only be of advantage to the Filipino people. There is room in these beautiful and fertile I slands for all. T he door of equal opportunity should be t h rown wide open for all alike-European, American, and Filipino.

And now in conclusion I desire to express my sincere thanks to the President of the United States for the great honor he has

COll _

ferred upon me. r am not obliviolls that I am succeeding a gentleman who has fairly earned, by his elevated character and high ability as a constructive statesman, the respect and admiration of all men, and in addition stand~ "best beloved" in the hearts of the Fili pino people. ,~rhen I step into his place I have a covering l路ealization of how wide a space he occupied and how great a vacuum remains . I understand full well the difficulties, the perplexities, and the labor incident to the position. I can only promise to do my best. For a successful issue under that divine Providence which shapes t he destinies of me!l: I must chiefly rely upon the aid of my C!llleagucs and other officials of Government, and last, but not least, upon the sympathetic cooperation of all classes of people who sincerely desire that order, justice, and the reign of law sh a ll be supl'eme.





HENRY C. IDE Third Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated April 2, 1906 FELLOW COUNTRYMEN, AMERICAN'S AND FILIPINOS:

The great principles that are to guide the Government 0 f the Philippine I slands are not determined by the Governor-General a l' the Phi lippine Comm ission, but by the sovereign people of the United States, speaking thro ugh their autho ri zed representatives. The policies

thus declar ed control and ought t o control the local government. Those who might speak authoritatively upon this s ubject have been President McKinley, hi s vVar Secretary, Elihu Root, President Roo sevelt and Secretary Taft. The declarations of these m en, carried largely into effect by Qongressional legislation, are the foundation stones for the whole governmental structure h ere. President McKinley, than whom no more sincere friend of the Filipino 路people ever lived, declared IlThe Philippines are ours, not to exploit, but to develop, to edu cate, to train in the science of self -governmen t." Secretary Root, whose genius is largel y responsible for that great s tate documen t known as "Instructions to the Phili ppine Commission," has declared: "There seem s no r easonabl e cause to doubt that under the policy- already effectually inaugurated, the institutions already implanted, the processes already begun, in the Philippine Islands, jf these be n ot repressed and interrupted, t he Filipino people will fal10w in the f ootsteps of the people of Cuba; that more

slowly, indeed, because they are not as advanc ed, yet as surely, they ,"dB grow in capacit)路 f a l' self-government and receiving power as they gl:OW in capacity, come to bear s ubstantially such relations to the people of the United States as do now the people of Cuba, differing in details as conditions, as needs differ but the same in principle and the same in beneficent res u 1 t s." President Roosevelt, succeeding to the great work of President McKinley has declared, uTo withdraw our Government from the Islands at this time would mean , to the a verage native, loss of a barel~t won civil freedom. 'We have established in the Islands a government by Americans, assisted by Filipinos. ,"Ve are steadily striving to transform this into self-government by Filipinos, assisted by Americans." Secretary Taft, who doubtless is and always will be more dear to the hearts of the Filipino people than any other American, has said, "The great object we now have in the Philippines is tn build up the government there so as to make it more and more useful -to the Filipinos, so that they may ultimately become an educated! intelligent and self-governing people." And again, HOur policy in the Philippines must be the Philippines for the Filipinos. This duty we assumed." The principles thus enunciated by those who spoke with authority for the American people are in harmony with the best thought of the Filipino people. The


greatest and most respected patriot ever known to them, Dr. Jose Rizal, but a few days before his tragic death, addressed his countrymen as follows: "My Countrymen: I have given proof that I was one who sought liberty for our country, and I still seek it. But as a first step I insisted upon the development of the people in order that by means of edu_ cation and labor they might acquire the proper and individual character and force which would make them worthy of it." The fir5'it governor_general under American sovereignty, General Luke E. 'Vright, devoted himself with loyalty, ability, wisdom and success, to the enforcement of these principles, and is entitled to the grateful affection of his countrymen, _\mericans and Filipinos.

No new Policy No new policy is no\\' to be enunciated or adopted by the government which will stand consistently and faithfully upon the principles above laid down. The pledges made by the great founders of the Philippine Government will be implicitly fulfilled so far as fulfillment Jies within my poweT. The Dingley Ta" iff The ability, however, faithfully to perioml the entire duty of the American people towards the Philippine Islands does not rest wholly with any administration, either here or in the United States, but is in considerable part dependent upon the action of Con_ gress. One of the present great needs of the Islands is a better market for its products, and that better market we seek by lowering or breaking down the tariff barriers that exist between the home country and the Islands. \Vhether in this respect we succeed now or not, such success is only a question of time. 'We have not merely the mighty influence of the President and the Secretary of Wal' strenuously striving in that behalf, but we have .back of us t he hearts of the American people. The House of Representatives, fresh from the people and responsiblE' to them have passed the modified tariff law 10 accordance with the interest of the Filip ino people, by the tremendous vote of 257 to 71. This sho'\\'s how the heart of the American peeopie hits. 'Vith the President



and his whole Cabinet, the American people, the House of Representatives and justice 111 our side the Tight will prevail, if not today, then tomorrow, and that tomorrow is not faT away. Transportution

Intimately connected with the subject of the tariff, as affecting industrial development, lies the question of better transpol'tatation facilities within the Islands themselves. It is of little avail, aside from supplying immediate wants, that cultivators have soil capable of producing large crops of valuable; commodities if the whole value of such products is to be consumed in transporting them to any market, local or foreign. Such always has been the condit.ion in some of the most fruitful portions of these beautiful Islands. Local capital is not available for the construction of railroads. Aside from the pover_ ty of the great mass of the Filipino people, they have been subjected to the fearful disasters of pestilence that has destroyed many lives; contagious diseases that have swept away a large percentage of t heir beasts of burden i attacks of voracious insects that have devoured their crops; disastrous storms that have prostrated their fruit-trees and dwellings; internal dissentions, war, and predatory bands that have destroyed millions of valuable property and caused the death of many who ought to have been useful citizens and producers. Under such circumstances th~ need of capital from abl'oad is tremendous. Foreign capital has hesitated to enter the Islands because of uncertainty as to conditions here and because of the highly profitable us e to which it could be devoted in the United States and other parts of the world, yet marked progress has already been made. The city of Manila now has a complete system of forty miles or more of w.ell equipped street railway, which increase the \'alues of all suburban property and diminishes the expense of living for multitudes of people. Contracts have already been entered into for the construction of 255 miles of railroads in the Islands of Cebu, Negros and Panay, under a guaranty by the government of interest at a rate not exceeding four per



cent for a limited il me upon the bonds to be issu ed, the proceeds of which a r e to be devoted exclusively to t h e construction and equ ipment of t he railroads, and t he moneys advanced by the government in pursuance of its guarantee to be ul timately l'eturned to it, the amount thereof to be a lien upon the property of the roads. These contracts will do much to develop the Visayan ls1ands, and it is confidently believed that they will soon dcll1(;)nstl'ate their pl'ofitabl;enes s so that the parties w ho have taken these contracts, 01' others, will cover the Visayan I slands with railroads wh erever such enterpl'ises are needed. Negotiations, also, are well under way, and whi ch it is hoped will be consummated in the near future whereby the great I sland of Luzon may have its resources opened up and its t ransportation facilities enormously increased withou t imposing any unreasonable burdens upon the peop le. Franchises ~or such enterprises should be carefully guarded so t hat no undu e burdens may rest upon the people, and so that th ey may be properly controlled and prevented from becoming the masters inst ead of the servants of the people, yet ever y privilege should be gran ted that is consistent w ith secu r ity to the public and protection of its rights, both for the present an d for bhe distant future. If we fail to get immediately all t he railroads that we h ad hoped for yet it is to be remembered that a rai lroad develops a country and opens up beyond its tel'minus lands h ith erto unavailable an d tempts settlers to occupy them. Self-i ntel'est will induce the owners of ra ilroads to push on and still on into additi on al te rritory un til all needed facil ities a r e provided. Th e increased agricultural development that has followed the extension of the Manila and Dagupan Railroad to Cabanatuan, in the pro vince of N ueva Ecija, has shown almost in_ stantaneously what we may expect in other palts of th e I slands. Added railways mean added land under cultivation, added value to land near the railroads, ad ded production for domesti c consu mption and for export, added demand for labOl', added prope rty' for the whole country.




In connection with our need of capital m:l~' be mentioned the new corporation la\v, which , after extensive public discussion and careful consideration, has been passed, whereby cor. p ora t ions may be easily formed either wita domestic 01' foreign capital for the lawful conduct of nearly every kind of busin ess. Thk law is liberal in its provisions, available m all without special legislation, and safeguard; alike the interest of the capitalists and of the public.

Additional L egislation Needed To further the intel'est~ I)f commerce a bankruptcy law and a chattel mortgage la'v are needed. It is intended to present for puo. lic discussion and for enactment at an earls date laws covering both of t hese subjects. There has been long a public call for them and the delay in their enactment has beE::n only by' reason of the press of more urgent duties. A law has likewise been prepared for a system of postal savings which will soon be presented for discussion. I t is believed that a system ma y be organized in such ::I. way as to be entirely sa.拢e for the government and for the depositors which will encourage habits of thrift and enable the peop! ~ gl'adually to utilize t heir little savings for larger entel'prises. 'Vhen these laws shall have been enacted and the long delayed penal code and code of criminal procedure shall have final1y materialized, comparatively little Ie路 g islation of a fundamental character is needed in the eai"ly future.



N ea'rly F ini.c.:hed

The foundation will then have all been laid. Municipal, provincial and insular governments have been provided for i bureaus fe carrying on the work of th e c;ustOIl1S, intel'nal revenue collections, auditing, administeri}. g the funds of the Is lands, caring for t h'! health of the people, construction of public works, the administration of justice, procedure in all civil actions, maintenanc e of ;:;he currency upon a gold standard basis of unvarying value, inter-island transportation.


supply ~f all departments of the government printing, ice and ('old storage plants, fluarantine serv ice, coast and geodetic sur,ey. encouragement and promotion of agriculture. development of scientific investi_ gatio n, administration of the forest and public lands, determination of the "friar lands" cont roversies, the ordedy administration of prisons and penal institutions, and education in the largest sen se, have all been 01'g-anized, and, a sid e from the few needed acts referred to, future legislation will be largely that of amending nnd impl'oving laws and of supplying such deficien cies as may be shown to exist therein . The period of construction has mainly passed and the time is near .::.t hand when the work will be that of administration and amendment in distinction from t hat of construction . Th~


Last December new municipal officers were elected throughout the Islands. On the fifth of Febl'uar:,v, 1906, election!'> for governors of all the provinces occul'red, ~ot. a distUl'ban ce of the public peace at either municipal 01' pJ'ovincial elections was l'Pported. alt.hough very gTeat interest existed and in some ca~es repeated but entirely orderly ballots were necessary to secure :.t majOl'it~f. Minor irregularities occurred, and in a very few case's chal'ges of bribery vI' intimidation were fi led, but on the whole the municipal and provincial electio ns were highly encQuragting- and indicate that the people are becomine: more and more accu stomed to the exercise of the highest privilege of sovel'ignty in the deliberate, intelligent and fair choice of their own local officials. The governors elected rept:esen t every type of political feeling and sentimenr.

The A!Ssembly The orderly and serious conduct of those elections is a good augury for the succe<;s of the Phil ippine Assembly, which will conYene within one yeal'. Its importance, educationa lly, cannot be overestimated, It will Lfford the first complete opportunity for the Fi lipino people to display their capacity, no t


merely to choose their legislators but to choosp snch leg-isla tors as shall bring to their task intelligence, patriotism, and high devotion to the interests of their country, It beh(\oves the Filipino people to demonstrate that the steady though slow introduction of ordedy liberty, the law-abiding freedom of the individual which is the only sure foundat.ion upon whi(,h national independence call be built, can safely be theirs. The advent of the Asse mbly is to be welcomed, not merely because it gratifies many of the aspirations of the people but because rea sonable hopes may be entertained that its deliber:\tions will result in utility to the public.

Agricultm'e Agriculture , which in the end lies at the bottom of all prosperity, is here the on Iy great resource. It is the duty of the govern路 ment to give every encouragement for the development of that industry, The recent congress of the "Union Agl'aria de Filipinas" is an encouraging indication of the interest that the best people of the Islands have in their basic industry. The display of modern machinery there presented 'was instl'uc <.ive and its introduction, which is now rapidly increasing, will, to a considerable extent, rel ieve the disaster s caused by the los~ of draft animals. The Islands need more agricultural machinery, more and bettel' draft animals, improved facilities for transportation, larger markets, and better method of cultivation. The Bureau of Agriculture is giving great help in this direction. A most encoura g in g indication of the increased agriM cultural pl'osperit~r is seen in the statistics of the importat!:m of rice. During the fiscal year 1904 th e value of rice import-ed amounted to $11,548,814, but during the fi':>cal year 1905 to $7,456,738, showing a diminution of over $4,000,000 o\ving to increase in h ome production, During the fir<;t eight mon ths of the fiscal year 1905 the importations of rice amounted to $4,659,05'7. while dUl-ing the corresponding months of the fiscal year 1906, t hey amounted to $3.307,744, indicating a further .falling-off in importations for this fiscal year as compared with the last of more than $2,000,000

• 146


or more t han $6,000,000, as compared with t he fiscal y ear 1904. Six million dollars g old sav ed to t hes e Is lands is a tremendous item in th eir prosperity.

P u blic O'rder Th e marked diminution of brigandage is on e of t h e mos t important el em ents in the development of our resources. It is imp~s­ s ible f or agricul t ure, or any other industry t o p ro sper unl ess t he laborer and proprie tor can be protec t ed and allowed to reap the benefi t of his thrift and industry, f re e from t he dan ger s of robbe rs and extortioners. The Is land s hav e probably n ever before been so free f l!o m car a bao thieyes and predatory ba nd s as now. Thes e r esults have not been secured without suffering and misfortune. From Scrip t ure t im es down to the presen t it has n eve r bee n possible to cast out devils w it hout a r ending of the body.

T he Con s tabulary Th e r esults that have been achieved are du e, in g r eat part, to the efforts of the Constabulary, aided by the loyal cooperatio'1 of th e Army of the United States, including t he Scouts, s ustained, as they have been, by ind epend en t and f earl ess courts. The Constabulary has b een subject to great criticism. Ab uses ha ve been committed by some of its m emb er s a nd officers. Those abuses, howeve r , h ave been corrected and punished in a ll ca ses wh en their exis tence could be established, a nd it is a nd will be the distinct policy of t he g overnm en t t o correct every such a b use . But t h e fact that abuses have occu rred does not wan'ant the condemnation of a n organiza tion composed almost entirely of Filipinos, or a denunciation of the Filipino race. I b elieve in the Filipinos. Their services in t he constabulary have been great. If it be true that they have occasionally committed exc esses, it is like:w ise true that they have put an end to most horrible atrocities, t ortures and barbarities which were inflicted b y banded cutthroats and robbers. In cert ain provin ces th e highest legislative and execu t ive authorities of the Islands decided that insurrection existed. To suppress in-

surrection means war, and war involves hard. ships and suffering; it did in this case. But the tremendous benefits that have- come to the I s lands from the restoration of tranquil_ ity make it unjust to deal only in legible_ look like Hdeal" only in denunciation of thoSt: whose efforts have brought peace and protection. But so completely has tranquility covered these Islands that it may now b(' advisable carefully to scan the prison records to see if many who are still incarcerated for what was often involuntary participation in acts of disorder may not properly and safely be released.

Taxation Taxation in the Philippine Islands ought not to be increased. The burdens are as great as the people ought now to bear. The policy of the government should be not to add to existing burdens, but if possible to r e liev e them and to maintain the government by a reduction of expenses and by such in. creased prosperity as will cause greater revenue to accrue without increase of taxation. The suspension of the land tax for the current year throughout the Islands is a measure of relief which comes home to nearly every household.

The Revenue Law This suspension, coupled as it is with an appropriation from the Insular treasury sufficient to make good the provinces and municipalities all that they had lost by suspension of the land tax, was made possible only by the internal revenue law, without the income derived from that source the suspension would have been impossibLe', The tax {mposed by the internal revenue law is largely an optional one, paid mainly by the consumers of alcohol and tobacco products. and every consumer pays according to his consumption. The law was naturally oPposed by those who were primarily affected by it. It was an innovation and redistri~­ uted burdens, yet time has vindicated its wisdom and the demonstration will be more and more complete as the years go by. CODol-ed with the susoension of the land tax


was provision for a more. equ(table classification of lands 3nd a possible new syst~m . Ultunately free trade between the PhilippIn~ Islands and the Ur..ited States must be anticipated within the not distant future.

Future Sources of Revenue When that result ensues, customs receipts will be greatly diminished and the internal revenue la\.I;, with such modifications as experience may demonstrate ought to be made, will be the great source of income. 'We may expect that the importation of commodities .~;ithout payment of customs duties will reiuee the cost of such commodities to the peoj)le, and that free trade with the United States ""'ill greatly increase the volume and value of our exports to that country. We must . hen look for means of supporting the government to local taxes, including a just system I)f land taxes for purely local purposes, customs duties on imports from foreign countries, internal revenue taxes, and special miscellaneous sources, like the Ice Plant, postal and telegraph service, fines and costs, sales of public lands, etc. The r ecently enacted high ficense opium law will produce a moderate amount of revenue during this y'ear and next, the prohibitory features going into operation on March 1, 1908. It is not the policy of this government to support itself by lic.ensing vices, such as opium smoking. prostitution, gambling, .and lotteries, nOT would any such theory be tolerated by public senti _ ment in the United States.

Optional Road Tax In connection with the revenues, it is probable that a road tax, payable in labor or money, and made optional with the different provi nces to put in force or not as they see fit, may be authorized, inasmuch as roads and highways are indispensable for the transaction of all business and for all agricultural lJperations. Such a tax, it voted by the peo_ ple of the province itself and e.xpended iInmediately in the vicinity where the tax is assessed and for the benefit of that community, would be of great value, and might meet the approval of most elements in the Philippine lslands_


Land Laws The land laws here are especially路 favorable to the poor man, although by Act of Congress made most burdensome and difficult for investment of large capital. In the United States homesteads would be taken up and public lands acquired with the greatest rapidity under laws as liberal as those which prevail here, but the Filipino is so accustomed to living where his friends and neighbors are, and where his forefathers were born and died that it is difficult to induce him to enter upon new and better fields. The Filipinos should make more use of the opportunities which have been offered to them and should secure to themselves, under the land law, indefeasible, titles to sufficient lands t;') support themselves and their descendants . The land acquired by purchase from the Friars is being rapidly dealt with by leases to the occupants, with pro\-isions for ultimate purchase.

Church Controversies Connected with land titles are controver_ sies that exist all over the Islands with relation to the possession, ownersh ip and right of administration of the churches) Hconventos路' and cemeteries. Under a law recently passed giving to the Supreme Court original j uri sdiction over all such controversies, these disputes are now in process of adjushnent, and It is believed that in a comparatively short time this fruitful source of dispute will be eliminated_

Sympathetic Cooperation It is impossible to emphasize too strongly the necessity for cultivating good relation::; between Americans and Filipinos. None 0f us are perfect, 'out none aTe wholly bad. Unkind and censorious speeches or comments (printed or oTal) are especially- dangerous when racial antipathies are appE;a led to and thereby stimulated. They make the whole work of progress more difficult, and the situation always more dangerous. There are enough splendid and lovable qualities in each race to furnish the highest basis for commendation and emulation. Let us look for



the good qualities &nd appreciate them and stretch out a kind and sympathetic hand, one to another, and thus make it more possibl e to fulfill the high mission which the United States has here taken upon itself. Let us inculcate the dignity of labor, the sp lend id res ults which it brings, not merely in ta ngible and visible resources but in the enabling and di gni fying of the individual.

SU-1117navy 0/ Policy Fellow-countrymen : if I were to s ummari ;l,~ my present hope it wou ld be to give a business ad mini stration, to attempt in some degree to increas.e the pros11erity路 of the people, to de-

ve!op au r wonderful but latent resources, to see the Islands mo!'e prosperous and the people more contented and happy in the end than a t t he beginr. ing, to avoid, so far as possible, political and academic discussio1l, sacredly to preserve the blessings of indi\", idual liberty and protection of propertl which are now the people's heritage, and !o bring about a mOl'e complete and harmoniou.; cooperation of all to the common end of peace and more thorough development of our resources. These results cannot be secUl'ed !n any short time, but with the aid of God, and the united efforts of all they may well be hoped for and worked for,



JAMES F. SMITH FOllrth Governor路General of the Philippine Islands Inallglll"ated September 20, 1906 FELLe \\"

COUl'T RYl\1E N :

By the prot ocol of August the 12, 1898, Spain and the United States, once bound together by the ties of strongest friendship, happily s uspended the 1.1l1iol'tunate war whi ch had estranged them for many long month s, and the terms u pon which friendl y i'elations between the two powers might be immediately resumed became the su bject of offi cial and also of unoffi cial discuss ions, Victor in the con test of arms, circumstances which cou ld neither shape, direct nor contra] made the U nited States the unwilling arbitel' of the destinies of the Philippine Archipelago an d of all its peoples. Under the guise of generos ity to a fallen foe, or gov-

erned by the recognized principle that sentimentality has no place in national affairs, she might easily ha ve ignored the condition and claims of the Filipino people and left the Islands just where she foun d them - in the hands of Spain; or under the specious form of a disinterested benevolence she might have conferred upon the Filipino people the wished for gift of independence and left them at the gateway of China with a nationality which l without the force 01' means to maintain it, would have been ephemeral; 01' regardless of her own interests and of the complications sure to e n ~ue, she might have established a protectorate over the Islands and assumed all the responsibilities of government without any of its powers,



The Ch(wge of Sovereignty

T the exercise of her best judgment and influenced by no selfish motive the United State:- ('hose to do none of these things, a~d, r.eparting- from the ~eaten track ~f polley in dealing \\;th an alien and a subJect race, :o:he eit'cted to become not its conqueror, not it..: master. but its guide, its mentor and its friend, And so the sovereignty which h::l.d been €xel'cised by Spain over the P hilippine 1,.land.;; for more t h an 350 years passed from her to the United States and with it the !'e,.,pom,ibility for the welfare, the happiness, the pl'osperity, and the advancement of more than 7.000,000 people. Due to the difference of language and cusom and to the suspicions of a race many times disappointed by th ose who camp beal'infr g-ifts. unfortunately for the United States her benevolent purposes were misconstrued .and misconceived, H er endeavors to gain the ,.ood will and affections of the inhabitants 'Of the Islands were viewed with distrust ann her promises of a liberal govern ment in wh ich the people should have as full representation a~ they "-ere capable of exercising and enjoying were regal~ded as t he tempt ing ba it to lure a confid ing and simple peop le to ruin and sla ve l'Y, Ellemic8 of Tymnny (/.'nd OpPI-eSStOll ~otwithstanding the fact that the history of the American people fully demonstrated that they had always been the enemies of tyranny and oppression; notwithstanding the iact that the American nation had expended the lives of a million of her own people to free from bon dage the slaves within her confines; notwihstanding the fact that, moved by sentiment& of profoundest pity, she engag-cd in a costly war which gave to Cuba her independence, the Filipino people were led to believe and did believe that the new \Q\'e l'e ign was actuated by no higher motive than he r own aggrand izement and a greed for terr ito r y whose whole area did not equal ihat of the state of Cal ifol'l1ia . Misconception, distrust and suspicion dominated the l!nt il'e situation.



should have been united by the strongest bonds of confidence and affection were soon dr ifted apart and became locked in a death struggle, the one to sustain and the other to overthrow a sovereignty which had been assumed from no other motive than to benefit and to bless. Far from home and all that he held deal', many a gallant, sturdy American with the breath of battle warm upon him met a soldie l"s death on the wooded s lopes and level fields of the Philipp ines_ The very youth and flower of the Filipino race watered with their blood the soil which had given them birth_ I n a contest with a nation 70,000,000 strong, possessed of limitless resources and determined to yield nothing to those who came with arms in their hands and threats in their mouths, but one result could follow to the Fil ipino people, valiant and brave though they were-and that was crushing defeat_ And all for what? For a miserable misunderstanding which might have been avoided had there been a pl'udent exel'cise of patience and forbearance_ All for a purpose which might have been secul'ed without the loss of a life, without the shedding of a drop of innocent blood by car eful pl'eparation, general educat ion of the masses of the people and t he l'easonable methods of evolution, advocated by Rizal, the poet, patl'iot and statesman of the F ilip ino race. -"'·ot Shed in l'ain

The blood of American and Filipino will not have been s hed in vain, however, if S01'row fol' their dead shall bring them together in mutual sympathy and understanding, if their blood comingled on many a well fought field shall cement them together in amity and friendship. But whatever may have been the effect of the war on the 'friendly relations of the two peoples it had no effect on the policy which the Amel'ican nation had marked ont for herself nor on the highly benevolent motives which induced her to assume sovereign power over the Philippines and all that might mean_

Honds oj Confide lice alld Affecfioll

Establishing Local Govel'mnents

T he two peoples wh ich according to the l\'dinal'Y ru les g'ovel'ning human condu(·t

In the midst of war and when it mig-ht be reasonably expected that hatred, ill-will,



and dis like would be in the ascendant, those taken in arms were treated as prisoners of war though they might have been accorded the fate provided for war rebels; non-combatants were not only treated with tenderness and consideration but were encouraged to return to their usual avocations and pursuits; as soon as active military operation in any municipality or district ceased, local governm ents administered by native officials wel'e established and civil protection given to personal rights and private property; schools were organized and the American soldier laying aside the rifle and the bayonet set himself to instruct and to teach the children of those who perhaps at the moment were in arms against the flag he loved so well.

Carrying Ou t Promises

posed upon them the duty of preserving the public peace and protecting life and property. In the face of the prophecies of failure and notwithstanding the ridicule of older governments, she created a system of public schools and brought to the doors of the people the opportunity for instruction, enlight_ enment, and practical education . She destroyed without hesitation a wrong system of internal taxation which imposed upon the poor almost the entire charges of government, and for it she substituted a modern system of internal revenue which so distributes the load that every citizen is compelled to bear his fair share of the governmental burdens. For a fluctuating and variable medium of exchange which made trade a gambling game and imposed heavy losses on the great mass of consumers made up largely of the poor and the struggling, she substituted a stabl.:! currency and settled measure of value.

When the war had ended and the insurrection lay shattered and broken in the dust, when the capacity for further resistance by the Fili pino people was exhausted, when without criticism the U nited States might have declared that the native inhabitants of t h e Philippines had forfeited al1 claims to her benevolent consideration, she proceeded with undisturbed serenity and tranquility to carry out the promises which she had made an d the policies which she had announced before a hostile shot was fired. She established municipal g overnments administered by officials elected by the people and gave to the local co mmunities a s large a measure of a utonomy as that enjoyed by the similar communities at home. She organized the provinces and g ave to them a g overnment administered by a governor elected by the people and two officials appointed by the Chief Executive of t h e I sland s with th e approval of t h e Commission . She created a pure judiciary and gave to the people a sys tem of j'ustice which determined the rights of rich and poor, of foreigner an d citizen of American and Filipino, without fear or fav or and without regard to race, color or previous condition of serv itu de,

She has provided fo r the establishment of an honest and efficient civil service and has given to the I slands a sanitary organization which has greatly reduced the death rate and improved the health of the localities in whidl its rules have been enforced.

Confidence In F01'me1' Enemi es

Provi,ding For Students

On the h eels of insurrection she gathered many thou sand s of those who had been in arms again st her and with a boldness and a trust almost amounting to imprudence she im-

She has sent young men and women of the Philippines to the schools of the homeland that they might receive the instruction given to her oWn sons and daughters and that the~r

Public Imp1'ovMnents She built roads, established lines of interisland t ransportation, constructed great harbor works and erected school houses. She furnis hed to nearly every municipality in the Archipelago a postal service which reasonably meets the needs of business and the necessities of the people, and has established a postal s avings bank to encourage thrift and to protect the earnings of the poor. She has purchased the landed properties of the religious orders which were a source of agrarian difficulty and disturbance and has given to tenants and occupants the opportunity to acquire on easy conditions a title to their holdings.

Civil Service


nigh! become acquainted with her laws, hP.l路

us-toms. and t he practical workings of her orm of gove rnment. She has taken a census of the people and furnished to them an easy, cheap and ex~ t>ditious method of securing for their lands 1 titl e guaranteed by the GovernmE'nt.




She has provided for the people the means f acquiring the public domain by lease, hometead, or sale and supplied them 'with a pro~ edure to perfect their titles to portions of he public domain held by them without con ~ ~ey anc e from the state and by no righ t han t hat of long possession. She has granted to persons accused of crime the advantage of being imm ediately nformed of t he charge against them, the privege of a s peed~' and public t rial, and the right to be confronted with t he witnessE's ga inst them at every stage of the proceedIngs.




Freedom of speech which does not incite a disturbance of th e public peace or the break~ ing of the law has been allowed, and the right of the people to peaceably assemble and petition for th e redress of gr ievan ces has been recognized. She has definitely fO l'bidden any int erfe r~ ence with the free exercise of religion and has decreed that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship with~ out di scrimination 01' prefe r ence shall be forvel' allowed,

To Benefit The People Never before in the history of the worln 'was there a nation with greater power than the Uni ted States to work its will on a help~ less people, and never before in the history of the world, as th is record s hows did a nat lon more f ully, more conservatively, and more humanely use the strength which was hers. In the beginning she announced that she had a ssu med sovere ig nty over the Philipl>ines not to enrich herself but to benefit the peoples for whom the chance of war had made her respo ns ible, and from the beginning to this hour she has n eve r dep arted from the


policy thus vo lu ntarily marked out as her rule of action.

No Seljish Exploitation The holding of the Philippines not fo:' seifish exploitation regardless of the rights of the people who resided in t hem, but as a sacred trust for the benefit of t hose for whose well ~bein g the nation became respons ible, t he establishment of a government not for our satisfaction or f or the expression of our theoret ical v iews, but for the happiness, peace and prosperity of the Filipino people, the evolution of a government by Americans assisted by Filipinos into a government of Filipinos a ssisted by Americans, and the education and preparation of the people for popular selfgovernment was t he broad policy of President McKinley, of Governor Taft, of Governor General vVdght and of Governor General Ide. It is t he policy of President Roosevelt and will be the policy of the administration which makes its initial bow today to the people of the Philippines. It is the policy which will leave the Filipino race happy and contented in the realization of its hopes and idealshopes and ideals rarely attained, rarely enjoyed save throu gh blood and t ears, It is sa id that there is no r oyal road to popular self-government and that every race must work out its national development by the light of the sparks stricken fro m the swo rd s of kinsmen. May be so j nevertheless the creation, the making, the upbuilding of a new nation by means which 'will not leave her drenched in gore and lamenting her lost sons like another Niobe, is well worthy of t he experiment.

Commerce And Industr y With the administration as with t hose which have gone before the restoration of com mer ~ cial and industrial prosperity to the I slands will be t h e subject of most earnest concern and object of its indefatigable, undiscouraged and persistent activities. The commercial and industrial depression which f or more than t hree years has weighed ~o h eavily on all classes is largely the natural and direct result of nearly seven years of war and disturbance, of unsettled and abnormal co ndition s. During these yeal'S of



bitte l· tr ial the cattle upon which the people depended to cultivate the soil were killed for food or dest l·oyed by disease; the t illers of t he soil, the sweat of whose brow waters the earth an d brings forth prosperity, were drafted from their usual avocations and pursuits; the laborer left the instrument of his toil and shou ld ered his r ifle to lead the active or idle life of the soldier as circumstances prescribed. Outside of the large cities no man sought to add to his riches for the rough hand of war might take them from him; tile rice fields no longer yielded food for the people; the mOlley which once made red the arteries of domestic t r ade went to enrich the veins of co mmerce in other lands; the purchasing power of the people was enormously impaired; few men cou ld sell b ecause few had the wherewith to buy and so there was, there is, and will be fo r some little time to come business depression.

Mis)'epresenta.tion The frighten ing awa y of capital by misrepresentations which damned the Government, the climate, t he country an d those who lived in it and which proclaimed th e Philippines as a hell-hole breathing death, disease and disaster did not help matter s much-or a t least not very much. The pl·ohibitive tariff in the United States on sugar and tobacco was also a discouraging influence. If we would restore prospel'ity we nlu st fint restore the prod uci ng and therefore the purchasing power of the people. Dogged industry, patien ce and persistence may in time and by themselves accomplish these things but the hour of their realization may be ha stened by the creation of new markets f or Philippine lll'oducts, by constructing roads and highways into fertlle districts and opening them up to settlement and cultivation, by establishing agr icultut'al banks, by advertising to the people of the I slands and the world at large the advantages and resources of the country and fina lly by speak ing well of t he place in which we live and spen din g our money there.

Legislation N ecesuJffY In order that t he rnal·kets of the United States may be opened to Philippine s ugar and tobacco and that private enterprise may be


induced to establish agricultural loan and mortgage banks, Congressional legislation is necessary and it will be secured once the ma s~ and body of the American people becomes ac· quainted with the facts and the justice of our claims, Th e genius of the American people is a fair genius, a just genius and always does the fail' th in g and the just thing once it knows the facts.

The N ew R ai/;roads The concession for a system of railroads in the I sl and s has been granted already and t hu s provision ha s been made by the Insular Govet'nment for the great track lines of communication and transportation. That·fertile districts may be opened to cultivation, that farmel' and ha cend et'o ma y be encouraged to produce more than is required for pure!y local consumption, that railroads now in e.'X. istence and those in prospect may become available to the producer is already 'within the power of provinces and municipalities to ac· complish, and upon the number of connecting roads and highways constructed by them will depend the prosperity to be enjoyed not only by their respective jurisdictions but by the whole Archipelago. .4(hn'ce Solici ted

To the Chambers of Cornmerce, to the agricultural a ssociation s and to all those interested in the com~1ercial and industrial welfare of the country, the door of the Government will always be wide open and their counsel, advice and suggestions are not only inv ited but demanded in the interests of t!1e whole people. That within a few months after the official termination of the insurrection against the United States the overwhelming majority of the Filipino people retu r ned to their usual avocations and pursuits and have ever since actively aided the new sovereign in supprc~· sing sporadic disorder and in maintaining the public tranquility, demonstrates that they are by nature and training a gentle, peaceloving and law abiding ra.ce. Some there are, however, who for purposes of revenue only· have for some time past persistently employee! themselves in misleading the uninformed as to the designs of the sovereign po·wer and




The maintenance of public order and the i"ing of protection to the life, the pl'ol)ertv no the home of the citizen are essential to the \"elfare and prosperity of every community nd are necessary to the existence of any 'orm of government whether popular or other\'ise, They are of the most vital importance o the Filipino people who are worn out and xhausted by many years of war, disturbance, nr! un~ett1ed conditions, Thev are of the very first necessity to the true patriots of the Philippines 'who are about to take the most important pol itical step in the histo ry of their race-the ol'.lranization of a legislative Assembly elected by and from the body of the people, Men, therefore, who would incite and promote disOl'der at this time of all times shoul d not only be repressed but suppresser! and they will be, in the manner and in the form prescribed by law,

ideas as to their duties to the la",,' abidin g and peaceful citizens. Better disciplined than the outlaws the)' were to meet, the Constabulary suppressed marauders and bandits with an energy and bravery deserving ·of all praise, but laboringunder a fal s~ idea a s to their dut.ies and in· heriting' as they did a wholly mistaken con· ception of their po\"'en they also on many occasions suppressed the deserving citizen. Considering that the Constabulary fOl·ce ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 men it may be sa id that the percentage of abuses was not great. Theil' number, however, was sufficient to move the Filipino people pl'ofoundly and to make them sincerely apprehensive that the o'Ppression of other days was about to be restored with all its horrol's , This condition was a matter of the gravest concern to Governor Taft, to Governor General \Vright and to Governor General Ide and all of them labored most industriously to demonstrate that the Filipino people were capable of the first step in self-government--the production of a peace force strong enough to maintain public order anrl conscientious enoug·h iC' respect the rights of the unarmed citizen, It is gratifying to know that the confiden\'e of these ardent believers in the Filipino people has been justified by time and that the Constabulary organization better instructed, better trained and better disciplined is gaining the confidence of the citizen and proving a most valuable aid to the governors of provinces in maintaining tl'anq\.1ility.

The Philippille Constublliary

Policy As To COl/stubuiw'y

And speaking of public order brings me to the consideration of that great force compoged almost entirel y of Filipinos and organized wh il e the pass ions of men were still hot with conflict-the Philippine Constabula"y, Sever before was s uch conf idence shown in men ,,"ho but a little before had been enemie5 with arms in their hands, and never before did men bettel' justify the trust reposed in them, The sUPPl'ession of the lawlessness which ever follows in the wake of war and the extinction of robber and guerilla bands \"hich preyed U!101l the people of their own race made immediate wO l'k for the men of the ConstabulalT and thev were sent into the field weil discip'lined but ·with the vaguest of

In pursuance of the policy of previous administrations it will be the policy of the incoming one to insist that the Constabulary be carefully disciplined, properly instructed in its duties, and trained to regard as a most serious offense any abuse whatever of the unresisting citizen whether charged with crime 01' not, Constabulal'Y officers, whereeve l' station ed, must be careful to assist and coopel'ate with the provincial governors and local authorities in carrying out their lawful purposes in maintaining order, and in protecting' life and properly. Disl'espect shown by any member of the Constabulal'y to an)' official clothed with civil authority will not be oyel'lookC'd or lightly regarded, Officers in

hen t)ccasion offered have even sought to 'nclte :,{Ot)d but ignorant and impulsive men Q deed~ of \"io]ence and disturbances of the )ublic peace. utilizing the moment of exaltai"" to collect from the unwary funds for patiotic purposes which it is needless to say "ere appJied to their own private uses. That he!'ie men are 3lT3nt frauds who speak of cal'~ and ne\'el' felt a wound, patriots who nsist on fighting- and keep to the house when he fie-hting comes, goes withollt s.aying.

PHblic Order



charge of districts or exe rcising command are responsible for the con d uct and discipline of the men under their immediate control and will be called rigidly to account for any abuses committed by them.

Must [<now 'What I s Goi'rlg On The plea by officers that they had no knowledge of abuses comn,itted 'Within their jurisdiction will not be received with f avor. Theil' comm iss ions are iss ued on the assumption th at they will know what is going on about them and their failure to be sufficiently in touch with the men of their com mand and the people of their jurisdiction to be awa re of abuses com mitted under color of authority, will be looked upon as fair ly conclusive proof that they are not equal to the work for which they are paid a salary. If the great mass of the Filipino people were educated and instructed there would be less difficulty in dealing with abuses, whether comm itted by peace officers or other officials. Ind eed, with 5.uch a consummation achieved, abuses would be reduced to a minimum s ince few would dare oppress whel'e all would know their rights and dare defend them.

Eclncatio1 L And so we come to education which after all is said and done is the base and foundation upon which must rest every cherished hope and beloved ideal of the Filipino race. Without it popular self-government is impossible; without it nationality is a dream gladdening as the rainbow but a s unsubstantial a s the il'ridescent colors of what are of promise, as intangible as the bag of gold that lies beneath the bow of heaven. Education 路wilI g ive the Filipino a common langu age-English, the tongue of commerce, the tongue which vies with French a s the language of dipl omacy. It will furni s h a common mean s of communication to Tagalog and Visayan , Pampangan and Pangasinan, Bicol an d Ilocan o and bl'in g about among th e peoples of the I slands now divided and separated by half as many dialects a s there are provinces, that union of action and that community of thought so necessary to stable government. The pol icy of giving to t he children of the Philippines whether rich or poor an oppor-

tunity to acquire useful knowledge v:ill be continued, and the facilities for securing a practical education will be enlarged and extended as far as the financial reSOU rces of t he Government will permit. The system of instruction which devotes itself exclusively to the cultivation of the mind and gives no attention to the tr~ining of the eye and the hand, is inadequate and forces into clerical employments and profess ions, for which they are unfitted, many young men Who if given a fair chance might become excellent mechan ics and artisans.

Encouragement To H'01'!c Such a system wouid leave much to be desired in any country; it would be almost crim inal in this. Instl'uction in the useful arts and trades, will, therefore, receive special consideration in the Philippines and an earnest endeavor will be made to give to every province and ultimately to every municipality at least one trade school, completely equipped for the giving of instruction in trade and industrial WOl'k. Chunh A ml Sta.te

V-nth the transfer of sovereignty, the union of church and State which had thel'etofoL'e ex isted in the Philippines was dissolved by virtue of the . American Constitution which forbids t he passage of any law creating an establi shment of religion, and thereafter the Roman Catholic Church and State were left free to exercise the functions of their respective j urisdictions, each without interference or dictation from the other. Some few officials have regarded the divo rce of the two entities, long bound togethe!' in closest ties, as 'Jnilatel'al in its effects and have acted on the theory that while the se paration deprived the Church as s nch of the right to exercise governmental function::; it did not deprive the Government of the right t o interfere in matters purely ecclesiastical and s piritual. To others the separation meant t hat the Church wa s outlawed and was no lon ger entitled to the protection either of the law 01' of the Government. Such views are erroneous and when made the basis of official action have been unjust and injul'i~u s both to Church and State.



'Cnder existing laws Church and State within their respective spheres are each infiependent of the other, and no invasion by either of the jurisdiction of the other can be or will be allowed. The Catholic Church and churches of all denomination s are entitled to be protected in the exercise of religious worship and it will be the special care ef t hI! Government to see that no person is citht"l' fa\'ol'ed or discriminated against on ac(.'ount of his religion, and that every person, no matter what may be his religious conviction':" i~ protected in the p1'acLice o( the reli(!ion of his choice.

Politics The Government will welcome and encour:1g'(' in the future as it has in the past the free di scussion by the people of public and poli tical questions, insisting, however, as it has always done, that language tending to incite public disorder and violence is unlawful and does not come with in the protection ~uaranteed to free speech. Political parties will be protected in their right. to peaceably assemble and persons duly elected to office will, if otherwise qualified, be seated regardless of the ir political bias, IHejudice 01' convictions.

As To Independence For some t ime past the question of the independence of the Islands has been the subject of discussion not to say of agitation. Indeed, in some form or other it is the feature of nearly every political platform in the Islands. Some want it when the sovereign power believes they are prepared to receive itj some des ire it when the people have demonstrated that they are capable of exercising and enjoying the privileges of popular self-govern ment; some ,vish it when the people have shown that they are capable of :!'overning themselves and st rong enough to !lu~tain and maintain their government; some would ha ve it irrespective of conditions; ~ollle want it immediately, some urgently and some explos ively, whatever that may mean. This question is one which can only be determined by the American Government and is one, therefol'e, with which the Insular Government has no concern save in so far as the prosperity and the welfare of the I s-



lands may be affected by any untimely agitation of tlte matter, Unless independence is to be granted immediately, and I surmise that it will not be, it seems to me that a good deal of valuable t ime and energy is lost by able men which might be more profitably employed in perfecting the existing government and in restoring commercial confidence and industria l prospel路ity.

What Has Cuba. Done Personally I doubt s incerely whether innependence will prove a panacea for all ills to which a people may fall heir. Indeed, if the experience of Ru ssia counts for anything, and I think it does, a peo,le may be independent and still be the most unhappy, the most down-trodden, the most oppressed of all the world. And Cuba-ha!'i her new fonnd independence and nationality-fought for, bled fol', for more than thirty years, given her good government and her people peace and content?

Independence By Com'mon Consent To me it has always seemed that independence 'w ithout the force, without the means to maintain it, is not worth the having; that the independence which exists by common consent will be as durable as the interests which made the con ~nt possible; and that independence without good government is as deceivin6' as the mirage \.... hich promises green slopes, s hady trees and bubbling springs, and leaves the trustin g traveler to die of thirst on the blistering desert sands. But this is invading the domain of polit ical discussion which properly belongs to the political parties, Let the excuse for my intrusion be my anxiety to avoid the introduction of any new factor which may divert the people from the work of restoring the prosperity lost by路 war, agitation and unsettled conditions.

How Govento1's Have Been Hampered Entering upon the arduous duties of Chief Executive of the Philippines, Governor Taft was hampered by the doubt, the suspicion and the reserve with which the people l'eceived civil government at the hands of a nation




n~g'arded as a conquering enemy, Governol ~ General 'Wright by the immense popularity and affec'tion which had been poured out upon his predecessor, and Governor-General Ide by the unju st belief that his heart was as cold and unresponsive as hi s conduct in dealing with the people's money and in demanding that justice be done.

His Own H opes Entering upon the duties of the office I have just a ssumed I encounter no


obstacles in the way of accomplishment save those presented by the problem itself; when I surrender its burdens to my successor may I do so with some faint glow of the g loriou's achievement of the -raft administl'ation, with the record f01: sincerity, coul'age, zeal and unflinching devotion to duty of t he 'Wright administration, and with some. of the b~:il~ liancy which marks the splendid administration of the man who has just J'etired from office with the heartfelt praise and devotion of the whole people.



W. C A M ERON FORBES Fifth Governor· General of t he P hilippine Islands Inaugurated November 24, 1909 FELLOW COU!\,TRY!\ IE~:

When a ma n under~ takes the guidance of the sh ip of state, it is customary fol' him to announce the course that it is his in tenti on to steel', to proclaim so far as may be the goal wh ich it is hoped to reach. It is profitab le at suc h ti me to look to the instructions under wh ich others ha ve previously assumed direction of the same ship, and with these fresh in mind, f ace the problems of the prese nt and prepare pl ans for the f utUl·e. Among t he names of those who have directed the ini tial policy of the American Government in the Philippine I slands are those of ,i\'ill iam McKinl ey, Theodore Roosevelt, E lihu Root, \ViIliam H. Taft, and Luke E. " 'right. The Philippine I slands have indeed

been fortunate in hav· ing received the sen-· ices of such men as these, m en who have directed the affairs of the United States fr om the commanding pos i· tions of Pres id ent , and of Secreta J'y of War. T he ol'iginal wor k done by t he J.~ avy of the United States un~ del' Admira l Dewey and later t he f inp ,,,,o r k of t he Army and of the beginnings of civil government under the notable Generals, Otis and MacAr t hur. will always deseJ've a tribu te of admirat ion and res pect. The initial period is always the one which requires the most intense application of ef~ fort, the highest order of ability; ar:d the wisdom of th e choice of President McKinley for t he posit.ion of first Civil Governor of the Philippine I slands has been pl'O ~


,.en and ratified by the overwhelming vote \1o'hich elected Mr. Taft President of the Unit_ ui States last November. He 路 had served tht'se Islands first as President of the Commission, then as Civil Governor, then as Secr~tary of \\"ar, and now he is completing the full measure of service by directing their affairs from the highest position within the gift )f the Amel'ican people. I cannot pass by this perio d without pau sto dwell for a moment on the services of :n at notable friend of the Filipino, Governor"eneral Wright, whose farsighted wisdom has ,,路oven threads of order throughout the fabric )f Government which have vastly strength-ned its usefulness and efficiency. There has never been the faintest shadow )f a doubt cast upon tfie official 01' personal ntegrity of anyone of the fiTSt four goverlors that. succeeded each other in the adminstration of these Islands. The foundations of our work have been so ;rstematically laid and the plans so com pre_ lensi' -ely prepared that a man of far less Lbility than these may hope to carryon the tffa il's of the Government and ach ieve a suc'ess impossible but for the work of those who laVe passed before. It is indeed difficult to emulate the virtues ,f the last retiring Governor-General, whom 11 of us had learned to love so well; one can In ly use the superlative degree in describing he rectitude of purpose, the devotion to duty, he spotlessne:ss of the personal integrity' of ames Francis Smith, P resident McKinley, in ilistructiJlg the Philopine Commission to proceed immediately 'ith the establishment of civil government, sed the followlng words: "That in all cases the municipal officers 'ho administer the local affairs of the peoIe are to be elected by the people, and that 'hel'ever officers of a more extended .1u1'18iction aloe to be selected in an~r way, natives te to be preferred, and if they can be found lmpetent and willing to perform the duties, ley are to receive the offices in preference I any others. in g


'" An indispensable qualification fol' all officers and positions of tru st and authority in the islands must be absolute and unconditional loyalty' to the United States, and absolute and unimpaired power and authority to remedy and punish any officer deviating from that standard shall always be retained in t.he hands of the central authority of the 'islands.

tlln all forms of government and administrative provisions which they are authorized to prescribe, the Conunission should bear in mind that the Government which they are establishing is designed not for our satisfaction, nor for the expression of our theoretical views, but for the H appiness, Peace and Prosperity of the people of the Philippine I s_ lands, and that measures adopted should be made to conform to their customs, thei r habits, and even their prejudices to the fullest extent consistent with the accomplishment of the indispensable requi ~ites of just and effective govetnment, At the same time, the Commission should bear in mind, and the people of the Islands should be made pl ainly to understand, that there are certain great principles of government which have been made the basis of our governmental system which we deem essential to the r ule of law and t.he maintenance of lrdividual freedom and of which they have u nfortunately been denied the experience posse~sed by us; that there are also certain practical rules of government which we have found to be essential to the preservation of these great pri.nciples of liberty and law, and that these principles and these rules of government must be established and maintained in their Islands for the sake of their liberty and happiness, however much they may conflict with the customs or laws of procedure with which they are familiar, "U pan all officers and emplo:'tees of the United States, both ci vil and military, should be impressed a sense of duty to observe not merely the material, but the personal and social rights of the people of the Islands, and to treat them ,\v1th the same courtesy , and respect for their persona l dignity which the people of the United States are accustomed to require from each other,"



Analyzing t he instructions of President McKinley, we may fairly take them as the goal toward which we are to steer the hap_ piness, peace, and prosperity of the Philippine people. I n so far as the people are toclay happy, peaceful, and prosperous we have succeeded j in so far a s the people do not enjoy these blessings, we have not yet achieved success. The people are today peaceful. We can concentrate our attention in brin ging them prosperity, secure in the belief that under just and equitable laws, und er a wise and firm government, with t hat fr eedom of thought, of speech, of worship, of labor, a nd of op por tun ity which now prevails, happiness, will not be found far away when the means of procuring it are abundantly at hand. H ere is a climate palticuJarly fa vorable for some classes of products and capable of yielding vast return s to honest and ir!telligent expenditure of effol'ts, and yet here we have a peop le bemoaning their poverty' and living from day to day without those reserve sup ~ plies so necessary wher e crops are uncertain w-ithout the alleviation from suffering wh ich modern medjcines and surgery can give, without the nourishing kinds of food so necessary to bui ld up the str ength of the body, withou t houses built to withstand the elements, with. out in fact, most of those th in gs which modern civi1ization believes to be necessary for the happiness of a community. An anal ysis of the f undamental conditions of life reveals in part the l'easons for t hese conditions. A very large propOl'tion of the peop le have been held in that primitive con_ dition v..·here each man supplied all of the things necessar y for hi s own use and got along w ith only what h e could personally produ ce. vVe m ust bend our efforts to advance the day when each individual supplies the articles which he is best fitted to produce, which he sells to h is fellow-men, and uses t he money th us gained to purchase of others the things which they can produce better and cheaper th an he. This is the essence of trade, and this condition of affairs is impossible without economical and adequate means of transportation, hitherto woefully lacking.

Our success in accomplishing of the princi. pal object in these Islands, namely t hat <i bettering the condition of the people may bt best measured by the increase from time to' time in the rate of wages and in the value o( imports and exports. I am opposed to the admi ssio n of Chinese labor, nor do I think t here is any need of it The Filipino can do all the necessary won in the I slands. I have entire confidence that the Philippine laborer, properly treated, prop. erly paid, an d given t he opportunity to UR t he money which he receives to better his OWl! con dition and that of his family, and to pur. chase those things for which people are usually willing to work, will respond to the opportunities given and demonstrate the fact that he is fully able to suppl y all the demand for labor in these I slands. 'Vhat is needed here is capital. Let us tu rn our attention to a few comparative figu res . The total populat ion of Ha· wai i is 198,000 people, or about one-fortietb part of the popula tion of the Philippine Itlands, now approximately eight millions. The total exports from Hawaii in 1907 were $29,000,000, t he total exports from the Phil· ippine Islands for the same year were $34,· 000,000. In other words, Hawaii produced for export approximately thirty-six t imes as mucl: per capi ta as did the Philippine I slands.

This is not because their laborers are superior, as Hawaii has come here in search of la borers and reports that these few whom they .!have obtained are equal to their Japanese, Korean, and other laborers. Porto Ri· Co has 1,000,000 people, or one-eighth the populat ion of the Philippine Islands, and in 19M its exports were $27,000,000. Porto Rico evidently does not exercise the same degree of economy in the use of its labor as does H8~ waii, for it produces only one-sixth as much per capita for export and still Porto Rico eX' ports six times as much per capita as do the peop le of th e Philippine lslands. 'W ere these Islands to produce for sale to other countries as much per capita as Porto Rico the total exports would be $216,000,000. Were they to produce as much per capita as Hawaii the ! total exports would be $1,179,000,000 a year.


The explanation of this lies in the fact bat Hawa:i has an abundance of capital, plors modern methods of cultivation and anufa<:ture. modern freight-handling deces, and suitable and adequate steamship d railroad facilities. In other words, in awaii the work of the laborer counts, in the ilippine Islands it does not. No, it is not or that is 'wanted here; it is capital. Many Filipinos have a tendency to oppose e introduction of capital into these Islands, ther from the United States or from 拢01'gn countries, fearing lest somehow it should ilitate against the realization of their as"ations. In my judgment it will have the rosite effect. It is true that it might be ssible in the course of several generations develop the latent resources of the Philine Islands without the assistance of outde capital and finally to accumulate enough develop the domestic business from within , t why wait? vVe had better attract for l' use the accumulations of wealth already ade in other countries, sure that the advanes which flow from them will far more an offset any possible disadvantage due to e fact t hat some of the profits will leave e country or that t he owners of the capital II endeavor to influence the administration the Islands or their political status, Capital demands a stable Government, pital is not particularly interested in the lor or design of the flag. It wants just and uitable laws, sound and uniform policy on part of the government, just and fair tment in the courts. The faith of the nited States is pledged that all of t hese nefits shall be permanently assul'ed to the iii pinos. No capitalist need feel alarmed as the security of his investment provided it lS been made in such a way as to fulfill the mditions imposed by law. The United . tes stands pledged to the establishment and aintenance of a stable government in the . ippine Islands, not for the sake of such pi tal as may be invested here only but for e sake of the welfare of the Philippine peoe a11d of the good faith of the United States ore the world. The security of foreign pita) is merely an incident in the general


secul'ity of property and other rights to the Filipino, and both are no\"\' permanently assured. It would be good general policy for us to offer every reasonable inducement to capital to come, and "'ith that end in view, to liberalize our land and m ining la,,路,'s and lessen the restrictions which have hitherto tended to discou rage investors. My policy will be to hold out the hand of welcome to all people desiring to engage in legitimate enterprise. There has been some doubt in the minds of Filipinos as to the effect which trusts would have were they to enter the Philippine field. The word "trust" i& properly used to describe a combination of capital engaged in producing on a large scale some article of general consumption. The whole trend of modern development has been in the line of such concentration of energies, and in the United States, where this movement has reached its greatest development, we have the greatest prosperity. The articles sold by' the trusts are sold at a lower price than was possible before their organization, and the labor_ ing people of the United States live better and receive better wages than anywhere in the world. Four to SL'X: pesos a da~r are not uncommon wages for unskilled laborers in the United States. Forty to sixty centavos is the prevailing price per day in the Philippine Islands, which is one-tenth of that which a laborer can earn in the United States, while there is by no means the same disparity in the effectiveness of the labor. Experience, hov.'ever, has proved that the trusts, when uncontrolled, esteem themselves above the law and may become a menace to the welfare of the community, by making illegal combinations in restraint of h'ade or by unduly raising prices at times ,,-hen such an action ,..,;orks to the disadvantage of the community. The only question then as to the desirability of investment here by trusts Ires in the nature of the control to be exercised by the Government. The laws which have already been passed give sufficient power of regulation to the Insular Government and to the Government of the United States to obviate any danger to be apprehended from that SOUl'ce.

113 0


An analysis of the census reveals certain peculiarities about the distribution of population in these Islands, some regions being densely overpopulated a nd others being practically without inhabitants. Curiously enough it is not always the richest sections t ha t sup_ port the most peop le and from many districts come complaints of t he difficul ty of getting an adequate and reliable supply of labor. I think the Government can very properly use its vessels to prOVide free transportation to families wishing to move to those cultivated regions wnere laborers are scarce and thu s increase the genera l production of the Islands. The Bureau of Labor has already made some progress along these lines.

t hese natural highways available for the USt and development of the Islands, and the Gov ernment should not rest until both sides of everyone of these navigable rivers are lined from end to end with farms occupied and worked by prosperous and happy people.

The Governme nt should bend its efforts toward the development of the rivers and haroars - a potenti al mean s of tran sporta~ion which sho uld equal in importance the facilities supplied by the railroads.

More important still, and supplementary to a ll of these, are the roads, and in present progress of the work in connection with roads, I find the mos t happy augury for the futult' s uccess of the Philippine people. In Decembe r, 1907, the Commission, until then the sole legislative body of the Islands, adjoullled without passing an y law making adequate provision for the necessary construction and a nnual maintenance of roads, I am glad to credit the members of the Assembly with having taken t he most advanced and enlightened interest in the work and having made the m ost liberal provisions for roads by voting funds for that purpose to the limit of the capacity of the treasury. Before the Legis. lature had convened the Commission had pa.. ed a law making a majority of the provincial boards elective, a measure which provided for the extension of autonomy to the provinces in line with the instructions 0 Pres idents McKinley and Roosevelt and t policy of the American Government here, Th success of the road movement depended up gettin g the provincial boaTd to pass a la each ~rear increasing the amount of the ce dula or poll tax from PI to P2. To do thi it is necessary to convince the provincial of ficial s each year of the necessity of road con struction and maintenance for their own p cnt development and futt:re welfare. H nobl y these officers have responded is demon s trated by the fact that the first year 27 t he 31, the second year 30, and the third yea 31, or all of the provinces affected, hav adopted the double cedula tax and put them selves in the lin e of advancement.

""e have more than a hundred river s navigab le within but closed at the mouth to the entrance of seagoing vessels by reason of the bars for med by the a ction of the waves at the shore. Especial attention should be given to the dredging of these bars and the building of bulkneads and scom-ways t o render

All Government construction should be 0 permanent and durable material. A buil ing if worthy of construction is worthy 0 good construction. Our people are too poo our resources too slender, our need of mane' too g reat to admit of our wasting any' of tha which w~ ha\路e. The Government buildin

The passage of the Payne Bill should give a new lea se of life to the Phili ppine Islands. I t assures us of the best market in the world for our products, a market that is not open to our nei g hbors, and therefore gives the Philippine I sl and ~ a pl路eference which s hould enable us to increase very greatly the production of ce rtain of our staples. This will have a vivi fying effect which will be felt throughout the length and breadth of these Islands a nd awaken new hop e in the hearts of the people who have been struggling against almost overwhelmin g difficulties.

It is part of our programme to push to early completion a genel'al and systematic improvement of the means of transportation. The existing contracts for railroad aggregate nearly a thousand miles, of which half al路e now buili. This in itself is earnest of the beginning of the new era and w ill provide adequate transpo r tation for a lal'ge proportion of the people.


and bridges should always be of reinforced concrete, the roads should be built upon strong foundations, with durable surfacing, and guarded from hour to hour by roadmen to see with jealous eye that no sign of deterioration is allowed even to appear. Our wharves should be built of materials that will resist destructive insects of the seas. Our plans should always be made upon what will be the most economical construction calculated on a basis of at least fifty years of use. The Filipinos are not strong enough to do bhe work which is required of able-bodied people. Examinations made by the sanitary a uthoriti e&' Teveal the fact that in the regions inspected, which may be taken as faiTly' representative, by far the greater majority of the people are afflicted with more than one form of intestinal parasite, which sap the vitality and lessen the power to do work and the power of resisting disease. The most fruitful sources of these parasites are the polluted surface waters which the people have been accustomed to drink. A supply of pure potable water is the first requisite for the purpose of sanitation. To this end the most important agency is that of the artesian wells, wJlich should be bored in every municipality and barrio in the Islands. Fortunately, the people themselves are most keenly alive to this necessity, and there has been no difficulty in getting a vote of the Philippine representltives of the different entities of government -insular, provincial, and municipal-in favor )f this most vital and important work. Another direction in which the energy of he government can be profitably employed is n checking the infant mortality, which coninues at a most alarming rate. Care of nfants will result in an increase in the num~rs of the population and in the physique of .he ch ildren, which cannot fail to be most leneficial to the Islands. There is no agency more potent in crea~ing citizenship than is the ownership of and. It is necessary that the owners of the and should be provided with registered titles, o use as security for loans or that they may Ie able to sell without there being the probalility that the pur chaser has acquired only a




lawsuit. It is my purpose to provide for a complete survey of all the parcels of land in each municipality. I should like to so ar~ range matters that a judge of the Court of Land Registration may be at hand to fix the ownership to each parcel as surveyed, and when fixed the Government will give title to the land on the basis of division of expense of the same, the owner repaying somewhere from 60 to 80 per cent of the cost, in easy installments. This will save much of the travelling of surveyors and greatly reduce the cost. The Agricultural Bank and Postal Savings Bank will then be able to make ad- . vantageous loans and greatly assist agricultUre. It is my intention to make appointments to the vacant authorized positions in the Court of Land Registration in the near future. The Government will adopt the policy of not entering objections to the issue of titles to land to its occupants where it is clear that the interest of the public will not suffer. I believe that these measures will end the present stagnant condition in the matter of land registration. In the matter of irrigation it is the plan of the Government to continue the active work of surveys and the gathering of data until we have a complete irrigation survey of the Is_ lands and know each area capable of irrigation, the flow of each river, even at the driest times, the works necessary for its control in time of floods, the cost of the intended il'ri¡ gation worl<s, and the cost per hectare of putting water on the land to be improved. Having due regard to distributing the benefits from the irrigation works so a&, not to concentrate them all in one province or island, it is tilie policy of the Goverrunent to develop those areas first where the cost of the construction of tHe system per hectare is least. It is expected to collect from the land benefited the cost of maintenance of the system, the interest on the money invested, and something besides, which is to be added to the original fund, and which, with the continuing annual appropriation of P750,000 voted by the Legislature, should roll up into a sum which will, in the course of t ime, supply the



Islands with irrigation systems wherever it can be done with profit:. The establishment of post offices and extension of the rural delivery of letters should be continued as fast: as funds will permit, until at least: every municipality has its post of_ fice. It is hoped to establish and maintain wire or wire less telegraphic communication with every provincial capital, and to extend the system of telephone connection between the municipalities throughout the provinces. The general dissemination of knowledge as to prices, movements of ships, availability' of cargo, and so forth, is of the greatest importance in stimulating production. There is no question as to the necessity and importance of the Constabulary; they should be maintained at their present strength. The officers should understand that they have a career in this service and the Government will support them in the proper conduct of their work. The legislation enacted assures an excellent personnel and increasing efficiency. The organization has fully met the hopes which were entertained for it when it was started and there is no plan either for a dimin ution of its force 01' for a Jessening of its duties. It is necessary that some way be found to improve the municipal police throughout the lslands, es pecially in the matter of longer term for the men and better methods of discipline, drill, and inspection. I want to see emphasis laid upon the importance of the practical side of industrial and agricultural education. Success in agric.ultuTe and industry are the things sought, and they can be best taught, and one might say only taught, by those who have themselves achieved success. Our agricultural schools should be made self_supporting, so that their pl10ducts should pay the cost of the labor which is clone on them, and something more. I I should like to see everyone of the two million children of school age in these Islands re~elVmg an education. The thought is grievous that any boy or girl in the Philippine l!iilan~s wanting to get an education should bJ,> unable to do so because of failure of the

Government to provide facilities, and yet the resources of the Islands have not developed to a point where I feel that we are justified in largely increasing the appropriation for education. When the time comes that facilities can be available. I shall not be opposed to a law providing for compulsory education. The amount of education we shall be able to &ecomplish in ten years will be very much greater if we devote our first money toward increasing the wealth of the people and later u se the resulting increase of revenue for ex路 tending our educational facilities. I liken the work of the Government on irrigation and improvement of transportation to cutting the strings which close the mouth of a purse of gold. The gold will pour forth and yield enough for all. It is my' hope that the Philippine University will soon establish, among other technical schools, a school of engineering, so that the important work of building up the public works of these Islands may be placed gradually in the hands of Filipinos. The Filipino is as quick as any person to indulge in desirable and health-giving forms of amusement. Nothing could be better for the Filipino than stimulating interest in wholesome outdoor sports, to develop the body and divert the mind. In the large cities of the United States it is a well-known fact that crime decreases in the neighborhood of play_ grounds for children and I hope the time is not far distant when every city in the Philippine Islands will maintain a plaza where children and young men and women can in路 dulge themselves in healthy outdoor recreation. A strong body is earnest of mind, ready to work and to endure, and the young men and women of the Philippine Islands should make it a matter of pride to have broad and deep chests, finely developed muscles, and hands inured to toil. The rinderpest is now the greatest menace to material development. The draft animals must be saved to the farmer, otherwise he can neither cultivate the land nor haul his products to market. The method of immunizat ion is now known . The control of the disease is now a que~tion of money and organ-



i78tion and 1 have already taken measures to remedy the deficiencies that have existed and shall allow no stone to remain unturned until this effort is crowned with success. The destruction caused by locusts can be greatly lessened in my j udgment by a system of rewards to be given for information brought of the places where the eggs are laid lnd, under provision of existing law, turning JUt the populace to destroy these or the yo ung ocusts before they have reached the age when ;hey can fly. The arm of the Government will be strong_ r used to reach out and find and punish those :aptains of steamers who refuse to carry a :onsignment of goods so that they may buy t at less than its value. The hand of the ~overnrnent will be heavily laid on those of'icials-Insular, provincial, 01' municipal, who Ise their positions to compel anyone to sell lis products at a price that he knows to be 10 low as to be unfair. It is necessary that the civil service should Ie rigidly maintained and its rules carefully lbserved. Any other system is sure to reIUlt in eventual disintegration of the ~rvice. I believe that we have today an accounting ystem which in principle is more nearly akin o the best m odern commercial practice than ~ usual in governments. The system is as et incomplete in its working, but in principle 1 correct. In matters pertaining to religious beliefs nd observances, I shall carry out the Amer:an policy of religious tolerance. Every man as the right to worship accor ding to his wn belief. The Government will not interlre with the customs, manner s an d prefel':lees of the people in so far as they observe lIr laws, which a re framed in accordance ith accepted usage in civilized countries. All lurches will receive protection under the law lr the proper conduct of their affairs and I regard to their property rights. Financially the conditions of the Insular reasury has been most satisfactory. We lVe had a reasonable surplus and rate of :penditure for current expense which has ft a comfortable margin, some of which LS been avai lable each year for the con-


struction of public works out of the cur rent revenues. Although many people have got into the habit of complaining that the rate of taxation is high" and there has been a good deal of political agitation in favor of lower taxes, a study of comparative figures reveals the fact that the rate of taxation in the Philippine I slands, compared with that of obher countries similarly situated, is extremely low, and the Filipino who questions the ability of his people to pay the low rate of taxation now imposed shows a great lack of confidence in their capacity. It will be my policy to confine myself strictly to those "things which lie within the ample powers of the Governor-General to direct, I do not propose to occupy my time nor my attention in the unprofitable consideration and di scussion of the future political status of the Islands. I deem it proper, however, at this time to can attention to the manner in which the Government has observed President McKinley's instructions, that the Filipinos be given participation in the Government to an extent limited only by the retent ion by t he people of the United States of a strong control over the affairs of the Islands. We have given the Filipinos a complete autonomous government in the municipalities outside of Manila, with wide powers under a munici pal code, and a franchise that permits of th e election of all the members of the governing body of the people, and have brought it about that the officer directing the immediate government of the individual throughout the Islands is the man of his own choice. Later, the provinces were given the right to elect the majority of their provincial boards, until that time held by officers ap4 pointed by the Governor-General. This f urther extension of autonomy to the provinces has given over to the hands of the Filipinos a larger unit in civil administration. Later the Legislature was convened and the Commission was divested of its powers as sole legislative body over the Christian and civilized inhabitants and it became only one H ouse of a Legislature, both H ouses of which have an equal voice in framing leg'islation for the people concerned and at the same time the



number of Filipinos on the Commission was increased by one, so that today the Philippine Legislature consists of one House with eighty-one Philippine members and one House of whom four out of nine are Filipinos. Re~ lations between the two Houses of the Legislature have left little to be desired. The proceedings were all conducted in a dignified and formal manner and .. each House adjourned after disposing of all business submitted to it by the other and most of the pressing legislative matters were well cared for. Although I realize the difficulties inherent in the work of a new organization and although the Filipinos had no parliamentary experience, I am glad to say that the First Assembly has fu lly justified the hopes that were held for it. One ver~' distinguished Filipino recently has been appointed to administrative control

of one of the most important departments of the Government, equal in rank to any exe_ cutive position in the Islands with the exception of the executive head. In the executive branch of the Government, tne Filipinization of the service must steadily continue. As vacancies occur Filipinos will be gradually substituted for Americans as rapidly as can be done without positive detriment to the service. At the same time, care will be taken to provide a suitable career for honest and capable Americans who have come out here in good faith. They should Imow that during good behavior and efficient performance of their duty they are secure in their positions, and that when they desire to return to the United States an effort will be made to place them in the civil service at home. I am heartily in favor of a pension for Americans who have g iven their lives to faithful service in the Islands, and shaH present the matter for consideration to the next Legislature. There has been a constant increase in the number of Filipinos in tihe classified civil service, which has grown from 49 per cent

in 1903 to 55 per cent in 1905, 60 per cent 1907, and 62 per cent in 1909, according the last returns.

I want no better men than the present (J ficers and employees of the Governmer Americans and Filipinos. They compare f vorably with any set of men I have ever se! both as regards ability and fidelity to dut

To the Filip'inos I say, turn your undivid~ attention to the material development of YOI country and rest confident in the good fail of the United States. If it were the desiJ of the United States to prevent the Filipinl from becoming a progressive, happy, aT united people, strong in the accumulation I wealth and lrnowledge and capable of natioi ality, we shou ld not be devoting our enti: energies toward the accomplishment of tho: measures which make such a nationality po sible; we should not be providing all of tl people of the Islands with a common laJ guagej we should not be maintaining a di ferent organization of armed Filipinos drillE in the art of war, aggregating 10,000 me: of whom 5,000 are paid from the Treasul of the United States as United States troopl we should not be extending the privileges ( occupying the more important posts in t1 Government service to Filipinos; we shoul not be devoting our first e.i forts toward bin( ing the Filipinos together into a closer unio by th('se ties which come from improved meaJI of communication, as post-offices, telegrap and telephones, railroads, roads, subsidize steamboats, and so forth.

I regret to have to say that in my juel.! ment in some instances the Filipinos theII selves have hindered the fruition of these el forts, as fo!' example by discouraging th universal adoption of a common languageJ b endeavoring to avert the opening of the mal kets of the United States to Philippine pl1J ducts and by discouraging the coming of cal ita1, thus impeding and delaying the arriw of that. time when a national existence wi" be possible.


The success of an administration varies di-ectly ",ith the degree and confidence and asi tanCI .riven by the people themse lves. The esire and ability to assist the Government is haracteristic of successful democratic forms f go\-emment and I invite the Filipino peoIe to bring me their recommendations and uggcstions of measures for the betterment f their condition with the certainty that I hall alwal''S be ready to receive t hem with I'lnpathetic attention. To the Americans I say, those of you who ish to see the fullest measure of American lccess in these I sl~nds should deal courtlusly with the Filipino. Speak him fair; ~al with him fair ly, and look after his inn-ests as though t hey wel"e yours, as indeed ley arc. To those engaged in business I ld, do not feel it necessary to make a big refit on each transaction. It is important lat each transaction should be creditable to )u. The great axiom of modern business that a trade to be a good trade must be a )()d trade for both parties. A man to really lcceed in business must have his clients and Istomers satisfied. Safe profits are made oy onomics in operation, in transportat ion, 1n ethods of producflon and manufacture and !t by charging high prices. See that your stomer gets his full money's worth and that e good which he receives of you are as repsented. Those who do otherwise are ene_ ,es to the successful administration of the inds. It is not that I object to large pl'of-on the contrary, I should like to see all !! merchants here accumulating wealth-but !It I believe 'the methods I have suggested U result in a greater volume of business It wi ll in the long run yield larger and fer returns.


all of you I say: H ave confidence, turn Ir attention to those occupations which are :ing to people in time of profound peace. ere is not on the horizon discernible any ld which ind icates the possibility of any d of disturbance in the present statu s of


these Islands, either from within or from without, by insurrection or war. The 路 United States is strong, determined, fixed in her policy, and not to be dissuaded or coerced. The development of the Philippine Islands ,vill proceed along the lines originally set forth, strictly adhered to by each successive administration and by gradual processes in line of declared policy, not by 5'pasms or jerks. There seems to be in some quarters a fear that with the new administration there is an intended change of regime; that somehow or other the people will be made to suffer by the exercise of something which they designate as "the strong hand." I hope that my hand will prove to be strong in justice, in law and order, in helping the weak and distressed, in combating the forces of evil. No people want a weak or feeble government. The only persons who need fear the exercise of a strong hand are those who fear justice, or those who for reasons of their own may be planning evil. The man who is loyal to himself, loyal to hi s people, and loyal to his oath of allegiance to the United States, need h~ve no anxiety_ I think that the character and history of the present President of the United States is a guaranty that no man will be allo,,'ed to remain a Governor of these Islands who uses his power in an unjust cause or to the disadvantage of t he rights of the Filipinos as guaranteed them by the libel'al provisions of Congress. In friendliness, _in cooperation, there is strength; in recrimination, in hostility, there is weaJ...-ness. Let us all reach out the hand of friendship to oul' neighbor and endeavor to promote an era of good feeling, of ample confidence, of mutual respect, and of cooperation that we may all secure the realization of the main object to the attaimnent of which all the energies of this administration are here_ be pledged; namely, the material prosperity of the P hilippine Islands.





FRANCIS BURTON HARRISON Sixth Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated October 6, 1913 CITIZENS OF THE PH I LIPP I NE I SLAN DS:

The President of the Un ited States has charged me to deliver to you the fo ll owing message on behalf of the Government of our country:

"We regard ourselves

as trustees, acting, not for the advantage of the United States but for the benefit of the people of the Philippine [s lands.

"Every step we take will be taken with a view to the ultimate independence, and we hope to move towards that end as rapidly as the safety and the permanent in terests of the I slands will permit. After each step taken experience wi ll g uide us to the next. "The administration will take one step at once and will g ive to the native citizens of the islands a majority in the appointive commission, and thus in the upper as well a s in the lower house of the legislature a majority representation will be secured to them. uWe do t hi s in the confident hope and expectation t hat immediate proof will be g iven in the action of the commission under the new arrangement, of the political capacity of tho s ~ native citizens who have already come forward to represent and t o lead their people in affairs." This is t he message I bear to you from the President of the United States. With his sentiment and with his policy I am in complete accord. Within the scope of my office as Governor-General I shall do my utmost to aid in the fulf illment of our p romi ses, con-

fident that we sh thereby ha-sten t hI! coming of the day of you r independence. F or my own part I shou ld not have ac. cepted the responsibil路 ity of this great office merely for the honor and the power wh ich it confers. My only motive in coming t( you is to serve, as well as in me lies, the people of the Philippine I slands. It is my greatest hope th at I may become an instrument in the further spread of democratic govel'nment. To every democl'at, government rests only upon the consent of the governed, and we de not maintain that self_government is the peculiar property of our nation, or that de-mocl'atic institutions are the exclusive privil('gP. of our race. On the other hand we de n ot believe that we can endow you with the capacity of self-government. That you must have acquired for yourselves. The opportunity of demonstrating it lies before you no in an ever widening field. As for ourselves, we confidently expect 0 you that dignity of bearing and that se restraint which are the outward evidences 0 daily increasing national consciousness. Ir: promising you, on behalf of the administra路 tion, immediate control of both branches of your legislature I remind you however, tbat for the present we are responsible to thE world for you r welfare and for your progreSi Until your independence is complete we shal demand of you unremitting recognition Oi


ur sovereignty. You are now on trial before an internation路 al tribunal that is as wide as the world. Vtl e who appear before this august court in the Ught of your advocates are proud of the priv路 ilege that has fallen to us and we do not mun the responsibilities of our role which is N'ithout a parallel in history. We shall earerly 2.wait convincing proof that you are cap.hle of establishing a stable government of lour own. Such a government may not nessarily denote an entire reproduction of ur own institutions but one which guarantees a its citizens complete security of life, of


liberty. and of property. We now invite you to share with us responsibility for such a government here. Every Filipino may best serve his country who serves us in this en路 deavor; and to that end I call upon every good citizen of these Islands and all who dwell therein, whether of native or foreign birth, for assistance and support. People of the Philippine Islands: A new era is dawning! We place within your reach the instruments of your redemption. The door of opportunity stands open and, under divine Providence, the event is in your own hands.



LEONARD WOOD Seventh Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugumted October 15, 1921 ,ADlES




I appreciate. more Ian I can tell you, lis cordial welcome 1d the spirit which romp ted it. I feel ghly honored by the mfidence of the Present in appointing me this most important )st, and deeply touchI by the cordial ex~essions of approval his action by Filinos and Americans. It is my purpose, so r as lies in my pow, so to conduct the government that it will characterized by economy. efficiency. and le progress; a government of the p~ople by

their representatives to the extent provided in the Jones bill; a government characterized by honesty. morality and an appreciation of the fact that public office is a puhlic trust, that fitness is an absolute requirement for appointment to office. There must be no turning back. but ste~dy progress on sound lines. The Philippines people have made wonderful progress in the last 23 years. I doubt if any people, under the friendly guidance of another, have made a greater advance in the same period of time. This has not been ac-



complished by the Filipinos alone, but with the absolutely unselfish aid of the United States, acting through thousands of loyal unselfish Americans who have worked with an eye singly to the best interests of the people of these islands. In considering the progress made we must not forget the work of Spain through centuries spent in implanting the Christian faith, European fonns of administration and law, a foundation which, although covered in places, has greatly facilitated the rapid building up of representative government among a Christian, self-respecting people, free of caste distinctions and imbued with occidental rather than oriental ideas of government and of ideals. Although oriental in blood and birth, the people of the Philippine Islands are closely aL }jed in religion, in ideas of government, in methods of administration, and in law to the great Christian nations of the west, and especially with America as to form of government, civic and religious liberty, and liberal institutions. As a people, you were born and educated as Christians. There must be no sliding backward in the Christian faith. In this connection it is well to remember that the first sign of the decadence of the people is a disregard for religion. That a people be well grounded in their faith is essential to real stability and progress. Your enthusiasm and thirst for education and your accomplishments in building up a sound system of public education is beyond praise. We must keep it up. Indeed, we must extend and improve it. Education must be free to all. Your women must be given equal opportunity wibh your men. Nothing I have seen in the islands has impressed me more than the character, loyalty, thrift, and all around good influence of the women of the Philippines. The government must encou rage, not discourage, private enterprise. As a general policy, I believe that the Government shou ld keep out of business. The judiciary must be independent and stable and kept absolutely outside the scope of political influence and

out of politics, for an independent, fearless judiciary is the foundation of stable govern_ ment. We must push forward our public works, especially roads and irrigation. \Ve must give far more attention to public health and sanitation. Too many precious lives are lost each yeal' that could be saved, easily saved. Almost one_third of all the children born in t he Philippine Islands die in the first year of their lives, a frigihtful indictment of our sani路 tary and health conditions. 1"Ve must provide the remedies for the cure of our lepers, for a large proportion of them can be cured. We must take better care of our iI)sane and defectives. We must do all we can to build up a fuller appreciation of the dignity of labor; to increase our agriculture and push forward the development of our natural resources, and so organize and conduct the government that funds adequate to the needs of progress and development will be available. We must live within our income. Above all, we must all work together to a common end-the welfare and ihappiness of the people of the Philippine Islands. 'Ve must hold on to sound principles and policies. This is no time for rash exp riments. ''''',e must keep our feet on the groun and remember that our road lies ahead of us not behind. My purpose is to do the best I can to re establish the credit of the islands j to buil up their commerce, incl'ease the prosperity 0 the people, and make the government a mode of efficiency. This I can not do without you cooperation and support, all of you Filipino:! . and Americans and others living in the i lands. With your cooperation the work wil be easy, for the spirit of the people is excel lent and the natural resources enormous. We must do all we can to build up an in structed public opinion, for without it tru representative government can not endureo In this, the press is charged with a great. sponsibility. Vie must do everything posslbl to push forward the study of English, an make English the language of the people 0 the islands. Nothing will do more to strength



tion of Governor Yeater's assistance, his unfailing courtesy and kindness during the entire stay of the mission in the islands. He has helped us in every possible way. Governor Yeater is a man whose efficiency and ability are only equaled by his modesty. 'Ve shall all be sorry to see him go. He has been a good friend and has done his best in every way for the people of the islands. He has r endered most excellent service, and takes with him the respect and regard of all with whom he has come in contact. In the 'great work before us I bespeak your cooperation and assistance. Working together we can not fail.

:'l the spirit of solidarity nnd aid in develop19 an in5tructed~ sound public opinion than common language. The establishment of a sound, stable, rep!sentative government in the Philippine Isnds must not fail. for the far-reaching effect . the efforts which we have made here. in Ie Orient, to establish such a government :tends far beyond the limits of the P hilip_ ne Islands i indeed, it reaches out to every ~ople who are dreaming of liberal institutions ld of government by the people. It shall not il. because the United States has put its illd to the plow and will not tUrn back. fn concluding, I want to take this opportu~ to e."<press my sincere and deep apprecia-



HENRY L. STIMSON Eighth Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated March 1. 1928 LLOW COUNTRYME:;-..':

[ thank you for the rmth of your greetPrevious contact h the people of ole Islands has aclin ted me with their loess to the strangand I welcome it " as a hopeful a uf of success in the 'icult task before What we have to lmplish together in successful adminision of government these Is lands, can be ach ieved by the 'st possible measure of sympathetic and ent cooperation . For my own part, I shall my utmost endeavor to establish such Ilonious cooperation under the Organic under which it is our joint duty to labor.

It is not within the province of the Governor-General to determi ne the future relations of the inhabitants of these Islands to the United States. But it is hi s duty, so long as the present connection remains, to endeavor to make that union a happy and fruitful one, and to carl'Y all the government of these Islands, so far as it rests in hH.hands, in full conformity with the noble and unselfish purpose of the American leaders who in -past years have devised, created, and administered it. It has been my good fortune during mylife to come into close contact with several of these men, I have sustained both personal



and official relations with that statesman who, as Secretary of War, first laid the broad and enduring foundations of American policy in the Philippines upon which a ll subsequent growth has been predicated, Elihu Root; with that devoted founder of your civjl government and laws, 'W illiam Howard Taftj with that efficient administrator, so justly beloved throughout the Archipelago, W. Cameron Forbes; and fina ll y with that faithful friend of the F ilipino people whose recent lah ors have made possible, we believe, a n~w era of constructive accomplishment, Leonard Wood. These great men, each in his own time and way, have helped to formulate the doctrine of trust responsibility which underlies the sovereignty of America in these I slands and pJaces upon the shoulders of the GovernorGeneral a duty of protection toward the liberties of the humblest citizen. No one can approach such a task, in the li ght of such examples, in any other than a spirit of profound humility. For many years I have earnestly followed and observed the development of government in the Philippines and have noted with gratification the progress which has been made. During the past two years, I have had occasion to visit an d study other peoples both in t he Orient and in the Americas, and I congratulate you on the contrast between the peace, the order, the general contentment prevailing here, and conditions which I observed in some of these countries. I congratulate you especially upon the zeal which you h ave consistently displayed towards edu cation and the progress which has been made through that instrumentality in the direction of achieving 'national consciousness and a common language. In so doing you have grasped at one of the basic necessities of a self-governing people, and the vigor and readiness to make sacrifices which have accompanied your efforts have been in a high degree remarkable and encouraging. Errors in the methods and character of education have possibly been committed; by too many students it has been regarded as the object and end of their endeavor, instead of merely

the means towards further effort in the ne ending struggle of life. Yet when all is s in following the injunction of Solomon to fast hold of instruction, you have take long step forward on what President velt has called, "the stony and difficult which leads to self-government."

I venture to hope that during my adrni tration further progress may be made al t hat same road, and among the various In: ters which I deem important, r lay particll~ stress upon industrial and economic progre It has often seemed to me that sometimes our insistence upon political development ' overlook the importance of the econon foundations wliich must underlie it and up which it necessarily rests. By some of \ industrial development has even been dread as if it were inconsistent with the liberti of a people. As a general proposition, believe that no greater error could be ma( History shows that it has been great comrne cial and industrial nations which have fir developed individual liberty and free instit tions and which had most tenaciously cluJ to them. 1t has shown further that with sucn countries it has been the middle artisr class, produced by industry and commerc which has been the pillar and support I their free institutions. The industrial guiI in ancient times, was a birtbplace of con mon rights, and in later days the trade unic brought forth by industrial development hl (,ften been a bulwark against governmentl oppression. On the other hand, those natior which have depended solely upon . agricultnl and the tillage of the soil, where there mi no commerce or industry and no middle elM of citizens engaged in them, have been th ones most prone to drift into the abuses G serfdom and peonage and other varying form of servitude. If there is danger today 0 the loss of personal freedom in these fslandf if for example the tlireat of the usurer over hangs any class of your citizens, it is th tillers of your rice paddies who are subjec to the danger rather than the artisans of yOU shops and factories.


Furthermore, the world has now reached a ge of progress where government is excted to engage in activities for the social netit or protection of the individual, all which are expensive and require greater ....ernmental revenues. The constantly exnding system of public education to which have just alluded, is but a single example. e government of today is expected to furh not only schools and colleges, but also pitals, asylums, libraries and museums, ublic roads, aqueducts and post offices, and constantly increasing variety of services of lIalth and education, travel and communican, protection and social welfare which mon civilized life regards as essential. All these services minister to the comfort and liare of the individual citizensj some of em, like education, directly conduce to his ility to govern himself. Some of them are rticularly necessary in the tropics with its nstant threat of epidemic disease. But ley all cost money. They all make inroads the revenues which come from taxation. support them a community must possess e wealth which comes only with industrial Ivelopment. Today your budget and your x laws indicate that you are already reachg the limit of the revenues obtainable upon ur present economic development. You are ced with the alternative of increasing your lable wealth or checking and holding back r e of the necessary activities of your govlment and important public improvements. [n short, it is the simple truth not only \t individual freedom and the practice of i.government are found to be most pre.ent and firmly held in those communities j nations which have a highly developed .tern of industry and commerce as a foun:ion, but it is also true that only in such !munities and nations can the average cit.1 attain the degree of individual comfort, .cation and culture which modern civiliza1 is corning to demand.


Is there any reason why the Filipino people should not attain such an economic development? Manifestly it lacks it today. Manifestly its attention during the past generation has been more concentrated upon political than economic development, with the result that progress in the latter field has not kept pace with the exceptional progress made in education and public affairs. But the Philippine Islands today are possessed of a political connection with the fore ... most industrial nation in the world-the nation where not only has mechanical invention made -the greatest advances, but where the organization and 'methods of industry and the relations of capital and labor are more enlightened and fruitful than in any other country under the sun. Is it not the part of wisdom and of prudence for this people to absorb to the uttermost the lessons and benefits which can be derived from the teaching of such a successful practitioner? Have not the people of the United States sufficiently demonstrated the unselfishness of their attitude toward these Islands in the mat.ter of political development to make them worthy of confidence in the matter of economic development? I believe that nowhere in the world are the relations of capital to the public watched with a more jealous eye than today in the United States. The abuses of capital which excited criticism a generation ago have been curbed. The American captains of industry of today have a very different standard of duty toward the public from their predecessors of the nineteenth century_ It should be an easy matter for wise statesmanship to gain for these Islands the inestimable benefit of the guidance of American industrial experience and capital, upon terms which would not only share present profits with .the Filipino people but would also leave their rights and resources unimpaired for the generations to come. Moreover, I believe that the establishment of such industrial relations with the United



States would greatly benefit the social relations of the two peoples. Business relations oetween worthy partners tend to proauce mutual confidence. On a small scale I witnessed a striking example of this tendency when I visited Hawaii on my journey hither. The Filipino laborers who go from h ere to the Hawaiian sugar plantations occupy a very different position in that community today than they did ten years ago. They have won their place in the confidence of those with whom they come in contact. They have become almost indispensable to the industry of those Islands, while at the same time they have themselves derived corresponding benefit in train ing, in respons ibility and in earning power. As I Hstened to the gen erous praise spoken of them by their employers in Hawaii, I could not help feeling t hat if such a change of sent iment could be effected by t he mere contact of a few laborers engaged in field labor, what an enormous social benefit could be derived should the Filipino people in large numbers and of all classes, laborers, artisans and investors, be brought into friendly, profitable and cooperating contact with the representative business men of industrial America. Three centuries ago, under the leadership of Spain, you turned you r faces from the Orient toward the Western 'World. You aecepted a civilization and a religion which marked you as a separate people from those who surround you. Now with the passage of those three centuries, your connection with the West has itself become transformed into a promise of new opportunities. The nation with which you are now connected represents not only political freedom but the highast average standard of social and material wel_ fare which has yet been developed in this world. I cannot believe that this opportunity will Dot be grasped by the Filipino people. On

the contrary, I believe that it will, through it that they will press forward new stages of political and social welfare. I have addressed myself thus far to Filipino people, because the steps necessa for the solution of the problem which I have been discussing must primarily be taken by them. Before closing, may I add a word 01 appreciation and good wishe! to the American residents of these Islands. r am keenly .... sible of the debt of gratitude which bobit Filipino people and the people of the Unlto! States owe to them and of the duty whim r ests upon the shoulders of the Governor. General to protect their legl"iimate rights and interests. Whether in the military uniform of the United States, whether as civil servanlJ and teachers of this Government, or whether as business men risking their aU in the d~ velopment of its resources, these Amerieatll rendered inestimable service to this land. They have been the pioneers in the performance of an American service to an Oriental people, such as no other nation of the wl)rld has ever attempted. It would be a shortsighted policy indeed which allowed them to be treated either with neglect or injusticr, for such a policy could result only in ultimate injury to this country where their service was rendered.

In the conduct of this office into which I have now been inducted, it will be my earnest endeavor to be watchful of the interests 01 both Americans and Filipinos alike, to be equally accessible to all and patient in heam, all sides of such issues as may arise. Working all of us together in a spirit 01 sympathetic cooperation, 1 trust that under the providence of God, we may be suecestfal in carrying forward the high aims and purposee of the noble men who have preeeded 1IJ.





DWIGHT F. DAVIS Ninth Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated July 8, 1929 lADIES




TWENTY - F I V E ears ago I first visited faniIa, led here by the He curiosity of the ~Ul· i st. Today I rearn, not as an idle lurist but as your incere friend, animatd not by curiosity but y an earnest desire to fork with you for the {e1fare, progress, and rosperity of the Phil?pine people. You may wen he roud of the material, ultural, and spiritual etterrnent which you have brought about in IUs short quarter of a century; and the peoIe of the United States have been sincerely appy to cooperate with you in making this evelopment possible. Towards the Philippine eople, the people of the United States have ~t one desire to extend to them their friendly id in the solution of the problems of the fulTe. That feeling is cordially shared by our reat President, who, better than any Chief • I IxecutJve of recent years, understands the roblems of the East, Herbert Hoover. Next week it will be my pleasure and privege to discuss various plans snd policies ith that distinguished body, the Philippine egislature. On this occasion I wish to ex:t!88 my very warm and sincere appreciation . the kind welcome you have accorded to me. landed this morning among strangers; at. ady I feel that I am among friends. In my message to the Legislature I intend discuss the proposal, which was introduced

in the United States Congress and overwhelmingly defeated in the House of Repres~ entatives, to limit the free entry of Philippine sugar into the United States. Today I shall only say that I am strongly and un~ alterably opposed to this proposal. As my immediate predecessor pertinently pointed out, the determination of the political future of the Islands does not come within the province of the Governor-General. However, practical problems directly affecting the foundations upon which that political future must rest, do confront us for solution. If these founda· tions are not strongly and firmly built, any structure of government, no matter what its character, will inevitably fail. One of the corner stones of the foundation of any government is the honesty of its officials. Public office, it cannot be repeated too often, is a public trust. Dishonesty among public servants must be fearlessly suppressed. If it is not detected and punished, it spreads insidiously throughout the whole service, corrupts those who con~one as well as those who connive at it, and dissipates public moneys so seriously needed for essential improvements. The public official who betrays his trust is not only unfaithful to tho." who honor him by election or appointment to office. He is faithless to the children who must grow up without educational opportuni-



ties due to lack of revenues, to the sick who cannot get hospital treatment, to the unfor~ tunates in our eleemosynary institutions, and to all the people who benefit by public improvements vital to their welfare. The responsibility for the elimination of dishonesty from the government rests not only upon out' officials but also upon the people, who themselves are the principal sufferers. If public opinion demands honesty, it will get honesty. If it condones dishonesty, it will get dishonesty. I confidently rely upon the support of the press and the public in the insistence that public officials he faithful to their trust. Closely related to this subject is the most effective use of the available revenues. Efficient economy must be exercised in every department of the government. I assure that it is being practiced today. I am confident that every administrative official will cooperate to this end. If any official is unable or unwilling to do so, he should and will promptly be replaced. Efficient economy does not mean merely the saving of pesos and centavos. It is measured in terms of increased health, more education, hetter living conditions for the peopIe. Every peso wasted, or inefficiently or unnecessarily expended, deprives the people of these facilities for which they have taxed I shall rigorously insist upon themselves. "Efficient Economy," by which I mean a peso of service to the people for every peso of taxes taken from them. There is one element of weakness in the present foundations which threatens the strength of the whole governmental structure. That is the lack of adequate resources to cal'l'Y on the work which has started so auspiciously. Government revenues are practi~ cally stationary, while the needs and proper demands are steadily expanding. The development of educational eleemosynary, and

cultural facilities, the building of roads, water works, harbors, railroads, irrigation ~yste schoolhouses and other important pUblic im provements too numerous to mention, the cui tivation of all the elements vital to mode civilization, these essential governmental activ ities require constantly increasing revenues Taxes probably cannot be materially raise A steady increase in the wealth of the pe pIe, which in turn will steadily increase the revenues of the Government, is essential. How this can best he brought about j ...., one of the pressing problems confronting t~te Legislature. Economic and industrial development is thut one of the corner-stones in the foundatioD upon which our governmental and political future will rest. I am confident that the Filipino people have the intelligence, the ability, and the courage to build that foundation 10 strong and secure that it wiU safely sustain any structure, social, industrial or political, that the future may build upon it. I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the warmth of your greeting today. I realize that it is not a personal tribute, but iI the cordial courtesy of a hospitable peop" to one who comes from a great nation whos« only wish is their advancement. Were merely to give expression to my personal grat-ification at such a cordial reception, YOll might well feel that I had missed the broader significance of this occasion-had failed to! sense its unmistakable evidence of friendship on the part of the people of the Philippine ll"i lands for the people of the United States. regard this warm welcome as a happy augUr)" of that close, cordial, constructive cooperation under the Organic Law which I hope will the keynote of my administration, a coopera· tion with political, business, journalistic, anil spiritual leaders for the sale purpose of pI'O" moting the welfare of all the people. I am proud to follow that illustrious groUP of my predecessors "from Governor Taft to


Governor Stimson. If my administration of the high office which they have so ably filled j. to maintain worthily the high standards which they have set, that result must be accomplished largely through the generous coDperation and assistance of the people living in these Islands, Filipinos, Americans, Spaniards and those of other nationalities. Your warm welcome today is an inspiration and en:ouragement to believe that I may confidently expect that support. I am fortunate in baYing as my associates Vice-Governor Gilnore, who has so faithfully labored for many vears to promote your best interests, and the )ther splendid men, both Filipinos and Amerlcans, who make up the administration. And { am happy to say that I have been assured If the cordial cooperation of many distin~ished public leaders, whom I am g lad to number among my personal friends. A marvelous transformation has taken place in that brief quarter of a century since ( first visited Manila. A beautiful city has ~rown up, worthy capital of these beautiful Islands. The school system, the foundation lpon which all future greatness must be build,d, has had a wonderful growth. Health and 'l3.nitation, without which progress is imp oslible, have been vastly improved. Peace and :ood order maintained everywnere. Trade and :ornmerce, which, rightly or wrongly, la,rgely letermine the .importance of a country in the ~tim ation of the world , are expanding. The ltandard of living of the people, a truer measIre of real progress, is steadily improving. rransportation and communication have been 'acilitated by the construction of good roads, .elephone, and radio facilities. The magni'icent dock at which we have just landed, unurpassed in the entire world, is an evidence ,f healthy commercial development. Your 'rogress in the art of government is a credit j the intelligence, self-control, and ability of ou..r people. Everywhere are proofs of the


progress and prosperity which have marked these twenty-five years. A quarter of a century, while a long period in the life of an individual, is but a moment in the life of a people. The progress which has been made, while highly commendable, is merely a start towards fulfilling the needs of the future. Much has been accomplished ; far more remains to be done. Our task has just commenced. The road to our goal is long, hard and hazardous. There is no easy road to greatness, whether of an individual or of a people. Hard work, sacrifice, selfrestraint, unselfish service, these are necessary clements of future progress. We can- â&#x20AC;˘ not rest content on past performances. To stand still in a rapidly advancing world is to go backwards. But by looking hack on past progress, we get faith for the future . What win the coming years bring to these lovely Islands? I have a vision of that future. Perhaps it is too roseate. Yet to sue¡ ceed we must set our goal high . In that vision I see the Philippine Islands as the happy home of a contented, prosperous people, spiritually, politically, and culturally leaders of the Far East, with boundless natural resources developed to enrich its inhabitants, a high standard of living f or al1 the people not merely for the fortunate few, a model of education, sanitation, and health. A start towards this goal has been made, but it is only a start. The goal is still very far away. If I can share with you in bringing this vision a little nearer to fulfillment, I shaH rest content in the consciousness of having contributed a little to the future greatness of a splendid people. I have but one aim, to work with you to promote the welfare, progress, and prosperity of the Philippine Islands. In that spirit I come to you. In that spirit I seek sincerely to cooperate with you in making what is noW but a glorious vision into an equally glorious reality.





THEODORE ROOSEVELT Tenth Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated February 29, 1932





It is with a profound â&#x20AC;˘ sense of the responsibility and importance of the tasks that lie before me that I greet you here today. We knO\" one another only slightly. but I hope as time passes tl1at the bonds of common service will strengthen between us, and that from them will grow an enduring respect and friendsrip. Fine words and phrases are easy to coin. Fine deeds are infinitely more difficult of accomplishment. I shall ask you to judge -what I may say today, therefore, not in terms .of literary style, but by my acts in the future. The position of Governor-General to which I have beel). hamed, is one that I consider as honorable as any within t he gift of the American people. It is in my conception administrative, and the political relationships between the Philippine Islands and the United States do not come within its scope. These are matters to be decided by the President and the United States Congress, in consultation with the representatives of the Filipino people. Being administrative, the service I can render you will depend largely on the confidence and comprehen5lion that exists be-tween us. I, for my part, shall do my best to work with the citizens of the Islands in carrying out the constructive policies that

they have initiated and are developing. We are fortunate now in having as head of the nation a Pres¡ ident of exceptionally wide experience. He has as intimate a knowledge of the East, its peoples and its problems, as any other Chief Executive the nation has had. He knows the Orient not from having read of it in books, or from hav. ing passed through it as a tourist, but from having worked there many years ~and having made many close frien ds there. You can count on his gym. pathy and comprehension. The United States in the past has sent ita

best to the Islands. Distinguished admini&t1'ators from President Taft to Governor-General Davis have labored here and have treasured the memories of their work with you among the proudest recollections of their lives. At their side have worked many other Americans from able educators and scientists to engineers and accountants. Though it would be idle to say they have been right ion every action, for that would not be human, we can say' that they have spent themselves freely, with rare judgment and ability and with no other thought than aiding your citizens. It has been my pleasure to know personally many of these gentlemen. It will be my endeavor to guide myself in such fashion as to live up to the ideal of service to the Filipino people that they have set. Your last


Governor-General, Mr. Davis, I saw repeatedly after his return to the United States, where we discussed at length policies and plans in order that there might be no lack of continuity in the constructive work under way' in the Islands. For years the Philippine Islands and the Filipin~ people have interested me greatly. It has been my privilege at various times to meet some of your distinguished citizens, and r have not merely studied the material condition of the Islands, but also your history and culture. I speak with knowledge, therefore, when I say that I have a great respect for ihe Filipino people, their achievements, character and valor. Their character to me is epitomized in the aspirations and unselfish devotion of Jose Rizal, who combined lofty idealism, rare abilities, and practical patriotism. You should justly be proud of )rour record. No part of the civilizec globe has seen such progress during the last thirty years as these Islands. Where one school flourished thirty years ago there are hundreds now, and the students have increased proportionately. 'Vhere there were but a few roads, many of which were impassable during the r ainy Jeason, the Islands are now linked with as line a system of communication as any country in the Tropics. 1'he 300 miles of first class thoroughfares in 1907 have grown to approximately 4,000 today. There are sanitary water-systems in great centers where none were before. There are railroads, tel~phones, telegraph and a dependable postal ;ervice. The young men and women at the fnsular Universiiies are numbered by the ;housands, and Filipinos of ability are makng their mark in the higher branches of earning, scientific and theoretical, in the :enters of learning all over the world. Other mdeavors in health, agricul ture, and economcs have kept pace. A1 solid foundation has 3eCn laid on which to build the future hap pi_ lesS, both moral and material, of your people. This has been accomplished in but one way - by teamwork. It is t his that I shall strive o attain in my administration. \Vithout it .othing can be done. With it, everything is ossible. I have had the pleasure of discus-


sing with the members of your delegation in the United States the constructive internal policies that you are developing, and I feel confident that together we can make notable progress towards their realization. All countries are in their essence the average of their citizens. A small group of brilliant men have never made any land permanently great. T he well-being, moral stamina and education of the rank and file of its citizens are what count most in every country. There are three {oundaticn stones on which these rest. The first of these is health. 路W ithout it there is no progress. A man shaking with fever, coughing from tuberculosis, or weak from lack of proper food and from in_ testinal parasites, cannot work or raise a proper family . A little child when undernourished cannot avail himself fully of the opportunities offered by the school, and falls the prey to any disease that may come. Therefore, the health service of a nation is all important and must be considered as one of the underlying policies to be developed. The second is a sound system of laws, administered without fear or favor, laws based upon the rights of man, which dea l equal justice to rich and poor. Every member of the路 community must enjoy the "right to live by no man's leave underneath the law." On such a system of laws admin istered by .righteous judges, who consider neither private interest nor political advl:\ntage, is based personal liberty, the most treasured of human possessions. 路W here such a judicial system is lacking, no form of government can achieve its end. There are many lands throughout the world where the governments care nothing for the welfare of the poor and where the laws are interpreted by fear or favor. There the people have no protection ana no personal liberty. There the rich arbitrarily take the poor man 's carabao. ' Vhen he goes to bed at night he never knows what outrage on his family or pl'operty may' be perpetrated before morning dawns. The Amel'ican and Filipino people believe

that the poor should be lProtected. Thos. autocratic governments do not r ecognize that



the poor have righ ts. We believe that criticism of the government h., the right of any citizen and breeds reform and progress. They clap into prison, exile or shoot anyone who protests an abuse. Their people have no conception of the: personal Uberty that is enjoyed by the humblest of ' tHe citizens here or in the United States. A judicial system which guarantees true

personal liberty stands with health in its importance to a people. Third. and as vital as the two former, is education-education not for the few but for the many, education of a type that builds both morally and intellectually. The ideal we are striving to realize has as its basis a school system where all children may have the opportunity for elementary education. That education should include practical or vocational trainin g, as wen as theoretical instruction. It sh ould be of sucn a sort as to give to the children, when they leave school, the means whereby they can make for themselves happy, worth-while lives. It should give them aspirations for beteer things, and a keen interest in the affairs of their community, not merely in such as may affect them directly, but also in all affairs that touch on the well-being of their fellow-citizens. It should be the root from which grows the tree of public opinion, on which all commonwealths depend for their success. In all of these ma,ior policies I know that the Filipino people have made great strides. In all, it will be my policy to work with you in every fashion that lies within my power, for I believe that the well_being of the average Filipino depends on them. Our goal in agriculture and industrial development must be the wen-being of the average Filipino. We must foster a nd protect the small fanne r and the little business man, for they are the backbone of a nation. The measure of a strength of a country is not a few great estat es, but a multitude of prosperous small independent holdings. A hundred little farm owners are far rno~ valuable to a nation than one large plantation owner. I shall back to t he limit the endeavor you have undertaken to .secure for the

little farmer clear title to his land, and to fence him with safe-guards so that he may not be robbed thereof. We should plan in addition to increase the number of small holdings by pressing your policy of homesteading and by such other means as may be practical. Through the Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Commerce and other governmental organizations, we should continue to devise new means of bringing to the small farmer knowledge and aid. The Islands' resources should be developed for the benefit of the Filipino people, and new policies should be judged primarily f rom this standpoint.

Above all, we should work to make the Islands as close to self_sufficiency agriculturally and industrially as circumstances permit. Gifted by nature with a diverse climate, a fertile soil and great natural wealth, there is no reason why the Islands should not grow the necessities of life for their own people. It is necessary that they should do so in order to form the proper economic basis for what the future holds. Our constant endeavor shouM be directed towards bringing this t o pass. All the work r have outlined takes money, and the Islands like the rest of the world find themselves in straitened circumstances financially, due to the economIc crisis in which an nations are engulfed. That means that if we are to maintain the necessary Government services we must exercise the strictest economy. Expenses that in better times might have been justified cannot now be incurred. Above all we must work for govern路 mental efficiency, for that is the means whereby all nations can make the greatest practical economies. We must press the cam路 paign you have initiated to eliminate in路 efficiency, duplication or graft wherever they may be found, in order that the moneys saved thereby may be expended for the benefit of the average Filipino. 'Let us work together to make the Filipino Government a model of efficiency for the rest of the world. Important as material well_being is, it Is . not all, for things of the spirit are as important as things of the body. uWhere there is no vision the people perish." At the same



time that we are building economically we should develop and foster the cultural side. The Philippine Islands have路8 culture, deeprooted in the past, a culture that springs from the songs and sayings of the people, as do all true cultures. It has flowered in the philosophical writings and poems of Rizal, in the paintings of Luna and Hida lgo, the statues of Tolentino, the music of countless singers and composers, and the achievements in different branches of learning of many Filipino men and women. It finds its natural center around the universities on the Islands. It is a distinctive culture but broad as well, assimilating as all true cultures should, what is best in the rest of the world-for genius lmows no national boundary lines. To me, the Philippines of the future are an inspiring picture. They can be and should be a great center in tropical Asia, a center rrom which the surrounding countries can draw example and aid. I have spoken of health. Tropical diseases and health problems have not been studied as thoroughly as those of the colder climates. There is need that they should be. Here in the Islands is alIt ready an excellent health service. &hould grow and expand in the future until it serves not merely the Islands, but by example, the neighboring countries as well. Here might well be the recognized Asiatic school of tropical medicine, to which young men from other parts of the Orient come to study, and which in turn sends out its trained professors to teach other nations. The same should hold true in agriculture, which is the major industry of the hotter climates. The Philippine Islands should be the Asiatic center of scientific tropical agriculture, where methods, plants and diseases are studied, and whose experts are recognized the world over. The advance of a people is indicated by the position that women hold in the community. The lslands are a notable illustration of this truth. It is a splendid augury for the future to see the considerable part the women )f the Philippines play in community affairs ~n d social relationships. This has brought its logical result-social Kelfare work. History shows that this ne-


cessary part of community endeavor is gen .. crally attributable to the efforts of women. The Government can do much, but the government itself cannot do all. An important factor in the building up of any country is the c.ction of its citizens to one another in their private capacity, their willingness to help one another. The individual who says he is not his brother's keeper and remains callously indifferent to the hardships and sufferings of his neighbors, is unworthy of citizenship. The Filipino people are known for their kindheartedness and hospitality, and have undertaken successfully much work of this nature. There is room for still further effort for welfare work is capable of infinite e;p~n颅 sion. Through private organizations of the citizens of the Islands we should strive to reach into every little home and better the conditions of life of mother and child. My success in aiding you in the development of these policies will depend largely on the mutual understanding we , can develop. J shall seek at all times the advice and counsel of the leaders, both political and intellectual. I shall welcome at all times the frank expression of constructive opinion and suggc.stions of any citizen. I am coniident I shall obtain it. I trust I may obtain friendship as well. At this moment it would be clearly for me to outline to you in detail any plans or thoughts that are in my mind. Though I have talked with many people nnd have read many books on conditions here, I have not seen these conditions myself, and I believe personal inspection is necessary to form sound conclusions. My plan is to start at once to familiarize myself wjth the Islands and the problems. When that is done, and not until it is done, will I attempt to deal specifically with problems. This is a most solemn moment in my life. :Kot only have I always had an abiding int.erest ir. th ,~_ Filipino people, but the same held true of my Father. When Governor of New York, he wrote to his intimate friend, Senator Lodge, that he did not wish to be a candidate for the Vice-Presidency of the United States because his ambition was to



----------------------------~-----be Governor-General of the Philippines. I did not take the oath of office in the United States because I wanted to take it here before all of you. The aible on which I am taking it is the one used by my Father when he was sworn in as Governor of New York,

and afterwards as President of the United States. It is the same that 1 used to take the oath of office as Governor of Porto Rico, I am not taking this oath to-day merely witt my lips.



FRANK MURPHY Eleventh Governor-General of the Philippine Islands Inaugurated June 15, 1933 LADIES


patriotic motives, we may advance steadily toward a full realiza.tion of th e high purposes so eloquently stated by President McKinley when the civil government wu f irst established and which have in no small degree already heeD attained under the lib-eral provisions of the Jones Law a nd the many wise and CODstructive measures eDacted by the Philippine legislature under that great charter of liberty



One of the most difficult of tasks is to express adequately the sentiments I hold at this moment, I dOl however, want to acquit myself-even if inadequately done-of the grateful duty of thanking you for this friendly and inspiring reception. To me it means more than a demonstration of wel.come, a gesture of greeting; it means that we can, and w ill, labor together as comrades in the soluti on of our common problems. Coming to you as a representative of the American government to which I am hound by solemn obligations assumed in my oath of office and imposed upon me by law, I am bound to use my office and its prerogatives to promote in every way, consistent with those obligations, the general welfare of the people of the Philippine Islands. This I regard as a high privilege and a solemn trust, to be .exercised and performed in a s pirit of broad understanding sympathy, and tolerance. It is my sincer e and eager hope that by common counsel and effort, working together in mutual confidence, inspired by unselfi sh and

and home rule. So that there may be no mistaking our purposes, it is well to be reminded on this oe. cas ion of the words of those distinguished statesmen and friends of Philippine liberty who have fostered the ideal of democratic gov.. ernment and self rule in these Islands. In outlining the principles which should guide the permanent Commission in establish. ing a civil government, on April 7, 1900, President McKinley said: Illn aU the fonns government and administrative provisions which they are authO.... ized to prescribe, the Commission should bear in mind that the government which they are establishing is designed not for our satisfac-




tion, or for the expression of our theoretical people, who will now look more anxiously views, but for the happiness, peace, and pros- than ever to see whether we have indeed the perity of the people of the Philippine Islands, liberality, the un selfishness, the courage, the and the measures adopted should be made to faith we have boasted and professed." conform to their customs. their habits, and The spirit of these great utterances, which even their prejudices, to the fullest extent we here and now heartily embrace and reaf~ consistent with the accomplishment of the in~ firm, took definite meaning and form in the dispensable requisites of just and effective provisions of the Jones Act, wherein the Con~ government." gress solemnly declared the purpose of the In a message sent to Governor General Har~ American people as follows: rison on October 6, 1913, President Wilson uTo place in the hands of the people of the said : Philippines as large a control of their do. uWe regard ourselves as trustees acting not mestic affairs as can be given them, in or路 for the advantage of the United States but der that, by the use' and exercise of popufor the benefit of the lar franchise and govpeople of the Philipernmental powers, they A PERSONAL MESSAGE FROM pine Islands. Every may be the better pre~ PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. step we take will be pared to fully assume ROOSEVELT taken with a view to the responsibilities and UI wish to .end a personal greeting the ultimate independenj oy all the privileges to the people of the Philippine Islands ence of the Islands of complete independ. and to expren my grateful appreciation and as a preparation ence." of the many cordial menages of good for that independence; This purpose was givw:111 that have come to me from them . and we hope to move en effect by estab1ish~ "In the selection of the Honorable toward that end as rajng a government unFrank Murphy as your new Chief Executive, I feel that I have given am路 pidly as the safety and der which for a period pie evidence ott my deep interest in the permanent interof seventeen years we your welfare. He brings to your servests of the Islands will h ave together been ice outstanding and demonstrated capermit. After each working out the politicpacity in governm.ental affairs and val. al and economic desstep taken experience uable experience in both executive and tinies of this great will guide us to the judicial fields, together with a broad commonwealth. T hat next." human viewpoint and a keen desire to we have wrought well, I n t h e following anist in a happy solution of all your problems. I conf;.Jently expect that he no one, I believe, can year, December '8, will pro.e himself deserving o f) your serously doubt or deny. 1914, the Congress adeem and affection; and r. be.peak In the course of this was reminded of its for him, in his efforts to promote your trusteeship we have duty by President Wilbe.t interests, loyal .uppol'lt and coo'Peration." come now to another iOn in these plain and important decision. The linmistakable words: HAnd there is another great piece of le- Congress has enacted a measure which offers to the people of the Philippines an opportun~s lation which awaits and should receive the ity through their authorized representatives ~nction of the Senate: I mean the bill which ~ ive8 a larger measure of se l f~government to to 'v ote on the question of independence. As the people of the Philippines. How better, in I view it, this is a matter which is primarily ;his time of anxious questioning and per~ their concern, on which they should be per))exed policy, could we show our confidence mitted to express their independent judgment n the principles of liberty, as the source as after a full, fair and unprejudiced discussion vell as the expression of life, how better and consideration of the issues involved. t auld We demonstrate our self~possession and leave this entire question with you for your teadfastness in the course of justice and dis- free determination, without interference and 'lterestedness, then by thus going calmly uncontroUed by any force or influence whatsoorward to fulfm our promise to a dependent ever.



Whatever may be the decision as to acceptance or rejection of this measure, there are still confronting us immediate problems of government which cannot be neglected. We must be ever mindful of our continuing joint responsibility for honest, frugal, enlightened, and progressive government,-government administered in accordance with sound principles of finance and with a clear understanding of

the social needs and economic interests of all the people of the Philippine Islands. We must counsel together and plan together the orderly development of our economic life, so that, whatever the form of government may be, the future of" these Islands will be happy, prosperous and secure. The first duty of such a government, in order of statement if not of importance, is to conduct its own business on a sound and orderly basis, efficiently and economically, giving a peso in actual service for every peso of income. It must carefully budget its expenditures so that they will not exceed its revenue or dissipate the public resources in unnecessary services or activities. For the time being we must have recourse to uncompromIsmg economy in spending. The public debt also must be kept within proper and conservative limits. This result will be assured by the preparation of a careful program and strict and rigid adherence to it by all the departments of the government. A budget is valuable only if and when expenditures are kept within it. Together we will make a stubborn stand against the unwholesome practice of allowing deficits to creep into our balance sheets. But a government, if it be enlightened and progressive, aiming to serve adequately the needs of all the people, will be something more. Besides being financially sound, it will be concerned with the economic and social conditions under which the millions of humble citizens throughout the length and breadth of these Islands live and toil for their daily bread. It will be anxious to know the reasons for gross inequalities and social injustices, wherever they may be found, and study and apply proper and effective measures to

correct them. It will constantly aim to pre. vent and suppress practices and institutions whereby men, when so disposed, are able to take unfair advantage of their fellows, rob them of a just share of the fruits of their labors, and deprive them of the means and opportunity of self government. With every agency and instrumentality available to i~ with all the right and power at its command, with a resol ute and unflagging determina. tion that will not be balked by stagnant tradi. tion or narrow prejudice or selfish indiffer~ ence, it will seek to help the underprivileged, to protect the weak and untutored against the strong and unscrupulous; and it will seek to make education, healthful living conditions, fair and impartial justice, steady employment at a fair wage, adequate care of the sick and indigent; and all the other benefits of civil路 ized society, available to every man, woman, and child. In short, it will be the business of government, while keeping its own house in order, to wage relentless and unceasing war on human exploitation, ignorance, dis路 ease, dishonesty, and injustice in every form, whether it be economic or social, political or moral, in order that every man among us may enjoy for himself and his family the full blessings of true liberty and enlightened democracy. If in administrative and fiscal matters the government succeeds, while social justice in the community fails or remains unsolved, the great task of governmental management is still incomplete. There is. therefore, urgent need in government for administrative abiljty, an ability in which the worth of integrity ' should be the dominant strain, but there is also the urgent need for human understanding and sympathy. To look upon government as a mere business problem is to see it only in part. Another phase of governmental responsibility, heretofore regarded as visionary and impractical but now being accorded respectful consideration, lies in the field of economic planning. The world has drifted, economically speaking, into confusion and disorder. We have come to recognize that unless we in" telligently plan and organize our complicated activities, We shall from time to time be subjected to disturbances or depressions that may ha,'e prof~und and undesired political con~


sequences. Though ours is primarily an agricultural community, wherein conditions are somewhat more stable than in a highly industrialized community, it is nevertheless important for us to analyze carefully and realistically our situation and our prospects. The government must take the lead, by gathering reliable infonnation as to prevailing tendencies and conditions in matters of production and trade and employment, making its findings known through public conferences, press reports, and other effective means, and originating corrective measures to prevent unbalanced production of goods and oversupply of services, and avoid mal distribution of wealth and prosperity. This is a function which government may properly assume and must take unto itself if it cannot be or is not performed by other means or agencies. In this new enterprise of government our great President Franklin D, Roosevelt has already led the way. His firmness and courage and practical idealism in translating this new social and political gospel into living action have brought to the entire American people a new thrill of hope and confidence in the future of their country, We should follow his stirring and inspiring example. In the world of today the consequences of inaction and leaderless drifting are fatal. This government which we are to administer as trustees for the people is meant to be an agency of service; an agency to maintain law and order and to safeguard human rights 115 well as property rights; an agency to uphold the constitutional rights of free speech and free assembly and to protect the lives and persons and property of its people behind the sheltering shield of the 'law of the land.' We have a great duty to keep this agency serviceable and c1ean-clean from -5elfish measures, from graft, from oppres-sive actions, free from callous neglect of the iick, the poor, the aged, and the unemployed. If it is a great honor to hold high office, our tXsJted station is but an opportunity given us for service; and the measure of our success is the degree to which the government that we are entrusted to administer serves the people dutifully, faithfully, and fearlessly, Never forgetting that the government is a lusiness agency requiring business methods


and planning, let us also remember that it is a human agency, conceived for social planning, for furthering the progressive advancement and betterment of these Islands, in order that men who live together within their confines may live better, more comfortably, more happily. This is the soul of public servicethe urge and striving to make a better place for men to live, and thereby make better men to live within it. This in part is my conception of the responsibilities and the privileges of government, and I pledge myself with all the energy and ability I possess, and so far as it lies within my power. to make it a reality. With complete hope and faith in the great Providence who ensures our destiny, I humbly beseech His guidance and inspiration in the task before us.

Filipino Participation in the Government.-True and faithful to the policy of administration enunciated by President William McKinley in his message of December 5, 1899, to the Congress of the United States of America and in his instructions of April 7, 1900, to the board of commissioners to the Philippine Islands, the military authorities as well as the civil authorities, from the first American governor-general down ,t o the last one, have given the Filipinos due participation in the administration of the affairs of these islands. In the organization of the municipal governments throughout the country under American occupation, Filipinos were 路selected either by election or appointment to fill the various offices or heretofore entrusted to the natives. Provincial offices, with the exception of those which were filled by Americans in the early days of their occupation, were also held by Filipinos. High insular posts were given to Americans, but even then. Filipinos were appointed to fill responsible positions in the Philippine Com-



MALACAJ')ANG PALACE The ?'esidence of the fonner Governo?'s-Gene1'al--now, P1'esident of the Philippines .


nission, in the Supreme Court, and in he Executive Departments as well as n the judiciary. Since the approval of he Jones Law in 1916, the Philippine Jegislature was entirely placed in the lands of the Filipinos and the so-called


Filipinization in the government service has gradually taken place. Th路e Philippine Legislature. - The members of the Philippine Legislature from 1907 to 1935 are given in the following li st :

MEMBERS OF THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE CAPIZ 1st. Dist.-Eugenio Picazo (I) 2nd. DUit.-Jose Altavas (I) 31路d. Dist.-Simeon Mobo (1)



CAVITE Only D ist .-Rafael Palma (N)

Secreta1'Y JULIAN GERO N A >I<

CEBU Dist.-Celestino Rodriguez (N) Dist.-Sergio Os mena (N) Dist.-Filemon Sotto (N) Dist.-Alejandro Ruiz (N) Dist.-Troadio Galicano (N) 6th. Dist.-Casiano Causing (N) 7th . Dist.-Pedro Rodriguez (N)

ALBAY &to Disl. -Tomas Almonte (I) ,d. Dist.-Carlos A. Imperial (P) rd. Dist. -Angel Roco (P)

1st. 2nd . S,路d. 1,th. 5th.


.t. Dist.-Tomas Arejola (N) ,d. Dist.-Man uel Rey (N) .,d. Dist.-Francisco Alvarez (N)

ILOCOS NORTE 1st. Dist.-Irineo Javier (N) 2nd. Dis t.-Baldomero Pobre (N)

ANTIQUE 'hd!l Dist.-Pedro V. Jimenez BATAAN ),ly Dist.-Jose Ma. Lerma (N)

ILO COS SUR 1st. Dist.-Vicente Singson Encarnacion (P) 2nd. Dist.-Maximino Mina (N) 9rd. Dist.-Juan Villamol' (N)


.t. Dist.-Felipe Agoncillo (I) ~(l"

Dist.-Eusebio Orense (1) d. Dist.-Gregorio Catigbak (N)

ILOILO 1st. Dist.~Amando A vanceiia (N) 2nd. Dist.-NicoJas Jalandon i (N) S,路d. Dist.-Salvador Laguda (P) 4th. Dist.- Adriano Hernand ez (N) 5th. Dist.-Regino Dorillo (1)

BOHOL Borja (N) >d. Dist.-Jose A. Clarin (N) rd. Dist.-Eutiquio Boyles (1) I.


BULACAN ./. Dist.-Aguedo Velarde (N.!.) 1!tl.. Dist.- Leon Ma. Guerrel'o (N) ~t.


ISABELA Only Dist.-Dimas Guzmal1 (I) LAGUNA 1st . Dist.-Pedro A. Paterno (N) 2nd. Dist.-Crispin Oben (N)

CAGAYAN Dist.-PabJo Guzman (P) Dist.-Gabriel Lasam (P)

Succeeded by Gregorio N "cvll who I various occasions until 1910.

neted as


LA UNION 1st. Dist.-Andl'es Asprer (N) 2nd. Dist.-Fl'ancisco Zandueta (P)



LEYTE 1st. Dist.-Quiremon Alkuino (N) 2nd. Dist.-Salvador K. Demetrio (N) 3rd. Dist.-Florentino Penaranda (N) .th. Dist.-Jaime C. de Veyra (N) MANILA 1st. Dist.-Dominador Gomez (N) 2nd. Dist.-Fel'nando Ma. Guerrero (N)

TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Melecio Cojuangco (P) 2nd. Dist.-Aurelio Pineda (P) TAYABAS 1st. Dist.-Manuel L. Quezon

(N) 2nd. Dist.-Emiliano A. Gala (I) ZAMBALES Only Dist.-Alberto Barreto (N)

MINDORO Only Dist.-Macario Adriatico (N') MISAMIS 1st. Dist.-Carlos Corrales (1) 2nd. Dist.-Manuel Corrales (I)




NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.-Antonio Jayme (N) 2nd. Dist.-Dionisio Mapa (N) S,·d. Dist.-Agustin Montilla (P) NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dist.-Leopoldo Rovira (P) 2nd. Dist.-Vicente Locsin (P) NUEVA ECIJA Only Dist.- I sauro Gabaldon (N) PALAWAN Only Dist.- Santiago M. Paterno ( I) PAMPANGA 1st. Dist.- Monico R. Mercado (N) 2nd. Dist.-Marcelino Aguas (N) 1st. 2nd. Srd.

.th. 5th.

PANGASINAN Dist.-Nicanor Padilla (1) Dist.-Deogl'acias Reyes (N) Dist.-Juan Alvear (N) Dist.-Lorenzo Fenoy (N) DiBt.-Matias Gonzales (1) RIZAL

1st. Dist.-Cayetano Lukban (N)

2nd. Dist.-Bartolome Revilla (N)

SAMAR 1st . Dist.-Honorio Rosales (I) 2nd. Dist.- Luciano Sinko (N) 31'd. Dist.-Eugenio D . Daza (I) SORSOGON 1st. Dist.- Vicente de Vera (1) 2nd. Dist.-Ped,·o Chavez .(N) SURIGAO Only Dist.- Fl'ancisco Soriano (P)



ALBAY 1st. Dist.-Marcial C. Calleja 2nd. Dist.-Silvino Brimbuela 31·d. Dist.-Felix Samson AMBOS CAMARINES 1st. Dist.-Tornas Arejola 2nd. Dist.-Fulgencio Contreras 3?·d. Dist.-J ose Fuentebella ANTIQUE Only Dist.-Angel Salazar BATAAN Only Dist.-Tomas G. del Rosario BATANES Only Dist.-Teofilo Castillejos BATANGAS 1st. Dist.-Galicano Apacible 2nd. Dist.-Florencio R. Caedo 31·d. Dist.-Teodol'o M. Kalaw BOROL 1st. D1·st.-Candelario Borja 2nd. Dist.-J ose A. Clarin 8?·d. Dist.-Eutiquio Boyles BULACAN 1 st. Dist .-Hel'mogenes Reyes

2nd . Dist.-Mariano Ponce • Relieving



Acting Secret(lry Ir

April 7, 1910, to October 3t, 1910.


CAGAYAN 18t. Dist.-Venancio Concepcion end. Dist.-Leoncio Fonacier CAPIZ 1st. Dist .-Rafael Acuna ind. Dist.-Leocadio Pajarillo rd. Dist.-Braulio C. Man ikan CAVITE


MINDO RO Only Dist.-1\1acario Adriatieo

MISAMIS 1st. Dist.-Leon Borromeo 2nd. Dist.-Nieolas Capistrano NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.-J ose Lopez Villanueva

2nd. Dist.-Manuel Fernandez Yanson

Ollly Dist.-Emiliano Tria Tirona

31路d. Dist.-Rafael Ramos

CEBU st. Dist.-Celestino Rodriguez nd. Dist.-Sergio Osmefia ~rd. Dist.-Filemon Sotto /th. Dist.-Alejandro Ruiz 5fh. Dist.-Troadio Galicano ~ th D'ist.-Vieente Lozada "tli. Di..::t.-El.llalio E. Causing

NEGROS ORIENTAL. 1st. Dist.-Hermenegildo VilIanueva 2nd. Dist.-Teopisto Guingona

ILO COS NORTE ,:st. Dist.--I r ineo Javiel' Ind. Dist.-Lueas Paredes

PAMPANGA 1st. Dist.-Monico R. Mercado 2nd. Dist.-Jacobo Fajardo

ILOCOS SUR Dist.-Vicente Singson Encarnacion End. Dist.-J ose Ma. del Valle Jrd. Dist.-Juan ViIlamor


ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Franeiseo Villanueva 2nd. Dist.-Carlos Ledesma Jrd. Dist.-J ose Lopez V ito 4th. Dist.-Esperidion Guaneo 5th. Dist.-Ramon Lopez ISABELA Ollly Dist.-Eliseo Clara vall LAGUNA ct. MalvaI' d. Dist.-Pedro Guevara

LA UNION ht. Dist.-Joaquin D. Luna ""d. Dist.-Anacleto Diaz LEYTE ht. Dist.-Estanislao Granados ~d. Dist.-Francisco Zialcita 'rd. Dist.-Abdon Marchadesch ith . Dist.-J aime C. de Veyra MANILA It. Dist.-Dominador Gomez

!nd. Dist .-Pablo Ocampo

NUEVA ECIJA Only Dist.-Isauro Gabaldon

PALAWAN Only Dist.-Manuel Sandoval

PANGASlNAN 1 st. Dist.-Cirilo Braganza

2nd. Dist.-Mariano Padilla 31路d. Dist.-3 ose T. Peeson

4th. Dist.-Joaquin Balmori 5th . Dist.- Domingo Patajo

RIZAL 1st. Dist.--Jose Lino Luna 2nd. Dist.-3ose Tupas SAMAR 1st. Dist.-Vicente M. Obieta 2nd. Dist.-Benito Azanza 81路d. Dist.-Eladio Cinco SORSOGON 1st. Dist.-Leoncio Grajo 2nd. Dist.-J ose ZUl'bito SURIGAO Only Dist.-Manuel G. Gavieres

TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Maul'i cio !lagan 2nd. Dist.-Marciano Barrera TAYABAS 1st. Dist.-Filemon Perez 2nd. Dist.-Gregorio Nieva ZAMBALES Only Dist.-Alberto Barreto







CEBD 1st. Dist.-Gel'vasio Padilla 2nd. Dist.-Sergio Osmena 3'rd. Dist.-Filemon Satta .4th. Dist.-Alejandro Ruiz 5th. Dist.-Mariano Jes us Cuenca 6th. Dist.-Vicente Lozada 7th. Dist.- Tomas Alonso

ILOCOS NORTE 1st. Dist.-Santiago A . Fanacier 2nd. Dist.- Teogenes Quiaoit

ALBAY 1st. D ist.-Domingo Diaz 2nd. D1'st.-Mariano A. Locsin 3rd. Dist.-Ceferino Villareal AMBOS CAMARINES 1s t. Dist.-Silverio D . Cecilio 2nd. Dist.- J ulian Ocampo 3'rd. Dist.- J ose Fuentebella

ILOCOS SUR 1st. Dist.-Alberto Reyes 2nd. Dist.-Gregorio Talavera 9'rd. Dist.-Julio Borbon

ANTIQUE Only Dist.-Angel Salazar

ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Francisco Villanueva 2nd. Dist.- Perfecto J. Salas 91路d. Dist.- Ernesto Gustilo 4th. Dist.-Tiburcio Lutero 5th . Dist.-Cirilo Mapa

BATAAN Only Dist.-Pablo Tecson

ISABELA Only Dist.-Eliseo Clara vall

BATANES Only Dist.-Vicente Barsana

LAGUNA 1s t. Dist.-Serviliano Platon 2nd. Dist.- Pedro Guevara

BATANGAS 1st. Dist.-Galicano Apacible 2nd. Dist.-Marcelo Caringal 3,路d. Dist.-Fidel A. Reyes

LA U NION 1st. Dist.-Joaquin D. Luna 2nd. Dist.- Florencio Baltazar

BOHOL 1st. Dist.-Candelario Borja 2nd. Dist.-J ose A. Clarin 9'rd. Dist.-Juan Virtudes

LEYTE 1st. Dist.-Estanislao Granados 2nd. Dist.- Dalmacio Costas 3rd. Dist.-Miguel Romualdez '" tho Dist.- Francisco Enage

BULACAN 1st. Dist.-Ambrosio Santos 2nd. Dist.-Ceferino de L eon

MANILA 1st. Dist.--Isidro de Santos 2nd. Dist.- Luciano de la Rosa

CAGAYAN 1st. Dist.-Cresencio V . Masigan 2nd. Dist.-J uan Quintos

MINDORO Only Dist.-Mariano P. Leutel'io

CAPIZ 1st. Dist.- Rafael Acuna 2nd. Dist.- Emiliano Acevedo 3rd. Dist.-Jose Tirol

1st. Dist.-Leon BOlTomeo

CAVITE Only Dist.- Florentino J oya

MISAMIS 2nd. Dist.-Nicolas Capistrano

NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.-Melecio Severino 2nd. Dis t.- Rafael R . Alunan 8rd. Dist.-Gil M. Montilla


NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dist.-Hermenegildo Villanueva 2nd. Dist .- LeopoJdo Rovira NUEVA ECIJA Only Dist.-Lucio Gonzales PALAWAN Only Dist.-Manuel Sandoval PAM P ANGA sf. [Jist.-Eduardo Gutierrez David 2nd. Dist.-Andres L uciano PANGASINAN Dist.-Vicente Solis :.:nd. Dist.-Rodrigo D. Perez .,' rd. Dist.-Rufo G. Cruz 1st.

4th. Dist.-Pedro M. Sison 5th. Dist.-Hugo Sansano


FIRST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batanes, Cngnynn. IsabcJa, Ilocos Norte, I1ocos Sur, and Abra)

Vicente Singson Encarnacion J uan Villamor SECO?>.'D SENATORIAL DISTRICT (La Union, Pangasinan. and Zambales)

Pedro Ma. Sison Aquilino Calvo THIRD SENATORL\L DISTRI CT (Tarlac. Nueva Eeija, Pampanga, and Bulacan)

Francisco Liongson Isaul'o Gabaldon FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Bataan, Ri zal, Manila. and Laguna)

Rafael Palma Pedro Guevara

RIZAL 1st. Dist,-Arsenio Cruz He1'l'era hid. Dist.-Sixto de los Angeles

SAMAR Dist.-Tomas Gomez 2nd. Dist.-Jose Sabal're

18t .

J1'd. Dist.-Mariano Aide

SORSOGON 1st. Dist.-Leon cio Gl'ajo 2nd. Dist.-Jose Zurbito SURIGAO Only Dist.-Inocencio Cortes

FIFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batangas, Mindoro, Tal'ahas, Cavite, and MarinduQue)

Manuel L. Quezon Vicente Ilustre Shl(TH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Alhay, Sorsogon, Camarines Norte, Camarines SUI'. and Mashate)

(The first clcct'iO'lIS lUcre declared null a11d vend by the Philippine Scnate in i!.$ laRt special session held FebY1l.wry 22, 1917.)

Leoncio I mperial Mario Gual'ifia

TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Luis Mora les

tnd. Dist.- J ose Espinosa

TAYABAS lst. Dist.-Filemon Perez rnd. Dist.-Bel'nardo del Mundo ')Illy

ZAMBALES Dist.-Gabl路iel Alba

SBVENTH SEl\~ATORTAL DISTRICT (Iloilo, Capiz. and Romblon)

Jose Altavas Francisco Villanueva EIGHTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Negros Occidental. Negros Oriental, Antique, and Palawan )

ESpi l'id ion Guanco Manuel Lopez



President M ANUEL L . Q UEZON



Esteban Singzon J ose Ma. Veloso TENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Cebu)

F ilemon Sotto Celestino Rodriguez



ELEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTR ICT (Surigao . Misnmis Oriental. M isamis Occidental , and Bohol)

Jose A. Clarin Nicolas Capistrano TWEJ"FTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Bnguio, N tleva Vi 7.:caya . Mountain Provin ce, Agu. san , Bu kidn on . Cotaba to, Dava o, Lanno, Sulu, a nd Zamboanga)

J oaquin D. Luna Radi i Butu



ALBAY 1st. Dist.- Domingo Diaz 2nd. Dist.- Jose O. Vera S'rd. Dist.-T omas Luna AMBOS CAMA RIN E S 1st. Dist.- Gonzalo S. Escalante

2nd. Dist.-Manuel Rey 9'rd. Dis t. -Sulpicio V. Cea AN TIQ U E Only Dis t.- Ramon Maza BATAAN Only Dis t .- Max imino de los Reyes BAT ANES Only Dist.-Juan G. Castillejos BATANGA S 1st. D ist.-Ramon Diokno 2nd. Dist.- Pablo Borbon a'rd. Dist.- Een ito Reyes Catigbac BOROL 1st. Dist.- Celest ino Gallal'es 2nd. D1·,s t.- Macal'io L umain 31·d . Dist.- F ilomeno Casefias Orbeta

CAPIZ 1st. Dist.- A ntonio Belo y Villaruz 2nd. Dist.- Leopoldo Alba Mobo 31·d. Dist.-Leonardo F estin CAVITE Only Dist.- Emiliano T. Ti rona CEBU 1 s t. Di$t.-J ose H ernaez 2nd. Dist.-Sel'g io Osmefia 8'1·d. Dist.- Vicent e Ul'gello 4th. Dis t.-Alej andro Ruiz 5th. D·i st.- Mal'iano J esus Cuenco 6th. Dist.- Mi guel Raff ifian 7th . Dist .-Tomas Alon so ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Jose M. Ar royo 2nd. Dis t.-Cresenciano Lozano Sr d . Dist.-Nica nol' Gregorius 4th. Dist.- T iburcio Lut ero 5th. Dist.-Juan de Leon ISABELA Only Dist.-Ma uro Verzosa LAGUNA 1st. Dist.-Feliciano Gomez 2nd. Dist.- Cl'isanto M. Guysayko LA UNION 1st. Dist.- J uan T. Lucero 2nd. Dist.-Valerio Font anilla y Meneses LEYTE 1st. Dis t.-Ma nuel B. Veloso 2nd. Dist.-Dalmacio Costas y Rojas S'rd. Dist.- Segundo Apostol 4th. Dist.- Ruperto Kapunan MAN I LA 1st. Dist.-Ant onio Monteneg ro 2nd. Dist.-Jose C. Generoso

BU L AC A N 1st. Dis t.- Maria no E scueta 2nd. Dist.- Ricardo Gonzales Lloret

MI N DANAO AND SULU 1st. Dist.- Rafael Acuna 2nd. Dist .- Datu Piang 31'd. Dist.- Teodoro Palma Gil 4th. Dist.- Da tu Benito 5th. Dist.- P ablo Lorenzo

CAGAYAN 2nd. Dis t.-M.a nuel Rey 2nd. Dis t.- Miguel Concepcion

MI NDORO Only Dist.-Mariano P . Leuterio y Resurreccion


MISAMIS 1st. DiBt.-Gregorio Borromeo '!lfd.

ZAMBALES Only Dist.-Guillel'mo F. Pablo

Dild.-Ramon B. Neri

MOUNTA IN PROVINCE Dilt.-Juan Carino l7ld. Disf.-Rafael Bulayufigan rrd. DiBt.-Valentin Manglapus


I t.


:-IEGROS OCCIDENTAL Dist.-Lope B. Severino !nd. DiBt.-Rafael R. Alunan 'rd. Dist.-Gil Montilla




NUEVA ECIJA lilly Dist.-Isidoro Gonzales

NUEVA VIZCAYA )llly Dist.- Wenceslao Valera

PALAWAN f,lly Dist.-Manuel Sandoval y Manlave

PAMPANGA Dist.-Eduardo Gutierrez David lid. Dist.-Pedro Abad Santos



Dist.-Modesto Sison

lid. Dist.-Aquilino Banaag rd. Dist.-Alejandro de Guzman y Florendo

tho Dist.-Teodoro I. Gomez 'h. Dist.-Bernabe de Guzman

RIZAL 4. Dist.-Arcadio Santos· ~. Dist.-Eugenio Santos SAMAR -t. Dist.-Pedra Mendiola "a. Dist.-Pastor Salazar y Dacutan rd. Dist.-J ase Lugay Raquel SORSOGON Dist.-Manuel Escudero old. Dist.-Amancio Aguilar


SURIGAO ""Iy Dist.-Eusebio Tiongko

TARLAC t. Dist.-Luis Morales y Lopez .4. Dist.-Cayetano Rivera TAYABAS t. Dist.-Alfonso M. Recto d. Dist.-Gregorio Nieva



NEGROS ORIENTAL st. Dist.-Restituto Villegas ,td. Dist.-Felipe Tayko




FIRST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batanes, Cngayan, Tsabela, Ilocos Norte, Iloeos Sur. and Abra)

Vicente Singson Encarnacion Santiago A. Fonacier SECOND SENATORIAL DISTRICT Union, Pangasinan, and ZambnlesJ


Pedro Ma. Sison Bernabe de Guzman THIRD SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Tarlac, Nueva Ecija. Pampanga, and Bulacnn)

Cefel'ino de Leon Teodoro Sandiko FOURTH SENATORIAL DTSTRICT (Bnuan. Rizal, Manila, and Laguna)

Rafael Palma Pedro Guevara FiFTH SENATORIAL DISTRrcT (Batangns, Mindoro, Tayabas, Cnvite, and Mnrinduque)

Manuel L. Quezon Antero Soriano SIXTH SENATORIAL DISTRlCT (Albay, Sorsogon. Camnrines Norte, Cnmnrines Sur, nnd Masbate)

Leoncio Imperial Vicente de Vera SE)VENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Iloilo. Cnpiz. nnd Romblon)

Jose Altavas Jose Ma. Arroyo EIGHTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Negros Occident..!.I, Negros Oriental. Antique, nnd Palawnn)

ESpil'idiON Guanco Hel'menegildo Villanueva




Esteban Singzon Fra nci sco E nage TENTH SENATORI AL DISTRI CT (Cebu)

Filemon Sotto Celestino Rodriguez ELEVENTH SENAT ORJA L DI STR1CT (Surigno. Misn.mis Oriental. Misamis Occidental. a nd Bohol)

J ose A. Clarin Francisco Sor ia no TWE LFTH SE NA T ORl AL D I STRI CT (Daguio. NUeva V i t::::路r;iI. Mou n tai n Prov ince, Agu ~ sa n . Dukidnon , Cotabato. Davao, Lanao, Sulu. a n d Za mboanga)

Lope Ie Santos T eopisto Guingon a




AB RA Only D is t .-Eustaquio Purug ganan AL BAY 1st. D is t.- Agapito Buenconsejo 2nd. Dist.- Pedro Ma rtinez Jimeno Srd. Dis t .- Mariano Ope Marbel1a A NTIQU E On ly Dist.- Ramon Maza BATAAN Only Dist.- Maximino de los Reyes BATANES Only Dist.- Claudio Ca stillejos

2nd. Dis t .-Macario Lumain Srd. Dist.-Filemeno Casefias Ol'beta

BULACAN 1st. Dist.-Jose P adilla

2nd. Dist.-Cirilo B. Santos CAGAYAN 1st. Dist.-Mig uel Concepcion Naya

2nd. Dist.- (Election null and void)

CAMARINES NORTE Only Dist.- Gabriel Hernandez CAMARINES SUR 1s t . Di."lt.-Sil ver io D. Cecilio 2nd. Dis t .- Honesto P. Obias CAPIZ 1st. Dist.-Antonio Haban a 2nd. Dist.- Jo se A. Urquiola S,-d. Dist.-Gregorio Pastrana

CAVITE Only D ist.- Emilio P . Virat a CEBU 1st. Dist.- MaI!'Uel C. Briones 2nd . Dist.- Sergio Osmefia S?路d. Dist.-Vicente Urgello 4 tho Dist.- Isidoro Aldanese 5th. Dis t.- Mariano Jesus Cuenco 6th. Dist.- Miguel Raffiiian 7th, Dist.- Jose Alonso ILO路COS NORTE 1st. Dist.- Vicente Llanes

2nd. Dist.- Faustino Adiarte ILOCOS SUR 1st. Dis t.-Elpidio Quirino ~nd.

Dis t.- Ponciano Morales

ILOILO 1st . Dist.- Jose Evangelista

2nd. Dis t.-Crescenciano Lozano S,-d. Dist.-Jose E, Locsin 4th. Dis t.-Daniel E'vangelista 5th. Dist. -Victorino M. Salcedo

BATANGAS 1st. Dist.- V icen te Lontoc

2nd. Dist.-Vicen te Ag regado Srd, Dist.-Claro M, Recto BOHOL 1st. Dist.-Celestino Gallares

ISABELA Only Dist.- Miguel Binag LAGUNA 1st. Dist.-Vicente Ocampo 2nd. Dist.-Eulogio Benitez



LA UNION 1st. Dist.-Juan T. Lucero rnd. Disf.-Felipe C. Diaz LEYTE Jat. Dist.-Francisco D. Enage

!nd. Disi .-Ciriaco K. Kangleon 3reL Dist.-Julio Siayangco 4tho Dist.-Ruperto Kapunan

MANILA 18t. Dist.-Juan Nolasco


Dist.-Jose G. Generoso MASBATE

Only Dist.-Pablo de la Rosa.

MINDANAO AND SULU Dist.-Julius Schuck ~nd. Dist.-Pablo Lorenzo


'rd. Dist.-Datu Piang Ith. Dist.-Datu Tampugaw 5th. Dist.-Teodoro Palma Gil.

MINDORO Only Dist.-Mariano P. Leuterio MISAMIS 1st. Dist.-Jose Al'tadi !wl. Dist.-Fol'tunato U . Clavano MOUNTAIN PROVINCE lst. Dist.-Rafael Bulayungan Fnd. Dist.-J uan Carino frd. Dist.-Pedro Aunal'io NEGROS OCCIDENTAL lit. Dist.-Lope P. Severino

. Dist.-Rafael R. Alunan frd . Dist.- Tito Silverio

1st. 2nd. $rd. 4th. 5th.

PANGASINAN Dist.-Antonio Bengson Dist.-Alejandro de Guzman Dist.-Raymundo O. Camacho Dist.-Alejandro R. Mendoza Dist.-Ricardo Gonzales

RIZAL 1st. Dist.- Agapito Ignacio 2nd. Dist.-Mariano Melendres ROMBLON Only Dist.- Leonardo Festin SAMAR 1st. Dist.-Pedro K . Mendiola 2nd. Dist.-Pastor Salazar y Dakutan 31路d. Dist.-J ose Lugay Raquel SORSOGON 1st. Dist.-Leoncio Grajo 2nd. Dist.-(See Act No. 2934) SURIGAO Only Dis t.-Eusebio Tiongko TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Luis Morales 2nd. Dist.-Benigno S. Aquino TAYABAS 1st. Dist.-Fabian R. Millar 2nd. Dist.-Rical'do Paras ZAMBALES Only Dist.-Guillermo F. Pablo SIXTH LEGISLATURE


NEGROS ORIENTAL lat. Dist.-Restituto Villegas md. Dist.-Pedro Teves NUEVA ECIJA Jnly Dist.-Gaudencio Medina


P 1'esident P1路o-Ternpo1路e ESPrRIDION GUANCO

NUEVA VIZCAYA mly Dist.-Evaristo Panganiban


PALAWAN )I'.ly Dist.-Roman de J esus PAMPANGA .tt. Dist.-Pablo Angeles David nd. Dist.-Pedro Abad Santos 7

FIRST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batanes. Cn~ayan, babels, Docos Norte. Iloeos Sur. and Abra)

Santiago A. Fonacier Isabelo de los Reyes



SECOND SENATORIAL DISTRICT Union, Pangasinan, and Zambales)


Alejo Mabanag Bernabe de Guzman THIRD SENATORIAL DISTRICT

TWELFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Baguio, NUeva Vizcaya. Mountain Province. Agu. lIan, Bukidnon. Cotabato, Davao, Lanao. Sulu, and Zamboanga)

Teopisto Guingona Hadji Butu

(Tarlac. Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Bulnean)

Santiago Lucero Teodoro Sandiko FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (BataRn. Ri', Manila, and Laguna)

Emiliano Tria Tirana Ramon J. Fernandez·




FIFTH SENATORIAL DISTRTCT (Batnngas, Mindoro. Tnyabas, Cavite, and Marinduquc)

Manuel L. Quezon Antero Soriano SlXTS SENATORIAL DISTRJCT (Albay. 80r50gol'l, Camarines Norte, Camnrines Sur, and Masbate)

Juan B. Alegre Vicente de Vera

ABRA Only Dist.-Adolfo Brillantes

ALBAY 1st. Dist.-Agapito Buenconsejo 2nd. Dist.-Pedro Martinez Jimeno Srd. Dist.-Pedro Sabido

ANTIQUE Only Dist.-Angel Salazar


J aSe Hontiveros J aSe Ma. Arroyo EIGHTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Negros Occidental, Negro! Oriental, Antique, and Palawan)

Espiridion Guanco Hermenegildo Villanueva NINTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Leyte and Samar)

Tomas Gomez Francisco Enage TENTH SENATORIAL DlSTRICT (Cebu)

Sergio Osmena Celestino Rodriguez

BATAAN Only Dist.-Antonio G. Llamas

BATANES Only Dist.-Claudio Casti1lejos

BATANGAS 1 st. Dist.-Antonio de las Alas

2nd. Dist.-Rafael Villanueva Srd. Dist.-Claro M. Recto

BOHOL 1st. Dist.-Fermin Torralba 2nd. Dist.-Cornelio G. Sarigumba Srd. Dist.-Teodoro Abueva

BUI,ACAN 1st. Dist.-J ose Padilla 2nd. Dist.-N orberto C. Manikis

CAGAYAN ELEVENTH SENATORlAL DISTRICT (,Surigao, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, and Bohol)

JOSe A. Clarin Francisco Soriano • Senator Fernandez was elected October 3, 1923. to succeed Senator Pedro Guevara, who was appointed a Resident Commissioner to the United States in March. 1923.

1st. Dist.-Alfonso Ponce Enrile 2nd. Dist.-Proceso Sebastian

CAMARINES NORTE Only Dist.--Jose D. Zenarosa

CAMARINES SUR 1st. Dist.-Ramon B. Felipe 2nd. Dist.-Sulpicio V. Cea


CAPIZ l,t. Dist.-Manuel Roxas !nd. Di.t.-Agustin Aldea f rd. Dist.-Manuel Terencio

CAVITE Only Dist.-Pedro F. Espiritu CEBU Dist.-Manuel C. Briones Dist.-Vicente Sotto Dist.-Vicente Rama Dist.-Isidoro Aldanese Jesus Cuenco Dist.-Nicolas Rafols Dist.-J ose Alonso

1st. !nd. rrd. ~th.

ith. it h-.


ILOCOS NORTE Dist.-Irineo Ranjo rnd. Dist.-Roman Campos


ILOCOS SUR fst. Dilt.-Vicente Sing-son Pablo

md. Dist.-Lupo Biteng ILOIUJ Dist.-Jose Evangelista


md. Dist.-Crescenciano Lozano Ird. Di8t.-Tomas Confesor Ilh. Dist.-Federico R. Tirador

ith. Dist.-Tomas Vargas ISABELA Jnlll Dist.-Tolentino Verzosa ~ tt.

LAGUNA Vist.-Tomas Dizon

~ d.

Dist.-Aurelio Palileo

LA UNION 'It. Dise.-Pio Ancheta

hid. Dist.-Mauro Ortiz LEYTE ,t. Dis-t.-Carlos S. Tan 'ltd. Dist.-Tomas Oppus Ird. Dist.-Jose Ma. Veloso th.. Dist.-Filomeno Montejo MANILA It. Dist.-Gregorio Perfecto ,.d. Vist.-Alfonso E. Mendoza Inly

MARINDUQUE Dis-t.-Ricardo N epomuceno


MASBATE Dist.-Pablo de la Rosa

MINDANAO AND SULU 1st. Dist.-Rafael Acuna y Villaruz 2nd. Dist.-Pablo Lorenzo Srd. Dist.-Datu Tampugaw 4,th. Dist.-Ugalingan Piang 5th Dist.-Teodoro Palma Gil MINDORO Only Dist.-Juan L. Luna MISAMIS 1st. Dist.-Jose Al'tadi 2nd. Dist.-Anselmo Bernard MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 1st. Dist.-Miguel R. Cornejo 2nd. Dist.-Joaquin Codamon 8'l'd. Dis t.-Henry A. Kamol'a NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.-Serafin P. Hilado 2nd. Dist.-Vicente Jimenez Yanzon 3rd. Dist.-Eliseo Limsiaco NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dis t.-Guillermo Z. Villanueva 2nd. Dis t.-Fermin Martinez NUEVA ECIJA Only Dist.-Hermogenes Concepcion NUEV A VIZCA Y A Only Dist.-Eulogio Rodriguez PALAWA N Only Dist.-Patricio Fernandez PAMPANGA 1st. Dist.-Pedro Valdez Liongson 2nd. Dist.-Vicente Manapat PANGASINAN 1st. Dist.-Maut'o Navarro 2nd. Dist.-Larnberto Siguion Reyna Srd. Dist.-Raymundo O. Camacho 4,th. Dist.-Eusebio V. Sison 5th. Dist.-Ricardo Gonzales RIZAL 1st. Dist.-Andl'es Pascual 2nd. Dist.-Mariano Melendres ROMBLON Only Dist.-Leonardo Festin SAMAR 1st. Dist.-Jose Avelino 2nd. Dist.-Pascual B. Azanza Srd. Dist.-lfiigo Abenis




SORSOGON 1st. Dist.-Antonio H. Rocha 2nd. Dist.-Federico D. Jimenez

SURIGAO Only Dist.-Clementino V. Diez TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Gregorio M. Bafiaga fnd. S. Aquino TAYABAS 1 st. D-ist.-Agustin S. Alvarez' 2nd. Dist.-Rafael R . Vilar ZAMBALES Only Dist.-Alejo Labrador SEVENTH LEGISLATURE


President L. QUEZON


SeC1'etary FAUSTINO AGUILAR F1RST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batnncs, Cngayan, Isabela, llocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and Abra)

Isabelo de los Reyes Elpidio Quirino SECOND SENATORTAL DISTRICT Pangasinan, and Zambaies)

(La Union.

Alejo Mabanag Caroilo Osias THYRD SENATORJAL DISTRICT (Tarinc. Nueva Ecija. Pnmpanga, and Bulacan)

Teodoro Sandiko Santiago Lucero (Died November 2, 1925) Luis Morales (Elected in special election held M.a rch 23, 1926, to take the place of Sen, Lucero)

saTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Albay, Sorsogon, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur. and Masbate)

Juan B. Alegre Jose O. Vera SEVENTH S~ATORIAL DISTRICT (Iloilo. Capiz. and Romblon)

JOSe Hontiveros Jose B. Ledesma E IGHTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Ncgros Oceidental, Negros Orientnl, AntIque, and Palawan)

Hermenegildo Villanueva Mariano Yulo NINTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Leyte and Samar)

JOSe Ma. Veloso Pastor Salazar TENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Cebu)

Sergio Osmefia Pedro Rodriguez ELEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Surigao. Misamis Oriental. Misamis Occidental, and Bohol)

JOSe A. Clarin Troadio Galicano TWELFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Baguio, Nueva Vizcaya, Mountain Province, Agu路 san. Bukidnun, Cotabato, Da"ao, Lanao, Sulu. and ZaOlboanga)

Hadji Butu JOSe Alejandrino




FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Bntunn, Rizal. Manila. and Laguna)

Emiliano Tria Tirona Juan Sumulong FIFTH SENATORIAL DlSTRrcT (Bntangas. 'Mindoro, Tayabas. Cavite, and MarinduQue)

Manuel L. Quezon Jose P. Laurel

ABRA Only Dist,-Quintin Paredes

ALBAY 1st. D ist.-Franciscd B . Pefia 2nd. Dist.-Francisco A. Perfecto

Ord. Dist.-Pedro Sabido


ANTIQUE Only Di.!t.-Segundo C. Moscoso BATAAN Only Disf.-Manuel Banson BATANES Only Dist.-Vicente Agan BATANGAS 2Bt. Dist.-Antonio de las Alas $nd. Dist.-Andres Buendia 'rd. Dist.-Claro M. Recto


ILOCOS SUR 1 st. Dist.-Simeon' Ramos 2nd. Dist.-Lupo Biteng ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Eugenio Ealdama 2nd. Dist.-Vicente R . Ybiernas Srd. Dist.-Tomas Confesor 4th . Dist.-Asencion Al'anci1lo 5th. Dist.-Venancio Cudilla ISABELA Only Dist.-Manuel Nieto

BOHOL 18t. Dist.-Fermin Torralba


2nd. Dist.-Olegario B. Clarin .'rd. Dist.-Carlos P. Garcia

1st. Dist.-Tomas Dizon 2nd. Dist.-Ananias Laico

BULACAN Dist.-J ose Padilla 2nd. Dist.-Jose Serapio

LA UNION 1st. Dist.-Fausto Almeida 2nd. Dist.-Leoncio Dacanay


CAGAYAN 1st. Dist.-Vicente Fonnoso end. Dist.-Antonio Guzman

CAMARINES NORTE Only Dist.-Rafael Carranceja

CAMARI NES SUR 1st. Dist.-Ramon B. Felipe


1st. Dist.-Juan Veloso 2nd. Dist .-Toma~ Oppus Srd. Dist.-Ruperto Kapunan 4th. Dist.-Filomeno Montejo MANILA

rnd. Dist.-Manuel Fuentebella

1st. Dist.-Gregorio Perfecto 2nd. Dist.-Alfonso E. Mendoza

CAPIZ Dist.-Manuel Roxas rnd. Dist.-Jose Altav8s $rd. Dist.-Manuel Laserna

MARINDUQUE Only Dist.-Rical'do Nepomuceno


CAVITE Only Dist.-Antero Soriano

CEBU lit. Dist.-Manuel C. Briones !Itd. Dist.-Paulino Gullas ltd. Dist.-Vicente Rama Hit Alcazaren 5th Dist.-Mariano J. Cuenco Hit Dist.-Pastor B. Noel :th Dist.-Paulino Ybanez:

ILOCOS NORTE 1st. Dist.-Severo H ernando fttd. Diet.-Manano Marcos

MASBATE Onlu D1路st.-Edu81'do Mal'caida MINDANAO AND SULU 1st. Dist.-Pedro de la Llana 2nd. Dist.-J ose P. Melencio Srd. Dist.-Arsenid, Suazo 4th Dist.-Abdullah Piang 5th Dist.-(Vacant)

MINDORO Dnl1J Dist.-Mariano P. Leuterio MISAMIS 1 st. Dist.. - Segundo Gaston

2r.d. Dist.-Teogenes Velez



MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 1st. Dist.-Juan Cailles路 Ind. Dist.--J oaquin Codamon 3rd. Dist.-Henry A. Kamora

TAYABAS 1st. Dist.-Primitivo San; Agustin 2nd. Dist.-Leon G. Guinto

NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.-Serafin P. Hilado 2nd. Dist.-Ramon Torres 91'd. Dist.-Isaac Lacson

Only Dist.-Alejo Labrador



NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dist.-GuiIlermo Z. Villanueva 2nd. Dist.-Enrique C. Villanueva


P?'esident L. QUEZON

NUEVA ECIJA OnlU Dist.-Feliciano Ramoso



NUEVA VIZCA Y A Only Di$t.-Antonio G. Escamilla PALAWAN Only Dist.-Patricio Fernandez PAMPANGA 1st. Dist.-Pedro Valdez Liongson 2nd. Dist.-Ceferino Hilario PANGASINAN 1st. Dist.-Enrique Braganza 2nd. Dist.-u'sidoro Siapno 3rd. Dist.-Servillano de la Cruz 4th . Dist.- Eusebio V. Sison 5th. Dist.-Evaristo P. Sanchez RIZAL 1 st. Dist.-Basilio Bautista 2nd. Dist.-Eulogio RodrigueZ! ROMBLON Only Dist.-Leonardo Festin SAMAR 1st. Dist.-Jose Avelino

2nd. Dist.-Pascual B. Azanza 3rd. Dist.-Gerardo Morrero

SORSOGON 1st. Dist.-Juan Reyes 2nd. Dist.-Mario Guarifia SURIGAO Only Dist.-Montano A. Ortiz TARLA路C 1 st. Oist.-Sisenando Palarca

2nd. Dist.-Benigno S. Aquino 路Appointcd to succeed Rep. Miguel R. Cornejo whose term of o ffi ce terminated on Oct. 6, 1925.


FIRST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batanes. Cagayan. lsabela. Ilocos Norte, I1ocos Sur, and Abra)

Elpidio Quirino Melecio Arranz SECOND SENATORIAL DISTRICT Union, Pangasinan, and Zambales)


Te6filo Sison Camilo Osias THIRD SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Bulncan)

Benigno S. Aquino Teadoro Sandiko FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Bataan, Rizal, Manila, and Laguna)

J aSe G. Generoso Juan Sumulong FIFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batangas. Mindoro, Tayabas, Cavite, and MarinduQ.ue)

Manuel L. Quezon Jose P. Laurel srxTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Albay, Sorsogon . Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, and Masbate)

Jose Fuentebella JOSe O. Vera SEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Iloilo, Capiz, and Romblon)

Antonio Belo Jose B. Ledesma


EIGHTH SENATORJAL DISTRICT jJo;eerol Occidental. Negros Oriental, Antique, and PaJawan)

Mariano Yulo Hermenegildo Villanueva NINTH SENATORIA L DISTRICT (Leyte and Samar)

Jose Avelino Jose M;a. Veloso TENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (C(!bu)

Sergio Osmefia Pedro Rodriguez ELEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Surigao. Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, and Bohol)

JOSe A. Clarin Troadio Galicano TWELFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Baguio. Nueva Vizcaya. Mountain Province, Agulin. Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao. Lanao, Sulu, and Zamboanlls)

Hadji Butu Manuel Camus


2nd. Dist.-Gabino S. Abaya Srd. Dist.-Jose D. Dimayuga

BOHOL 1st. Dis t.- J ose Concon 2nd. Dist.-Marcelo S. Ramirez 3rd. Dist.-Car1os P. Garcia BULACAN 1st. Dist.-Angel Suntay 2nd. Dist.-Cirilo B. Santos CAGAYAN 1st. Dist.-Vicente Formoso 2nd. Dist.-Claro Sabbun CAMARINES NORTE Only Dist.-Agustin Lukban CAMARINES SUR 1st. Dist.-Mariano E. Villafuerte 2nd. Dist.-Manuel Fuentebella CAPIZ 1st. Dist.-Manuel Roxas 2nd. Dist.- J ose A. Dorado STd. Dist.- Teodulfo Sufier CAVITE




Only Dist.-Fidel Ibanez

CEBU 1st. Dist.-Manuel C. Briones 2nd. Dist.-Sotero Cabahug STd. Dist.-Maximo Noel 4th. Dist.-Juan A1cazaren 5th. Dist.-Tomas Alonso 6th. Dist.- N icolas Rafols 7th. Dis t.-Paulino Yban ez

ABRA Dnly Dist.-Quintin Paredes


. 8t. Diat.-Julian B. Belen

',d. Dist.-Pedro Vera

rd. Diat.-Pedro Sabido


ILOCOS NORTE 1st. Dist.-Severo Hernando 2nd. Dist.-Mariano Marcos ILOCOS SUR 1st. Dist.-Benito Soliven 2nd. Dist.-Fidel Villanueva

Jltly Dist.-Mariano Lizardo

ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Jose C. Zulueta 2nd. Dist.-Engracio Padilla STd . Dist.-Tomas Confesor 4th. Dist.-Tomas Buenaflor 5th. Dist.-Venancio Cudilla

BATANGAS 'st. Dist.-Antonio de las Alas

Only Dist.-Pascual Paguirigan

()nly Diat.-Segundo C. Moscoso

BATAAN Only Diat.-Teodoro Camacho BATANES




LAGUNA 1st. Did.-Roman Gesmundo

2nd. Bonifacio

LA UNION 1st. Dist.-Pio Ancheta 2nd. Dist.-Ma riano Villanueva 1st.

2nd. S,路d. 4th.

LEYTE Dist.-Bernal'do Torres Dis-t.-Tomas Oppus Di.'t.-J orge B. Delgado Dist.-Cil'ilo Bayaya

PALAWAN Only Dist.-Patricio Fernandez PAMPANGA 1st. Dis t.-Fabian de 1a Paz

2nd. Dist.-Macario P. Ocampo

PANGASINAN 1st. Dist.-Potenciano Peeson

2nd. Dist.-Eugenio Perez 9'rd. Dist.-Rufo G. Cruz 4th. Dist.-Eusebio V. Sison 5th. Dist.-Juan G. Millan

MANILA 1st. Dist.-Francisco Varona !nd. Dist.-Pedro Gil

RIZAL 1st. Dist.-Manuel Bernabe

MARINDUQUE Only Dist.- Ricardo Nepomuceno

ROMBLON Only Dist.--Leonardo Festin

MASBATE Only Dist.-Pio V. Corpus MINDANAO AN D SULU 1st. Dist.---.Tose Artad i 2nd. Dist.--Jose P. Melencio 3'rd. Dist.- Monico R. Mercado 4th. Dist.- Jo se G. Sanvictores 5th. Dist.- Tabu jul' Taupan MINDORO Only D ist.-Juan L. Luna MISAMIS 1st. Dist.-Silvino Maestrado 2nd . Dist.- Isidro Vamenta MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 1st. Dist.-Juan Cailles 2nd. Dist.-Clement Irving 3'rd. Dist.-Saturnino Moldero NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.---.Tose C. L ocsin 2nd. Dist.-V icente Jimenez Yanzon 3rd. Dist.-Emilio Montilla NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dist.-G ui1lermo Z. Villanueva 2nd. Dist.-Enrique C. Villanueva

2nd. Dist.-Luis Santiago

SAMAR 1st. Dist.-Tiburcio Tancinco 2nd. D ist.-Serafin Marabut 3rd . Dist.-Gregorio B. Abogado

SORSOGON 1st. Dist.--Justino Encinas 2nd. Dist.-Francisco Arellano SURIGAO Only Dist.-Montano A. Ortiz

TARLAC 1st. Dist.-Gregorio M. Bafiaga 2nd. Dist.-J ose G. Domingo TAYABAS 1st. Dist.-Fabian R. Millar 2nd. Dist.-Marcelo T. Boncan ZAMBALES Only Dis t.-Gregorio Anonas NI NTH LEGISLATURE


P'r esident L. QUEZON


Secreta,1'y FERMI N

NUEVA ECIJA 1st. Dist.- H ermogenes Concepcion 2nd. Dist.-Aurelio Cecilio NUEV A VIZCA Y A Only Dist.-Manuel Nieto


FIRST SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batanes, Cagayan, lsabela, I1ocos Norte. I1ocos Sur, and Abra)

Elpidio Quirino Melecio A r ranz


SECOND Sl:."NATORIAL DISTRICT Unil,ln, Pani'ssinan. and Zambales)




AJejo Mabanag Te6fiJo S ison

Speaker MANUEL ROXAS (' )

THIRD SENATORlAL DISTRICT ('Tarlae, Nueva Ecija. Pampanga, and Bulacan)


Sotero Baluyut Benigno S. Aquino FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Hataan, Ri:I;al. Manila. Rnd Laguna)

Juan Nolasco Jose G. Generoso FIFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT / natangu. Mindoro), Tayabas. Cavite. and Mul'induque)

Claro M. Recto :Manuel L . Quezon SLXTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT IAlbay. Sorsogon, Camarines Norte. . Camarines Sur, and Masbate)

J uan B. Alegre Jose Fuentebella SJ:;VENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Iloilo. Capiz, and Romblon)

Ruperto Montinola Antonio Belo .t::IGHTH SENATORIAL DISTRTCT \Nf'arOB Occidental. Ncgros Oriental, Antique. and Palawan)



ABRA Only Dist.-Quintin Paredes

ALBAY 1st. Dist.--Julian Locsin (2) 2nd. Dist.-Jose S. Valenciano 3rd. Dist.-Pedl'o Sabido J,th Dist.-Pedl'o Vera

ANTIQUE Only C. Moscoso

BATAAN Only Dist.-Fol'tunato de Leon

BATANES Only Dist.-Mariano L izardo

BATANGAS 1st. Dist.-Anton io de las Alas 2nd. Dist.-Meynal'do M. Farol 3,路d. Dist.-J ose D. Dimayuga


Francisco ZulueLa Gil Montilla

1 st.


2nd. Dist.-Marcelo S. Ramirez 3rd . Dist.-Filomeno Caseiias Ol'beta


Man uel C. Briones Ser g io Osmeiia EI..EVENTH SENATORIAL DIST RI CT ISurigao, Misam is Oriental . Miaamis Occiden tal, and Bohol)

Jua n Tona lba J ose A. Clarin TW ELFTH SENATOlUAL DlSTR ICT I Uaguio. Nueva Vizcayu, Mountain Province. Agu. IIln, Bukidnon. Cotabato, DavIlO, Lanao. SlIlu .



Ludovico Hidrosoll o Jamalul Kira m

Dist.-J ose Con con

BULACAN 1st. Dist.-Francisco A . Delgado 2nd. Dist.-Jose de Leon, Jr.

CAGAYAN Dist.- -Mal'celo Adduru 2nd. Dist,-Sabas Casiballg


CAMARI NES NORTE Only Dist.-Miguel Lukba n

CAMARINES SUR 1st. Dist.-Mari ano E . Villafuerte 2nd. Dist.-Sev ero Cea (l) Succeeded by Speaker Quintin Paredes on August 23, 1933. (2) Defented by Rep. Exequiel Kare in election eon .




CAPIZ 1st. Dist.-Manuel Roxas

2nd. Dist.-J ase A. Dorado 3rd. V ist.-Rufino L. Garde (') CAVITE Only Dist.-Emiliano T . Tirana

MASBATE Only Vist.-Pio V . Corpus MINDANAO AND SULU 1 st. Dist.-Agustin Alvarez

2nd. Dist.-Francisco Bangoy

a,,.d. Dis t .- Datu Ibra Gundarangin 4th. Dist.-Datu Sinsuat


2n d. 3rd.

4th. 5t h. 6th. 7th.

CEBU Dist.- Buenaventura Rodriguez D ist.-Sotel'o B. Cabahug Dis t.- Maximo Noel D ist.- Juan Alcazaren Dis t.-Miguel Cuenca Dis t.-Miguel Raffifian D is t.-Paulino Yba nez

ILI) COS NORTE 1st. Dis t.-Vicen t e T. Lazo 2nd . Dist.- Emilio T. Medina ILOCOS SUR 1st. Dist.-Pedro Singson Reyes 2nd. Dis t.- Fidel Villanueva ILOILO 1st. Dist.-Jose C. Zulueta 2nd. Dist.-Vicente R. Ybiernas

3rd. Dist.- Silvestre Villa 4th. Dist.- Tomas Buenaflor 5th. Dist.- Venancio Cudilla ISABELA Only Dist .-S il vestre B. Macutay LAGUNA 1st. Dist.-Feliciano Gomez 2nd. Dis t.- Arsenio Bonifacio LA UNION 1st. Dis t.-Mariano Alisangco 2nd. Dist.-Rodolfo Baltazar 1st. Dis t.2nd. Dis t .Srd. Dis t.4th. Dis t.5 th. Dist.-

LEYTE Carlos S. Tan Pacifico Ybanez l'omas Oppus Cirilo Bayaya Ruperto Kapunan

MANILA 1st. Dis t.-Francisco Varona 2nd. Dis t.- Pl'udencio A . Remigio MARINDUQUE Only Vis t.---J ose A. U y (I ) De feated hy R e p. Rafael S. Tumbokon in n co ntest.

5th. Dist.-Jose G. Sanvictores

MINDORO Only Dist.---Juan L. Luna MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL Only Dist.-Jose A. Ozamis MISAMIS ORIENTAL Only Dist.-Isidro Vamenta MOUNTAIN PROVINCE 1st. Vist.-Hilary P . Clapp 2nd. Dis t.-Henry A. Kamora

Srd. Dis t.-Juan Gaerlan NEGROS OCCIDENTAL 1st. Dist.- Enrique B. Magalona 2nd. Dist.-Ramon Torres Srd. Dist.- Emilio Yulo NEGROS ORIENTAL 1st. Dist.-Guillermo Z. Villa~ueva ind. Dis t .-Jose E. Romero NUEVA ECIJA 1st. Dist.- Manuel V. Gallego 2nd. Dist.- FeJipe Buencamino, Jr. NUEV A VIZCA Y A Only Dist. -Domingo Maddela

PALAWAN Only Dist.-Claudio Sandoval

PAMPANGA 1st. Dist.- Fabian de la Paz 2nd. Dist.- Zoilo Hilario PANGASINAN 1st. Dist.-Potenciano Pecson 2nd. Dist.-Eugenio Perez Srd. Dist.-Antonio Mejia 4th. Dist.- Eusebio V. Sison 5th. Dist.-Juan G. Millan RIZAL 1st. Dist.-Pedro Magsalin 2nd. Dist.-Eulogio Rodriguez



)nlJl Diat.-Leonardo Festin

THIRO SENATORIAL DISTRICT (TarJnc, Nueva Ecija, Pampanlla, and Bulaean)

Hon. Hon.

SAMAR '8' t. Dist.-Tiburcio Tancinco !nd. Dist.-Serafin Marabut frd. Dis t.-Gerardo Marrero


FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT (Batann, Rha l. Manila, and Laguna)

SORSOGON '8t . Dist.-Adolfo Gerona !n d. Dist.-Fernando B. Duran






FI FTH SENAT ORI AL DISTRICT (Batangas, Mindo r~, Tayabas, Cavite, and MarlDduQue)

SURIGAO 971ly Dist.-Vicente E. Gonzaga

Han. Hon.






SIXTH SEN'ATOR1lAL DISTRICT (Albsy. Sorsogon, Camarines Norte, Ca marines Sur, and Masbate)


Dist.-Alionso A . Pablo md. Dist.-Jose G. Domingo TAYABAS 'st. Dis t.-Fabian R. Millar !Ild. Dist.-Marcelo T. Boncan








SEVENTH SENATORIAL DlSTRICT (Iloilo, Capiz, a nd Romblon)


ZAMBALES Jnl1l Dist.-Gregorio Anonas



EIG HTH S EN ATOR I AL DI STRICT (Nellros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Antique, and Palawa n)

Hon . Hon.







H on. Hon.





Hon. JOSE A VELI N O, OF SAMAR President Pro Tempore




ELEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT Misa mis O rien1al. Misamis Occidental. and Bohol)


Hon. Bon.

FIRS'P SENATORIAL DISTRICT (BataneIJ. Ca~yan. Isabcla. Doeos Norte IIoco!! Sur. and Abril.)

Han. Hon.





TWEL FTH S ENATORIA L DISTRICT ,daguio, Nueva Vizcayn. Mountain Province, Agosan , Bukidnon, Cot.ab"'o. O" V"I'l. L a MO, ::lu lu n lld Zam bonnga)

SECOND SENATORIAL DISTRICT Union, Po.nIl3!!inan. and Zambales)






Bon. DATU SINSUAT" the".

-Appointed btl and hol.dJf office duri"D of th.4 GOtIIMWH'-GetW1'al.






Eon. Hon.




Speaker oj the House of Representatives Hon. MANUEL ROXAS, Mr. EULOGIO BENITEZ, of Lagu na


First District.


N . DE LEON, Second District.

First District.

Hon. JOSE A . DORADO. Second District.




Thi'rd District.



H on.




First District. NUYDA, SecoruJ. District. V. CEA, Thi'rd Distrct. SURTIDA, Fourth District.


Hon. TERESO M. DOSDOS, First District. Hon. HILARIO ABELLANA, Second District. Hon. VICENTE RAMA, Third District. Han. AGU STIN Y. KINTANAR, Fourth Disttrict.

Hon. M,GUEL CUENCO. Fifth District.



Sixth Dist1'ict. Seventh Vir











T. LAZO, First Disflrict.

Second District.







First District. Second District. Hon. EMILIO U. MAYO. Third DisWict.

First District. Second District.






First District. Second District. Hon. ATANAslo AMPIG, Third District. Hon. FEDERICO R. TIRADOR. Fourth District Hon. VENANCIO CUDILLA. Fifth District. Hon.






First District.


Third District.


Hon. Hon.




First District. Second District.





, Hon.

First District. Second District.





Fi1'St Dist1路ict.

Hon. MARIANO S . UNTIVERO, Seco-nd Distn.t. LA UNION



1. ORTEGA, Fi'rst District.







Ron. CARLOS S. TAN, First District . . flon. DoMINADOR M. TAN, Second District. tIOD. TOMAS OPPUS, Third District. Ron. FORTUNATO M. SEVILLA, Fourth

District. lIon. JORGE B. DELGADO, Fifth Dist-rict.


EIan. FRANCISOO VARONA, Fisrt District. ffon. ALFONSO E. MENDOZA, Second Disflrict.


First District. Second District.



First District.. Second District. H on. DANIEL MARAMBA, Third District. H on. CIPRIANO P. PRIMICIAS, Fourth District. H on. NARCISO RAMOS, Fifth District. Hon. POTENCIANO PECSON,











First District. Second District.













First Distlrict.

Hon. A N1'O LIN D. TA N,

Han. SERAFIN MARABUT, Second District. Hon. GERARDO MORERO, Third District·


District. Second District. ·


Hon. FEL"( F. Dr '\ 7, \\ Hon· EMILIANO P. AGUIRRE. a Hon. ROOOLFO K. HIDALGo .a



Hon. ENRIQUE B. MAGALONA, First Distlrict. Hon· RAMON T ORRES, Second District. Hon. AGU STIN S. RAMOS, Third District.



First DistrictSec<md Dis-


trict. TAYABAS


First District. Second District.


First Distn·ct.

Han. ANTONIO Z. ARGOSlNO, Second Dist-rict. ZAMBALES


JIon. JOSE ROBLES, JR. , First District. Han. ISAURO


S eoond District.



aA ppointed bv end hold4 of the GO'IIertlOT-Gen6TaJ.





Officers of the Philippine Legislature (Lower House)-Since the establishment of the First Philippine Assembly in 1907 until the inauguration of the Commonwealth of t he P hilippines in 1935, there had been three Spehl:ers of the Lower House, viz.: (1) Sergio Osmeiia, who was firs,t elected on October 10, 1907, and re-elected five consecutive times as follows : February 8, 1908; October 17, 1910; October 16, 1912; October 16, 1916; aJ1d July 21, 1919. (2) Manuel Roxas, who was fi rst elected on Ootober 27, 1922, and re-elected three consecutive times as follows: Jul y 16, 1925 j July 16, 1928; and July 16, 1931. H e was ousted from his position as Speaker of the House of Representatives in August, 1933, and (3) Quintin Paredes, who was elected on August 23, 1933, to succeed Speaker Roxas, and was re-eleoted in July, 1934.

Speakers Pro-Te;m.pore -(1) Antonio de las Alas, elected on November 13, 1933; (2) Quintin Paredes, elected July 16, 1929; (3) Antonio de las Alas, re-elected on. N<>vember 8, 1930; (4) Quintin Paredes, re-elected Janua ry 25, 1933; and (5) Jose Zulueta, elected July 24, 1933.

Flo o',. Leade'l"s in the Low e-'J" House (1) Manuel L. Quezon, elected J anuary 28, 1908, and again on May 14, 1909. (2) Alberto Barretto, elected November 11, 1910, and again on Febru ary 6, 1912. (3) Macario Adriatico, elected on October24, 191 2, and again on March 1, 1914. (4) Galicano Apacible, elected November 5, 1914, and again on June 5, 191 6. (5) Rafael Alunan, elected on N ovember 6, 1916, and again on June 5, 1919. (6) Benigno S. Aquino, elected on November 1, 1922, and again on June 4, 1928. (7) Manuel C. Briones, eJected July 26, 1928, and again on J une 1, 1933. (8) Pedro Sabido, elected F ebruary 19, 1933, and again on August 22, 1933 .

(9) Francisco Varona, elec,t ed floor leader pro-tempore on August 23, 1933, and made floor leader in December of the same year. (10) Jose Zulueta, elected floor leader protempore on August 23, 1933.

Secretaries of the Lower House (1) Julian Gerona, elected October 16, 1907, with Gregorio Nieva as Assistant. (2) Assemblyman Manuel G. Gavieres elected as Acting Secretary on March 28: 1910. (3) Gregorio Nieva, elected Acting Secretary on April 7, 1910. (4) Ramon Di okno, elected on October 31, 1910. (5) Teodoro M. Kalaw, elected on October 16, 1912 . (6) Rafael Villanueva, elected on October 15, 1916, and re-eleoted on July 21, 1919. (7) Narciso Pimentel, elected Acting Se<. retary on October 27, 1922. (8) Felkiano Gomez, elected on March 26. 1933. (9) Ricardo Gonzales LloI'et, elected on July 16, 1925, and again on July 16, 1928. (10) Narciso Pimentel, elected Secretary on Jul y 16, 1928. (11) Julian La 0 , from January, 1934, up to the inauguration of the Conunonwealth.

Philippine Senate.-From the inau路 guration of the Upper House of the Philippine Legislature in 1916 until its abolition in 1935, the Philippine Senate was headed by Senate President Manuel L. Quezon. Senator Sergio Osmefia was elected President Pro-tempore in 1923 and was Acting President of the Philippine Senate during the illness of President Quezon from 1930 1;01 1931, when the latter had to stay in the United States for medical treatment. In August, 1933, Senator Jose A. Clarin was elected Pres'dent Protempore to succeed Senator Osmeiia; and, when Sen. Clarin died in 1935. Senator Jose Avelino was elected to fiJI the 路vacancy.






Be it enacted by the Senate and House of r.epresen.tatives of the United States of it:merica in Congress assembled, That on and after siJ<ty days following the passage of this A.ct, except as otherwise specifically provided in this Act, there shall be levied, collected, and paid, upon al~ articles, goods, wares, or merchandise of every kind and class entering the jurisdiction of the 'P hilippine Islands, from any place or places, including the United States and its possessions, and in any manner whatsoever, either with intent to unlade ,therein, or which, after such e~tering, are ~ons wned therein, or become incorporated into the general mass of property within said islands, the rates of import duty which are by this Act specifically provided. SEC. 2. That the following rules shall be observed in the construction and enforcement of the various provisions of this Act:

GENERAL RULES TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OF THREADS AND AsTHEREOF.-By路 the number of threads in a textile shall, unless otherwise ti pula ted, be Pleant the total number of all threads contained in the warp and weft thereof i~ a square of six millimeters. \Varp is the total number of threads which lie longitudinally in a textile whether they fOl1n the toundation thereof or have been added thereto. Weft shall be considered the total num:u of threads which cross the warp, whether :rom selvage to selvage or not. To deternine the number of threads in a textile, and :hfl proportion thereof subject to the highest "ate of duty, a "thread counter" shall be RULE I.




Should a textile be more closely woven in some parts than in others, the number of threads in the most closely woven part and in the most loosely woven part of the body of the textile shall be ascertained, and the average number of threads resulting shall serve as the basis for levying duty. 'I'hread~ shall be counted on the finished side of the textile, if the nature thereof permits j otherwise, on the reverse side. If necessary, to ascertain the number of threads, the nap shaH be removed or a sufficient part of the textile, unraveled. Should this be impossible without damaging a made-up article, the textile shall be subject to the highest rate of duty' applicable, in the group to which it belongs, and if the textile be mixed, it shall be dutiable at the rate applicable to the most highlY' taxed component material in the exterior of the article. RULE 2.


(a) How CoMPUTED.-

The surtaxes applicable on account of broche, metal threads, embroidery, trimming,' or making-up shall be computed on the pr-imary duties le'viable on the textile, including therewith the increase of such duties in case, and on account, of admixture. (b) ON





Articles of any character, dutiable at an ad valorem, rate, shall not be subject to any of the SUl路taxes provided herein, unless the application of such surtaxes to said ad valorem rate is specifically provided for in this Act. RULE 3 . ADMIXTURE OF Two MATERIALS .Textiles composed of two materials shall be dutiable as follows: (a) Cotton textiles containing threads of other vegetable fibers, and in which the total number of such threads, counted in the warp



and weft, does not exceed one-fifth of the total an d weft, does not exceed one-fifth of the number of ·threads composing the textiles, total number of the threads composing the shall be dutiable under the corresponding par- textile, shall be dutia ble under the correspond_ agraphs of Class V, with a s urtax of fifing paragraphs of Class VI, with a surtax teen per centum. of sixty per centum. 'When the number of threads of other vegWhen the number of silk threads exceeds. etable fibers exceeds one-fifth of t he total, one-fiftli of the total, the textile shall be duo the textile shall be dutiable under the cor- tiable under the corresponding paragraphs of responding paragraph of Class VI. Class V III Cotton texti les containing threads of wool, The provlslons of this ru1e shall not hair, or wastes of these materials, and in apply to pile fabrics, knitted or netted stuffs, which the total number ot' such threads , tulles, laces, or blondes (Rule Six), or to rib· counted in the warp and weft, does not ex- bans, gall oons, braids, tape, or trimmings ceed one-fifth of the tota l number of threads (Ru le Seven) . composing the textile, shall be dutiable under (c) Textiles l of wool, or hair, containing the corresponding paragraphs of Class V, with threads of silk, and in which the number of a surta...q of thirty-five per centum. such threads exceeds one-fifth of the total 'Vhen the number of threads of wool, hair, number of threa ds composing the texti les, shall or their wastes exceeds one-fifth of the total, be dutiable' under the corresponding para· the textile shall be dutiable under the corgraphs of Class VIII. respo~ding paragraph of Class VII. RULE 4. ADM IXTURES OF MORE THAN TWO Cotton textile containing threads of silk, MATERIALs.-Textile composed of more than and in which the total number of such threads, two materials sha11 be dutiable as follows: counted in the \Val·p and weft, does not ex(a) T ~xtiles of an ad.mjxtul·e of wool and ceed one-fifth of the total number of threads cotton, or of wool and other vegetable fibers, composmg the textile shall be dutiable under containing threads of silk, but in which. the the cOl"l"esponding paragraphs of Class V, with number of silk threads, counted in the warp an d weft, does not exceerl one-fifth of the tota a surtax of seventy per centum. '\Then the number of threads of silk ex- number of threads corqposing the t extile, shal ceeds one-fifth of the total, the textile shall be dutiable under t he corresponding pa graphs of Class VIr. be dutiable under the corresponding para' \Then the number of silk threads exceed graph of Class VII I. one-fifth of the total, the textile shall The pr'Jvisions of this rule shall not apply to pile fabrics, knitted or netted stuffs, tulles, d utiable under the corresponding pa. agrap laces, or blondes (Rule Six), or to ribbons, of Class VlIr. ga lloons, braids, tape, or trimmings (Rule (b) Textiles of an admixture of cotton an other vegetable fibers, together with threa Seven) . (b) Textiles of vegetable fibers (except cotof silk, but in which the number of sil ton), containing threads of wool , hair, or their t hreads counted in the ''''arp and weft, do wastes, and in which the number of s uch not exce~d one-fifth of the total number threads, counted in the warp and weft,1 does t hreads composi ng the textile, shall be du ' not exceed one fif th of the total number of able under the corresponding paragraphs 0 t hreads composing the t extile, shall be duti- Class V!, and in addition, shall be liable able under th e correspo nding paragraphs of a surtax of seventy per centum for th Class VI, with a surtax of faTty per centum. t hreads of silk. When the number of threads of wool, hair, '¥1hen the number of silk threads excee or their wastes, exceeds one-fif t h of the tota l, one-fifth of the total, the textile shall be du the textile shall be dutiable under the cor- able under the corresponding paragraph respondbg paragraph of Class VII. Class VIrI. (c) T extiles of an admixture of wool, co Textiles of vegetable fibers (except cottonL containing t hreads of silk, and in which t he . ton, and other vegetable fibers , containing silk threa d s~ and in which the number number of such th reads, counted in the warp


threads (If wool, counted in the warp and weft, does not exceed one-fifth of the total number of threads composing the t~xtile, shall be dutiable under the corresponding paragraphs of Class VI, and in addition, shall be liable to a surta..x of forty per centum for the threads of wool. When the number of threads of wool exceerls one-fifth of the total, the textile shall be duti~ble under the corresponding paragra ph of Class VII. Rur~E 5. SILK TEXTILES.-All textiles contaming silk threads, the number of which, counted in the warp and weft, exceeds onefifth of the total number of threads composU\~ the textile, shall be deemed textiles of silk.

EXCEPTIONS. PILE F ABRIeS, AND KN I TTED AND STUFFS.-Plushes, velvets, velveteens, all pile fabrics, all kinds of knitted or netted stuffs, tulles, laces and blondes, containing an admixture of textile materials, shall be dutiable at the rate applicable to the most highly taxed component material, whatever be the proportion of such material in the article. RULF: r;. RIBBONS, GALL'OONS, BRAIDS, TAPE, AND TRt:\lMtNGS.-Ribbons, galloons, braids, tape, and trimmings, containing an admixture of textile materials, shall be dutiable at the rate applicable to the most highly taxed component material, whatever be the proportion of such material in the article. 'When any of these. articles contain metal threads in any proportion they shall be dutiab le under the corresponding paragraph of Class I'll!. RULE 3. BROCHEs.-Broches dutiable under Class V, with silk, shall be liable to the duties leviable thereon with a surtax of fifteen per centum. Brochfs, dutiable under Class VI, with silk, shall be liable to the duties leviable thereon with a surtax of thirty per centum. Broches are textiles with ornamental figures formed by means of a shuttl e at time of ~'eavi ng, and in such manner that t he threads forming the figure occupy only' the space thereRULE 6.


of. RULE 9. EMBROIDERY AND TRIMMI NGS.'l'extiles, embroidered by hand or mach in e af1er weaving, or with application of trimmings,


shall be liable to the duties leviable thereon with a surtax of thirty per centum. If the embroidery contains threads of purl conunon metals or of silver, or spangles of any material other than gold, the surtax shall be sixty per centum of the duties applicable to the textile. 'Vhen 1he threads, purl, or spangles are of gold, the surtax shall be one hundred per' centum. Embroidery is distinguished from patterns woven in the textile by the latter being destroyed by unraveling the weft of the textile, while embl:oidery' is independent of the warp and weft and cannot be so unraveled. RULE 10. METALLIC THREADS. - Textiles composed exclusively of metallic threads shall be du tiable under Class VIII. Textiles or articles (except t hose provided for in Rules Seven and Nine hereof), dutiable under Classes V and VI, containing threads 01' purl of common metals or of silver shall be liable to a surtax of fifty per centum of the dutieS leviable thereon. If the threads or purl are of gold the surtax shall be one hundred pel' centum. RULE] 1. MADE-UP ARTICLES. - Textiles, dutiable under Classes V and VI, entirely or paTtially made-up into common sacks (except gunny sacks) or tarpaulins, sha ll be liable to the duties applicable thereto with a surtax of fifteen pel' centum. Shawls, including those called "man tones" and Hpaiiolones," traveling rugs, sarongs, patadeones, counterpanes, sheets, towels, table cloths and napkins, veils, fichu s, and handkerchiefs, shall, for the making up be liable to a surtax of thirty per centum of the duties leviable thereon. Any of these articles, imported ir. the piece, uncu t , shall not be considered as made-up except in those -cases where the line of separation between them is indicated by unwoven spaces. Other articles, including wearing apparel, not otherwise provided for, cut, basted, partially finished, or finished, shall be treated in accordance with Rule One, and shaH be dutiable at the rate applicable to the most highly taxed component material in the exterior thereof with ~ surtax of fifty pel.' centum: Provided, T h at made-up articles enumerated in this Act shall not be subject to any surtax for making-



up unless such surtax is specially provided in connection with the corresponding paragraph or clause.

ARTICLES NOT ENUMERATED AND THO SE COMPOSED OF SEVERAL MATERIALS. RULE. ]2. (a) On any article, not enumerated in this Act, manufactured of two or more materials, duty shall be assessed at the rate at whi ch the same would be dutiable if composed wholly of the component material thereof of chief value j a nd the words "component material of chief value," whel'ever used in this Act, shall be h eld to mean that component material which shall exceed in value any oth er single component material of the article; a nd the value of each component material sh all be determined by t he a scertained value of such material in its condition as found in the article. (b) If two or more rates of duty shall be applicable to any article, it shall pay duty' at the highest of such rates. When dutiable and duty free merchandi se or m erchandise dutiable at different rates is packed together or mingled in such manner t hat the value of each class of such merchandise cannot be readily detel'lnined by the officers of the Bureau of Customs, all such merchandise shall pay duty at the highest rate applicable to any part or class t hereof, unless Ll].e importer or consignee segregates such merchandise at his own risk and account, under the supervision of the custom's officers, '\vithin fifteen days after the entry of the same, and b efore delivery , in order that the value of each part or class thereof may be determined. (b) of Rule 12 reads as amended by Act No. 3~16 of the Philippine Legislature, published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1006.

(c ) No customs officers shall give an1 advance o-pj nion as to the classification for duty of any :uticle intended to be imported: P1'Ovided, That when an: article intended to be imported is not specifically mentioned in this Act, the interested party or the importer may deposit with t h e in su lar collector of customs a sam ple t.hereof and request him to indicate the paragraph und er which the article is or shall be dutiable, and the insular collector of customs shal1 comply with such request. In such

case classification of the article in question upon the particular importation involved, shali be made according to paragraph so indicated. (d) Salvage from vessels built in foreign countries and wrecked or abandoned in Phil. ippine waters or elsewhere, not otherwise pro. vided fo1", shall be dutiable according to the corresponding paragraphs of this Act.

RECEPTACLES, PACKAGES, AND PACKING RULE 13. (a.) 'Whenever imported mer. chandise is subject to an ad valorem rate of duty, the duty shall be assessed upon the actu al m a rket value or wholesale price of such merchandise, as bought and sold in ,usual wholesale quantities, at the time of exporta路 tion to the Philippine I slands, in the principal markets of the country from whence imported, and in the condition in which such merchandise is there bought and sold for exportation to the Philippine Islands, or consigned to the Philippine I slands for sale, including the value of all cartons, cases, crates, boxes, sacks, and cove rings of any kind, and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the merchandise in condition, packed ready for shipment to, the Philippine 'Islands. (b) Whenever an article is subject to an alternative minimum ad valorem rate, the alternative ad valorem duty shall be ascertained by applying the corresponding ad valorem rate to such merchandise, inclusive of all costs and charges mentioned in clause (a) of this rule, (c) The term "retail package" wherever used in this Act shall be held to mean any article, goods, wares, or merchandise, together with th~ holders, containers, packages, or packing, in which such article, goods, wares, or merchandise i~ usually held, contained, or packed at the time of its sale to the public in usual retail quantities. (d) 'W herever it is provided ill! this Act that articles, goods, wares, or merchandise shall be dutiable fCincluding weight of imme路 diate containers," the dutiable weight thereof shall be h eld to be the weight of same, together with the weight of the immediate container, holder, or packing only: Provided, That wherever in this Act the term "including weight of immediate containers" and the tenn "retail package" are both used in the


;ame paragraph or clause, the dutiable weight

;hall be the weight of the retail package. (e) Wherever it is provided in this Act that lrticles, goods, wares, or merchandise shall be iutiable by I'gross weight," the dutiable ,'eight thereof shall be held to be the weight )f same, together with the weight of all con:ainers, packages, hold ers, and packing, of l.~hatsoever kind or character~ in which said Irlicies, goods, wares, and merchandise are ;ontained, held, or packed at the time of im?ortation. (f) Articles, goods, wares, or merchandise iffixed to cardboard, cards, paper, wood, or timi lar common material shall be dutiable to~ the'G with the weight of such packing. (y) The usual tapes, boards, and immediate rrapping shall be considered as a part of the lutiable weight of textiles. (h) No duties sh all be assessed on account )f the usual coverings or holdings of articles, ~s. wares, or merchandise dutiable other,r ise than ad va lorem, nor those free of duty, ~x:cept as in this Act expressly provided, but f there be used for covering or holding im\>Orted articles, goods, wares, ;or merchanlise, whether dutiable or free, any unusual niide, form, or m aterial adapted for use )therwisc than in the bona fide transportation jf such articles, goods, wares, or merchandise !o the Philippine Islands, duty shall be levied md collected on such covering or holding in ~ccordance with th e corres ponding paragraphs )f this act.

(i) Whenever the interior cont ainer or tlacking of any article dutiable by weight is If an unusual character, including silk-lined :ases, cases of fine wood, silk, leather, or imi;ations thereof such as are used to contain ewelry, plate~ trinkets, and the like, such rontainers or packing shall be dutiable at the 'ate applicable to t he component material of :hief value. (j) When a single package contains imX1rted merchandise dutiable according to dif'erent weights, or weight and ad valorem, the ommon exterior receptacle shall be prorated .nd the different proportions thereof treated n accordance with the provisions of this rule s to th~ dutiability or non-dutiability of such acking.


(k) Where articles, goods, wares, or merchandise dutiable by weight, and not otherwise specially! provided for, are customarily contained in packing, packages, or receptacles of uniform Or simi lar character, it shall be the duty of the insular collector of customs, from time to time, to ascertain by tests the actual weight or quantity of such articles, goods, wares, or m erchandise, and the actual weight of the packages, packing, or receptacles thereof, respectively', in which the same are customarily imported, and upon such ascertainment, to presc ribe rules) for estimating the dutiable weight or quantity thereof, and thereafter such articles, goods, wares, or merchandise imported in such customary packing, packages, or receptacles shall be entered, and the duties thereon levied and collected, upon the basis of such estimated dutiable weight or quantity: P1'ovided, That if the importer, consignee, or agent shall be dissatisfied with such estimated dutiable weight or quantity, and shall file with the collector of customs prior to th e delivery of the packages designated for examination a written specification of his objections thereto, or if the collector of customs shall have reason to doubt the exactness of the prescribed weight or quantity in any instance, i~ shall be his duty to cause such actual weights or quantities to be ascertained.

PROHIBITED IMPORTATIONS. SEC. 3. That importation or shipment into the Philippine Islands of the following articles is prohibited: (a) Dynamite, gunpo\vder, similar explosives, firearm s and detached parts therefor, except in accordance with enactment of the Philippine Legis lature, or when imported by路, or for the use of, the United States or insular governmc>nts. (b) Articles, books, pamphlets, printed matter, manuscripts, typewritten matter, paintings, illustrations, figures or objects of obscene or in decent character or subversive of public order. (c) Roulette wheels, gambling outfits, loaded dice, marked cards, machines, apparatus, or mechanical devices used in gambling, or in the dis tribution of money, cigars or other articLes when such distribution is dependent upon chance.



(d) Any article manufactured in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof, falsely marked or stamped in violation of the Act of Congress of June thirteenth, nineteen hundred and six, entitled /jAn Act forbidding the importation, exportation or carriage in interstate commerce of falsely or spuriously stamped articles of merchandise made of gold 01' silver or their alloys, and . for other purposes." (e) Any article violating t he provisions of the Act of Congress) of J une thirtieth, nineteen hundred and six, entitled uAn Act for preventing the manufacture, sale, 01' transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous 01' deleterious; foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes," com:monly known as "the pure-food law." (/) Lottery tickets, advertisements thereof, lists of drawings therein, which, after seizure upon illegal entry, shall, together with the proceeds thereof be forfeited to the government of the Philippine Islands, after due process of law. (g) Opium, in whatever form, except by the government of the Philippine Islands, and bY1 pharmacists duly licensed and registered as such, under the laws in force in said islands, and for medicina l purposes only. (h) Opium pipes, parts thereof, of whatsoever material.

ABBREVIA TIONS. SEC. 4. That the following abbreviations employed in this Act shall represent the terms indicated: Hectog. for hectogram. Kilo. for kilogram. Kilos. for kilograms. Hectol. for hectoliter. DEFINI TIONS. SEC. 5. The term "pharmaceutical product," wherever used in t hi s Act, shall be he ld


to include all medicines or preparations reo cognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formrulary for internal or ex. tel'nal use, and any substance or mixture of substances used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention of human or animal diseases, provided the same are not otherwise provided for in this Act. The term "proprietary," as applied to medicinal remedies, vmerever used in this Act, shall be held to mean a "preparation the rna. nufacture or sale of which is restricted, through patent of the drug or com bination of drugs, copyright of the label or name, or in any other manner, 01' a preparation concern· ing which the pl'oducer or manufacturer claims a private formula." 'Vherever in this Act the word "the same" appear as the first words of a paragraph they 'shall be held to refer to and to mean the same as the caption of the preceding paragraph, Should such words appear as the first word! of a clause they s hall be he1dl to refer to and to mean the same as the clause which im· mediate ly precedes the one in wh ich they are used.

PAYMENT OF DUTIES. SEC. 6. Pa'yment and liquida.tion.o/ duties. -That the rates of duty established in this Act are stated in money of the United State3 of America, but that payment thereof shall be made in Philippine currency' 01' its equivalent in money of the United States of America on the basis of the liquidated value as herein provided. In the liquidation of duty. the currency of the invoice w ill be reduced to the money of account of the United States u pon the basis of t he following values of foreign money, any provis ion of law, regulation, or order to the contrary notwithstand ing :


Argentina ........ . .... Gold peso ... . ..... , ...... . . , .... . Austral ia ,.. .. ........ Pound sterling " . ... .. . .. . , .. . .. . Austria .. ,." .. . ..... . . Schilling ... . .......... . ....... . . . Belgium ........ . •. . . . . . Belg~ . ......... . ...... . • , . . ... . . .

V alue in Philippine currenC'J/ '1'1. 9296 9.7330 . 2814 . 2780

Equivalent in U S currency $0.9648 4.8665 .1407 .1390



olivia ................ Boliviano ... . .................... . razil .. ........... . ... Gold milreis ..... .. .............. . ritisb Hondu ras ...... Dollar . . . ........... . . . .. ..... .. . ulgaria ............. . Lev ..... .. ... . . . ... .. . .. ........ . "anada .......... . .... .Dollar ........... . ............. .

hUe .......•.......... Gold peso ...... . hin • . ................ Dollar (Yuan) .. Dollar


Haikwan tael Shanghai tael ... ................ .

o lombia .............. Peso "'osta Rica ... . ........ Colon ........................... . uba .... .. .......... . .Dollar (peso) ... .... ...•.........


zechoslovakia ......... Kront: .............. Krone bomlnlcan (Rep.) ..... Dollar Ecuador . .............. Sucre .... ................. . . . . . . . PgyPt . . ............... Pound Egyptian .... . . . . .... ... . . Esthonia .............. Kroon ............ . inland ... . ........... .Markka .. . ...................... . rance ................ Franc ........................... . ennany . .. . .......... Reichmark ....................... . Great Britain .... . .. . .. Pound !'Oterling ................ .. . Greece ................. Drachma Guatemala ............. Quetzal Haiti .................. Gourae ...... . ... ... . ... ... . . .... . Rolland ............... Guilder or florin .. . ......... . .... . lHonduras (Rep.) ...... Lempua ......................... .

p en~a.rk


Bongkong ............. Dollar .......... .. ........ . ...... . Hungary .............. Pengo . ..................... . .... . lndia (British) ........ Si lver rupee ... .......... . ....... . 1ndo-China ... . ... . .. .. .Piaster ..................... . ... .

)laly .................. Li ra ...... . ......... .. .......... . Japan . ........... ..... Yen ............................. . Jugo~S lavia ............ Dinar ....................... . ... . latvia ......... . . .... .. Lat ............................. . Manchuoko ............ Dollar .......................... . lIexico . ............... Peso . . ............... . ...... .. . . Newfoundland ., ..... ,. Dollar ........... ".,. . . ... ... .... . :'few Zealand .. .. . ...... Pound sterling .... . .... . , ..... , .. Nicaragua ............. Cordova ..... , ...... . . , .... .. .... , Nor~~ay ....... . ....... Krone ..... . . . . .. ...... , .... , .. . . . Panama .......... . .... Gold Balboa ... . ................. . Paraguay , ...... .. ... ,. Peso , . .......... . .............. . Persia .......... ' . ..... Rial .... . ........ ..... . .... .. . . . .

Peru ........... . ...... Sol .. . ...................... . .... .

213 Value in Philippine cU'rrency

.7300 1. 0924 2 .0000 .0144 2.0000 .2434 .9004 .9004 1. 3828 1. 2412 1. 9466 .9306 2.0000 .0592 .5360 2.0000 .4000 9.8862 .5360 .0504 .0784 .4764 9.7330 .0260 2.0000 . 4000 .8040 1.000(, .8938 .3498 .7300 .7836 .1052 .9970 .0352 .3860 .6088 .9970 2.0000 9.7330 2.0000 .5360 2.0000 1. 929f. .0974 .4000

Equivalent inU S cu:rrency

.3650 .5462 1. 0000 .0072 1. 0000 .1217 .4502 . 4502 .6914 .6206 .9733 .4653 1. 0000 .0296 .2680 1. 0000 .2000 4 .9431 .2680 .0252 .0392 .2382

4.8665 .01~0

1. 0000

.2000 .4020 . 5000 .4469 . 1749 .3650 .3918 .0526 .4985 .0176 . 1930 .304375 .4985 1. 0000 4.8665 1. 0000 .2680 1. 0000 .9648 .0487 .2000





Poland . .............. . Zloty .. . ......... . ... .• .. . . ... . . . Portugal .... .. . . . . .... ·Escudo ........... . .... . .. . ...... . Roumania .... . . ........ Leu ........ . . . ....... . ... . . ..... . Russia . . ...... . ....... Ruble .. . Salvador .......•....... Colon Siam .................. GO'!d-silver; Tical .... . ..... . ..... . Spain . ................ Peseta , ....................•...•. Straits Settlements .... .Silver dollar .... . . ... . . ........ . . . Sweden ... . .Krone ..........•.............. . .. Switzel'iand .... . ...... .Franc ................. . ... . . . . . . . Syria ......... . ........ Piaster ....... • .... . . ...... .. . . . . Turkey .... . . .. .. . ..... Piaster Uruguay .....•......... Peso . .. .... . .... . .. ... . ...... . Venezuela ........ .. ... Bolivar ......................... . Whenever merchandise impOl'ted into the Philippine Islan ds is invoiced in the currency of the United States 00.. of the Philippine Is· lands, such currency must be converted back into t he propel' foreign currency at the buying rate of exchange as dete!'mined and certified by the F edel'al Reserve Bank of New York and published by' the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, and then be reconverted into th e currency of the United States or of the Philippine Islands at the value of the said foreign CUl'rency as hereinabove provided. The Governor-General, upon recommendation of the Secretary of Fina.nce, may, by proclamation, fix for the pUl'poses of this Act the value in Philippine currency, and its equivalent in money of th e United States of America, of the value of the currencY' or currencies of foreign countries when said value is changed or is not covered herein, NOTE.-This section reads as amended by Act No. 4034 of t h e Philippine Legislature. published in Tariff Decision Cil'cular No. 1012, and by COVCl'nOl'-General's proclamations Nos. 562. 58 1, 603. 687, 688 and 769. published in CiI'culal' Letters Nos. 730, 739. 753. 796, 797 and 8S0.

METRIC SYSTEM. SEC. 7. That the metric system of weights and measures as authorized by sections thirtyfive hundred and sixty-nine and thirty-five h undred and seventy of the Revised Statutes of the United States, and atl present in u se in the Ph ilippine Islands, shall be contin ued. '

Value in Philippine Gun'envy .2244 .0884 .0120 1. 0292 1. 0000 .8848 .3860 1.1356 .5360 .3860 .01568 .0880 2.068~


Equivalent in U. S. Currency .1122 .0442 .0060 .5146 .5000 .4424 .1930 .5678 .2680 .1930 .00784 .0440 1. 0342 . 1930

The meter is equal to thirty-nine and thirtyseven one-hundredths inches. The liter is equal to one and five hundred and sixty-seven ten-thousandths quarts, wine measure. The kilogram is equal to two and two thou· sand and forty-six ten-thousandths pounds, avoirdupois.

RATES OF DUTI ES. SEC. 8. That the rates of duties to be col· lected on articles, goods, wares, or merchandise imported into the P hilippine Islands, or going into said islands from the United States or any of its possessions except as otherwise provided in this Act, shall be as follows: Provided, That no article bearing evident signs of being for sanitary' construction shall pay a higher rate of duty than twenty per centum ad valorem: And pTovided,: !U?·ther, That articles of foreign grQwth, produce, or manufacture .shall be dutiable upon each importation, even though previously exported from the Philippine Islands, except as otherwise specifically provided in this Act. By "sanitary construction l l is meant t he fixtln"es, fittings, and attachments, such as pipes, valves, drains, spigots, basins, faucets, douches, sinks, and waterclosets, used in modern sanitary house plumbing and for bathrooms. NOT E.- This section reads as amended by A~t No. 4036 of the Philippine Legislature, published Ul Tariff Decision Circular No. 1014.



Group l.-Stones and earths.

1 . Marble, onyx, jasper, alabaster, and similar fine stones: (a) In block, rough or squared only, and marble dust, twenty per centum ad valorem. (b) In slabs, plates or steps, sawed or chiseled, polished or not, but without ornamentation, thirty per centum ad valorem. (r) Any of these stones, lettered, further manufactured or decorated, not otherwise provided for, forty per centum ad valorem. Stones, other, natural or artificial, gross weight : (u.) In block, rough or squared only, one hundred kilos., ten cents. (b) Crushed, sawn, hewn, or dressed, whether polished or not, or if in slabs, plates, or steps, one hundred kilos., fifty cents. (c) Manufactured into articles not otherwise provided for, one hundred kilos., one dollar. Pro~'ided, That no article classified under ause (c) of th is paragraph !:hall pay a less te of duty than thirty per centum ad valoN'OTE.-This pal'Rg"I'aph r-eads as amended by Act IO .i3 of the Philippine Legislature, publis.hed in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1021.


3. Millstones, grindstones, whetstones, oilstones and hones of all kinds, and emery, carborundum, a nd similar wheels for sharpening, dressing, or polishing, including frames and mountings for any of the foregOing imported therewith, fifteen per centwn ad valorem. N"OTE.-This parngraph reads ns amended by Act ,~. 4053 of the Philippine Lcgi~lature, published in Tariff DI.'Cisil)n Circular No. 1024.

4. Asbestos, and manufactures thereof, not otherwise provided for, fifteen per centum ad valorem. 5. Mica and lava, and manufactures thereof, gas-burner tips, and \Velsbach and


other similar mantles for lamps, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. 6. Earths, gross weight: (a) Fire clay, lime, and Roman, Portland and other hydraulic cement, one hundred kilos., eighty cents. (Reduced to sixty-five cents by the Governor-General, Proclamation No 371, dated February 27, 1931, published in Tariff D-::!cision Circular No. 997.) (b) Gypsum, pWnlce, em~ry , chalk, kaolin (China clay), unmanufactured, and other crude earths an d clays not otherwise provided for, one hundred kilos., fort y cents. Note.-Letter (a) of this paragraph reads

as amended by Act N路o. 3821 of the Phllippine Legislature, published in Tariff Decision Cireuiar No. 997. 7. Manllfactures of gypsum, gross weight, one hundl'ed kilos., five dollars. P 'fovideri, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than fift y pel' centum ad valorem. 8. Manufactures of chalk, including billiard chalk, red chalk, and French and tailors' chai t\:, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., fou r dollars. 9. Common clay and cement, in bricks, squares, tiles, and pipes, not otherwise provided for, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. NOT E .- This parngT3ph reads as amended by Act 1'1,). ,10';:1 of the Phi lippine Legislature. published in in Tariff Deci!liDn Circular No. 1024.

10. Ceramic tiles, gross weight: (a) Varnished, undecorated, one hundred kilos. , fOlty-five cents. (b) Glaze, whether vitrified or not, enameled, ornamented or decorated, one hundred kil os., one dollar and twenty cents. NOT E.- This parngraph reads as amended by Act No. .J053 of The P hili ppine Legislature, publi'shed in in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

11. Porcelain, bisque, faience, earthenware, stoneware~ and other ceramic wares not otherwise provided for: (a) In filters and articles bearing evident signs of being for sanitary






(e )


construction, and parts thel'efor Identifiable as such, t en per centum ad valorem. In conunon bottles, jars, crucibles, cupe]s, kitchen utensils and flowerpots, neither gilt, painted, g lazed, decorated, nor orn amented, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. In articles not otherwise provided for, neither gilt, painted, glazed, decorated, nor ornamented, twenty per centum ad valorem. In dishes, table"w are, or articles not otherwise provided for, g lazed or plain-tinted, but neither gilt, painted, decorated, nor ornamented, twenty-five per centum ad valorem . I n dishes, tableware, 01' articles not otherwise provided fo r, painted, gilt, decorated, or ornament~d, forty per centum ad valorem. Fine decorated wares, in jardinieres, f lower stands, vases, and articles for decorative purposes, statuettes, hig h and bas-reliefs, and Satsuma, Sevres, and similar fine porcelains, whethel' decorated or not fifty pel' centum ad va lorem.

12. Manufactures of earths and clays not otherwise provided for: (a) Plain, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (b) Ornamented or decorated, forty pel' centum ad valorem.

GROUP 2.-rrecious stones. pewrls, and imitations thereof. 13. Precious and semiprecious stones, includin g jade, tigereye, chalcedony, opal, a nd similar stones not othenvise provided for, any of the foregoing cut or uncut, but unmounted a nd unset, and not further manufactured, pearls unmounted and unset, diamond dust and bort, fifteen per cenbm a d valorem. 14. Doublets and other imitations of precious and of semiprecious stones, and imitation pearls, unmounted and unset, thirty per centum ad valorem.

GROUP 3.-Glass and manufacture. thereof. Articles ground or cut only for the purpose of truing them of fitting stoppers shall n ot be held to be cut glass. 15 . Common hollow glassware : ( a) In demi johns, carboys, jars, bot. tles, fl asks, and similar recept. acles, whether empty or in use as containers of merchandise dutiable by' weight or measures (except in those cases in which the classification of such containers is otherwise specifically provided for), ten centum ad valorem. (b) Siphon bottles, thirty per centum a d valorem. 16 . Glass, crystal, and glass imitating crystal: (a) In decanters, glasses, tumblers, saucers, plates, cups, goblets, dishes, pitchers, bowls, cand1esticks, pillar lamps, bracket lamItSt and other articles of table service of for lighting; washbo\V~s, wash basins, soap dishes, toothbrush h oldel's, and was!1;;tand pitchers, any of the foregoing not cut, en~ graved, painted, enameled, or gilt. twent)-five per centum ad valorem. (b) The same, cut, engraved, painted. enameled or gilt, fifty per centum ad valorem . 17. Lamp chimneys : (a) N either engraved nor ornamented ( except as to such fluting and fini shin g as may be made in the pl'ocess of manufacture), twentyfive per centum ad valorem. (b) Other, fifty per centum ad valorem. 18. Glass or crystal in plates, slabs, and simila:t' forms : (a) Slabs, cones or prisms, for paving 01' roofing, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and sixtyfive cents. (b) Rolled, cylinder, crown, and sheet glass, not plate glass, for windows, and similar purposes, neither ground, poHshed, beveled, engraved,


acid-etched, decorated, ornamented, annE:aled, set in lead nor frosterl, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (e) The same, ground, polished, beveled, engraved, acid-etched, decorated, ornamented annealed, set in lead, or frosted plain or in design; plate glass, polished, beveled, or not, forty per centum, ad valorem. (d) G l a~s, of all kinds, engraved or enameled, fifty per centum ad valorem.

NOT E.-This va)'agraph reads as amended by Act In. 40;3 of the Philippine Le\dslature. published in ) Tariff Decis!on Circular No. 1024.

9. Minors of all kinds, framed or mounted (with whatever material), or not, including the value of the frames and mountings, thirty-five per centum ad valorem.

O. Other manufactures of glass: (a) In 8pectacles, eyeglasses, and goggles, also lenses for same, mounted or unmounted, including t he value of the mountings, twenty-five pcr centnm ad valorem. (b) In flower stands, vases, urns, and similar articles for toilet and decorative purposes, neither cut, painted, enameled, nOT gilt, forty' per centum ad valorem. (e) The same, cut, painted, enameled, or gi lt, sixty per centum ad valorem. (d) Powdered or crushed glass, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. (e) Manufactures not othenvise provided for, in which glass is the component material of chief value, thirty-five per centum ad valorem.






Group I.-Coal. 1. Coal and coke, gross weight, one thousand kilos., twenty-five cents. l'oup 2.-Schists, bitumens, and derivatives thereof.

L Tars, pitches, and tar oils, not otherwise provided for: mineral oils, crude or. re-


fined including those for illumination, lubrir.ation, fuel, or solvents; vaseline (except when compounded \vith other substances); axle grease of all kinds; asphaltums; carbolineum and similar compounds; gross weight, one hundred kilos., twenty-five cents. P'}'ovided, That no articles classified undf;!;r this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than ten per centum ad valorem. P.rovided, further, That, though imported under a name referable to this paragraph, paraffin, or other similar products, shall be cla::;sified under paragraph eighty-three of this Act. CLASS



Group I.-Gold, silver, and platin1{.m; alloys there,)f .. gold and silver plated articles. 23. Gold, platinum, and alloys thereof : (a.) In jewelry, plate and goldsmiths' wares not otherwise provided for, h'ectog., tw'e lve dollars and fifty cents. (b) The same, set with pearls or with precious or semiprecious stones, hectog., twenty fi ve donal's. (c) The same, set with doublets or with imitations of pearls or of precious or semiprecious ~tones, hectog., seventeen dollars and fifty cents. (d) Articles or manufactures of gold or platinum (except jev':eh'y), composed in part of other materials, in which the component material of chief value is gold or platinum , not otherwise provided for, pellets for use in dentistry, solder and foil, hectog., three dollars. P路,路ovided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty t han twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 24. Silver and alloys thereof: (a) In jewelry, plate and silversmiths' wares not otherwise provided for, hectog., one dollars.



(b) The same, set with pearls or with

precious or semiprecious stones, hectog., five dollars. (c) The same, set with doublets or with imitations of pea rls or of precious or semiprecious stones, hectog., five dollars. (d) Articles or manufactures of sHver (except jewelry), composed in part of other materials, in which tihe component material of chi ef va lue is silver, not otherwise pro-

vided for, solder and foi l, hectog., forty cents. Provided, That no article class ifi ed under t his paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five per centum ad va lorem.

25 . Gold and silver plated wares : (t£) In jewelry, kilo., two doll ar~ and forty cents. (b) In lamps, not otherwise provided

for, picture frames, knives, forks, and spoons, carriage and coffin fi ttings, saddlery· hardware, foil, kilo., sixty cents. (0) Not otherwise provided for, kilo., two doBars. Provided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than t wenty-five per centum ad va lorem. Group 2.-Cast iron. MalIeable cast iron and manufactures thereof shall be dutiable as wrought iron. 26. Articles of cast iron, painted or not, bu t not otherwise coated or ornamented, neither polished nor turned, gross weight : (a) Bars, beams, plates, grates for furn aces, columns and pipes, one hund red ki los., thirty-five cents. (b) Other, one hundred kilos., seventyfive cents. 27. Other articles of cast iron (except those covered or coated w ith gold or silver), fifteen per centum ad valorem.

Group 3.-Wrought iron and steel. 28 . Wrought iron and steel, gross weight: (a) In rails, straight or bent, cross ties, portable tramways, Cl'ossing, and similar track sections j Switch rails, switches, tongues, frogs, fish plates, and chairs; one hundred kilos., fort y cents. (b) In bars or beams (except of cru. cible steel), not cut to measure, perforated, Ol~ riveted or fastened together, rods, tires, and hoops, one hundred kilos., forty cents. Provided, That bars or rods not exceedmg fifteen millimeters in diameter and steel known as "bamboo s teel/' classified under clause (b) of this paragraph, shall not pay a less rate of duty than fifteen per centum ad valorem. (c) The same, of crucible steel, one hundred kilos., two' dolIal's, and sixty-five cents. Provided, That no article classified under clause (c) of this paragraph shall pay' a less rate of duty than fifteen per centum ad valorem. 29. Wrought iron or steel in sheets, gross weight: (u) Plain and unpolished, one hun· dred kilos., fifty' cents. (b) Polished, corrugated, perforated. or cold rolled, galvanized or not, and hoop iron) one hundred kilos., one dolla r . P -rovided, That any of the articles! or materials classified under clause (b) of this paragraph made up in hoops, rid· gings, eaves, drain pipes, gutters, ceilings, shingles, ceiling centers, borders, friezes, dadoes, and similar articles, shall be dutia· ble at the rate herein provided, with a surtax of one hundred per centum. (c) Tinned, terneplateJ and tin plate, one hundred kilos., one dollar and twenty cents. 30. Wrought iron or steel, in pieces, in the rou gh, gross weight : (a) Ne ither polished, turned nor ad· justed, one hundred kilos., sixty·


five cents.

( e ) In

(b) Rough-turned or lathed, but neither

polished nor adjusted, dred kilos ., one dollar.



one hun-

'Vrought iron or steel, in pieces, finished, gross weight: (a) \Vheels weighing each more than one hundred kilos., axles, springs, brake-shoes, drawbars, brakebeams, bumpers, couplings, lubricating boxes, and similar articles for railways and tramways, one hundred kilos., forty-five cents. (b) 'Vheels weighing each one hundred kilos., or less, axles and springs for vehicles, not otherwise provided for, one hundred kilos., one dollar and five cents.

2. Wrought iron or steel in large pieces, composed of bars, beams,' or sheets, for structural purposes, perforated or cut to measure, fastened together or not, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and twenty-five cents.

'33 . Wrought iron or steel pipes, gross weight: (a) P la in, painted, tarred, 01' galvanized, one hundred kilos., one dollar and ten cents. (b) Other (except those coated or covered with' gold or silver), one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty cents. )4. Wrought iron or steel wi!.'e: (a) More than one millimeter in dia-

meter, plain, galvanized, or coppered, wire cables and ropes, and barbed wire, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) One mlllimeter or less in diameter, plain, galvanized, or coppered, and wi r e netting, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (c) Other, including those covered with textiles, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (d) Gauze, cloths, and screenings, in the piece, twenty per centum ad valorem.

other manufactures (except those covered or coated with gold or silver), not otherwise provided for, t.wenty-five per centum ad valorem.

35. Wrought iron or steel chains, in the piece or otherwise (except in trinkets or jewelry) : (a) Exceeding five millimeters in dia-

meter, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Other, plain, painted, or


ed, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (c) The same, covered or coated with other. metals (except gold or s ilver), twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 36 . Anvi ls, fifteen per centwn ad valorem. NOTE.- This parag-raph reads JlS amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. publilihed in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1014.

37. Nuts, bolts, rivets. and washers, hundred kilos., two dollars.


38. Nails, clasp' nails. and staples, ten per cent-,1m ad valorem. 39. Screws, tacks, and centllm ad valorem.

brads, fifteen


40. Saddlery hardware (except chains and buckles), plain, or covered or coated with other metals or materials (except gold or silver), fifteen per centum ad valorem. 41. Buckles (except trinkets or ornaments, or

covered or coated with gold or silver), fifteen per centum ad valorem. 42. Cutlery: (u) Butchers', shoemakers', saddlers', plumbers', painters', pruning, and budding knives; grass, garden, hedge, pruning and sheep shears; fishhooks, fi.fteen per centum ad valol'em. (b) Kitchen, bread, and cheese knives ; table knives and forks with handles of common wood, or of iron, japanned or not, not covered or coated with other metals; corrunon scissors or shears, plain, glazed, or



japanned; twenty per centum ad valorem. (c) Pocket cutlery', hunting and sheath knives, side apns (not fire) and parts therefor, razors, and other cutlery, including scissors and shears not otherwisE> provided f or (except those covered or coated with gold 01' silver), thirty per centum ad valorem, (d) Sword canes and ~imi lar articles

and weapons with concealed blades, eighty per centum ad valorem. NO'rE.- This para g r aph rends a s amended by Act No. 4053 of t.he Philippine Legislature. published i n Tariff D ecis ion Cil'cula l' No. 10 14.

43. Firearms of all kjnds and detached parts therefor, forty per centum ad va lorem, 44. Manufactures of ternep late or tin plate: (a) 'In articles not otherwise provided for, plain, painted. varnished, or japanned, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) The same, including vehicl e lamps, covered, coated, or combined with other metals of materials (except gold or silver) , twenty per centum ad valorem. (c) Vehic le lamps, covered or coated to any extent with gold or sil ver, in which the component material, of chief value is tin plate, twenty":...five pel' centum ad valorem. 45. Manufactures not otherwise provided f or, in which wrought iron or steel is the component materia l of chief va lue: (a) Plain, painted, varnished, or japan ned, or covered or coated ,vith lead, tin, or zinc, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Othel' (except those covered or coated with gold or silver), twenty pel' centum ad valorem. GRO UP 4.-Copper and alloys thereof. 46. Copper or alloys thereof, in bars, pipes, and sheets, or alloys of copper, in lumps and ingots, any of the foregoing inclurl-

ing Muntz metal, ten per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This pangrapb reads as amended by A No.. 4063 !I f t h e Philippine Legislature, published ~ Tanff D ecIsion Circular No. 1014.

47. Copper and alloys thereof, in wire: (a) Plain, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Blanched, gilt, or nickeled, twentyfi ve per centum ad valorem. (c) Covered with textiles, not otherwise provided for, 01' with insulating materials, cables fOl:1 conducting electricity and trolley wire, ten per centum ad valorem. (d) Covered with silk, not otherwise provided for, twenty-five per cen路 tum ad.. valorem. ( e) Gauze, cloths, and screenings, in the piece, twenty pel' centum ad valorem. (f) Manufactures not othenvise provid路 ed for, in which wire of copper or its alJoys is the component material of chief value, (except when covered or coated with gold or silo ver). twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 48. Manufactures not otherwise provided for, in which copper or alloys! thereof is the component material of chief value: (a) Plain, polished, varnished, painted, tinned, or japanned, twenty per centum ad valorem. (b) Other (except those covered or coated with gold or silver), twentyfive per centum ad valorem. GROUP 5.-0ther metals and alloys thereof路 49. MercUl'y, gross weight, kilo., ten cents. 50. Nickel, aluminum, and alloys thereof: (a) In bars, sheets, pipes, and wire, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) In articles not otherwise provided for, twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem. 51. Tin and alloys thereof: (a) In bars, sheets, pipes, and wire, in

thin. leaves (tin foi1) , and alloYS


in lumps or ingots, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) I n articles not otherwise provided for (except those covered or coated with gold or silver), twenty-five per centum ad valorem. ,2 . Zin..!, lead, and metals not otherwise provided for, and alloys thereof: (a) I n bars, sheets, pipes, wire, and t ype, and sanitary traps and other plain articles bearing evident signs of being for sanitary construction, an d alloys in lumps 01' ingots, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) In plain articles not otherwise provided for, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. (e) I n articles gilt. nickeled, or otherwise embellished (except those covered or coated with gold or silver) , twenty-five per centum ad va10l路em. 'LASS IV.-SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED IN PHARMACY, AND




edible nor in the form of 3j pharmaceutical product or preparation, not otherwise provided for, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., thre~ dollars. P rol)ided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty--five per centum ad valorem. 56. Ginseng root, kilo., five dollar s. P1'ovidecl, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less r ate of duty than twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem.

57. Animal products employed in! medicine, crudc, neither edible nor in the form of a pharmaceutical product 01' preparation, not otherv路,rise provided for, including weight of immediate containers, one h undred kilos., four dollars. p,.ovided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a Jess rate of duty than twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem.


GROUP 1.-Simple d''Ugs. 3. Oleaginous seeds, copra, and coconuts, g ross weight: (a ) Crude, one hundred kilos., eighty cents. ( b ) I n meal, flour, or cakes, not otherwise provided for, one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty' cents. 4. Resins and gum: (a ) Colophony (conunon or navy re-

sin), Burgundy and similar pitch, and Stockholm tal', ten per centum ad va lorem . ( b ) Other, when not in t he form of a pharmaceutical product or preparation. twenty pel' centu m ad valorem. o. Drugs, such as barks, beans, berries, bubs, bulbs, bul bous r oots, fru it~, f lower s, dried fibers, gra ins, he r bs, leaves, lichens, mosses, stems, seeds aromatic; a nd seeds of morbid growth, weeds, woods, a nd similar vegeta ble produ cts, crude, neither

GROUP 2.-Pigments, paints, dyes. and vwrnishes . 58. Mineral pigments of cornmon, natural occurrence (including ochers, haemitites, barytes, and manganese), substances prepared f01' calcimines and whjtewash, any of the foregoing when dry, ten per centum ad valorem. Any substance other\",;se subject to classification under this paragraph shall, when imported in the form of a liquid or paste, be dutiable under clause (d) of paragraph fifty-nine . 59 . Pigments and paints not otherwise provided for: (a) White or red lead, dry, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. (b) The same, in liquid or paste, putty of all kinds, bituminous paints made from mineral pitch or coal tar (not aniline dyes), twenty per centum ad valorem. (0) Pigments not otherwise provided for, dry, twenty pel' centum ad va100路em.



(d) The same, in liquid or paste, twen-

ty-five per centum ad valorem..

66. Sulphur, gross weight, one hundred kilos., fifty' cents.

60. Varnishes and wood fillers of all kinds, fifteen pel' centum a d valorem.

67 . Bromine, boron, iodine, and phosphorus twenty per centum ad valorem.

61. Spirits of turpentine, ten per centum ad

68 . Inorgan ic acids : (a) Hydrochloric, boric, nitric and sui. phuric, and mixtures of two or more of the same, gross weight, one hun~ dred kilos., thirty-five cents. (b) Carbon dioxide 路 (liquid carbonic acid), and sulphur dioxide twenty pel' centum ad valorem. (c) Not otherwise provided for, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. (d) All inorganic acids, when chemic-ally pure, thirty per centum ad valorem.

valorem. 62 . Inks : (a) Printing and lithographic,' in any

form, fifteen pel' centum ad valor em . (b) Other, in any' form, twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem. 63. Pencils of paper or wood, filled with lead or other materials, pencils of lead, and charcoal and other crayons not otherwise provided for, fifteen per centum ad valorem. 64. Dyes, dyestuffs, tan bark and tanning extracts, not otherwise provided for: (a) \楼oods, barks, Teats, berries, fruits, leaves and other similar natural products, for dyeing 01' tanning or for the manufacture of extracts therefrom, ten per centum a d valorem. (b) Extracts from the same, for dyeing 01' tanning, and cutch in al'Y form, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. (c) Cochineal, indigo (natural or synthetic), colors derived from coal, and chemical dye colors not otherwise provided for, thirty per centum ad valorem. Provided, That for the period of five years from the date this act takes effect, any articles classified under clau se (a) of this paragraph sha.ll be free of duty upon importation .thereof into the Philippine Islands. NOT E.- This paragraph reads JlS amended by Act! No. 4053 of t.he Philippine Legislature. published in Tari(f Decis ion Circular No. 101 4.

65. Graphite and manufactures of the same (except axle grease), and polishing, dressing, cleansing, and preserving preparations, for shoes and leather, twen ty-five per centum ad valorem. GROUP 3.--Chemical and pharmaceutical products.


NOTE.-'f'his paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, JlUblisbed in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024 .

69. Organic acids, not otherwise provided for: (a ) Carbolic, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Other, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (c) All organic acids, when chemically pure, thirty pel' centum ad Ivalorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 40;;3 of t.he Ph ilippine Legislature, publiShed ill in Tariff DecisKIn Circular No. 1024.

70. Oxides and hydroxides of potassium, sodium, barium, and other caustic alkalies., not otherwise provided for, and soda asb : (a) Commercial, gross weight, one hundred, kilos., fifty cents. (b ) Chemically pure, thirty per centum ad valorem. NOTE-This paragraph reads as amended by .o\.ct No. 4053 of t.he PhiliDPine Legislature. published ln 'rutif( Decision CiI路cular No. l024.

71. Ag'ua ammonia and anhydrous ammonia. fifteen per centum ad valorem. 72. Inorganic salts: (a) Sulphates of ammonium and potassium, chloride of potassium, phosphates and superphosphates of lime, nitrates of potassium and sodium, and other chemical and


artificial f ertili zers, five per centum ad valorem. (b) Calcium h ypochlorite (chloride of lime), ten per centum ad valorem. (c) Common salt and salts not otherwise provided f or, twenty-five per centum ad valorenL (d) All inol'ganic salts, when chemically pure, t hi rty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act o. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, published in airf Decision Circular No. 1024.

!. Ol:ganic salts: (a) Commercial, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (b) Chemically pure, thirty per cent um ad va lorem. Provided, that no acids or double salts shall be dutiable under this paragraph. N OT E.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act ). 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. published in ~ iff Decision Circular No. 1024.

,. Mixtures of denaturants, formalin, and potassium bitartrate (cream of tartar , argols. wine lees) , ten pel' centum ad valorem. I. Chemica l products, compoundsl and elements , not otherwise provided for, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. Alkaloids and their salts (except those of opium or of cinchona bark), and salts of gold, silver and platinum, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. Opium in any form, and preparations th er eof, for medicinal purposes, not otherwi se provided for, s u bject to the provisions of section three of this Act, thirtyfi ve per centum ad valorem. Proprietary and patent medicinal mixtUres and compounds; Chinese and similar >nedicines : ( a) Without alcohol, or containing n ot to exceed fourteen per centum of alcohol,. fift y per centum ad valorem. (b) Containing more than four teen per centum of alcohol, seventy-five per centum ad valorem. Biological and pharmaceutical products: (a) Antitoxins, vaccines. viruses, serum, and bacterins, when imported


in capsules, pills, tablets, lozenges, troches, ampoules, tubes, 01' in other equivalent receptacles, twenty per centmn ad valorem. (b) Pharmaceutical products, medicinal pl'eparations, plasters and poultices, and capsules empty, any of the foregoing not otherwise provided for, thirty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 40!i3 of the Philippine Legislature, published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

80. Aseptic and antiseptic surgical dressings (including absorbent cotton, medicated or not), catgut, silk, and similar li gatures for use in surgery or dentistry, fifteen per centum ad valorem. GROUP 4.-0ils, fats, waxes, and derivatives thereof路 81. Fixed vegetable oils, except peanut oil, solid or liquid: (a) In receptacles weighing, each (contents included) more than two kilos., fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) In other receptacles, proprieta ry or not (except when compounded with othe~ substances, or in capsules) t twenty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the PhilillJ)ine Legislature. published in Tariff Decision Cil'cular No. 1024.

82. Animal oils and fats, not otherwise provided for: Ca) Crude, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Refined, in receptacles 'weighing each (contents included) more than two kilos., fifteen per centum ad valorem. (c) The same, in other receptacles, propl'ietary or not (except when compounded with other substances, or in capsules) , twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 83 . Mineral, vegetable, and animal wax: (a) Crude, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) In candles, twenty per centum ad valorem. (0) In manufactures not otherwise provided for, t hirty per centum ad va lorem. 84 . Soaps, soap powders, and similar cleansing and scour ing preparations or corn-



positions, any of the foregoing not otherwise provided f or, fiftee n per centum ad valorem. 85. Essential oils" perfumery and products used in the manufacture thereof, and toilet preparations : (a.) Essential oils, natural or artificial, fifty per centum ad valorem. (b) Perfumery and products, used in the manufacture ther eof, toilet preparations (including powders, oils, cosmetics, hair dyes, tooth soaps. an d tooth powders, grease paints, and similar articles for toilet purposes) t any of the foregoing not otherwise provided for, incense, and joss sticks, forty per centum ad valorem.

GROUP 5.-Va,路iQus. 86 . Bone char, suitable for u se in decolorizing sugar, ten per centum ad valorem . 87. Starch, f ecula, and dextrin, any of the foregoing for industrial purposes, gro!3s weight, one hundred kilos., two dollars. 88 . Glues, albume ns, gelatins, isinglass, and manufactu res of any of the foregoing, twenty-five per centum ad valol'em. 89 . Explosives : (a) Dynamite, giant and blasting powder, and similar explosives, min er s' fuses and caps, and explosive signals, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Other cartridges, fixed ammunitions, primers and percussion caps, for firearms, fire works, thirty per centum ad valorem. (c) Fire crackers and toy torpedoes, including weight of immed iate contai ners, kil o., twenty cents. 90. Matches and match sticks of all kinds, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., twenty, cents. CLASS V. THEREOF.




GROUP l.-Cotton waste. 91. Cotton waste, ten per centum ad valorem.

GROUP 2.-Yarns, threads and cordage. 92. Yarns, not otherwise provided for, in hanks, cops, or bobbins, fifteen per cen~ tum ad valorem. 93. Yarns, or threads for sewing, crocheting, darning, or embroidering and mercerized yarns or threads, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 94. Threads or twines for sewing sails and sacks; rope and cordage, fishing nets, and wicks for making candles and matches, twenty per centum ad valorem. '

95. H ammocks, tennis nets, and manufactures of netting not otherwise provided for, forty per centum ad valorem. 96. Felts, batting, and; mops and swabs of cotton yarns, fifteen per centum ad val~ rem.

GROUP 3.-Te"tiles. When textiles, included in this group, contain an admixture of materials, are bl'oched, embroidered, trimmed, or madeup, they shall be subject to the corres ponding surtaxes prescribed in General Rules, Two to Eleven, inclusive. 'fextiles woven with a colored y'am on the selvage, or with a colored selvage stripe not exceeding ten millimeters in width, shall not be considered as manufactured with dyed yarns. 97. Texti les, plain and without figures, napped or not, weighing eight kilos, or more per one hundred square meters, having: (a) Up to eighteen threads, kilo., ten cents. (b) From nineteen to thirty-one threads, kilo., fourteen cents. (c) From thirty-two to thirty-eight threads, kilo., twenty cents. (d) From thirty-nine to forty:..four threads, kilo., twenty-six cents. ( e ) Forty-five threads or more, kilo., thirty-two cents. Provided, That any textile classified under this paragraph, stamped, printed, or manufactured with dyed yarns, shall be dutiable as such with a surtax of thirty per centum j and


P,·odded, /urthe'r, That no embroidered textile classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty·· fisc pel' centum ad Yalorem, and any embroidered texti le so classified shall be subject to all of the surtaxes applicable thereto under this Act, computed upon the ascertained amount of duty, whether the rate found ap}11icable shall be specific or ad valorem . The same, ,Yeighing less than eight kilos., per one hundred square meters, having: (a) Up to eighteen threads, kilo., eighteen cents. (b) From nineteen to thirty-one threads, kilo., twenty-seven cents. (c) From thirty-two to thirty-eight threads, kilo., thirty-four cents. (el) From thirty-nine to forty·-four threads, kilo., fOl'ty cents. (t') Forty-five threads or more, kilo., fifty cents. Provuled, That any textile classified under this paragraph, stamped, printed, 01' manufactured with dyed yarns, shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of forty per centum; and P'l"ovided, 11l/rthe1', That no embroidered textile classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twentyfive per centum ad valorem, and any embroidered textile so classified shall be subject to all of the surtaxes applicable thereto under this Act, computed upon the ascertained amount of duty, whether the rate found applicable shall be specific or ad valorem. T extiles, twilled or figured in the loom, napped or not, weighing ten kilos., or more per one hundl·ed square meters, having : (a) Up to eighteen threads, kilo., fourteen cents. (b) From nineteen to thirty-one threads, kilo. , eighteen cents. (c) From thirty-two to thirty-eight threads, kilo., twenty-four cents. (d) Thirty-nine to forty-four threads, kilo., thirty· cents. ( e) Forty-five t h reads or more, kilo., t.hirty-four cents.


Provided, That any textiles classified under this paragraph, stamped, printed, or manufactured with dyed yarns , shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of thirty per centum; and Provided, Iw·ther, That no embroidered textile classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twentyfive per centum ad valorem, and any embroidered textile classified shall be subject to all of the surtaxes applicable thereto under this Act, computed upon the ascertained amount of duty·, whether the rate found applicable shall be specific or ad valorem. 100. The same, weighing less than ten kilos., per one hundred square meters, having: (a) Up to eighteen threads, kno., twenty-four cents. (b) From nineteen to thirty-one threads, kilo., thirty-two cents. (c) From thirty-two to thirty-eight threads, kilo., forty-two cents. (d) From thirty-nine to forty-four threads, kilo., fifty-t\V"o cents. (e) Forty-five threads! 01' more, kilo., . sixty· cents. Provided, That any textile classified under this paragraph, stamped, printed, or manufactured with dyed yarns , shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of forty per centum; and Provided, Im·the1·, That no embroidered textile classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twentyfive per centum ad valorem, and any embroidered textile so classified shall be subject to all of the surtaxes appJicable thereto under this Act, computed upon the ascertained amount of duty, whether the rate fonnd applicable shall be specific 01' ad valorem. 101. [piques of all kinds, kilo., thirty-eight cents. P1·(nJidcd. That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay· a less rate of duty than t hirty" per centum ad valorem. 102. Cotton blankets: (a) Stamped, printed, or manufactured


CO R ~ E J O 'S


with. d yed yarn s, in t he piece, kilo., thirteen cen ts ; ( 1) Other, in the piece, kilo., ten cents, P,'ovided, T hat a ll cotton bla nket s, single 01' in pai r s, hemmed, or bound , or n ot, shall be du tiable under thi s paragraph, with a surtax of t hirty per cent um.

103. Plushes, ve lvets, velveteens, and other pile fabrics (except in towels and bathr obes ) subject to t he provisions of Rule Six, ki lo., fifty cents. 104. Bath robes, and towe ls manufactured of pile fabrics, twenty-fi ve per centum ad valorem. 105. Kn itted goods, subject to the prov isions of Ru le Six : (a) In t he piece, twenty per centum ad valorem . (b) In jerseys, undeTShirts, drawers, stockings, or socks, t wenty ~fi ve per ce ntum a d valorem. (c ) In ot her articles, t hir ty ~fi ve per cent um ad valor em. Provide d, Th at any articl e cla ssified un~ del' thi s parag raph, embroider ed, shall be duti a ble a s s uch, with a surt ax of thirty per centum, computed upon th e ascertained am ount of duty under the corresponding clause thereof. 106. Tulles, sub ject t o t he provisions of Rule Six, pla in or fi gured or embroidered on the loom, kilo., fifty~six cents ; Provided, That no article classified under thi s pa ragra ph shall pay a less rate of duty t han thirty per cent um ad valor em; and Provided, furt he1', That any of the same embr oider ed or figured after weaving, out of th e loom, shall be dutiable according to th e r es pective clause, with a surtax of sixty per centum; and P'l"Ovidecl. fur ther, That if the embroidery consists of metal threads the surtax shall be eighty' per centum,; and Provided, jurth er, That these surtaxes shall be computed upon the ascertained amount of duty, whether the rate found applicable be s pecific or ad valorem. 107. Laces and blondes, subject to the provisions of Rule Six :

( a ) Lace curtains, bedspreads, pillow

shams, and bed sets, unhernmed, hemmed, or bound, made on the N ottingham lace~curtain or warp machines, kilo., fifty cents. ( b ) Other, sixty per centum ad valor em. 108. Ca rpeting, thirty per centum ad valorem. 109. T extiles called tapestries : (,~) In the piece, kilo., twenty cents. ( b ) In made-up al'ticles, kilo., thirty cents. P'rovided, That no article classified under thi s parag raph shall pay a less raft of duty t han fort y per centum ad valor em. 110. Wicks f or lamps, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., fifteen cents. 111. Trimmings, ribbons, braids, tape, and gall o on ~, including weight of immediate containers (see Rule Seven): (a) Tape, boot straps, kllo., twenty cents. (b) Other, kilo., fifty' cents. Provided, That no article classified under clause (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than thirty per centum ad valorem. 112. Show and corset laces, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., thirty~fi" cents. 113. Cinches, saddle girths, reins, halters, and bridles, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 114. Ribbons or bands for the manufacture of any of the articles enumerated in part' graph one hundred and thirteen, fifteell pel' centum ad valorem. 115. Waterproof or caoutchouc stuffs in cOlll' bination with cotton textiles;. and cottaD elastic textiles manufactured with threadl of gum elastic and manufactures thert' of, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 116. Manufactures of cotton,t not otherw: provided for twenty-five per centum valorem.










GROUP I.-Yarns, threads, and cordage. (7. Fibers and yarns: (a) Fibers, raw 01' hackled, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Yarns, not otherwise provided for, fifteen per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act ) 4053 of thc Philippine Legislature. published in lI'iCC Decision Circular No. 1024.

g. Threads, twines, ropes, cordage and ma-

nufactures thereof: (a) Twines, rope-yarns, ropes, and cordage, exceeding fifteen grams in weight pel' each ten meters, fishnets, twenty per centum ad valorem. (b) Threads, twines, cords, and yarns, twisted, weighing more than five and not exceeding fifteen grams per each ten meters, twentY""five per centum ad valorem. (e) The same weighing five or less grams per each ten meters, thirty per centum ad valorem. (d) Hammocks, tennis nets, and manufactures of netting not otherwise provided for, forty per centum ad valorem. 1 Gunny sacks,. each, two cents.

GROUP 2.-Textiles. "'hen textiles included in this group contain an admixture of materials, are embroidered, trimmed, or made-up they shall be subject to the corresponding surtax prescribed in General Rules Two to Eleven, inclusive. Tt"xtiles woven with a colored yarn on the selvage, or with a colored selvage stripe not exceeding ten millimeters in width, shall not be considered as manufactured with dyed yarns.

f). Textiles

of hemp, flax, aloe, jute, and vegetable fibers, not otherwise provided for, plain, twilled, or damasked, weighing thirty-five kilos., or more per one hundred square meters having:


(a) Up to ten threads, used for bag-

ging and baling, weighing fortyfive kilos., or more pe~ one hundred square meters, kilo., one cent. (b) The same, weighing from thirtyfive to forty-five kilos, per one hundred square meters, kilo., two cents. (c) Up to ten threads, for other purposes, kilo., seven cents. (d) From eleven to eighteen threads, kilo., ten cents. (d) Nineteen threads or more, kilo., fifteen cents . . Provided, That any textile classified under this paragraph, bleached, half bleached, 5tamped, or printed, shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of fifteen per centum: and Prot'ided, further, That any textile classified under this parngraph, manufac ... tured with dyed yarns, shall be dutiable as Ruch, with a surtax of twenty- five per centum; and Provided, fUl'the1', That no article classified under clauses (c), (d), and (e) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This pJlrnlrl'lLnh l'ead~ as amended by Act No. 405~ oC the Philippine Lee>:islnture. published In Tariff Decision Circular No. 1021.

121. The same, weighing from twenty to thirty five kilos, per one hundred square meters, having: (,,) Up to ten threads, used for bagging and baling, kilo., two cents. (b) Up to ten threads, for other purposes, kilo., nine cents. (e) From eleven to eighteen threads, kilo., fourteen cents. (d) From nineteen to twenty-four threads, kilo., eighteen cents. (e) From twent)1'-five to thirty threads, kilo., twenty-two cents. (f) F"om thirty-one to thirty-eight threads, kilo., thirty cents. (g) Thirty-nine threads or more, kilo., forty cents. Provided, That any textile classified un路 der this paragraph, bleached, half bleach-



ed, stamped, or printed. shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of twenty-five pel' centwn; and Provided, !u./rtheT, That any textile classified under this paragraph, manufactured with dyed yarDs, shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of forty pel' centum; and

Provided, /uTthe r , That no article classified under clauses (b), (0), (d), (0). U\, and (g) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five Pi;U' centum ad valorem. NO'l'E.- This pamgl'aph reads as amcndt<d by Act. No. ·1053 o( \.he Philippine Legislature, i>UuIL~I\ ..d III, 'ulrifi Deci",ion Cit"CUIUl' No. lO~.J.

122. The same, weighing from 'ten to twenty kilos, per one hundred square me~rs, having: (a) Up to eighteen threads, kilo., twelve cents. (b) From nineteen to twenty-four t}1l'eads, kilo ., twenty cents. (c) From twenty-five to thirty threads, kilo ., twenty-eight cents. (d) From

thirty-one to thirty-eight threads, kilo., thirty'-six cents. (e) Thirty-nine threads or more, kilo., fifty-six cents. Prollided, That any textile classified under this paragraph, bleached, hal! bleached, stamped, or printed, shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of thirty per centum; and P'rovided, jurthe1·, That any textile classified under this paragraph, manufactured with dyed yarns, shall be dutiable as such, with a surtax of fifty; J?el' centum; and Provided, jwrt,he1·, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than thirty pel' centum ad valorem; and

P'J"ovided, fU1·t,he'I", That no embroidered textile classified under this paragraph shall pay less rate of duty than thirty per centum ad valorem, and any embroidered textile so classified shall be subject to all the surtaxes applicable thereto under this Act,: computed upon the ascertained amount of duty whether the


found applicable shall be specific ad valorem.

NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, published Tariff Decision Circular No. 1021.

123. The same, weighing less than ten ki pel' one hundred square meters, hay' (a) Up to twelve threads, kilo ., ei

een cents. (b) From

thirteen to twentythreads, kilo., thirty-two cents twenty-three to thL threads, kilo." forty-five cents.

(c) From

(d) From

thirty-one to thirty-ei{ threads, kilo" fifty-six cents.

(e) ThiI'ty-nine threads or more, ki.

ninety cents. P1'ovidecl, That any textile classified l del' this paragraph, bleached, half bleal ed, stamped, or printed, shall be dutial as such, with a surtax of thirty per CI tumj and Provided, ju'rthe1', That any textile cl: sified under this paragraph, manufactul with dyed yaI·ns, shall be dutiable as su, with a surtax of fifty pel' centum; and P-"r)vided, jU1,the1·, That no aI,ticle c1: sified under this paragraph shall pay less rate of duty than twenty pel' centu: and P1'ovided, !w·t,her, That n o embroideJ textile classified under this paragra shall pay a less rate of duty than thiJ per centum ad valorem, and any e embroidered textile so classified' shall subject to all the surtaxes applica thereto under this Act computed upon I ascertained amount of duty, whether' rate found applicable shall be specifiC ad valorem.

NOTE,- This pUl"agl'aph reads us ameJldeci b)' No, ,1053 of the Philippine LegislllLuL'e, publi,;hcd T ,,!"iff Decision Circulul' No. 10~4.

124;, Plushes, velvets, velveteens, and ot} fabrics, subject to the provisions of R Six, thirty pel' centum ad valorem.

125. Knitted good3, subject to the provisi of Rule Six:


(n) In the piece, or made-up into jer-

seys, undershirts, drawers, stockings, or socks, thirty per centum ad valorem. (b) In other articles, forty tum ad valorem.

per cen-


GRO UP 1.-L'

135. \Vool , not othenyise provided fOl'Ca) Combed, prepared for yarns, wool waste, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Combed, and carded or dyed, fifteen per centum ad valorem.

Ii. Tulles and laces, subject to the prOVISIons

GROUP 2.-Ya1·ns.

of Rule Six, sixty per centum ad valorem.

136. Yarns, thirty per centum ad valorem. '1.

Carpeting, thirty-five per centum ad valorem.

GRO UP 3.-Ma7l.u/actu?·es.

.... Tapestries, kilo., forty cents. Prol'icicd, That no article classified under t hi s paragraph shall pay' a less rate of duty than fifty per centum ad valorem.

137. Bristles, animal hair, and manufactures thereof, not otherwise provided for, thirty per centum ad valol'em.

J. Trimmi ngs, ribbons, braid, tape, and galloons , including weight of immediate containers, subject to the provisions of Rule Seven:

139. Knitted goods, subject to the provisions of Rule Six: (a) In the piece, thirty per centum ad valorem. (b) In jerseys, un dershirts, drawers, stocking or socks, thirty-five pel' centum ad valorem. (c) I n other articles forty per centum ad valorem.

(a) Tape,

boot straps, kilo., thirty cents. (b) Other, kilo ., sixty cents. Provided, That no article classified under clause (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than thirty-five per centum ad valorem. I. Shoe and corset laces, including weight

of immediate containers, kilo., forty cents. . Cinches, saddl e girths, reins, halters, and bridles, thirty-five per centum ad valorem..

138. Human hair, made up into articles or not, fifty per centum ad valorem.

140. Textiles of wool, in the piece, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 141. Manufactures of wool, not otherwise pro-

vided for, forty per centum ad valorem.






Ribbons 01' bands for the manufacture of any of the articles enumerated in paragraph one hundred and thirty-one, twenty pel' centum ad valorem.

. Waterproof or caoutchouc stuffs in combination with t extiles of vegetable fibers (other than cotton), elastic textiles of any of the same manufactured with t hreads of gum elastic and manufactul'es thereof, thil'ty per centum ad valorem. t

Manufactures of vegetable fibers, not otherwise provided for, thirty pel' centum ad valorem. \SS Vn.-\\'OOI..,





GROUP 1.- lJ ·a.<;,1e and Spun

142. Silk "taste, spun silk, floss, and threads: (a) Silk waste, twenty per centum ad valorem. (b) Spun si lk, not twisted. including weight of immediate containers, kilo., olle dollar and fifty cents. (e) Floss and twisted ~ilk, thirty pel' centum ad valorem. (·1) Yarns a nd thread~ for sewing, crocheting, darning, or embroidering, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. Provided, That no article clasof this sified under clause (/»



paragraph shall pa ~" a less rate of duty' than twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

of the total number of thread! composing the textiles, shall be dutiab~e under this paragraph, any provision of the Philippine Tariff

NOTE.-Clnss V III a nd paragraph 14 2 rend a s amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine LegisintU\'c. IlUblished in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

GRO UP 2.-Textiles, and manufactu:re& of

sil" 143. Silk, in t he piece, forty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-Group 2 and paraf,tTaph 143 read as amended by Act No . .f053 of the Philippine Legislature, publish ed in Tariff Decision CirCuluT' N o 1024.

144. Manu f actures : (a) Laces, whatever be the proportion of silk, sixty per centum ad valorem. (b) Other, wholly or in chief value of

silk, fifty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-Group 2 and paragJUlph 144 read as amended No. 4053 of t h e Philippine L egislature, 1mb. lished in TariCC Decision Circu hu' No 1024.

by Act

GROUP 3.-Manufactu,路es of Ray on and othe1' Synthetic T extiles 145. Fibers, ya rns, and sheets: 芦(拢) Filaments,

fibers, strips, bands, sheet s, thirty per centum ad valorem..

(b) Yarns and t hreads, fifty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of t he Philippine Legislature, published in 'ruriff Decision Circular No. 102,1.

146. T ext iles and manufactures of rayon a nd other synthetic textiles : (n) Woven and knitted text iles, tulles, and pile fabrics, in the piece, sixty per centum ad valorem. (b) Ma nufactures, wholly or in chief

value of rayon and other synthetic texti les, sixty路fi ve pel' centum ad valorem.

Pr ovided, That textiles containing thl'eads of rayon or other synt hetic textiles, in which the numbel' of such thl'eads, counted in the warp and weft, exceeds one-fifth

Act to the contrary notwithstand. ing. NOTE.- This paragraph reads as amended by Ae, No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. Ilublished ill Turiff Decision Circular No. 1024.


IX. -





147. Printing paper, white or colol'ed, suitable for books 01' newspapers, not pl'inted or otherwise elaborated, and sand, glaaa, emery, carborundum, and similar papers. ten pel' centum ad valorem. 148. Paper, pasteboard, cardboard, bristol board, strawboard, and pulp board, white or colored, not otherwise provided' for: (a) Not printed or otherwise elaborated, and wl'iting paper, plain, ruled. or padded, but not printed, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) The same, manufactured into articles, includ ing confetti and serpen tine, and envelopes of all kin without printing, twenty per cen tum ad valorem. 149. P aper of all kinds, pasteboard, cardboa bristol board, strawboal'd, and pulp board: (a) Ruled, and printed or lithographed

music, bound or in sheets, with 01 without words, twenty per centum ad valorem. Aerographed wall pocket and cutouts, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. ( c ) Printed, engraved, lithographed, surface-coated, etched, embossed, or otherwise elaborated, not otherwise provided for, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. ( ,z) The same, manufactured into at' ticles, not otherwise provided for, forty per centum ad valorem, NOTE.-This paragraph rearu: as amended. b~A: No. 4053 of the Philippine LegIslature, publl~h 'l'kriff Decision Circular No. 1024.



O. Cigarette paper, printed or not, fifteen per centum ad valorem.

cing, twenty per centum ad valorem.

1. Blank books, ruled or unruled, with print-

(b) Apitong, lauan and woods of si-

ing 01' not and copying books, twenty per centum ad valorem.

milar class or equivalent quality in logs or poles, or not further advanced in manufacture than hewn or timber, cubic meter, three dollars; in the f orm of boards, not further manufactured than saWll 01' split into rough boards, cubic meter, three donal'S and fifty cents; and if planed, dovetailed, 01' cut to size, including shingles, laths, vcneer, ply-wood, butchers' blocks, and fencing, thirty per centum ad valorem. (c) Aspen logs for match splints, one dollar per cubic meter.

2. Printed books, bound or not, not otherwise provided for, ten pel' centum ad valorem.

3. Books and albums of lithographs, engravings, etchings, photographs, maps, 01' charts, not otherwise provided for, and painted designs, pastels, and ink drawings, made by hand, for use in manufacturin g and in the industrial arts and sciences, thirty per centum ad valorem. P'rovided, That this paragraph shall not apply to works of art introduced for use as such, even when imported for sale, which shall be classified under paragraph three hundred and twenty-four. 4. Papier mache, carton pierre, indurated pulp or fiber: (a.) Not further manufactured than in

sheets or blocks, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Further manufactured, twenty per centum ad valorem. ..ASS X.-'VOOD



GROUP I.-Wood. ), Common wood: (a) Acacia, alder, black popIar, chest-

nut, elder, fir, larch, hemlock, linden, oak, peal' pine, plantain, poplar, redwood, spruce, yewleaved fig, and woods of similar class or equivalent quality in logs 01' poles, 01' not further advanced in manufacture than hewn 01' timber, cubic meter, one dollar and fifty cents; in the fOTm of boards not further manufactured than sawn or split into l'ough boards, cubic meter, two dollars; and if planed, dovetailed, or cut to size, includ路 ing shingles, laths, veneer, plywood, butchers' blocks, and fen-

NOTE.-This paragraph read!< as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legjslatur~, published in Tar iff Decision Circular No, 1024.

156. Fine wood: (a) Amaranth, apple, ash, beech, birch, bird's-eye maple, camphor, cherry, cypress; hazel, holly, ironwood, jasmine, junil)er, laurel, lemon, maple, medlar, olive, orange, pomegranate, plum, sandal-wood, Spanish cedar, yew, walnut, and woods of similar class or equivalent quality' in logs or poles, or not further advanced in manufacture than hewn or timber, twenty-five per centum ad valorem j in the form of boards not further advanced in manufacture than savnn or split into rough boards, thirty pel' centum ad valoremj and if planed, dovetailed, or cut to size, including veneer, plywood, and butchel's' blocks, forty pel' centum ad valor em. (b) Akle, bilian, ebony, guijo, ipiI, .lana, lignum vitae, mahogany, nana, rosewood, teak, tindalo, yakal, and woods of similar class or equivalent quality in logs CYr poles, 01' not further advanced in manufactul'e than he,,'ll or timber, thirty per centum ad valorem; in




the for111 of boards not furth er manufactured than sa\\11 or sp!i t t into rough boards, thirty-five per centwn ad va lorem: and if planed, dovetailed, or cut to s izE', including veneer, pl,)",wood, and butchers' blocks, fOTty per centum ad va100'em. NOTE.-'rhis paragrap h rends as amended hy A c l No. <1053 or the Phi lippi ne Le.Q'islatul'e, tmblished in Tariff Deeh;ion C i t'cul::u' No. 102<1,

157. 'Vood shavings, sawdus t , excelsior (except those of dye and scented woods), ten per centum ad va lorem. 158. Shooks,






(a) For cigar box, ten per centum ad

valorem. (b) Other, fifteen per centmfl ad va10l'em. NOTE.-This paragraph reach; as amended by Act No. 4053 or the Philippine .Lestb;lature. pIlLlh;h~d in 'Tariff Decision Ci rcu lar No. 1024.

159. Tuns, pipes, casks, and s imilat· receptacles, whether empty' or in use as containers of merchandise dutiable by 'veight or measure (except in those cases in wh ich the classification of s uch containeTs is otherwi se specifically provided for): (a) Suitable for use as containers of liquids, twentY' pel' centu m ad valorem. (b) Other, ten per centum ad valorem. Group 2.-Manu/actlLres 0/ 'Wood.

160. Manufactures of conunon wood, not othel'\vise provided for, whether fini shed, turnrd, painted, varnished, or not, but neith er inlai d, veneered, carved, nor u pholstered, nor covered , or lined with stuffs or leather, an d Vienna or bentwood furniture, thi rty-five pel' centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This paragraph read" as amend~d by Act No. 4053 of the L egilliatnre. publ is hed i n Tariff Decision CiJ'culal' No. 1024.

161. Manufactures of fine wood~ not otherwise provided for, whether turned, painted, varnished, or polished, or upholstered, covered, or lined with stuffs, (except s ilk or leather), or not, and manu-

factures of common wood, not other. wis~ provided for, veneered with other wood, or upholstered, covered, or lined with s tuffs (except silk or leather' " f orty-five per centum ad valorem, NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. '1053 of t he Philippine Legislature, published ~ 'l'nriff Decision Ci rcular No. 1024.

162. Manufactures of common or fine wood, not otherwise provided· for, gilt, inlaid. veneered with metal, or ornamented with metal or carving, or upholstered, cov. ered, or lined with silk or leather, fifty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- 'Dus pnragl'aph I'eads all amenfi"d h)' ,\('1 No. 4053 oi the P h ilipp ine ~slatu·'E". J)ublishfd i1 Tarirr Def·i:"ion CiI'cu lu l' No. lO~ ,1.

163. Barber s' and dentists' chairs, of whateve'!.' material, thirty-five pel' centum ad valorem. NOTE.-Th is paragTaph reads as amended by Art No. 4053 of the Philippine Le~isiature , published i~ T ariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

164. Bowling alleys, billiard pool, bagatelle and similar tables, including balls, and parts and appurtenances of any of the foregoing, 01' whatever material (except chalk and cloth) forty per centum ad \'8,' lorem. Group 3.-l'a1·ious 165. Char coal, firewood, other vegetable fuel gross weight, one hundred kilos., fi cen t s.

166. Cork: (a) Rough or in boards, five per ce

tum ad valorem. (b) In stoppers for receptacles, tift

per centum ad valorem. (c) In other articles, twenty-five pe

centum ad valorem.

167. Straw for manufacturing purposes, rush es, vegetable hail', genista", osiers, bam boo, broomcorn, rattan, reeds, piths, n otherwise provided for: . (a.) Crude or not further advance~ manufacture than cut into str81gh lengths suitable for sticks for brel1as, parasols, sunshades, whi fishing rods, or walking canes, an


AD~ '='IN=-~'=S=T~RA: T~'~O~N~

T_H_E__A _'_I_E_R_I_C_A_N__

straw braids, s uitab le fol' making or ornamenting hats, neither dyed, colored, stained nor artificially bleached, ten per centum ad vaIOI'em. The term "straw" as used in this clause shall be understood to mean that substance in its natural fOlm and structure, and not the separate fiber thereof. (b) Manufactured into furniture, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (e) Manufactured into articles not otherwise provided for, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. (d) Rattan, split 01' stripped, bleached 01' noi, twenty pel' centum ad valorem. LASS XJ.--ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS. AND W ASTr:S.

';roup I.-Live animals, not othe'rwise

provided fo'r. Stallions, geldings, mares, mules, asses, each, ten dollars. Provided, That sucking foals following their dams shall be free of duty. Bovine animals : (a) Bulls, cows, oxen, each, t hree dollars. On and after the first day of January', nineteen hundred and thirty-one, each head, four dollars; on and after the first day of J anuary, nineteen hundred and thirtythree, each head, five dollars; on and after the first day of J anuary, nineteen hundred and thirtyfive, each head, six dollars; and on a nd after the first day of J anuary', n ineteen hundred and t hirty-seven, the duty herein imposed shall be seven dollars per

head. (b) Suckling calves, each, two dollars. OTE.-'l'hi!; paragraph reads as amendcd by Act !671 of the Philippine Legislat.urc, published in Dec i si~n Cil'culal' No. 992.

Swine, per head, one dollar.



~2:3:3 l

171. Sucking pigs, each, twenty-five cents. 172. Animals, fish, reptiles, insects, not otherwise provided for, twenty-five per centum ad 'alorem. NOTE.-This 1l8ragraph read~ as amended by Act No. 4053 oi t.he Philippine L~gislature, published in Tariff Decis~n Circular No. 1024.

173. Birds including poultry, per centum ad valorem.

twenty- five

NOTE.-This I)Rragraph rends as amended by Act No. 4053 oi the Pbilippine Legislat.ure, published in TariIi Decbion Circular No. 102路1.

Group 2.-Hides, skins, leather wa'res, intestines, and wastes. 174. Hidt!s and skins, tanned, with the wool 01' hail' on, and fur ski ns with the fur on, tanned 01' not, twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem . 175. Hid es and skins, tanned, without the wool 01' hair, cU1'l'ied, dyed, 01' not: (a) Cow, and hides not otherwise provided for, split 01' not, of the classes known as common sale, skirtin g, harness, or hydraulic leather, sheepsk ins (basi Is), and boot and shoe findings of any of the foregoing, ten pel' centum ad valm路em. (b) The same of other clnsses, and calf, goat, kid, lamb, and similar skins, sheepskins finished in imitation of any of the forego ing, not having t.he artificial finishes enumel'ated under clause (c), of this paragraph, cowhide embossed in imitation of pigskin, and boot and shoe findings of any of the foregoing, fifteen pel' centum ad valol'em. (c) Hides and ski ns, not otherwise provided for, hides and skins en ameled, gilt, bronzed, bleached, figured, engraved, 01' embossed (except as provided in clause (b) of this paragraph) chamois, vellum, and parchment leathers, and boot and shoe findings of any of the foregoing, twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem.



176. G lo\'es: (a) Of kid skin, forty per centum ad valorem. (b) Other, twenty-five per centum ad

va lorem. 177. Boots and shoes: (a ) Of rubber, vegetable fibers, a nd canvas, pair, twenty-five cents. (b) Of cowh ide, horsehide, s heepskin, and pigskin, and imit ation t hereof, pail', fifty cents. (e) Other, including shoes made of reptile sk ins, and slippers and sandals of whatever materials, except silk, pail', seventy-five cents. (d) The same, of silk, l'ayon, and other synthetic textiles, pair, one dollar. P'ro vided, That when any of the articles classified under clause (a) of this paragraph contain leather, sk in, si~k, or im itation thereof, in any proportion, they s hall be dutiable under t he corresponding clauses (b), (c), Ot' (d), of th is paragra ph; and P'rovided, fwrther, That no article classified u nder clauses (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty, forty for ty-five, and f ifty pe ~' centum ad valorem, respectively. NOTE.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act N o. 405a of t he Philippine Legislature. publLc;hed in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

178. Saddlery and harness, parts thereof not otherw ise provided f or: (a) D1'aft harness and parts therefor, twenty pel' centum ad valorem. (b) Other harness, saddlery, and harness makers' wares, and parts t herefor, manufactures of rawhide not otherwise provided for, an d of whatever material, \vhips t\venty-five pel' centum ad valorem. 179. Manufa ctures of leather, not otherwise pl'oyided for, thirty-five Del' centum ad valol·em. 180. Bl:Jdders, integuments and in testines of animals, fi sh sounds, not otherwise proYided for: (a) Not furth er advanced in manufacture than dried, thirty per centum a d valorem.

(b) Further

advanced, fiity per tum ad valorem.

181. Animal wastes and by-products oot otherwise provided for (a) Unmanufactured, including an, of the same ground or prepared as fertilizers or as food for ani. mals, ten per centum ad valorem. (b) Manufactured, or otherwise advanced in value 01' condition, twen. ty per centum ad valorem.



Group I.-M1(.sical instruments, watches, and clocks.

182. Mu s ical instruments, and partsl. appur. tenances, and accessories therefor, including stri ngs and wires, automatic devices for the production of music only, piane( stools, metronomes, tuning ham. m el'S, tuning forks, pitch pipes, and similar articles for use in connection therewith not otherwise provided for, twenty· five per centum ad valorem.

183. Instruments and machines combining other mechanical operations with the production of music, such as slot machine! of that character, phonogl'aphs~ gramophones, graphophones, and similar apparatus; kinetoscopes, biographs, cinema· tographs, magic lanterns, and similar pic, ture-projecting devices, not otherwise provided for, and parts, appurtenances, and accessories for any of the foregoing. thirty-five pel' centum ad valorem. 184. Clocks, chronometers, watches" cyclome· tel's, pedometers, odometers, and similar devices, and cases, crystals, movements. parts, and accessories for any of the foregoing not otmerwise provided for, twen ty-five pel' centum ad vaIOl·em. Group 2.-Apparatus and machins'l·Y·

185. Typewri ters, mimeographs, Raneos, and other writing, duplicating, and manifold~ ing machines and devices, adding' machines, comptographs, and other computing apparatus, fare, and.~ tached parts for any of the foregoing. including ribbons, pads, stencil sheets.


mimeograph silks, and similar accessories therefor, and stamp pads, fifteen per centum ad valorem. ~6. Cash registers, and detached parts theref<Jr, twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

37. Se'90>lng machines, and detached parts therefor (except needles) , fifteen per centum ad valorem. J8. Automatic slot machines, not otherwise provided for, and detached parts therefor (subject to the provisions of section three of this Act), thirty-five pel) centum ad valorem. l~.

Machinery' and apparatus for weighing, and detached parts therefor, not otherwise provided for, twenty pel' centum ad valorem.

lO. Electric and electro-technical machinery, apparatus, and appliances: (a) Dynamos, generators, generating sets, alternators, motors, and similar machinery, not otherwise provided for, transformers and storage batteries, switchboards and switches, arc lamps, telephone and telegraph insti'uments, fans, buzzers, and annunciators, anuneters, voltmeters, 'w attmeters, and similar measuring apparatus, dry and wet batteries, and detached parts for any of the foregoing, and articles used exclusively in the installatit,m thereof, insulators, .and insulating compounds and materials used exclusively for electrical purposes, carbon and, incandescent bulbs and tubes, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Cooking, refrigerating, and heating apparatus and utensils, chandeli ers, desk and table lamps, fla shlights, flatirons, soldering and curling irons, thermocauteries and cauterizing instruments, surgical, dental, and therapeutic appliances, including so-called electric belts, X-ray' machines, vicratory apparatus, electro-plating outfits, cigar lighters, other instruments, implements, utensils, and articles used


in connection with, for, or by the application or production of electrotechnical, thermoelectric, galvanic, or galvano-magnetic force, and detached parts for any of the foregoing, not otherwise provided for, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. (e) Radio apparatus, and parts, appurtenances, and accessories therefor, t hi rty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This PQI'ng'l'nl)h reads a s amended by Act No. 4033 of the PhilippIne Legislature pUblished in Tariff Deci sion Circular No, 1024.

191. Engines, tenders, motors, steam boilers, pumps, and machinery; diving suits; common tools, implements and apparatus j detach ed parts therefor; not otherwise provided for shafting and gearing: (a) Of iron, steel, or wood, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Of other materials; emery cloth; twenty per centum ad valorem. 192. Machine belting of whatever material, ten per centum ad valorem. 193. Fine tools, implements, and instrument, of whatever material, used in the arts, trades, and professions, such as' measuring instruments, mlcrometric gauges, mathematical and drawing instruments, manicure instruments (not pocket cutlery~, whatchmakers', jewelers', surgeons', dentists', engravers', carvers', glass cutting, and similar tools, instruments, and implements, any of the foregoing and detached parts therefor not otherwise provided for, twenty pel' centum ad valol路em.

GROUP a.-Vehicles. 194. " 'agons and carts for transporting merchandise, warehouse trucks, hand cars and wheelbarrows, any of the foregoing and detached parts therefor not otherwise provided for, fifteen per centum ad valorem. 195. Automobiles: (a) For the transportation of merchandise, fifteen per, centum ad valorem. (b) Other, twenty per centum ad valorem.



(c) Detached parts and accessories for

automobiles, including tires, lamps, and horns , twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 196. Bicycles, velocipedes, and motor cycles, detached parts and accessories t herefor, including tires and lamps" twenty pel' centum a d valorem. 197. Vehicles for use on railways and tram\vays, and detached parts thereof, ten per centum ad valorem.

198. Other wheeled vehicles including perambulators, and aerial machines and balloons, any of t he foregoing and detached parts t herefor, n ot otherwise provided for, twenty per centum ad valOl'em. 199. Detached wooden parts for any of the articles classifi ed, under pal'agraph OTIe hundred and ninety-foul' or paragraph one h undred and ninety-eight : (a) Unfinished, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Finis hed, twen~y per centum ad valo rem.

CROUP 4.-Boats and other wate,' craft 200. Boats, launches, lighters, and other water craft, set up or knocked down, imported into the Philippine Islands, and cost of repairs made in foreign countries to vessels, or t o parts therefor, documented for the Phili ppine coastwise trade and plying usually in t he Philippine waters and for which repairs adequate facilities are afforded in t he Philippine Islands, f ifty pel' centum ad valorem until December thirty-first, nineteen hundred and twenty-foul'; twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem on and after J an uary first, nineteen hundred and twenty-five. PTfJvided, That upon proof satisfactory to the collector of customs that adequate facilities are not afforded in the Philippine Islands for such repairs, so t'-lat the work can not be done there reasonably, economically, and within a reasonable

time , in the judgment of said collector

s~c.h repairs shall be subject to the pr~ VlSlOns of paragraph three hundred and forty- eight of this Act; and, Provided fwrther, That if the owner or master of such vessel shall furnish evidence satisfactory to the collector of customs that such vessel while in the regular course of her voyage was compelled by stress of weather or other casualty to put into a foreign port or place and make such: repairs to secure the safety of the vessel or to enable her to return to the Philippine Islands, such d,lty shall not be imposed; and Pr ovided, further, 'Dhat furnishings, stores and supplies, not otherwise provide<L for, purchased abroad and imported in such vessel shall be dutiable under the corresponding paragraphs of this

Act. The ex pression Him ported in to the Philippine Islands" shall be held to mean "brought into the jurisdictional waters of the Philippine Islands in or on another vessel, or towed . therein by another vessel, (except when becalmed or disabled at sea). as distinguished from coming into said islands under the craft's own steam, sail, or other motive power." NOTE.-This paragra'J)h reads as amended by :\~ No. 2872 of the Philippine Legislature, published iD Customs Admin istrative order No. 100.


GROUP I .-Poultry, Meats, soups, and fish

201. Poultry and game, not otherwise provided for, dressed or not, gross weight, one hundred kilos., five dollars. NOTE.- 'fhis paragraph reads as amended by A~ No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature published In Tariff Decis ~on Circular No. 1024.

202. Meat, fresh, chilled and refrigerated, not otherwise provided forI gross weight, one hundred kilos., four dollars. On and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty-five, five dollars for each one hundred kilos.


l'odd6d, That the containers of t he above 'des shall be plainly markerl. with cancellink thus: 'IM PORTED',


OTE. -This paragraph reads as aml!l1ded by Act -1037 of t he Philippine Legislat.ure. published in Decisio n Circular No. 1015.


. Meat and sausage casings, salted or in brine, gross weight, one hundred kilos " two doIlal's and fifty cents. L Hams, bacon and othel' meats, and sau路 sages, dry, cured, 01' smoked, not preserved in cans, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., four dollars and fifty cents. P1'o uided, That sausages classified under this paragraph may be imported in any kind of package exceeding in weight ten kilos, each; and Provided, {u1,the'l', That salt used for the packing of any article classified under this paragraph shall be dutiable under clause (c) of paragraph seventy路-two. i, Lard and substitutes theloeof, not otherwise provided for, including peanut oil and imitations thereof, gross weight, one hundl'ed kilos., six dollars. 'Jrouided, That the containers of the above icles shall be plainly marked with cancell-

ink thus:


NOTE.-This paragraph l'etlds as nm~n ded by Act 40:~7 of the PhiliPI)in/.' Legis:lalul'c, publ is hed in iff Decision Circu!;\!' No. 1011>.

i. Canned or potted meats, such as beef,

veal, mutton, lamb, pork, ham, and bacon, plainly prepared and simply preserved, not otherwise provided for, common preparations thereof, with or without vegetables or other simple ingredients, including Irish stew, corned-beef hash, chili con carne, hog and hominy, dry chipped beef, and the like, fifteen per centum ad valorem,


mincemeat, meat pates, jellied lambs, and sheep's tongues, boneless pigs' feet, sweetbreads, brains, and similar products of delicatessen class; preparations thereof; not .otherwise provided for; twentyfive per centum ad valorem . 209, Canned 01' potted sou ps and broths, clamchowder, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem, 210. Meat extracts in any form~ meat juice and soup tablets; condensed 01' concenboated soup preparations, dry or in paste; bventy-fiye per centum. ad valorem. 211. Salted or dried codfish, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and sixty cents. 212. Fish, in cans, glass, or jars: (a) Cod, hening, mullet, haddock, salmon, and mackerel. plainly prepal'ed and simply preserved, sardines in oil OlJ tomato sauce, fifteen per centum ad valorem, (b) Other common preserved fis h, shell-fish, and sea food, not otherwise provided for, twenty per centum ad valOl'em. (c) Fish, shellfish, sea food, and preparations thereof including anchovies, merluza,. angulns, awabi , sardines not otherwise provided for, lampreys, whiting, turtle, fish roe, eels in jelly, sharks' fins in any form, shrimp, bloater and fish pastes a nd butters, and similar products of delicatessen class, twenty-five per centum ad valorem.

'. Internal parts of animals, including tongue, li ver, and tripe; rabbits; poultry; ordinary preparations thereof, canned or potted; sausages not otherwise provided for; twenty per centum ad valorem.

213. Fish, not otherwise provided for : (a) Fresh, with only the salt indispensable for preservation, gross weight, one hundred kilos. four dollars and fifty cents. (b) Dried, salted, smoked, or pickled, in bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., three dollars and seventyfi ve cents.

:. Canned or potted game i pate de foie grass; deviled ham, meats or game;

NOTE.-l'bis parngl'aph reads as nmended, by A!!t No, 4053 of the Philippine Legislature published In Ta l'iff Decis ion Circular No. 102,1.



214. Oysters, clams, and shell-fish, in bulk, not otherwise provided for ll and fresh oysters in cans, gross weight, one hundred kilos., five dollars.

GROUP 2.-Grains, seeds, forage, cereals, and preparations thereof,

215. Rice, gross weight: (a) Unhusked non-glutinous, one hund-


( 0) (d)


red kilos., one dollar an d twenty cents ; Husked non-glut inous, one ' hunw'ed kilos., two dollar and fifty cents; Unhusked glutinous, one hundred kilos" one dollar and fifty cents; Husked glutinous, one hundred kilos., three dollars; Flour, one hundred kilos., three dollars.

NOT E.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 3918 of the Philippine Legislature, published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1008.

216. Wheat, rye, and barley', gross weight: (a) In grain, one hundred kilos., twenty-five cents. (b) In flour, one hundred kilos., forty路 seven cents. 217. Corn, oats, and mi11et, and cereals and grains not otherwise provided for, gross weight : (a) In grain, one hundred kilos., sixty'" five cents. (b) In meal or flour, not otherwise provided for, one hundred kilos., one dollar and seventy cents. NOTE.- This pat;agrnph reads as amended by Act No. 39 18 of the Philippine Legislature. publis hed in Tariff Decis ion Cil'cular No. 1008.

218. Cereals pl'epared for table use, such as oatmeal, corn meal, cracked wheat, cornstarch, and similar preparations, not otherwise provided for, ten per centum ad valorem. 219. Malted milk, infants' foods, and similar preparations,. fifteen per centum ad valorem.

220. Bread, biscuit crackers and wafers 0 flour of cereals or pu lse, including weigh of immediate containers: (a) Unsweetened, one hundred kilos.

three dollars. (b) Sweetened, one hundred kilos., fiv dOllars.

221. Cakes and puddings, twenty-five per tum ad valorem.


222. Vermice'Ji, macaroni, and pastes for soup, not otherwise provided for, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., two dollars and fifty cents. 223. Birds' nests, edible, thirty per centum ad valorem. 224. Seeds and plants, gross weight: (a) Seeds, not otherwise provided fer,

one hundred kilos., one dollar. plants, moss, live, except those imported by' Government and other institutions for propagation 01' experimental purposes, one hundred kilos., three dollars.

(b) Trees, shoots,

NOTE.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislatul'~. J)ulJlish(.-d In Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

225. Hay, bran, forage, straw, not otherwise provided for, seeds and unhusked grains, cracked, or otherwise prepared for animal foods, and oil cake, five pel' centum ad valorem. GROUP 3.-Pulse, vegetables, j'f"1tits, and nuts. 226. Dried beans, peas and other pulse: (a) In bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and twenty cents. (b) In small or retail packages, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., two dollars and sixty-five cents. (c) In flour, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty' cents. NO'l'E.-This paragraph reads as anlended by Ac,," No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. published In Tariff Decision Circufar No. 1024.


i. Vegetables, fresh, gross weight: (a) Onions

and Irish potatoes, one hundred kilos., one dollar. (b) Other, including sweet potatoes, one hundred kilos., two dollars. NOT E.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act . 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. published in rUf Decision Circular No. 1024 .

s. Vegetables,

dried or desiccated, not other,...rise provided for: (a ) In bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty cents. (b) III small or retail packages, including we ight of immediate contamers, one hundred kilos., two dollars and fifty cents.

NOT E.-This paragraph rends as nmended by Act . 4053 of t he Philippine Leg islature, pubhshed in riff Decision Circular No. 1024.

9. Vegetables, preserved, not otherwise provided for: (a) In bulk, gross we ight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and twenty-five cents. (b) In small or retail packages, including weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty cents. Provided. That no article classified under cla use (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than fifteen per centum a d valorem. NOTE.. -Thi ~ pnragl'aph reads a s amended by Acts s. 4115:, rond 11 24 of the Philippine L('gisiature publed in Tariff Decision Circulars Nos, 1024 a nd 1032.

O. Ve getables, pickled: (a) In bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., two dollars and fifty cents. (b) In small or r etail packages, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., three cents. P'I'o'vicied, That no article classified under clause (b ) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty th an twenty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by A~t ,10:;3 of lhe Philippine Legislature, published m ,riff D~ci~ion Cil'culal' No. 102·1.


.1. Frui ts, fresh, gross weight, one hundred

kilos., one dollar and twe nty-five cents.


232, Fruits, dried: (a) In bulk, gross weight, one hundred

kilos., one dollar and fifty cents. (b) In small or reta il packages, includ4

ing weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos., two dollars and fifty cents. P'I'o ~)ided, That no article classified under clause (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than fifteen per centum ad valorem. 233. Fruits, preserved, not otherwise provided for: (a) I n bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., one dollar and fifty cents. (b) In small or retail packages, includ4 ing weight of immediate containers, one hundred kilos. , two dollars. (c) Pinea pples, in bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., two dollars and forty cents. (d) Pineapples, in small or retail pack4 ages, including weight of imme 4 diate con ta iners, one hundred kilos., t hree dollars and twenty cents. P1'ovided, no article ~) assif ied un~ del' clause (b) of this parag raph shall pay a less rate of duty than fifteen per cen.. tum ad valorem i and Provided, {w·ther, That no article clas4 sified under clause (b) of thi~ paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty tnan twentY4 five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This paragl'aph rcnds as amended. by A~t No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. published m Tad£( Decision Circular No. 102·\.

234. Fruits in jellies, jams, marmalades, but. tel's, and similar preparations, and fruit pulp, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This paragraph rcnds os amended. by A~t No. <1 053 of the Philippine Legislature. pubhshed m Tariff De('ision Cil'Cuiar No. 1024.

235. Fruits, brandied, or similarly preserved, and fruits conserved or crystallized, fifty per centum ad valol·em.. 236. Nuts and nut products, not othel'\\-ise pro~ vided for : (a) P eanuts, gross weight. one hundred kilos., two dollars .



(b) Coconut meat, desiccatEd, sh redded, or othel'\\ise prepared, one hundred kilos., twenty dollars. (c) All other, twenty-f ive per centum ad valorem. Provided, That no a r ticle c:assified u nder clause (a) of t his pa r agraph shall pay a less rate of duty t han forty pel' centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This J)!ll'agl'aph reads as amended b y Act No. 路101)3 of the Phililljl ine Legb;lature, publish ed in Tariff Decision Circulal' No. 10:24.

GROUP 4.---Suga?路, molasses, glucose, and confectionery 237. Sugar: (a) Raw, gross; weight, one h u nd r ed

k ilos., three dollars and seven tytwo cents. (b) Refined, including weight of immediate containers, one h unw'ed kilos., foul' dollars a nd twenty-two cents. NOT E.- Th is paragraph has been amended by Ac~ No. 3613 of Lhe PhiliPI)ine Legislature published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 99u. Sugar, refined, 01' u nrefined. is s ubject t.o the same rate" of duty from time to time imposed on like sugm' imported into the United States. These nnes shaH depend upon t.he polariscopic test., and shall not be lower than those provided

238. Molasses and syrups, not otherwise provi ded for, and honey : (a) I n bulk, gross weight, one hundred kilos., two dollars. (b) I n small or retail packages, incl uding weight of immediate container s, one hundred kilos. , three dolla rs. 239. Glucose, gross weight, one h undl'ed kilos., one doJlar and sixty cents. 240. Sacchar ine, including weight of immedi ate containers, kilo., two dollar s. 241. Candi es, confectionery, sweetmeats, chewing gum, not othel'wise provided for, t wen t y-fi ve per centum a d valorem. GRO UP 5.-Coffee, tea, cacao, spices, sauces, condiments, and flavoring extracts. 242. Coffee: (a) Unroasted, gross weight, one hundred kilos ., five dollars and thirty cents.

ground or not~ groSS weight, one hundred kilos., seven dolla r s. (c ) In packag es w eighing each less tnan t hree ki los., including weight of imm ediate containers, one hundred kilos., nine dollars.

(b) Roasted,

243. Chico ry, gross weight, one hundred 路kuos., f our doll a rs and twenty cents. 244. Tea, including weight of immediate tainel's, kilo., seventeen cents.


NOT E .- '1'h is puragraph reads as amended by An No. 4063 of the Phili p pi ne Leg i s l at.u r ~. published in 'l'adfC Decision Ci rc ul ar N o. 1024.

245. Cacao : ( a ) Ung round, gross weight, one hun-

d r ed kilos., seven dollars and twenty cents. ( b ) Other, and cacao butter, including weight of immediat e containers, one hundred kilos., t welve dollars a nd fifty cents. P1'ovicled, That no article classified un路 der cla use ( b ) of thi s paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 246. Ch ocola te, including weight of immediate conta inel's : (a ) In forms or lumps f or manufactu r ing purposes: one hundred kilos., t en dollars. ( b ) In cakes or powder, kilo., fifteen cents. Provided, That no article classified under clause (b) of this parag raph shall p a y a less rate of duty than twenty-five per cen t um -ad valorem. 247. Cinna mon, cloves, allspice, and mace, in~ cludin g weight of immediate containers : ( a ) Un ground, one !hundred kilos., ei ght dollars. (b) Ground, one hundred kilos . I ten dollars.

248. Nutm egs, including weight of immediate con t ainer s : ( a ) Unhusked, kilo. I three cents. (b) H usked, ki lo.~ five cen ts. (c ) Gr ound, kilo., eight cents.


9. Pepper, white or black, and }lod peppers, dried, including weight ,of immediate containers : ,a) ,,'hole, one hundred kilos., four dollars. (b) Ground, except paprika, kilo., fifteen cents. ~c) Ground paprika, kilo., eight cents. NOTE, . 40ftJ 1"c ula r~


ThiiS pnl"a ){1"!Iph !'l!Dd" n~ amended by .\cts and \ 12,\ \)u~I""h ...-d in Tal'i. { Dl'cision No .... 102,\ li nd 1032,

Mustard and h orse-radish, including weight of immediate containers: (a) Unground, kilo ., t\vo cents (b) Ground, kilo., six cents. (e) In paste, kilo., ten cents.


Containing more than fourteen pel' centum of alcohol, kilo., thirty-five cents. P1'ovided, That no article classified under clause (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less I'ate of duty than fifty per centum ad valorem. (b)

256. Vanilla beans, except when Imported under the pl'ovisions of paragraph three hundred fifty-two hel'eof, incl'i路'l ing weight of immediate 'contain ers, kilo., t.wo dollars and f ifty cents. NOTE,- 'l'his pal'agl'allh read" as amcnded by Act No. ,1053 of the Philippint! Leg-islatul'e. published in TRI'iff Decbion Cil'culal' No. 1024.

GROUP 6.-Spi'ri.ts, wines, malt, and other bevc1路ages.

,1. Saffron, including weight of immediate

containers, kilo., four dollars,

'2. Spices, not otherwise provided for, includ-

ing weight of immediate containers: (a) Unground, one hundl'ed kilos., eight

dollars. (b) Ground,

and curry powder, one hundred kilos., ten dollars, Proviiled, That no article classified under this paragraph s hall pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem.

5a. Sauces for table use, not otherwise provided fol', s uch as tomato, caper, tabasco, \\'orcestel'shil'e, cats up, and like preparations, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. ~OTE.-Thi s

pal'llgl'aph reads as amendl'd by Act 4053 of Lhc Philippine Lt!gi"lntu \,c. put.Jisht'Q i '\ Ilri H Dl'eision CiI路culo.r No. 102,1.



Vinegar: (a) In receptacles containing each more than two liters, liter, two cents. (b) In other receptacles, liter, three cents.

55. Flavoring extracts, compounds. and syrups, including weight of inunediate containers: (a) 'Without alcohol or containing not to exceed fourteen pel' centum of alcohol, kilo., twenty-five cents.

For the purpose of assessment under those paragraphs in which the proof liter is the basis, each and every gauge or wine liter of measurement shall be counted as at least one proof liter. All imitations of whisky, rum, gin, In'andy, spirits, 01' wines, imported by or under any names whatsoever shall be subjected to the highest rate of duty provided for the genuine articles respectively' intended to' be r epresented, with a surtax of fifty per centum. 257. Alcohol, proof liter, fifty cents. 258. \Vhisky, rum, g in brandy, and other spirits not otherwise provided for, proof liter, fifty cents. 259. Blackberry and g inger brandy, proof liter, thirty cents. 260. Cocktails, liqueurs, cordials, and other compounded spirituous beverages and bitters, not otherwise provided for, proof liter, sixty-five cents. 261. \Vines, sparklin g, liter, one dollar. 262. Still wines, vermouth, and sake, containing fourteen pel' centum or less of alcohol: (a) In receptacles containing each more than two liters, liter, two cents.


242 (b) In

receptacles containing each two liters or less, liter, seven and one-half cents. Provided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than forty per centum ad valorem. 263. Still w ines, vennouth, and sake, containin g more than fourteen per centum of alcohol: (a.) In receptacles containing each more than two liters, liter, fifteen cents. (b) In receptacles containing each two liters or less, liter, twenty-five cents. Provided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than fifty per centum ad valorem; and Provided further, That any of such articles containing more than twenty-four per centum of alcohol shall be classified under paragraph two hundred and sixty. 264. Malt beverages, and ' ciders: (a) ln receptacles containing more than two Inters, hecto1., dollars. (b) In other receptacles, hectol., dollars and fifty cents. (e) Cidar, hectol., foul' dollars ninety cents.

268. Milks and creams, compounded with other su bstances, mi!k powders and tablets any of the foregoing not otherwise provided for, twenty per centum ad valorem.. 269. Eggs, not otherwise provided for: (a) Fresh or preserved, in natural form, eight dollars per one hundred kilos. (b) Egg powders, and othel' prepara_ tions of eggs, not otherwise provided for, one hundred pel' centum ad valol'em. Provided, That imported eggs, fresh or preserved, in natural form, shall be plain_ ly marked with cancelling ink, on the shell of every egg, thus: 'IMPORTED'. NOT E.- This paragraph reads as amended by ,\rt No. 403'7 of the Philippine Legislature, published in Tadre Decision Circular No. 1015.

270. Cheese of all kinds and imitations thereof, fifteen per centum ad valore.rn. 271. Butter, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., six cents.

each foul'

272. Oleomargarine, butterine, ghce, and imitations of butter, including weight of immediate containers, kilo., ten cents.


NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, publish(~l in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.


Note.-This paragraph rends as amended by Acts Nos. 405$ and 4124. of the Philippine LegislatUre. pub路 lished in Tariff Decision Circular Nos. 1024 and 1032.

265. Sweetened, flavored, or aerated waters, natural mineral waters aerated or not, ginger ale, root beer, unfermented fruit JUIce, and nonalcoholic beverages, not otherwise provided for, hecto1., one dollar and fifty cents. 266. Fruit juice, pure or ,vith sufficient sugar to preserve it, without alcohol or containing not more than four per centum of alcohol, liter, five cents.

GROUP 7.-Various 267. Milks and creams, pure, or with sufficient sugar to preserve them, ten per centum ad valorem.

273. Articles and products edible by mankind not otherwise provided for: (a) Crude and in natural state, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Prepared, preserved, or advanced in value or condition by any pro路 cess 01' manufacture. thirty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature. published In Tf\l'ire Decision Circular No. 1024.



274. Fans, of all kinds, thirty路 five pel' centum ad valorem. 275. Pens, not otherwise provided for, needles (except surgical needles), c\)mmon and safety pins, hooks and eyes, button rings and fasteners, crochet hooks, and hail'-'


pins, any of the foregoing of common metals (except t hose covered or coated with gold or silver). twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 6. Trinkets and ornaments of all kinds (except those of gold or silver, or of gold or silver plate, o~ in which the component ma terial of chief value is amber, jet, jade, tor to ise shell, coral, ivory', meerschaum, or mot her-ai-pearl ) I includ ing weight of immedi ate containers, kilo., one dollar and seventy-f ive cents. Provided, That no article classified under th is paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than forty per cent um ac valor em.

paragraph reads as amended by f:;. NOTE.-This 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, published ,- _iff Decision Circular No. 1024.



7. Amber. jet. tortoise shell, coral, ivory, meerschaum, and mother-of-pearl: ( a) Unwrought, or cut for settings or

pierced for beads, fifteen pel' centum ad valorem. ( b) Wrought, not otherwise provided for, forty per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as- amended by Act fo. .10[.3 of the Philippine Lcgislutw'e, published in 'ariff Decision Cia-culnr No. 1024.

'18. Horn, bone, whalebone, celluloid, and imitations of any of the foregoing, or of any of the substances enumerated in paragraph two hundred and seventy-seven, including weight of immediate containers: (a) Unwrought, kilo., thirty cents. (b) 'Wrought, not otherwise provided for, kilo" one dollar and fifty cents. P'rovidecl. That no article classified under clause (b) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than thidy per cent um ad valorem, NOTE.- This paragraph peads as amended by Act! lo. 4053 of the Philippine Legislature, published in 'ui[f Decision Circular No. 1024,

79. Artificial teeth, with plates or not, artificial eyes, artificial limbs and members, and similar al'ticJes for the alleviation of


the inconveniences resulting from physic-al defects, ten per centum ad valorem. 280, Buttons, including 'weight of immediate containers; (a) Of mothel'-Of.pearl, kilo., two dollars and fifty cents. (b) Of bone, porcelain, composition, wood, steel, iron, or similar materials, kilo., thirty cents. (c) Of other materials (except gold, sHver, or platinum, or gold or silver plate), kilo., fifty cents. Provided, That no article classified under clause (a) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than fifty per centum ad valorem: And p1'ovided, /urthe'I", That no article classified under clauses (b) or (c) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. ,1053 of the Philippilne Legislature published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

281. Shells not otherwise provided for: (a) Not further advanced in condition than polished, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Further advanced, manufactures in which sheils, not otherwise provided for, are the component material of chief value, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by AcO No. 4053 of the Philippine LegislatUl'e published in TariIf Decision Circular No. 102,1.

282. Sponges, natural, including hexactinellida and loofah: (a) Not further advanced in condition than washed 01' bleached, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. (b) Further advanced, manufactures in which sponge or loofah is the com,'}.(ment material of chief value, ;se pro." centum ad valorem. Tat adva~ " " ~ "' 283. Felt or ,~ any .JQ.;. q.;.~. ~ ,. .coated with tar, pitch, '0 ~0" t (>~.s' ...:es, rub~er­ J oid and simual . v ,. ..â&#x20AC;˘ " for roofmg, , sheating, and structural purposes. gross weight, one hundred kilos,', ninety cents.-


• 244


284. Oilcloth (except of silkL linoleurn, corticine: «(l,) In the piece, fifteen per centum ad valor em. ( b ) Mad e up into articles, twenty-five pel' centum ad valorem.

285. Tool bags, chests, and cases; trunks, valises, suit cases, traveling bags, "telescopes /' h a t boxes , and similar receptacles for per son al effects, and shawl straps; of whatever material; t.hirty-five pel' centum a d valorem. N O'l'E.- This p l'!.l ' a RTltJ) h r'eads It!! ame nded by Act N o. ·101)3 or t h e Ph ilip p ine Leg islature p u blished in T ndff Decision Cir cula r N o. 102 ·1.

286. Stuffed 01' mounted birds or anima ls, not otherwi se provided for, twenty pel' centum ad valorem.

287. Feathers for ornaments, stuffed birds 01' animals or parts thereof for use on wearing apparel 01' for toilet purposes, natural, finished , or manufactured, sixty per centum ad valorem. 288. F eath ers and downs, not otherwise provided fo r: (a) Not further advanced in co ndi t ion than cleaned, twenty per centum ad valorem, ( b) Further advanced, manufactures in which feath ers and downs are t he component material of chief value, forty per centum ad valorem. 2 8 9~

Artificial f lowers, buds, pistils, leaves, fruits , seeds and moss, an d other parts of artificial fru its and flowers, of whatever material, fift y per centum ad valorem.

290. Caoutchouc and gutta-percha: (a) Crude, and rubber, in sheets, sheeting, or packing, even with cloth or wire insertions, and gaskets and washers, ten per centum ad valoceni rem. (b) Rubber, 'soft, i~ not otherwise provided . enty-five per centum ad vaIolVano " (c) Rubber, hard, in articles not otherwise provided for, thirty per centum ad valorem.

291. Hose a nd flexible tubing, of whate\Ter dimensions or materials, fifteen per cen. tum ad valorem. 292. Reservoir pens, and parts and points ther efor, of whatever material, twentyfive per centum ad valorem. 203. Games and toys, including .face masks, paper hats and canes, artificial Christ. mas trees, Christmas-tree decorations, toy carts, and other small vehicles for children's use not otherwise provided for, and diminutive articles for u se as toys not adapted fo r practical purposes, including weight of immedi ate containers, kil o., fifteen cents.

Provided, That no article of gold, silver, or platinum, or of gold or silver plate, or of tortoise shell , coral, ivory, or mother -of-pearl shall be classified under this paragraph; and Provided, further, That no article classified under this paragraph shaH pay a less rate of duty than twenty-five per centum ad valorem. NO'l'E.- This paragraph reads ns amenrlnd hy Artt No. 40!l::t of t h e Philippine Le~islntUl'e published in Tadff Decis ion Circular No. 1024.

294. Golf sticks, polo mallets. tennis rackets. baseball and cricket bats, balls of . 11 kinds for u se in the sports (except bowling, billiard, pool, and bagatelle balls), fencing masks and foils, gymnasium apparatus , a nd croquet sets, and parts of any of the foregoing, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 295. Umbrellas and parasols: (a) Covered with paper, each, fifteen cents. (b) Covered with silk, rayon, or other synthetic textiles, each, seventy-five cents. (c) Covered with other stuffs, each, thirty cents. (d) Umbrelia frames complete, uncov· ered whether mounted on t ubes or sticks or not, forty per centum ad valorem. Provided, That no article classified un· der t h is paragraph sh al1 pay a less rate


of duty than t\\"enty-five per centum ad valon:TI1. ~OTE.





This paragraph reads a s amended by Act the Philipl)me Leg is lature published in C~Tculal' No. 102,1.


96. Hats. bonnets, and crowns therefor, ot straw, chip, palm leaf, grass, rattan, osiers, and analogous materials: (fl) Complete, not trimmed, each, th-Irty-five cents. (II) The same, trimmed, each, SIXty cents. (r) Crowns for, each, thirty cents. P?路ovided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than sixty per centum ad valorem. NOTF..- This paragraph reads as amended by Act fo. 10.-;1 1)( the Philippme Legi slatul'(~ published in 'uriff Decision Cu'cular No. 1024.

\97. The same, of other materials: (a) Complete, not trimmed, each, t,venty cents. (b) The same, trimmed, each, thiltyfive cents. (e) Crowns for, each, fifteen cents. Provided, That no article classified under this paragraph shall pay a less rate of duty than thirty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.-This pal'agTaph reads as amended by Act ~o. ~O"i~ of the Philippine I.. egislatul'e published in fa rifC Deci!'-ion Crrcular No. 10:1;.1.

!98. Caps, fezzes, turbans and headgear not

otherwise provided for, fifty pel' centum ad valorem. NOT E.-This paragraph rends as amended by Act 1053 of the Philip pane Le;:dslalure published in ra dC! Decision Circular No. 1024.


~99 .

Photographic cameras, films, not othel'wis provided for: (a) Cameras and parts thereof, photographic equipment and articles for use in photography not otherwise provided for, including lenses, tripodes, photographic plates and films, motion-picture films, sensit ized but not exposed 01' developed, film packs and kits, plate holders and frames, developing lights, baths and trays, twenty pel' centum ad valorem. (b) Motion-picture films, exposed or


developed, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. NOTE.- '1'his J)(>l'a~rap h rends as amended by Act No. 40ii3 o( the> Phili ppine Legislature, Ilublished in Tariff D",cision Cil路cular No. 102 1.

300. Appliances and apparatus, parts and cases therefor and accessories thereto, not otherwise provided for, for mathematical, optical, astronomical, surgical, geodetical and other scientific purposes: including thermometers, barometers, alcoholometers, salmometers, hydrometres, vacuometers, radiometers, appliances for sight testing, microtomes, telescopes, microscopes and their slide glasses, stethoscopes, theodolites, transits, sextants, quadrants, compasses and the like, twentyfive pel' centum ad valorem.

301. Tobacco: (a) Leaf tobacco of any kind, unstemmed, kilo., four dollars and eight cents. (b) Leaf tobacco of any kind, stemmed, kilo" five dollars and fifty-two cents. (c) Cigars, cigarettes, and cheroots, of all kinds, kilo., nine dollars and ninety-three cents and twenty-five per centum ad valorem, and paper cigars, and cigarettes, including their wrappel'S, shall be dutiable under this clause. (d) Other tobacco, manufactured or unmanufactured, not othenvise provided for, kilo., one dollar and twenty-five cents. No'rE. This llanlgTallh hns been amended by Act No. 35 15 of the Philip p ine Legislature. published in Tarif( Decision Circulal路 No. 990, Tobacco. manuf2cturcd or unmanufactured. is subject to the same rat~ of duty ft'Om time to time imposed on like tobacco imported into the Unit.C!d States. These rntes shall not be lowcr thllll those provided abovc.

302. Wastes, not} otherwise provided for, ten per centum ad valorem. 303. Materials, lSubstances, and articles not otherwise provided for: (a) Not advanced in value or condition by any process or manufacture, fifteen per centum ad valorem. (b) Further advanced, but not manufactured into articles, twenty pel' centum ad valorem.



(c) Manufactured into articles, thirty.

fi ve pel: centum ad valorem. No.

NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act! 4053 of the Philipp~ne Legblature pUblished in

TarU( Decision Circu lar No. 1024.

304. Cost of repairs upon articles of easy identification (except those provided for in paragraph two hund red ) , exported from the Philippine Islands land :relIDported therein, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. Provided, That any such article, exclusive of the repairs thereon, shall be free of duty; when reimported, upon compliance with the regulations of the insular collector of customs governing such exportations and reimportations, otherwise the terms of section eight shall apply.

FREE LIST. SEC. 9. Tha t t he following articles shan be free of dut~ upon importation thereof into the Philippine Islands:

for other purposes than the construction equipment, or r(>pair of vessels, and life: preservers and life bouys. 308. Oakum.

309. Raw cotton and raw silk. NO!E.-This par~~npb reads as amended by Act No. 40 ,,3 of the Phlhppme Legislature published in Tariff Decision Chcular No. 1024 .

310. Radium, and salts of, and radioactive substitutes. NOTE.-Th is paragraph reads as amended by Ac, No. 4053 of the Phillppi!ne Legis lature published in Tariff D ecision Circular No. 1024 .

311. Bristles, animal hair and wool, not further advanced in condition than washed. 312. Paper pulp and paper stock. 313. Samples of the kind, in such quantity and of ~uch dimensions or construction as to render them unsalable or of no appreciable commerciaL value, and models not adapted for practical use. 314.lnsects and pa'l.;asites for experimental and scientific purposes. NOT E.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 40;)3 of the Philippme Legis lature pUblished in Tal'iff D ecision Oircular No. 1024.

305. Trees, shoots, plants, moss, live and seeds imported for the bona fide use of a nd by the order of the govrnment or other institutions for propagation or experimental purposes.

315. Gold, silver, platinum, in bars, sheets, pieces, dusts, scrap, or in broken-up jewelry' or table service.

NOTE.- This parngrapb rends as amended by Act No. 405:'\ of the Philippine Legislature published in Tariff Decision Cia-cular No. 1024.

316. Hides and skins, r aw. green, or dry, but not tanned.

306. Ores, an d scoriae resu lt ing from the smelting thereof, filings, cuttings, and other wastes, of common metals, resu lt ing fl'om manufacture, and fit only for resmelting, and scrap iron, copper, brass, tin, zinc, and lead'i and combinations thereof, bell metal, copper r egulus, copper matte, cast or malleable iron in pigs, soft or wrought iron in ingots, and steel in ingots, and tin, lead, zinc, nickel, and aluminum, in pigs, lump, or ingots. NO'l'E.- This paragraph reads as amended by Ace No. 40;;3 of th e Philippime Legislature published in 'ran!! Decision Cir cular No. 1025.

307. Articles, including anchors, binnacles, propellers, and the like, th e character of which, as imported, prevents their use

317. H ops and malt. 318. Coins and .currency( of national issue, executed checks, drafts, bills of exchange, and similar commercial documents. 319. Natural manures. 320. Cinchona bark, sulphate and bisulphate of quinine, alkaloids and salts of cinchona bark, in whatever {onn and plasmochin an d its compounds. NOT E.-This pal'agraph reads as amended by Act No. 4064 of the Philippine LegislatUre. published in Tar iff Dedsion No. 1025.

321. Telegraph cables of the class known as su bmarine. 32"2. Vaccines and Sel'illnS except when imported in capsules, pills tablets, lozenges,


troches, ampoules, .lubes, or in other equi_ \-alent receptacles. NOT E.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 40.,:1 of the Philippime Legis lature published in Tariff Decision Ci:rcular No. 1024..

323. Ice. 324. Hand paintings in oil, water color, or pastel, pen and ink drawings, for use as works of art and not as a decoration of merchandise, nor f or use in manufacture or the industrial arts and sciences, photographs, paintings, crayons, and other pictorial representati ons of actual persons, either living 011 deceased. 325. Lithographs, posters, calendars, and signs, whether framed (when t he frame bears sufficient advertising matter to render it of no conunercial value), or not, and catalogues, price lists, pamphlets, booklets, and folders, for advertisi ng purposes only, and having no commercial value. P'J'ovided, That li t hographs, posters, calendars and signs, used for advertising local products and local business houses, firms, offices, associations, corporations, trades, 01' professions, shall not be classified under this paragraph. NOTE.-This paragraph reads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Phili ppi ne Legislature, published in Tariff Decision Circular No. 1024 .

326. Magazines, reviews, newspapers, and like published periodicals, Bibles and extracts therefrom, hymnals and hymns for religious uses, books and music in raised print used exclusively by the blind, and text-books prescribed for use in any school in the Philippine Islands : Prov ided, That complete books published in parts in periodical form! shall not be classified under 'this paragraph. 327. Public documents issued by' foreign governments, correspondence, manuscripts, and typewritten docum ents, not prohibited by section three of this Act and collections of sta mps of national issue, used or unused. 328. Medals, badges, cups, and other small articles actually bestowed as trophies or

prizes, 01' those received honorary di stinctions.

247 0.1.'

accepted as

329. Pipe organs imported for the bona fide use of and by the order of any society incorporated or established for religious or educational purposes, or expressly for presentation thereto : Provided, That the terms of thi s paragraph shall be retroactive and of full force and effect from and after Janu ary first, nineteen hundred and nine, anything in this Act to t he contrary' notwithstanding : And provided, /u:rther, That any duty paid upon anY' pipe organ so imported since said date shall be o;ubject to refund.

FREE, SUBJECT TO EXPRESS CONDITIONS SEC. 10. That the following articles) shall be free of duty upon the importation thereof into the P hilip pi ne Islands upon compliance with the formalities prescribed in each para..graph:

330. Eggs and cocoons of the silkworm, subject to exclusion if diseased, or for other cause. 331. Breeding animals of a recognized breed, duly r egistered in the book of record established for that breed: Provided, That certificate of such record, and pedigree of such animal duly authenticated by the propel' custodian of such book of record, shall be produced and submitted to the collector of customs, together with affidavit of the owner or importer, that such animal is the identical animal described in said certificate of record and pedigree. 332. Carabao and other bovine work animals, and mul es , until such t ime as t he Governor-General shall cel'tify' that conditions in the P hilippine I slands warrant the imposition of duty thereon in accorddance with the rates prescribed in Group One of Class Eleven of this Act. 333. Commercial samples, 路the value of any single impol'tation of which does not exceed five thousand dollars, upon the filing of a bond in an amount equal to double



the a scertained duties t hereon, with s ureties satisfactory to the collector of customs, conditioned for t he exportation of said samples within six m onths from the date of their importation, or in default thereof the payment of the corresponding duties thereon. If the valu e of any single conSignment of such commercIal samples exceeds five thousand dollars, the importer thereof may select any portion of same not exceeding in value five thousand dollars for entry undel' t he p rovisions of this paragraph, a nd the remain der of the consigment may be entered in bond, or for consrunption, as the importer shall elect.

334. Regalia, gems, statuary, speci mens or casts of sculptures, imported f or the bona fide use of and by the order of any society incorporated 01' established solely for religious, philosophical, educational, scientific, .01' literary p urposes, or for the encouragement of the fine arts, or for the use of and by the order of any college, aca demy, school, 01' seminary of learning, or of any' public library, not for barter, sale, or hire: Provided, That the term "regalia" shall be held to inclu de only s uch insignia of rank 01' office or emb lems as may be worn upon the person or borne in the 路hand during public exercises of t he society or institution an d shall not include articles of furnit.ure, fixtures, 01' ordinary wearing apparel, nor personal property of individuals. 335. ""arks of art, including pictorial paintings on glass (except stained windows or window glass), imported expressly for presentation to a governmenta l institution, or to any municipal or provincial corporation, or to any incorporated 01' es tablish ed r eligious society, college, or other public institution. 336. V\rearing apparel, articles of personal adornment, toi let aI,tides, books, portable tools and instruments, theatrical costumes, and similar personal eff ects, accompanying travelel's 01' tourists in their baggage or arriving within a rea sonable time, in

the discretion of the collector of customs before or after the owners, 111 use of and necessary and appropriate for the wear or u se of such persons according to their profession or position for the immediate purposes of their journey and their present comfort and convenience: Provided That this exemption shall not be held t~ app ly to merchandise or articles intended for other persons or for barter or sale: And p'1'ovided, further, That the collector of cust oms may, in his discretion, requi~ re a bond for the exportation of 01' the payment of duties upon articles classi~ fied under this paragraph within the time and in the manner prescribed by paragraph three hundred and thirty-seven. 337. Vehicles, horses, harness, bed and table linen, table service furniture, musical ins路 truments and personal effects of like char~ acter owned and imported by t ravelers or tourists for their con venience and comfort, upon identification and the giving of a bond with sureties satisfactory to the collector of customs in an amount equal to double the estimated duties thereon, conditioned for the exportation thereof or payment of the corresponding duties thereon, within four months from the date of entry: P'J'ovided, That the collector of customs may extend the time for export~ ation or payment of duties for a term not exceeding three months from the expira tion of the original period. r

S38. Professional instruments and implements, tools of trade, occupation, or employment, wearing apparel, domestic animals, and personal and household effects, including those of the kind and class provided for under paragraphs three hundred and thirty~s ix and three' hundred and thirty路 seven, belonging to pel'sons coming to settle in the Philippine Islands, ' in quan路 tities and of the class suitable to the profession, rank, or position of the per~ son importing them, for their own use and not for barter or sale, accompanying such persons or arriving within a reasonable time, in the discretion of the collector of customs, before 01' after the arrival of their owners, upon the: prO"'



duct:(Jn of evidenre satisfactory to the collector of customs that such persons are actuaily coming to settle ~n the Philippine Islands, that the articles are brought from their former place of abode, that change of residence is bona fide, and that the pl'ivilege of free entry under this paragraph has never been previously gl'an~ed to them: P'ro'vided, That neither merchandise of any kind, nor machinery or other articles for use in manufacture. shall be classified under this paragraph: A11d provided. jllrthe'r, That officers and employees of the United States Government or of the Government of the Philippjn~ Islands, or religious missionaries taking station in the Islands shall be considered as "coming to settle" for the purposes of this paragraph. ~39 .

Vehicles, animals, birds, insects, and fish, portable theaters, circus and theatrical equipment, including sceneries, properties, and apparel, devices for projecting pictures and parts alld appurtenances therefor, panoramas, wax figures, and similar objects for public entertainment, except motion picture films, upon icienti· fication and the g'iving of a bond with sureties satisfactory to the collector of customs in an amount equal to double the estimated duties thereon, conditioned for the exportation thereof or payment of the corresponding duties thereon within the time and in the manner prescribed by paragraph three hundred and thirty· seven.

NOT E.-This ])aI"A;{l"flph rends as amended by Act No. 1053 of the Philil)pine Lt'gisiatul"t!. Ilublish.A in 1'o.riff Decision CiI'cula!' No. 102·\'

',40, Personal effects, not merchandise, of l'e· sidents of the Philippine Islands dying in foreign countries upon identification as such, satisfactory to the collectol' of customs. 341. Worksl of fine art for public museums and ga ll eries, or for al't schools, models, archaeolog ical and numismatic objects, specimens and collections of mineralogy, botany, zoology, and ethno logy, including skeletons, fossils, and other anato· mical specimens for schools, academies,

public museum, and cieties organized for purposes, on proof colledor of customs

249 corporations and soscientific or artistic satisfactory to the of their destination.

342. Official consular supplies consigned by a foreign government of which the consignee is the consular l'epl'esentative in the Philippine I slands, to him as such official, in an amount and of the kind and class allowed free entry by said foreign govel'nment when consigned by the Government of the United States of America to its consular representatives within the jurisdiction of such foreign government. 343. Pumps for the salvage of vessels, upon identification and the giving of a bond with sUl'eties satisfactory to the collector of customs in an amount equal to double the estimated duties thereon, conditioned for the expol'tation thereof or payment of the corresponding duties thereon with· in the time and in the manner prescribed by paragraph three hundred and thirty'seven.

FREE UPON COMPLIANCE WITH CORRESPONDING REGULATIONS SEC. 11. That the following articles shall be free of duty upon the impol'tation thereof into the Philippine Tslands upon compliance with regulations which shall be prescribed in accord with the provisions of each paragraph: 344.

\Ve ~.ring apparel, and household effects, including those articles provided for under paragraphs three hundred and thirty· six and three hundred and thil'ty-seven, belonging to residents of the Philippine Islands retul'ning from abroad, which were exported from ttte said Islands by such retul'ning residents upon their d e~ pal'ture therefrom or. during the ir absence abroad, upon the identity of such articles being established to the satisf action of the collector of customs, under such regulations as the insular collector of customs, shall prescribe; articles of the same kind and class purchased in foreign countries by natives of the Philippine Is· lands during their absence abroad and



accompan ying t hem upon their return to s aid I sla nd s, 0 1' a r riving wit hin a r easonable t im e, in the di scretion of the collector of customs, befor e or after their ret urn , upon pr oof satisf a ctory to the callectOi" of customs that the same have been in t heir u se abroad for m ore than one year. 345. F Ol'eign a r t icles, g oods, wares, or merchand ise destined for display' in public ex pos it ions in th e Philippine I slands, and a nima ls f or exhibition or competition for p r izes, togethel) w ith the harness, vehicles, a nd t ack le necessary for the purposes designated, subject t o such rules, regu lations, and condit ions a s shall be p r escribed by t he Insular Collector of Customs with r espect to bondin g for exporta ti on t her eof or payment of duty t her eon. 346. Philoso phical, his tori cal, economic, and scien t ific books, and s cientif c apparatus, u tens ils, a nd inst ruments specially imported for the bona fide use of and by the ord er of any society 01' instit ution incorpora ted or established solely for philos ophical, educational, scientific, charitable, or literary purposes, or for the encouragement of the fine arts, or for the bona fide use of and by the order of any college, a cademy, school, or seminary of learning in the Philippine I slands, or of an y public library , and not for barter, s a le or hire , subject to such regulations a s shall be prescribed by the Insular Collector of Customs. The provisions of this paragraph in r espect to books shall apply to any individual importing not exceeding two copies of anyone work for hi~ own use, and not faT barter, sale, or hire.

without having been advanced in value or improved in condition by any process of manufacture or other means, and upon which no drawbacks or bounty has been a llowed, and articles returned from foreig n expositions, subject to identification under such rules and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs shall prescribe. NOTE.- This p a ra graph reads as amended by Act No. the Philippine Legis lature , publis hed in C\U. toms Administra t ive Order No. 58.

2778 of

348" Repairs to vessels documented in the Philippine Islands or l'egulariy plying m the Philippine waters, made in foreign countries, upon proof satisfactory to the collector of customs that adequate facio litieS/ for such repairs are not afforded in the Philippine Islands. 349. Articles and materials actually used in the construction, equipment, .or repair within the Philippine Islands of vessels, their machinery, tackle, or apparel subject to such restrictions, conditions, and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs shall prescribe. 350. Articles brought into the Philippine Is路 lands for the purpose of having repairs made thereto, upon the filing of a bond with sureties satisfactory to the collector of customs, in an amount equal to double the estimated duties thereon , conditioned for the exportation thereof or payment of the corresponding duties thereon within a period of not to exceed six months from the date of importation thereof, in the discretion of the collector of customs, subject to such rules and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs shall prescribe.

NOTE.- 'l' his IJarng rnph r eads as amended by Act No. 4053 of the Philippine Legis latUl"C, IlU hljshfd in Tariff ~cis i o n Circular No. 1024.

311. Covering and holdings of articles, goods, wares, and merchandise (usual), except as expressly provided.

347. Articles of the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Philippine Islands, or of the United States and previously exported from the Philippine Islands, paintings which are works of art, and books "exported to foreign country and returned

352. Cinchona barks, vanilla beans, aloes, santonine, essential oil of jasmin, of lil&CSt of rose, without alcohol, and vaseline, paraffin, elemental iodine, sodium bicarbonate, and creosote, when imported eX"


pressly for the manufacture of pnannaceutical products or proprietary medicinal remedies or in connection thereto, in established pharmaceutical laboratories. subject to such rules and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs shall prescribe. NOTE.-This is a new paragl'aph created by Act ~o. 4053 of the Philippine Legis lature, published in rariff Decision Circular No. 1024.

153. Empty glass bottles. jars, ampoules. and similar receptacles, imported by the manufacturer concerned expressly as containers for locally manufactured vaccines, serums, proprietary and patent medicinal m ixtures and compounds, or as containers for native pl'eserves and other native food products, except for beverages, and pelmanently and conspicuously marked wjth ihe name of the manufac'turer of the articles to be contained therein, subject to such conditions and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs may prescribe. NOTE.-- This is a new I)aragl'aph ('reated by Act No, 4053 of the Philippine Legislat.ure, published in fariff Th2cision Ch'cular No, 10201,

154, Food, clothing, house-building and sanitary-construction materials, and medical, surgical, and other supplies for use in emergency l'elief work, when imported by 01' diI'ectly for the account of any victim, sufferer, refugee, survivor, or any other person affected thereby. or by or for the account of any relief organization, not operated for profit, for distribution among the distressed individuals, whenever the Governor-General shall by proclamation declare an emergency to exist by reason of a state of war, pestilence, cholera, plague, famine, drought, typhoon, earthquake, fire, flood, and similar, conditions, subject to such regulations as the InsulaI' CollectoI' of Customs may prescribe with the approval of the SecretaI'Y of Finance: Provided, That the importation free of duty of articles, goods, wares, 01' merchandise described herein shall continue only during the existence of such emergency. or within such limits and subject to such conditions as the


Governor-General may, by his proclamation, deem necessary to meet the emergency. NOTE,-This is a new parag'l'aph created by Act No. 4198 of thc Philippine Legislature, published in Tariff Dec.ision Circular No, 1037,

SEC. 12. That all articles, except rice, the growth, product, or manufacture of the United States and its possessions to which the customs tariff in force in the United States is applied and upon which no drawbaclq of customs duties has been allowed therein going to the Philippine Islands shall hereafter be admitted therein free of customs duty when the same are shipped directly from the country of origin to the country of destination: }lrovided, That direct shipment shall in clude shipment in bond through foreign territory contiguous to the United States. Said articles shall be as originally packed \vithout having been opened 01' in anyl manner changed in condition: Provided, however, That if such articles shall become unpacked wh ile en route by accident. wreck, or other casualty, or so damaged as to necessitate their repacking, the same shall be admitted free of duty upon satisfactory proof that the unpack.. ing occurred through accident, or necessitate, and that the merchandise involved is the identical merchandise originally shipped from the United States, or its possessions as hereinbefore provided, and that its condition, has not been changed except for such damage as may have been sustained. NOTE.-This section has been amended by Pal'agraph C, Section IV. of the United States Tadff Act of October 3. 1913. and Section 301. Title III, of the United States Tariff Act of September 21. 1922, Act No, 2779 of the Philippine Legislature, published in Customs Administrative Order No. 59 provides t hat articles of the growth. produce or manufacture of Guam shall be admitted to the Philippine Islands under t.he same conditions of free entl'y as aulhol'ized by law for articles Qf the gl'owt.h, Droduce or manufactul'e of the United States,

EXPORT DUTIES SEC. 13. (This section has been repealed by Parag路raph C, Section IV, of the United States Ta"iff Act of Octob er 8, 1918.)


SEC. 14 That there shall be levied and collected upon all articles, goods, wares, or me:r-



chandise, except coal, forest products, cement, guano, the mineral and ores of copper, lead, zinc, iron and steel metals, refractory gold ores, and sugar molasses, the products of the Philippine I slands, exported through the ports of entry of' the Philippine Islands, 01' shipped therefrom to the United States or any of its possessions, a duty of one dollar pel' gross ton of one thousand kilos, as a charge for wharfage, whatever be the port of destination Dr nation ality of the expol,tiJlg vessel: P1'O~ 'Vided, 'fhat articles, goods, wares, or merchandise impoo'teci, exported or shipped in transit for the use of the Government of the United States, 01' of that of the Philippine I slands, shall be exempt from the charges prescribpd in this section. NOTE. This section rl'ads all amended by Act No. 391i of the Philippine J..cgi!<lature, publillhed in TnriH Decision Circular No. 1005.

SEC. 15. That all articles, goods, wares, or merchandise imported into the Philippine I slands shall, for the purpose of this Act, be deemed and held to be the property of the person to whom the same may be consigned; but the holder of any bill of lading drawn to order and indorsed by the consignor, shall be deem ed the consignee thereof j and in case of the abandonment of any articles, goods, wares, 01' merchandise to the Underwriters, the latter may be recognized as the consignee. INVOICES. SEC, 16. That all invoices of articles, goods, wares, or merchandise to be impolted into the Philippine I slands s hall set forth: (a) The place where, the date when, and the person by whom the merchan:lise is sold, or if to be imported otherwise than in pul'~ 6uance of a purchase, the place from which shipped, tl1e date when, and the person by whom it is shipped j (b) The port of entry to which t he mer-chandise is destined, and the person to whom the merchandise is 'so ld or shipped. (c) A detailed description of the merchan· dise in tariff t erms of this Act, inc uding the name by which each item is known, the quantity, grade or quali ty, true number, mark, weight, or symbol under wh ich sold by the seller or manufacturer, together with the

marks and numbers of the packages in whicb the me.lchandise is packed; (d) The purchase price or true va' ue uf each item in the currency of the purchase and in the un it of quantity in which the mel chandise is usually bought, and sold in the place Or country of origin, if the merchandise is shlr,' ped in pursuance of a pUl'chase 01' an agrc(:. men t to pu rc.hase; (e) If the merchandise is shipped otherw ise than in pursuance of a purchase 01' an agleel'nent to purchase, the value for each item in the unit of quantity in which the merchandise is us ually bought and sold, anO III the cur· rency III which the t.ransactions are usuc..lIr made, or, in the absence of such value. i.he price which the manucfaturer, seller, shIpper, or owner would have received, or was willing to receive, for such merchandise if wId in Ule 01 dinal'Y course of trade and in the wholesale quantities in the country of origin; (f) All charges upon the merchandise item. ized by name and amount when ' known to the seller 01' shipper ; Or all chargess by name (including commissions, insurance, fl'eight. cases, containers, covering, and cost of pack· ing) including in invoice priCes when -..he amount for such chal'ges are unknown to the seller or shipper i (g) All discoWlts, rebates, drawbacks, and bounties, separately itemized, allowed upon the exportation of the merchandise; and (h) Any other facts deemed necessary to a proper appraisement, examination, and classification of the merchandise that the In· su lar Collector of Customs may require. Every invoice shan be made in quadrupli· cate and signed by the owner or shipper, ii the merchandise has been actually purchased, or by t he manufacturer or owner thereof, if the same has been pl'oduced otherwise than by purchase, or by the duly authorized agents of such purchaser, manufacturer, or owner. NOTE.- Thhi !';ection reads a:; amended, lJy A,ct 010301 of th~ Philippine I.,cgislature. published In rifr Deci$ion Circular No. IOJ2.


SEC. 17. That except in case of personal effects accompanying a passenger as baggage· or arriving within a reasonablel time before or after the owner, no importation of any articles, goods, ,,'ares, or merchandise, exceed'


ing one hundred dollars in d utiable value, shall be admitted to entry with the IJroduction of a duly certified invoice of the kinds hereinafter described, or the filing of an affidavit made b:r the owner, importer, or consignee before the collector of customs, showIng whv it is impracticable to produce such inYoice, together with a bond in an amount to be jJrt'scribed by, and with sureties satisfactory tp, the collector of customs, for the producti-)fl of such invoice within a reasonble time to be prescribed by said official. Tn the ab~t"nce of such invoice, no entry shall be mat:ie upon the afol'esaid affidavit unless c same he accompanied by a statement in he form of an in voice or otherwise, showing he actual cost of such merchandise in the cur(,:ncy of the purchase, if same was pur.ha~e(l, t.he actual market value 01' wholesale price thereof at the time of exportation to the Philippine I slands in the principal market.<.; of the country from \\'h ence imported and in the currency in which the tl'ansn.ctions are usually made. This statement shall be verified by the oath of the Gv;ner, importer, con s ignee, 01' agent desiring to make the entry, taken before the collector of customs, and it shall be lawful for that official to examine the deponent under oath re,t!'Clrding the source of his knowledge, infonnation, or belief, concerning any matter contained in his affidavit, and to require him to produce any cOlTesponde nce, document, or stntement of account in his possession, or u nder his control, whic h may assist the customs authorities in ascertaining the actual value of the importation or of any part thereof ; and in default of su ch production when so required, such owner, importer, cons ignee, or agent shall be thereaf ter debarred from producing any such correspondence, dccument, or statemcn~ for th e purpose of avoiding the imposition of add it ional duty, penalty or forfeiture incu ned under t hi s or any other Act in force in t he P hi lippine I sland:;, un less he shall show to t he satisfaction of the court or the collector of customs, as the case may be, t hat it was not in' his power to produce the same when so dem anded; but no articles, goods, wares, 01' merchandise shall be admitted to entry under t he provisions of thi s section un less t he collector of customs shall be


satisfied that t he failure to pr oduce t he r equired invoice is due to causes beyon d t he control of the owner, importer, consignee, or agent. NOTE.-This section r('udll ns amended by Act No. of th(: Philippine l&gi~luture. published ;n Tanff Decision Circular No. 1012.


SEC. 180 That invoices required by t he preceding- section shall at 01' before the shipment of the merchandise, be produced to the consul, vice-consul or commercial agent of the United States of the consular district in which the merchandise was manufactured or purchased, as the case may be, when importation into the Philippine Islands is from a country other than the United States of America or any territory 01' place under the jUrisdiction and control of the Government Lhel'eof: P'l'ovided, That the Insula1' Collector of Customs may. in his discretion, dispense with the requirement for the consular invoices prescribed in this sectio n in case the merchandise for which entry is sought is free of duty under this Act, in which event a commercial invoice certified by the purchaser, manufacturer, selier, o\\rner, or agent shall be filed; And provided, jurtheT, That when the impol'tation is fl'om the United States of America 01' any territory' or place under the jurisdiction and control of the Government thereof production shall be to a collector of customs, deputy collector of customs, 01' United States commissioner, Invoices shall have indorsed thereon when produced as above prescribed a declaration signed by the purchaser, manufacturer, seller, o-.,vnel', 01' agent setting forth that the invoice is in all respects correct and true and was made at the place from whence the merchandise is exported to the Philippine Islands; that it contains, if the merchandise was obtained Ly purchase, 01' an agreement to purchase a true and full statement of the date when, the place where, the person from whom the same was purchased, and the actual cost the eof, and of all c11arges thereon; and that no discounts, bounties, or drawbacks are contained in the invoice except such as have been actually allowed thereon; and when obtained in any other manner than by purchase, or an agreement to purchase, the actual market value 01' wholesale price thereof, at the time 'Of exportation to the Philip-



pine I slands, in the prinei pal markets of the country from which exported; that such actual market value is the price at which the merchandise described in the invo ice is freely offered for sale to all purchasers in said markets, and that it is the price which the manufacturer, seller, owner, or agent making the declaration would have r eceived and was will ing to r eceive for such merchandise sold in t he ordinary course of trade in t he usual wholesale quantities, and that it included a ll charges thereon; that the numbers, weight, or qua nt ity' sta ted is correct, and that no invoice of the merchandise described diffel'ing from the invoice so produced has been or will be furnished to anyone. If the merchandi~ was actually 'Purchased, or shipped otherwise then in pursu ance of a purchase 01' an agreement to purchase, the dedaration shall also contain a statement that the amount shown is that which was actually paid, or the price that the shipper would h ave received, or was willing to receive, for s uch merchandise, and that the cu rrency stated in such invoice is the CUlTency of the purchase, or in which the transactions are usually made. NOTE.- This section reads as a mended by Act No. of the P hi lippine Legis lature. published in Ta-


r iff Decision Circular No. 1012.

S EC. 19. T hat consu ls, v ice-consuls, commercial agents, collectors of customs, deputy coll ectors of customs, and commissioners of the United States of America having a ny knowledge or information of any case or pl'actice by which any person obtaining verification of any invoice defrauds or may defraud the revenue of the Philippine I slands shall report the facts to the Insular Coll ector of Customs. SEC. 20. That United States,. Government vessels, whether transports of the army or naval vessels, when coming from the United States 01' a foreign port to. the ports of the Philippine I s lands, shall be subject to the same inspection by customs officers of the Phili ppine Government, for the purpose of detennining whether they have on board articles of merchandise dutiable under the laws of the Philippine I slands, as such United States Government vessels are s ubj ect to by

customs officers of the United States Govern_ ment when such vessels, enter ports of the United States from foreign countries for the purpose of determining whether such vessels have on board articles or merchandise dutiable under the laws of the United States. DRAWBACKS SEC. 21. That on all fuel imported int<> the Philippine I slands which is afterwards used for the propulsion of vessels engaged in trade with foreign countries, or betw~n ports of the United States and the Philippine I slands, or in the Philippine coastwise trade, a refun<l shall be allowed equal to the duty imposed by law upon such fuel, less one per centum t hereof, which shall be paid under such rules and regulations as may. be prescribed by the Insular Collector of Customs. SEC. 22. That upon the exportation of art~ icles manufactured or produced in the Philippine Islands, including the packing, covering. putting up marking, or labeling thereof, either in whole or in part of imported materials, or from similar domestic materials of equal quantity and productive manufacturing qua lity and value, such question to be deter路 mined by the Insular Collector of Customs, there shall be allowed a drawback: equal in amount to the duties paid on the imported material so used, or where similar domestic materials are used, to the duties paid on the equiva lent imported similar materials, less one per centum thereof: Provided, That the exportation shall be made within three years after th~ importation of the foreign material used or constituting the bas is for drawback: And provided, further, That when the articles exported 01' covering thereof are in part of materials grown or produced in the Philippine I slands not subject to drawback u~d~r this Act, the imported materials, or the smuJar domestic materials of equal quantity and productive manufacturing quality: and value entitled to drawback, shall so appear in the completed articles or packages that the quantity or measure thereof may be ascertained: And p'rovided, further. That the imported materials, or domestic materials entitled to dra~'颅 back under this Act, for which drawback. IS claimed, shall be identified j that the quality of such materials used and the amount of duty paid thereon or if domestic materials,


paid upon its equivalent, shall be ascertainedj a nd that the fact of their expol'tation shall be established; and the refund if made shall be pajd to the manufacturer, producer, or exporter, to the agent of any of them, or t'> the person such manufacturer, producer, ~:xporter or agent; shall, in writing, order :iuch refund paid, under and in accordance Ivith such rules and l'egulations as the In;ular Collector of Customs may prescribe: (''l'ovided, howe1 1â&#x201A;ŹJ/', That no drawback shall be paid under this section on account of any articles, goods, 1,,"al~s, 01' merchandise exported to the United States of America or to any Territory or place under the jurisdicti on and the control of the Government thereof, wherein such articles, goods, wares, or lI1erchandise are admitted free of duty. SEC. 23. That containers, such. as casks, large metal, glass, or other receptacles which !!.re, in the opinion of the collector of customs, Jf such a character as to be readily identifiable may be delivered to the importer thereof upon identification and the giving of a oond with sureties satisfactory to the collector of customs in an amount equal to double the estimated duties thereon, condition for the e:'(portation thereof or payment of the correspondin~ duties thereon within one year from the date of importation, under such rules and regulations as the Insular Collector of Customs shall prescribe. SEC. 2.1. That in addition to the taxes imposed by this Act there shall be levied and ~o]Jected on goods, wares, or merchandise when imported into the Philippine Islands [rom countries other than the United States the internal revenue tax imposed by the Philippine Government on like articles manufactured and consumed in the Philippine Islands or shipped thereto, for consumption therein, from the United States, SEC. 25, That the Insular Collector of Customs shall, subject to the approval of the secretary of the department having jurisdiction over the customs service, make all rules and regulations necessary to enfiorce the provisions of this Act. SEC. 26, That original jurisdiction in all =ases arising in the Philippine Islands is hereby ('onferred upon the courts of first in-


stance of the Philippine Islands and appellate jurisdiction upon the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in matters arising under the Act of Congress approved February twentieth, nineteen hundl"ed and five, entitled "An Act to authorize the registration of trade-marks used in commerce with foreign nations or among the othel" States or with Indian tribes and to protect the same," identical with thE" j urisdiction conferred upon courts of the United States by section seventeen of said Act. SEC. 27. Tha t al } existing decrees, laws, l"egulations, orders, or parts thereof, inconsistent with, the provis ions of this Act, are hereby repealed, but the repeal of such decrees, la ws, regulations, or orders, or parts thereof, shall not affect any act done, or any right accruing or accrued, or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil cause before t he said l'epeal take effect j but all rights and liabilities under said decrees, laws, regulations, or orders shall continue and may be enforced in the same manner as if said repeal had not been made, Any offenses committed and all penalties or forfeitures or liabilities incurred prior to the time wh(~n this Act shall take effect under any decree, law, regulation, or order embraced in, modified, changed, or repealed by this Act may be prosecuted or puni~hed in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been passed. All Acts of limitation, whether applicable to civil causes and proceedings or to the prosecutions, of offenses or for the recovery of penalties, or fo feitures embraced in, modified, changed, OJ" repealed by this Act shall not be affected thereby; and all suits, proceedings, or prosecutions, whether civil or criminal, for causes arising or acts done or committed prior to the time when this Act shall take effect may be commenced and prosecuted within the same time and with the same effect as if this Act had not been passed. SEC. 28. That this Act shall take effect sixty days after its passage. Approved, Eight minutes after Five O'clock P. M. August 5th, 1909.



The Independence Missions to thl' United States.-The e.stablishment of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was the culminat ion of year s of uncea sing labors of the Phil· ippine Legislature which, since 1919, had sent twelve parliamentary or legisla· tive delegations, otherwise known as the Independence Missions, to t he Unit. ed States to plead for t h e early grant: of Philippine independence promised ill the preamble 'o f the Jones Law, or Act of Congress of August 29, 1916. Such a yea rly independence pilgrimage to the American capital, it is said, was not at. all rosy and smooth. It was one of struggles, hitter and hard, matc hin gFilipino wits against those veterans in the game of politics. Besides the hot political battles the missions had to con· front with in Washington, the missioners had to weather away the political storm s t hat casually blew in their paths caused by conflicting policies and programs to be pursued in their libertarian struggles. The first legislative mission which left for the United States in 1919 r eceived an assurance from President Woodrow Wilson, then leaving 10r Europe 'with his famous Fourteen Points, that the question of Philippine independence was safe in his h ands. As a matter of fact h e transmitted the wishes of the Filipino People in a message to Congress the year following. However, as the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States were toC) busy at that time, no action was taken on said message recommending the grant of Philippine Independence. The second parliamentary mission. h eaded by t h€ then Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and the then Speaker

Sergio Osmeiia in 1921, was wannly recei ved in Washington by President Warren G. H~rding who assured the delegation that although the "time was not yet ripe for Philippine independ_ ence" there would be no backward step to be taken by Washington in the administration of the Philippines. Whell this mission returned to the Islands, the question of "unipersonal" and "collective" leade:rship came up as a local political issue which led to the split between two outstanding leaders of the Nacionalista Party-Quezon and Osme· iia. In the general elections of 1922, Senate President Quezon ousted former Speaker Osmeiia from power as supreme leader of the majority party. The third mission, headed' by the t hen Speaker Manuel Roxas, in 1923, took up the issue of Gove;'rl1or-Gene r•1 Wood's administration in the Islands Tt l>lunched a vitriolic attack upon Woo t hat President Calvin Coolidge chas tised Speaker Roxas for his sarcasti letter and attitude. President CoolidgE then suppO!lted the Wood administra tion. It is sai d the delegation sustaineG a great setback in its mission to thE American national capital due to th~ unpopular stand it took against Amer· ica's highes t r epresentative in thE Islands. In 1924, to vindicate the cause of tho third mission, another delegation. a' this time headed by Senate Presiden Quezon, left for the United States This mission, it is claimed, wiped oU the bad impression the Coolidge admill istration had upon the third independ! '<lnce delegation. In the following year, the Filipino Ie gislative leaders were still hostile to tho Wood administration. The rift be


:\\"een the Said leaders' and the Cillef O::xecuth-e was mainly due to the latter's Iction in abolishing the State Council Ind the Board of Control. So the fifth nission known as the Special Legisla, -,-e Mission saileu for the United ltates in 1925_ The delegation wa" leaded by Senator Osmeiia. The Osneiia mission did its best in obstructing le passage of reactionary measure . Ihich, it is said, were provoked by the 'ilipino political leaders themselves and hich were then pending in Congres,<, nong them the Kiess bill providing r technical advisers to the governor~eneral of the PhiliyJpines, which was he cause and origin for the approval ater on of the so-called Belo Act by the 'hilippine Legislature. 1n 1927 the sixth mission, known as he Legislative Special Delegation, left or the Am~rican capital. Upon the leath of Governor-General Wood, who lied following an operation in a BostOlL lospi tal, the mission made offers of coperation with the Washington adminisration. The mission did not take any isue with the r eport of Col. Carmi :hompson, President Coolidge's speciaL nyoy, who was cluu'ged with the dutiell ,f making a survey of conditions in the slands. The seventh mission in 1928, headed' I)' Senator Osmeiia, and the eighth hission, headed by Senate Pl'esident luezon, were unable to accomplish anyhing. Both missions, however, made . strong and impressive plea for the 3lands' freedom . The climax of the series of independnce missions which the Philippines ent to the United路 States came whe;1i he ninth mission, known as the Osrox lission (meaning Osmeiia and Roxas) ,


sailed for Washington in 1931. This mission stayed in thEl American national capital almost two years determinedly \vorking for the passage of the HarcHawes-Cutting bill, sponoored by Congressman Butler B. Hare, S,J'ator Harry' H. Hawes and Senator Bronson Cutting, and supported by Senators King, Pittman, and other American champions of Philippine independence. In the latter part of 1932, Senator Benigno S. Aquino was sent by Senate President Quezon as a Legislative special envoy carrying instructions from the Philippine Legislature to seek certain amendments in t he Hare-HawesCutting bill. He was the lone delegate that formed the tenth mission to the United States, The Hare-Hawes-Cutting bill was repassed by Congress over the veto of President Herbert Hoove;r in January, 1933, without the amendments contained in the legislature's instructions to Senator Aquino, Both the Osrox Mission and the Legislative Special Envoy did their best, it is said, to have said amendments included in the said Bill but their efforts 'were in vain. Be, cause of Osrox Mission's failure to f.eClU'e such amendments, Senate President Quezon and his followers organized the "Anti" faction for the rejection of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, while Senator Osmeiia and Speaker Roxas headed the "Pro" group to advocate the acceptance of the so-called Independence bill. Thus, dividing the public opinion into "Pro" and "Anti" , To avoid a complete division of th~ Quezon-Osmeiia political machine, however, another mission, known as the Quezon Mixed Mission, left for the United States in 1933. The purpose of



this mission was to seek for an understanding with the OSTOX Mission on the provisions of the HHC Law. The members of the two missions met in Paris, but the Osrox Mission failed to whip the ('::"ezon group into line. So, when both missions arrived in the Philippines in June, 1933, a bitter political contest took place preparatory for the general elections of 1934, in which the "Antis" won a great majority in th~ Legislature and other elective posts. The question of accepting or rejecting the proferred independence contained in the HHC Law was placed befoTe! the Philippine: Legislature. The Legislature, after deliberating upon the question which resulted in the ousting of Representative Roxas from the Speakership of the lower house, voted to reject the measure. Another mission, the twelfth and the last mission which was headed by Senate President Quezon, left for the United States in November, 1933, to seek for the removal of the objectionable features of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. The same bill, after having been rejected by the Legislature, was reintroduced in Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings and Congressman John McDuffie, and finally enacted into Jaw, with slight modifications. This law is now known as the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Act. The full texts of the two Acts in question will be found in this book. Following are the members of the twelve independence missions which pleaded for the independence of the Philippines for years and whose work resulted in the establishment of the Government of the Commonwealth oil the Philippines:

FIRST PARLIAMENTARY MISSION (1919) President: Manuel L. Quezon. Members: Rafael Palma, Dionisio Jako-salem, Pedro Ma. Sison, Vicente Singson Encarnacion, Rafael R. Alunan, Erniliano Tria Tirona, Gregorio Nieva, Mariano Es. cueta, Manuel Escudero, Pedro Aunario, Pablo Ocampo, Filemon Perez, Jase Reyes, Delfin Mahinay, Ceferino de Leon, Jorge Bocob<J, Mauro Prieto, Tomas Earnshaw, Juanl B: Alegre, Gabriel La 0, Marcos Races, Crisanto Evangelista, Pedro Gil, Carlos Cuyugan, and Gregorio Singian. Te.::hnical Advisers,' Quintin Paredes, Conrado Benitez, Enrique Altavas, Jose Abad Santos, CamBo Osias, and Maximo M. Kalaw . Ex-officio Members: Jaime C. de Veyra, and Teodoro R. Yangco. Personnel: Julian La 0, secretary; Bernabe Bustamante, disbursing officer i Dr. Perpetuo Gutierrez, physician; and Jorge B. Vargas, secretary to the president. Atta.ches: Arsenio N. Luz, Francisco Varona, and Francisco Villanueva, Jr.

SECOND MISSION (1921) Presidents路: Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmena. Members,' Pedro Guevara, Antero Soriano, Ceferino de Leon, Guillermo F. Pablo, Celestino Gallares, Juan; Nolasco, Proceso Sebastian, Jose G. Generoso, Santiago A. Fonacier, Teodoro Sandiko, Pedro Abad Santos, Vicente Llanes, Emilio P. Virata, and Teodoro M. Kalaw. Technical Advisers: Maximo M. Kalaw, Jorge Bocobo, Arsenio N. Luz, Wenceslao Trinidad, Antonio G. Sison, and Justo Lukban. Per's.()nnel: Jorge B. Vargas, secretary; Benito Razan, assistant secretary; Dr. Jose Albert, physician j Ricardo Summers, secretary to the president; Francisco Zamora, secretary to Speaker Osmena; Pablo de Guia r disbursing officerj and Carlos P. Romula, publicity agent.




(1923) Special Envoy.' Manuel Roxas. Te.:hnical Advisers: Jaime C. de Veyra, Jorge Bocobo, and Catalino Lavadia. Se(;retary: Salvador Imperial. Disbursing Officer,' Rafael B. Santos.


(1924) Pr~$ident: Manuel L. Quezon. Members,' Sergio Osmefia, and Claro M.

long, Manuel Briones, Pedro Gil, and nuel Roxas.



(1931) Presidents : Sergio Osmefia, and Manuel Roxas. Members: Ruperto Montinola, Pedro Sa~ bido, and Emiliano T, Tirona. Technical Advisers,' MaximO! M. Kalaw, and Marcial P. Lichauco.



Recto. Secretary,' Francisco Zamora. Disbursing Officer: Manuel E. Gonzales.

Special LegislcLtive Envoy: Aquino.

Benigno S.




Special Envoy.' Sergio Osmefia. Techm'cal Advise1'S.' Teodoro M. Kalaw, :and Jose S. Reyes. Attar-he: Matias Gonzales. Secreta'1'Y,' Francisco Zamora.


Prc('ident.' Manuel L. Quezon. Member: Sergio Osmeiia. Attach~: Arsenio N, Luz. Secretary to the P'1'esident : Rafael Trias.


(1928) Members: Sergio Osmefia, Manuel Roxas, and Rafael Alunan.


(1930) Pr~sident,' Manuel L, Quezon, Members : Serg-io Osmeiia, Juan Sumu-

President: Manuel L. Quezon. Memb e?'.o::.' Juan Nolasco, Jose Ma. Veloso, Francisco Varona, Maximo Rodriguez, Vicente F01'moso, Governor Garcia, Jose Nava, Felipe Jose, and Carlos P. Romulo. Secl'eta'1'Y to the P'1'esident: Guillermo Cabrera.


(1934) President : Manuel L. Quezon. Me w,bers: Senator and Mrs. Elpidio Quirino, Secretary of Finance Vicente Sing~ son Encarnacion, former Resident Commissi oner Isauro Gabaldon, Fiscal and Mrs. Jose P. Melencio, Attorney Antonio Quirino, Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion, Manuel Garcia, Severiano Concepcion, Manuel Nieto, Tomas Morato, and Sergio Mistica. Sec路r etary to the Jose A. de Jesus.





Actual Cost of Independence Missions. ·-In The Tribune of June 20, 1931, the following infOlmation was published: H 'That spen t by pendence that the

the sum of 1"2,505,483 .07 has been the Filipino people f or their ind ecommis$ion from 1919 to 1931; seven ind epend ence missions that

have been sent to the United States have cost a total of P 1,5 13,728.65; that such independen ce missions, while having dis played remarkable tact and ability, have won no positive conquests for the Filipino people; that s ince 1916, the Filipino people in so far as their progr ess towards freedom is concerned have stopped a dva ncing and have remained stationary'-these are some of the highlights of th e speech deliver ed yeste rday (Jun e 19. 1931) by Carlos P . R6mulo (then managing e dito li of the T-V..IT publications') at th e special convocation of tae University of the Philippines on the occasion of the birthday of Dr. Jose R izal."

Hurley Opposed to Philippine Inde·· pendence.--Under the heading, "Freedom Would B~ Disastrous to P. I.", a press dispatch from Washington, D.C., dated December 1, 1930, was published in the Manila Daily Bulletin the followlng day, in which Secretary of War Patrick J . Hurley's report on Philippine question was quoted as follows: "Washington, Dec. 1, 1930.-Secretary of War Patrick J. Hurley's annual report, reaffirming the war d e partment's views again!:t imm ed iate Philippine independence, today placed the administration squarely against an array of leg islation now pending in Congress and affecting the Philippines. First, it constituted a direct repudiation of t.he Hawes-Cutting; independence bill, which was reported out to the Senate by the committee on tenitories and insu lar possession~. This measure would pl'ovide for the calling of a constitutional convention and the setting up of prog r essive Philippine autonomy, with a pl ebiscite at the end of five years at which Filipinos would finally vote on their independence desires.

Second, the report definitely aligned th~ administration against a series of restricti .. ", hills aimed at the Philippines and Filipinos. Among t hese are the Welsh bill in tbf' House, and the Reed bill in the Senate, proposing restriction of Filipino migration. They also include the proposal I)f Oongres:'man Charles B. Timberlake of Colorado to limit the duty-free importation of sugar anG other produc:ts which compete with AmericaJ; farmers. Tim bel'lake is already on record declarin ::: he will press for the adoption of his proposal, which those whO' desire the barring of Fill· pinos from the United States are prepared to actively press for adoption of their measures. The reporl in many ways was a reiteration of the Hurley letter of some months ago, ,addressed to the Senate Committee on the s ubject of Philippine independ ence. In the conclnsion the report held: 1. Immediate and complete independence would be disastrous to both Filipinos an~ Americans. 2. AmeTican control as authoriz.ed by the present organic act should not be diminished while responsibility incident to American oc, cupation continues. 3. It would be inexpedient and hazardous to attempt to anticipate future developments by fixing any future date for ultimate independence. Hurley reviewed the opposition of the war department to any restrictions on Philippine imports or on Filipino inunigration in a similar to that of Francis Le. Parker, chief of the bureau of insular affairs, in his recent report. The report also recapitulated the last annual l'eport of Governor General Dwight F. Davis of the Philippines."


Senator Hawes' Speech of 1931 before the Philippine Legislatme.-Co n· h·ary to Secretary of War Hurley's. opinion on Philippine independence. Senator Harry B. Hawes, one of the sponsors of the Hare-HawesCutting BiB delivered a speech before the m~mbers of the Philippine Senate and House of Representa-


\ es on the occasion of his visit to the lands in July, 1931, giving nine reaIns why he was in favor of immediat,~ 'eedom for the Philippines. His leech was reported in the Tribune of lly 29, 1931, as follows; .fR.



The many courtesies and wonderful ha stal ity extended to me since my arrival in ur beautiful islands now culminate in the nor of this invitation. to address in joint 55ion of both branches of your legislature. It affords me an opportunity to restate my m position in the matter of independence, t more important still, to give you briefly, t my personal opinion, but the opinion of e committee which reported favorably on is subject. There should be no partisan lities injected into this matter. It is too rious, too vi tal to permit l)arty advantage factional gain to have the smallest COtlleration. I have observed that both of your political rties have placed thisl su bject upon the ghest human pedestal. I hope there will no division between Democrats and ReIblicans in m y country. Senator Cutting, joint author of the bill, a Republican. I am a Democrat. There lS no partisan politics in the preparation of r bill. It will be supported by both Retblicans and Democrats as i1:i is here by th of your political parties. It has not occurred to me in receiving your spitality that it ,vas personal. It was be,use of the bill that your generous hostality has been extended. I t would have en the same for any other man. If it had en S'enator Cutting, the l'eception would .ve been identical. So, I have not had the feel in g that the lited response to my inquiry was personal. happened that Senator Pittman and myH were here, so the answer was given more rectly to us. Neither Senator Pittman nor myself have tempted to influence your opinion. I came to your islands because they inrested me. There was a romance connect-


ed \,,;th them. Your repeated struggles and sacrifices for liberty are known. You have a real mission to perform in this part o)f the worldj you must do it youl'selvesj it cannot be done for you by another race of people. So, the mOre quickly the sole responsibility is yours, the more rapid will be the advance. We sent to you some of our gpeat m en. Their personalities hav e impressed themselves upon your government, have advanced your welfare and, I am sure, promotled your happiness. I have a feeling of justifiable pride in their personal achievements in the matter of health, sanitation, and jurispru~ dence. We are familiar with your struggles for liberty under the old Spanish l'ule, and with your revolution of 1896 and that of 1898 showing; a united intention to secure freedom. Since the arrival of the American school teachers, your children have been taught the fine st pages of American history, which has added to your natural aspirations f.or liberty, self-government and independence. Starting almost immediately after t h e war our teachers and our public men have l'ead to you our Declaration of Independence, celebrated the 4th of July, and upon ever~r occas ion extolled the virtues of our colonial ancestors. This combined the history of your country and my country in their endeavors to secure self-government. To find myself in your far provinces introduced to large audiences by graduates of the leading American universi~ies, such as Yale, Harvard, Cornell, Chicago, Columbia, and others. inCl'eased my pride in American accomplishments. The su bject of my special inquiry was to determine whether you earnestly, unitedly ask for independence, for complete self.government, whether you realize that the severance of the ties with America would carn' with it heavy responsibilities, possibly in路 crea!ie in taxes and some loss of trade. I desired an answer to the propaganda directed partly from Manila that the voice of independence was a sma ll. well organized voice, or whether it came from all classes of your people,. your lead ing business men,





PrQS1Jects For I ndependence ",Vhat are >()u l.l prospects fo r indepencl-; enc e '! " is the question most freque n tly asked of me. I can only give my opinion. Fi'rs t, the American people know the islands belong to you. It is your land, your blood, your home, your inheritance, and its government your ultimate responsibility. Second, distance and climate will never make the Philippines a place of permanent

colonization fo r Americans. Thi~'d,

you rs is an agricultural country. There are millions of uncultivated farm acres in America awaiting development. FOU1'th. your native population of M,alays is rapidly increasing and alth ough under American sovereignty for OV~T thirty years, t.he American residential population in your jslands is decrea sing. Fifth, if your united national aspirations for independence are with-held, it will breed unhappiness and discontent which libertyloving Americans will not permit. Sixth, American participation in the \\"odd wa r to assist the European nations to secure the right of self-determination in Europe is too l'ecentj to permit its national conscience to deny the same right to an O~'ient al peo ple. Sc'venth, Because our national promise of independence has been given to yo u, our national honor will compel fulfillment. Eighth, No congress can legally bind a. 6ucceeding congress for a long period of years and the present destructive uncertai nty to bo t h American a nd Philippine in terests can only b e settled by indepen den ce. Ninth , Because I believe you will by orderly, peaceful persuasion, convince Americans of the justice of your cause. There are econ oonic and military co nsiderations which w ill naturally suggest t hemselves, b ut it is large ly b ecause of t hese elemental and fundamental con siderations that L b-e1ieve your national aspiration will be g ran ted. When America r etires from your islands, it is my h ope t hat there will always remain t h e memory of good de eds and practical accomplishme nts for your welfare and in OU1' cou ntry a justifiable 'PTide i~ the period of our

T he tl'uth of what has happened here will l'each Am erica. For truth has the faculty of ultimately entexing into the uud.erstand. ing of our people. One of our great America n Presidents, Abraham Lincoln, wisely said: 'You can fool all the people some of tile

time, and senne 0/ the people dll the" time, Ibut you cannot fool all oj the people all the

tim.eo' I have caught so me of your enthusiasru, it has g iven me what Americans call a thrill. My conviction was from the head; and now it is fro m t he head and the heart, and I leave YOl.ll' Isla nds. with a feeling of som~ sadne ss, sad because you are so far awar I may n eve r return, but I take back "ith me the fine thought that you unitedly plac ~ hb erty above ever y other considerations, economic 01' financial, the conviction that you will willingly pay a high cost foor freedom. My Memory w ill always r etain the ben\.d iction g iven before the bowed 路heads of 150,000 pa t riotic people, when Dr. Bocobo, appealing to Our God said: "Bless t hou eve ry hand that toils and eve r y h eart that throbs for freedom. Grant that in the vehemence of our struggles fo r lib erty no ill-will or hatred may creep into our h earts."

Quezon'S Independence Formulae.When Senators Hawes and! Pittma' Visited the Philippines in June, 1931, ;s'enate President Quezon was then m iMonrovia, California, recovermg' from his sickness. After a short conference with the Washington authorities, It was learned that Secretary of War Patrick J. Hurley and the Filipino leader were coming to the islands on thO same boat, but later on Secretary Hurley came alone and Senate Presld.en~ Quezon followed him. By that tIm Hawes and P ittman had already left for the United States; convinced that the Filipino people were unanimous fo,' immediate freedom. Yet, when Senate President Quezon arrived at Marula In October, 1931, he released the foJloW~ ing statements, suggestmg. thre~ w,aY of solving Philippine questIOn, VIZ ..







Atmosphere; Full Report to Be Made to Legislature in a Few Days

By Manuel L. Quezon

President of the Philippine Senate (Published in The T)-;bu1l., Oct. 28, 1991)

In view of the fact that it is materially mpossible for me to complete my report to he Legistature in three days as it1 is my deire to submit it, in English, Spanish and l'agalog, and as ] understand that all sorts )f conjectures are being made abou't it, some )f which, I tmdsl'stand, have found their way .n print, I deem it my duty both to the people is well as to my colleagues in the Legisla:ure, in order to avoid further misrepl'esen:ations, to release the most important portions of the said report refer to the various proposals broached by me in Washington for the solutiol\ of the Philippjnc problem, to wit: lugar, Oil and Immigration Restrictions are

that of enacting meaSUl'es, considered nece::;sary to meet the responsibilities of an independent government when independence is granted with the restrictions necessary to safeguard the interests of American sovereignty in the PhilippinQs. Within such period of ten years the trade relations between the United States and the Philippines and the labor immigration into the United States will be the same as proposed in the preceding paragraph. At the end of ten years the Filipino people will decide by means of a plebiscite if it desires to continue with such government 01' prefers to have one that is absolutely independent. In the latter! case, American sovereignty will be immediately 'w ithdrawn from the islands, and

Sugge sted

Ist.-Immediate establishment of an in ... Ie pendent government with free trade betreen America and the PhilippineS! for a Jer iod of ten years, limiting the amount of illgar entering the United S'tates free of July to one million tons, and oil tal tJ-te lmount exported at present, and路 restriction If Filipino Jabor immigration into the United 'fates.

Independence in any Form Acceptable as an Alternative

2n ci,- I f this is not acceptable, immediate 路stab lishment of an autonomous government vith al1 the consequent powel..'IS, including

3rd.-In ihe event that this is not acceptable, the Filipino people will welcome any bill granting Philippine Independence in any form. This is only a summary of my viewpoints as expressed them to so me members of the Administration and leaders in both houses of pongress. My report to the Legislature wili include the details of the confe.l"ence I had with them, my apPl'aisal of what II belie\'c will be the status of ou.r cause in the next Congress, and my recommendations on the course we should take."

The Haxe BiU.-Following is the full ext of the Hare Philippine Independ'nee Bill as originally passed APliU 4, 932, by the House 'Of Representatives If the United States of America. It

was the first copy of the bill, as amended, to reach Manila sometime in May, 1932. Note particularly its p)路eamble which states that a stable government has been established in the islands.

llebiscite after 10 Years on Autonomy or Independence



THE HARE INDEPENDENCE BILL (As passed by the Hou se of Representatives of the United S,tates, April 4, 1932)

A BILL TO ENABLE THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS TO ADOPT A CON. STITUTION Al'<D FORM A GOVERNMENT FOR THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, TO PROVIDE FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE SAME, AND FOR OTHER PUR. POSES. WHEREAS, the ac t e ntitled IIAn Act to declare the purpose of the people' of thtUnited States as to the- future political status of the people of the Philippine "laDd" I s lands," appro~d AUI\u;L the Uuited their sovereignty ove r the Philippine Islands and to recognize their as a s table government can be established therein; and

and to provide for a more a utonomous .gave r nment



29, 1916 (The Jones Law) declare d it to be the. purpo se States to withdraw independence as SOOn

of the people of

WHEREAS, a stab le government has been established and is being maintained in the Phil ippine Islands; and WHEREAS the Filipino people have petitioned the government and people of the Unit. ed Stat-cs to declare the Philippine "lands free and independent: Therefore

B e i t enacted by the Senate and House 0/ Representatives 0/ the United State& of A merica in Cong'1'ess assem.bled: CON VENTI ON TO FRAME CONSTITUTI'ON FOR PHILIPPIN E ISLANDS SECTlOK 1. The Philippine Legislature is h ereby authorized to provide for the election of delegates to a constitutional convention to m eet at s uch time and place as the Philippine Legislature may fix, to formulate and d r a f t a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, :subj ect to the conditions and qualifications prescr ibed in this act, which shall exercise jurisdiction over an the terr itory ceded to the United States by the tTeaty of peace concluded between the United States and Spain on the 10th day of December, 1898, the boundaries of which are set forth in Article III of said treaty, together with those is la nds em.braced in the treaty between Spain and the United States concluded at Washington on the 7th day of November, 1900. The Philippine Legislature shall provide for th e necessary expenses of s uch cOOlvention.


SECTIO'N 2. The Constitution formulated and drafted shall be r epublican in form, shall contain a bill of rights, and shall, either as a part thereof or in an ordinance appended

thereto, contain provisions to the effect that, pending the final and complete withdrawal of the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippine I slands(a) All citizens of the Philippine Islands shall owe allegiance to the United States. ·(b) Every offi cer of the government of the Philippine I slands shall, before enterin~ upon the discharge of his duties, take and subsoribe an oath of office declaring among oth er things that he recognizes and accepts the supreme authority of and will maintain true faith and allegiance of the United States. (c) Absolute toleration of religious sen· timent shall be secured, and no inhabitant or religious organization shall eve r be mol· ested in person or property on account of l'eligious belief or mode of worship. (d) Property owned by the United Stat", cemeteries, churches, and parsonages or con' vents appurtenant thereto, and all lands, buildings, and improvements used exclusivel y fOT religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. (e) Trade relations between the Philip' ,p ine Islands amd the United States shall be upon the basis prescribed in section 6. (f) The public debt ·of the Philippine Is· lands and its subordinate branches shall not


exceed Jirnits now or hereafter fixed by the

Congress of the United States; and no loans hall be contracted in foreign countries without the ;lPProvai of the President of the United States. (g) The debts, liabilities, and obligations of the present Philippine Go.vernment, its provinces, municipalities, and instrumental-. ities, valid and subsisting at the time of the adoption of the constitution shall be assumed and paid by the new government. (h) Provision shali be made for the establishment and maintenance of an adequate systems of public schools primarily conducted in the English language. (i) No part of the public revenues shall be used for the support of any sectarian or denominated school, college, university, church, or charitable institution. (j) Acts affecting the currency or coinage laws shall not become law until approved by the President of the United States. (k) Foreign affairs shali be under the direct supervision and control of the United States. (I) AJI acts passed by the legislature of the Conunonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be reported to the Congress of the Un ited States. (m) The Ph il ippine Islands recognizes the right of the United States to expropriate property for public uses, to maintain military an d oth er reservations and armed forces in the Philippines, and upon order of the President, to call into the service of such armed forces a ll mi litary forces organized by the Phil ippine government. (n) A ppeals to the Supreme Court of the United States shall be as now provided by existi ng law and sh all also include all cases involving the constitu tion of the Commonwealth of the P hilippine I s lands. (0 ) The U nited States may exercise the right to in ter vene for the preservation of the governm ent of the commonwealth of the Philippine I slands and f or t he mai ntemance of th e governmen t as provided in their consiitution and f or t he protection of life, property, and individual liberty, and for the discharge of g overnmen t obligations under and



in accordance with the provisions «)f t heir constitution. (p) The authority of the United States high commissioner to the gover nment of th e Philippine I slan ds, as pr ovided in thi s Act, shan be re.:ognized. (q) Citizens and corporations of th e United States shall enjoy in the Commonwealth of the Philippine I slands a ll the civH rights of the citizens and corporations r espectively thereof. SUBMISSION OF CONSTITUTfON TO THE PRESlDEN'['I OF THE UN ITED ST ATES SECTION 3. Upon the drafting and approval of the constitution by the Constitutional convention in t he Philippine Islands such constitution shall be submitted to t he President of the United States, who shall determine whether or not it confonns with the provisions of this act. If he finds that the proposed constitution COnfOlms substantially with the provisions of this act h e shall so certify to the Governor General of the Philippine I slands who shall so advise the constitutional convention assembled, but if he finds that the proposed constitution does not conform with the provisions of this act he shall so advise the Governor General, stating wherein in his judgment the constitution does not so conform and subm itting provisions which will in his judgment make the constitution so conform. The Governor General shall in turn submit such message to the constitutional convention for further action by them pursuant to the same procedure hereinbefore defined, until the President and the constitutional convention are in agreement. SUBMISSION

CONSTITUTION TO· FIUPIKO PEOPLE SECTION 4. After the President of the United States has certified that the constitution confonns , vith the provisions of this act it shall be su bmitted to the people of the Philippine Islands for their ratification or rejecti«)n at an election to be held w ith in fou r months after t he date of such certification, on a date to be fixed by the P h ilippine Legislature, at which election t he qualified voters of the Philip pine I slands sha ll have an opOF



l)Ortunity to vote directly for or against the pl'Oposed constitution and ordinances appended t hereto. S uch election shall be h eld in such manner as may be prescribed by the Philippine Legislature, to \'路:hich the return of the election shall be made. The Philippine Legislature shall by law provide for the canvassing of the return and if a majo-rity of the votes cast on that questiOJl shall be

for the constitution, shall certify the result

act, e;xcept such land {)r other property aa is ~10W actually occupied and used by the United States for military and other reservations of the Government of the United States a nd except s uch land or other property rights or interests therein as may have been sold or otherwise disposed of in accordance with law, are h ereby granted to the new go\"~ ernme nt of th e Commonwealth of the Phil. ippine I slands when constituted.


to the Governor,路General of the Philippine

Islands, together with a statement of the votes cast thereon, and a copy of said constitution, and ordinances. The Governor-Gene ral shall, in that event, within th irty days after receipt of the certification from the Philippine Legislature, issue a proclamation 拢01' the election of ,o fficers of the government of the Conunonwealth of the Philippine I slands provided for in th e con stit uti on. Th e election shall take piace not earlier than three months nor later than six months after the proclamation by the Governor-General ordering such election. ' Vhen the election of the officers provided for under the constitu tion has been held and the results determined, the Governor-Genera l of the Phili ppin e I s lands shall certify the result of t he election, to th ~ president of t he United States who shall thereupon issue a proclamation anno unCing the results of the electio n, and :upon the issuance of such proclamation b y the President t h e existing Philippine government shall ten n in ate and the n ew g overnment sha ll enter upon its rights, privileges, 'powers, and duties, as provided under th e constitution. The present government ()f the Philippine Islands s ha ll provide for the orderly transfer of t he functions of go vernment. If a majority of the votes cast are aga inst the constitution the existin g g overnment of the Philippine I sland s s hall continue without r ega rd to the provis ions 0f this act. TRAN SFER OF PROPER'rY AND RIGHTS TO PHI LIPPI NE COM h-'iQ NWEALH

5. All the property 'and rights which may have been ' acquired in the Phil~ jppine Islands by the United States under the treat ies men.tioned in the first section of this SECTION


6. After the date of the inauguration of the government of the Commonwea lth of the Philippine I slands trade rela.t ions between the United States and the new governm ent shall be as now provided by law, 'subject to the following exceptions: (1) There shall be levied, collected, and paid on aU refined sugars in excess of fifty t housand long to ns, and on unrefined sugars in excess of eight hundred thousand long to ns coming into tlle United states from the Philippine Islands in any calendar y~r, the same rates of duty which a r e requ ired by the laws of the United States to be levied, collected, and paid upon like articles imported fvom foreign countries. (2) There shall be levied, collected, and paid on all coconut oil coming into the United States from the Philippine I slands in any calendar year in excess of two hundred thou'sand long tons, the same rates -of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied, collected, and paid upon like articles imported from foreign countries. (3 ) There shall be levied, collected, and paid on all yarn twines, cords, cordage, rope, and cables, tarred or untarred wholly or in chief value of Manila (abaca) or other hard fibers, coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands in any calendar year in excess of a collective total of three million pounds of an such articles hereinbefore enumerated, the same. rates of duty which are ;required by the laws of the United States to be levied, collected, and paid upon like articles imported from foreign countries. (4) In the event that in any year the limit in the case of any articles which may be SECTION



xported to the United States free of duty hall be reach ed by the Philippine Islands, he amoWlt of quantity of such articles prouced in the Philippine Islands thereafter hat may be so exported to the United States ha ll be a ll ocated, u nder export permits isued by th e government of the Comrnon'ealth of the Philippine Islands, to the procers or manufacturers of such articles n'oportionately on t.he basis of their exportation to t he United States in the preceding year; except that in the case of u.nrefined sugar the amount thereof to be exported annually to the United States free Qf duty shall be allocated to the sugar producing mills of the islands proportionately on the basis of t heir production in the pl'eceding year, and the amount of sugar which may be exported from each mill shall be allocated between the 'II and the planters on the basis of the pr oportion of sugar received by the planters and t he mill from the planters cane, as provided in their milling contract. The governent of the Philippine Islands is authorized to adopt the necessary laws and regulations for pu tting into effect tIle allocation herein before provided, ' Vhen used in this section in a geographical ense, the telm "United States" includes all err itories and possessions of the United States, except the Philippine Islands, the virin I slands, American Samoa, and the island of Guam,

SECTION 7, Until the final and complete withdrawal of American sovereignt~r over the 'Phi lippi ne I sla,nds( 1) E very duly adopted amendment to the cons ti tution of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be su bmi tted to the President of the United States f or approval. If the President appro ves the amendmen t, 01' if the Presiden t fa ils t o di sap prove s uch a mendmen t wit hin six mon t hs f r om t he time of its subm ission , the amendment shall take effect as a part of such constit u t ion. (2) Th e P reside nt of the U nit ed States shall have authori ty to sus pend the taking effect of or the ope ration of any law, contract , or execu tive or der of the government of the


Corrunonwealth of the Philippine Islands, which in his judgment will result in a failure of the goverrunent of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands to fulfill its contract, or to meet its bonded i!1rlebtedne~s and interest t11ereon or to provide for its sink ingfunds, or which seems Jikely to Impair the reselTe for the protection of th(~ cUITE-ncy of the Philippine Islands, or which in his judgment will violate international obligltions of the United States. -( 3) The chief executive of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall make such other reports as the Pr'esident or Congress may request (4) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a United Stales high commissioner to the go\'eJ'nment of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands who shall hold office at the pleasure of the Pl'esident and until his succeSSOr j:) appointed and qualified, He shall be known as the United States high commissioner to the Philippine Islands. He shall be the representative of the President of the United States in the Philippine Islands and shall be lccognized as such by the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, by the ccnur.anding officers of the military force .... of the United States, and by all civil officials of the United States in the Philippine Islands. He shall have access to all records of the government or any subdivision thereof, and shall be furnished by the Chief Executiv-3 of the Conunonwealth of the Philippine Islands with such information as he shall request, If the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands fails to pay any of its bonded 01' other indebtedness or the interest thereon when due or to fulfill any of its contracts, the United States high commissioner shall immediately report the facts to the President, who may thereu pon direct t he high commissioner to take over t he customs offices and administration of the same, administer the same, and apply such part of t he revenue received the.refrom as may be necessary for the paymen t of such overd ue indebtedness or fOt the f ul fi llment of such cont racts. The United States high com-



mISSIoner shall annually, and at such other as if they weJ.路e aliens. For such purposes times as the President may require. render the Philippine Islands shall be considered an official report to the President and Con- as if it were a separate country and gress of the United States. He shall per- shan have for each fiscal year a quota form such additional duties and functions as of fifty. This subdivision sball not apply to may be lawfully delegated to him from time a person coming or seeking to come to tha Territory of Hawaii who dQes not apply for to time by the President. The United States hi gh conunissioner shall and secure an immigration or passport visa. (tI) Citizens of the . Philippine ,1sland. receive the same compensation as is now received by the Governor-General of the Phil- who are not citizens of the, United States ippine Islands. and shall have such staff and shall noti be admitted to the conti~ assistants as the President may deem ad- ' nental United States from the Territory visable and as may be appropriated for by of Hawaii (whether entering such terriCongress. He may occupy the ~fficial resi- tory before or after the effective date dence and offices now occupied by the Gov- of this section) unless they belong to a cla&8 ernor-General. The salaries and expenses of declared to be non immigrants by section 3 of the immigration act of 1924 or to a class the high commissioner and his staff and asdeclared to be nom-quota immigrants under sistants shall be paid by the United States. the provisions of section 4 of such act other The first United States high commissioner appointed under this act shall take office than subdivision (c) thereof. or unless they upon the inauguration of the new govern- were admitted to such territory under an im路 ment of the Commonwealth of the Philippine migration visa. The Secretary of Labor shall by regulations provide a method for such ex路 Islands. (5) The government of the Commonwealth clusion and for the admission af such ex. of the Philippine Islands shall provide for cepted classes. (c) Any foreign service officers may be the selection of a Resident Commissioner to the United States, and shall nx his term of assigned to duty in the Philippine Islands under a commission as a consular officer, for Qffice. He shall be the representative of the such pel'iod as may be necessary and under government of the Commonwealth of the Philsuch regulations as the Secretary of State ippine Islands and shall be entitled to ofmay prescribe, during which assignment such ficial recognition as such by all departments upon presentation to the President of cre- officer shall be considered. as stationed in a foreign country; but his powers and duties dentials signed by the chief executive of said islands. He shall have a seat in the House .shall be confined to the perfonnance of such of the official acts and notarial and other of Representatives of the United States. with the right of debate, but without the right of serwces which such officer might properh' perform in respect of the administration of voting. His salary and expenses shall be fixed an d paid by the government of the the immigration laws if assigned to a foreign Philippine Islands. Until a Resident Com- country a.s a consular officer. as may be missioner is selected and qualified under this authorized by the Secretary of State. (d) For the purposes of sections 18 and section, existing law governing the appointof the immigration act .of 1917\ as. 20 ment of Resident Commissioner from the amended, the Philippine Islands shan be con路 Philippine Islands shall continue in effect. SEC. 8. (a) For the purposes of the im- ,sidered a foreign country. (e) The provisions of this section are in migration act of 1917, the immigration act addition to the provisions of the :imJnigraof 1924 (except section 13 (c), this section, tion laws now in force. and shall be enfor~d and other laws of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, or expul- as a part af such laws, and all the penal sion of aliens, persons who are citizens of <or other provisions of such laws, not inapplicable, shall apply to and be enforced in the Philippine Islands, and who are not citizens of the United States, shall be considered connection with the .provisions of this section.


An alien, although admissible under the provisions of this section, shall not be admitted to the United States if he is excluded by any provision of the immigration laws other t han this section, and an alien, although ad. missible under the provisions of the immigrat ion laws other than this section, shall not be admitted to the United States if he is excluded by any provision of this section. (f) Tenns defined in the immigration act of 1924 shall, when used in this section, have ,t he meaning assigned to such terms in that a ct. (g) This section shall take effect sixty 拢lays after the enactment of this act. RECOGNITIO N





SEC. 9. (1) On the 4th day of July immediately following the exp iration of a period of eight years from the date of the inaugurat ion of the new government under the const itution provided for in this act, the Presid<lnt of the United States shall withdraw and surrend er alll'ight of possession, supervi. sion, jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty then existing and exercised by the United States in and over t he territory and people of the Philippine IsIa!nds, including all military and other reservati ons of the Goverrunent of th e United States in the Philippines and, on behalf of the United States, shall recogmize the independence of the Philippine Islands as a separate and self-governing nation and acknowl edge the a uthority and control over the same of the governmen t instituted by t he people thereof, under the constitution then in force; Provided, That the constitution of the conunonwealth of the Phili ppine Islands has been previously amended to include the following provisions: (2) That the property rights of the United States and the Philippine Islands shall be promptly adjusted and settled, and that all ex isting pl'Opel'ty rights of citizens or corporations of the United States shall he acknowledged, respected, and safeguard ed to the same extent as property rights of citizens of the Philippine Islands. (3) That the government of the Philippine Islands will cede or grant to the United


States land necessary for conunercial base, coaling or naval station at certain specfiied points, to be agreed upon with the President of the United States not later than two years after his proclamation recognizing the in~ dependence of the Philippine Islan ds. (4) That the officials elected and serving under the constitution adopted pursuant to the provisions of this Act shall be constitu. tional officru:s of the free a nd independent govel'nmet of the Philippine Islands and qualified to function in all respects as if elected directly under such gavernment, and shall serve their full telms of office as prescribed in the constitution. (5) That the debts and liabilities of the Philippine Islands, its provinces, cities, municipalities, and instrumentalities, which shaJI be valid and subsisting at the time of the final and complete withdrawal of the sovereignty of the United State's, shall be assumed by the free and independent government of the Philippine Islands; and that where bonds have been issued under authority of an Act of Congress of the United States by the Philip pine Islan ds, or any province, city, or municipality therein, the Philippine government will make adequate provision for the necessary funds for the payment of interest a nd pri ncipal, and such obligations shall be a first lien on the taxes collected in the Phil路 ippine Isla nds. (6) That the government of the Philippine Islands, on becoming independent of the United States, will assume all co ntinuing ob路 ligations assumed by the Uni ted States und ~r t he treaty of peace with .spain ceding said Philippine Islands to the United States. (7) That by way of further assu rance the government af the Philippine Islands will em路 body the foregoing provisions (except paragraph (3) in a treaty with the United States. NO'IlIFICATlON TO ron.:;'lGN GOVERNMENTS

SEC. 10 Upon the proclamation and recog~ nition of the independence of the Philippine' Islands, the President t::hall notify the goverrunents with which t he UnIted States is in diplomatic correspondence thereof and invite said governments to recognize the independence of the Philippine Islands.



TARIFF DUTIES AFTER I NDEPE NDENCE SEC. 11. After the Philippine Islands have become a free and independent nation there shall be levied, collected, and paid upon all articles coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands the rates olf duty iWWch are required to be lev ied, collected, and paid upon like articles imported from other foreign countries; P'rovided, That at least s ix months prior to the withdrawal of American f;)Qvereignty as hereinbefore provided, there shall be held a conference of representatives of the government of the United States and the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, such representatives to be appointed by the President of the United States and th e Chief Executive of the Comm<>nwealth of the Philippine Islands, respectively, for the purpose of formulating recom mendation s as to future trade relations between Mle government of the United States and the independent government of the Philippine Islands, the time, place, and manner of holding such conference to be detennined by the President of the United States; but noth in g in this proviso shall be construed to modify or affect in any way provision of this Act relating to the procedure leading up to Philippine independence or the date upon which the Philippine Islands shall become independent.

shall continue in force in the PhiliPPine k lands until altered, amended , or repealed b\ the Legislature of the Commonwealth of th~ Phili.ppine Islands or by the Congress of tht United States, and all references in such laws to the Philippines or Ph ilippine IslancU shall be construed to mean the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Island.. The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be deemed successor to the present government of the Philippine Islands and of all the r ights and obligations thereof. Except as otherwise provided in this Act, all laws or parts of laws relating to the present government of the- Phi lippine Islands and its adm ~n j stration are hereby reo pealed as of the date of the inauguration of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. SEC. 13. If any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional or the applicability thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and the applicability of such provisions to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby. Amend the t itle so as to read : "A bil1 t. enab le the people of the Philippine Islands to adopt a constitution and form a gov ernmen t for the Philippine. Islands, to p?'ovide for the

CERTAIN STATUTE!> CONTINUED IN FORCE SEC. 12. Except as in this Act otherwise provided, the laws now or hereafter in force

independence of the same, and for other P"Tposes ."

The Commission of Independence. Upon learning of the passage of t h e Hare Ph il ippine Independence Bill in t he House of Representatives and of other measures pending before t h e Congresf, of the United States, the member s of the Phili ppine Legislature, acting as Commission of Independence, passed a resolution on Aug ust 29, 1932, reiter at-

ing the Filipinos' plea for immediate. complete and absolute independence, ill s upport of th e Osr ox Mission then at Wash ington making timely repr esentations before t he American President and Congress for the most satisfactorr solut ion of t he Philippine national problem. Said resolut ion f ollows in full:


RESOLUTION "'The members of the Senate and House of Representatives, assembled as the Commi,,,ion of Independence. aware of the great reoponsibility they have toward the people of the P'hilippines and unable to remain indifferent to the trend of events in the United States in relation to the political future of the Islands, and having lin view, besides, to make a reiteration of political faith which would serve as an encouragement to those who in tile metropolis well as in the Philippines are working disinterestede' for the triumph of the cause of of our people, deem it proper to make the following:


DECLARATION "In face of the prospect of a pl'obah'e action by the houses of Congress of the United Etates on the Philippine problem, the Ninth Philippine Legislature, by means of a concurrent resolution, appointed a conunittee composed of the presidents of both chambers. and the ll'aders of the majority and minority in the same. to make Oppol'tune representations before the Pl'esident and Congress of the United States for the most satisfactory soluIlon of the Philippine problem, with the joint resolution which on the occasion of the sending of that committee was approved by the chambers of the Legislature, serving as a guide. I路lt is but just to make, as we hereby make, public testimony of the great ability and notable tact with which the members of that ~gislative Committee have performed their task. Although they had to combat the indiffenncf! of some people and the open opposition f)( certain traditionally pledged to 路a policy of indefinite retention of the Philippines under the sovereignty of the United States, and althoug-h they had to map out a program of action which would be feasible and satisfactnry to the Filipino people in the midst of conflicting tendencies and economic aims of certain interests and elements which only in me ~~nRe, the pureJ}T political, agree with the ,deal of our people, the Filipino delegates hll,.\,e effectively contributed to the presentation of the Philippine problem in such terms that for the first time in sixteen years Con~t'eRS will have, of its own accord, to act in the near future, on that problem, without resorting again to evasions made in so long a time, "This places upon all the Filipinos and more ~articularly upon the Commission of Inde-

pendence which is composed of the constitutional representatives of our people, in a new grave responsibility j that of striving for a measure which when finally approved by Congress will best respond to the permanent political, moral and economic interests of the Filipino people, bearing in mind t hat if, as a theoretical question, we do not admit nor could we admit any other right superior to our right to enjoy now and ever our freedom and independence, the force of reality and of consummated events may force us to accept practical solutions which modify that right. Therefore, the Commission of Ind ependence assumes now the responsibility of making manifest the viewpoints of the Filipino people in relation to the bills pending in both houses of the Americ Congress in regard to the Philippine problem, "The summit of our aspirations is political independence of the Philippines, Having this in mind, we consider of the greatest importance that we should insist that the situation to be created during the period of transition, under the conditions established, be such that it 'will not impede or make difficult the realization of our coveted freedom, but on the contrary facilitate and hasten its coming. Indeed. in the past the most sagacious advocates of the policy of indefinite retention of the rhilippines under American sovereignty pinned their fondest hopes on the fact that as natu ral fruits were produced by the association with America under laws imposed by the Congress of the United States, the love of freedom would gradually ebb until it totally dies out in all Filipino hearts, Luckily for us, such hopes did not come into reality. But our responsibility would be doubly greater be-



fore the hist ory if, not heeding the lesson furnished by experience, we would not g ive approval to any new legislation which in the course of years would make our countrymen regard with fear and suspicion the sacred ideal of freedom ,,,hieh our ancestors have bequeathed to us. "We decla re it is our right a nd duty to demand that, as long as we live under the aegis of the United States, the economic relations between the two peoples should be ins pired, if not in the vouchsafed purpose of the America n Congress and people to help us, at least in principles of justice based u pon a perfect mutuality of interests and benefits. T o every advantage which America appropriates to herself at the expense of s uch relationship s hould correspond fo r us a similar one of the s ame class and in the same m easure and quan路 tity; like any restriction she imposes upon the natural benefits w h ich such relat ions hip are bound to bring us, the right should be given us to levy a similar restriction upon what America derives from the s ame. The violation of th is principle of r eciprocity for the benefit of the interests of the sovereign country and to the prejudice of our ow n interests would constitute an in congruity to the humanitarian a ims so often reiterated by American administrators and statesmen as a j u stification for the occupation of the islands, and an unjust exploitati on, besides t he fact that we are a weak and defenseless people, placed against our will under t he tutelage of the United States. M,oreove r, our people do not fOl'get t hat all inequalities in the economic relationship between both peoples in the sense just indicated, would lead to the gradual absorption of t h e. econom ic interests of the I slands by the most powerful of the sovereign country, with the probable result that never would we be in a m ore di sadvantageous position than when such thing happens, to duly prepare ourselves for the assumption of the grave responsib ilities of a free and indep endent existence, while on the other hand, the improvement of the country will induce our countrymen to prefer the deceitful prosperity of other t {mes to an approaching freedom preceded by privations and sufferings, without

letting us taste any of the satisfaction whieb it would produce once it is realized. Also, 111del' the same principle of reCiprocity, we refUSe to accept any imposition that would prevent t he free movement of Filipinos within the territory over which flies the flag of the United States as long as the government of the PJril. ipine Is lands does not have the power to impose similar l'estriction to the entry of Am!r ican citizens into her territory. -VVe recognize as our most sacred duty to deliver to the future Filipino generations, "ith the blessings of freedom for which Our ancestors shed their blood un stin ted ly. the heritage of materia l properties which history and international treaties have recognized as our awn. We a s pire for independence because with it we propose to promote the happiness of our people, and not to renounce in their name the necessary means with which to achieve such happiness. Thus, never will we be exceeded in our zeal to defend the integrity of our national t erritol路Y. In any contract that may be made regarding its future disposition, there should be w1'itten down the necessary guarantees that the national territory shall be handed down to our children without diminution of any part which, because of the im路 portance of its commerce, industry and agriculture, or the potential wealth of the natuTal resources it contains, is or may be an indispensable means or a valuable contributioT1 to our present and future development and aggrandizement. With greater reason we will refuse alienation of any portion of the Philippine t erritory which, because of its strategic position, in our hands is destined to be the key to our future security and defense, and in other people's hands a partial or complete negation of the sovereignty of our people. o nce freedom is granted us in name and at the same time it is a constant source of risk! to the neutrality of the future FiUp ino <:tate in an international conflict in which may be involved our neighbor and concessionaire. "We are opposed to any plan to compel the Filipino people to newly express their will in regard to the fonn in which the political relations between the United States and the Philippines should be definitely established,


be> the expiration of the term prior to the fiIUlI recognition of the independence and sove-

reignty of the new Filipino state.

The ques-

tion of our independence, insofar as it contErnS the Filipinos, has passed to the categoofY of a res adjudicata. The Filipino pe0ple in the course of their history have shown n. umerous times their love of freedom with weapon in hand, and when after an unequ ai Hght they accepted the sovereignty of the Un ited States, it was under the promise t h at A.merica would assist us in preparing ourselves for self government. The Philippine Assembly f irst and then the Philippine Lerislature, both made up of representatives elected through direct suffrage of the people, have reiterated one after the other, in resolutions passed for the purpose, our constant aspiration for independence. Therefore, the holdi ng of a plebiscite with the purpose and I t the time specified will not add weight to file expression of the will already known of our people, while on the other hand it would give opportunity to the enemies of Filipino freedom to start an agitation right in our own la.nd in a period in which the attention o~ all Filipinos shou ld be united and concentrated on the transcendental and difficult task or establishing the enduring foundations of our 1reedom and independence. " Th e period of time preceding the recogni~Qn of Philippine inde.pendence we regard as ~ transition period fl'om our present state of 1SIlbjection to a free existence. Therefore, it ~ould neither be more than 10 years, which . rnor~ than sufficient to effect the tl'ansfer IOf sovereignty in a'll orderly manner and without injury to American and Filipino intHe~ts created during the present association, \DOT be subject to limitations and checks 'WQu ld l'E.'nder difficult and impossible the task of preparing ou rselves for t h e g reat respons ibilities which go with freedom. Consl7 quently, we ask for ourselves during the period referred to, all the autonomous powers I'Ii'hic,; are indispensable to lay the foundations IOf the future Filipino nationhood. As we ~ave to live a life of our own, we need freed()m with the least possible amount of foreign interferences. so we could mould our basic Ie-


gislation according to our social, political, mor al and economic exigencies of the Filipino nation. Public instruction, a powerful instrument for the formation of the character of a people should be placed wholly in our hands for direction. \Ve should have complete control over legislation 'W foster our moral and material development and our domestic ec0nomic improvement as well as to regulate our commerce with foreign countries, and a power as regards America, which is c~qual to what IS:he may reserve for the readjustment of our economic relationship. There should not be any int ervention in our public finance by any extraneous power or its r epresentative, except only where it is necessary to insure payment of our foreign obligations. Maintenance of law and public order fall within the police power of the state, and we maintain that the Philippine government is and will be fully able to exerci se by itself such power to provide due protection to life, liberty and property of all the inhabitants of the I slands. " In other words, we aspire to a more fa\!orable s ituation than the present to prepare ourselves for an independent existence in the 'event that w'e couJd not attain i t except through a period of transition and readjustment. As the constitutional r epresentatives of the Philippine people, we shall on ly consider ourselves fully j ustified to accept new legislation on the Philippines if such legislation will place in our hands the much coveted instrumentalities of freedom without strings that would neutral ize or make ineffective its exercise. Prudence and foresight w ill be our constant advisers now more than ever. Since we have won to our cause by reason of their own interest, a considerable portion of the ag ricultural elements of the sovereign country and all its labor elements, it is to be presumed. that they will become indifferent a nd we will lose their support, which has been so decisive in our struggles in the last few months, once their particular des ires have been fu lfilled by th e approval of a law limiting the free importation of certain Filipino products and restricting the immigration af our laborers in the United States. Our great desire for freedom should



SpUl' us on to work always for it, but it should never be taken advantage of to impose upon us burdensome and improper stipulations as a condition precedent· to the final atta,inment of an end in which is alTeady and will be in each day more paten t to the interest of a growing and dynamic portion of the metropolitan opinion, just as our own and unanimous interest. has been and will al~ ways be,

"\OVith faith in Providence who gives unexpected twists to human events and with the help of men of good will, which we have neve r lacked, and ratifying our confidence, in the ability and patriotism of the members of the Filipino Legislative Committee and Resident Commissioners who represent our people in the United States, we wish to state once more that we ·w ant the freedom of the Philippines, not as a theoretical 01' an unapproachable id eal, but as a practical and imm edia te objective which we will reach through our deliberate efforts; and we ask not on ly the form but the substance of liberty to promote under its beneficent jnftuence the progres'3 and happiness of our people."

Quezon's Columbian Speech against the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill.-On December 21, 1931, Senator Sergio Osmefia and Speaker Manuel Roxas, together w ith other legislative e nvoys, left for the United States of Ame;t-ica on theil' independence mission. This delegation was known as the "Osrox Mission". On April 4, 1932, the Hare Philippine Independence Bill was passed by the House of Representatives, providing for the gmnt of Philippine independence after a transition period of eight years. Neither the Philippine Legislat ure nor the Osrox Mission did support said m easure . The FIlipino leaders, both in the Philippines and in the United States, were silent aLout the eightyear transition period, save Resident Commi ssioner Pedro Guevara who voiced his opinion against said bill, saying t hat independence would be granted the islands, not from any altruistic motive



!lut rather to protect American inter. ests. Notwithstanding Guevara's state. ment, the H-H-C Bill, as amended, w". passed by the Congress of the Unit"" States of America but was vetoed b.' President Hoover, who said that he 0l~ posed the Bill because "this legislaliun puts both our people and the Philippin. people not on the road to liberty an~ safety which we desire but on the path le)lding to new and enlarged dangel'S to liberty and freedom itself." The President f urther declared that "the Philippines include in terms of compa, . ison with their neighboring Oriental countries large areas of undeveloped resources. The pressures of those im. mense neighbor populations for peru:e· ful infiltration or forcible entry into this area are' most potent. Many of these races are more devoted to com· r;1ercia l activities than the population of t he Islands and the infiltration is cue· stant and fraught with friction nor has the spirit of imperialism a nd the exexploitation of people by other race' departed from t he earth after the e,· tab li shment of independence. The Fili· pino people alone will be helpless to prevent such infiltration Or invasion." But the H a re-Hawes-Cut ting Bill WIl; repassed by the American Congress over the veto of President Hoover, and the Filipino People were a lready pre· paring for a great rejoicing over said legislation when Senate President Quezon gave hi s opinion against the accept· ance of said Act. In a banquet given in hi s honor by his friends and admirers at thE)! Philippine Columbian Associa· t ion's clubhouse on Taft Avenue in Ma· nila. March 11, 1933, the Filipino leader painted it vivid picture of the Philir,· pine Islands under the new law and pointed out the dangers very eloquent· Iy that his audience could not help h.lit s upport his stand against the HareHawes-Cutting- Independence Act. Senate President Quezon's speech, 3' published in t he Sunday Tribune of March 12, 1933, follows in fu ll :

'I'jIÂŁ .\MERlr\




Reiterates Stand against MeasU're

"Never before did I address the Philippine .(;olumbinns under circumstances such as the 'Present, when our country is confronted by a ~f>riom~ problem vital to the people's future. .And yet I f~el that there is something strange, omf'thing new in the atmo~phere of this clubhouse, here where in days gone by I have -fraternized with an of its members in the pirit of tulerance and bl'oadmindedness which i~ the f'tamp of a true Columbian I miss familiar faces, faces of friends deal' to me who u:;ed to be here on similal occasions in the "past. Is it. b('caus<: we all realize the serious situution confl'onting us and our future generations because of problems that impend, and elo not therefore have time to attend these reunion~J or is it because we are beginning to forget those characteristics that make a Columbian a true Columbian, and have allowed ourselves as a result of our differences of opinion, to be swayed by passion and per~onalities, and have permitted such differences to submerge our friendship, which should rise above all such discussions and controversies and continue binding us together with an a11pervading affection?

"l\Iy friends: This is not the time to play with words. This is the time to express our opinions frankly and courageously, basing our \"iews on the merits or demerits of the question under discussion. The country is unquestionably divided on whether the Act should be accepted Or not. So that t her e may be no question in your mind, I want to make clear my stand on this question from the very outset.


to State Views before all Opponents

h[ say that I miss the familiar faces I used to ~ee around me here, not because I am so vain as to think that I should be honored by their presence, but because I fear that our differences of opinion on the Hawes-Cutting Act should not be allowed to mar our friendship and our loyalty to the Columbian association . I miss them all the more because, if they are not here for the reason that they are for the acceptance of the law, I am precisely here to present my views to t hem and get their views in r eturn , a nd in the exchange of ideas and imp ressions, to let t he people benefit. I am h ere a s a f riend, to ask and be asked regarding the H awes-Cutting act. I only hope thai my f riends, t he advocates of the law, are not h ere because of p revious engagements or of t he press ure of their work.

"I am against the Hawes-Cutting Act. I will yote for the rejection of the law even if after having been in the United States I should finel that no other law is likely to be enacted dul'ing the next two or three years, or even If I should find that the status quo would continue for a few more years if the law i.:1: rejected. I will go further and say that { will vote for the rejection of this law even if it were true-which I bel ieve to be absolutely impossible, knowing as I know the American people-that the rejection of this law will mean the enactment by Congress over our protest of a law that will limit our importations without any fI:ovision regarding indepen dence. HI want to tell you here and now t hat I shall only vote to accept a Jaw that wi ll mean a forward step for us, and I tell you now th at the Hawes-Cutting act is decidedly a backward step in American-Fil ipino relations. I say this formally and with finality. Asserts There is No "Fixed Date" in Law uAdvocates of the law are willing to accept it because of that fixed date of independence halo around it, the glamour of which has dazzled them. Now, let us f irst find out if th~re is any such thing in the law as fixed date for independence. If any of the advocates of the measure are here, I want to ask t hem t his question: What date is fixed in th e law fo r t he g r anting of the so-called in dependence? I have the law here w it h me. Will a nyone point out to me where is t he date for in dependence that is fi xed ther e? I have scrutin ized a ll the p r ovisions of t he act a nd I don' t f ind it anywher e. I will s it down a whi le and wait for an a nswer.



PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER Who vetoed the Hare-Hawes -Cutting Bill saying "this legislation puts both our people and the Philippine people not on the roacl

to liberty and safety. which we desire, but on the path leading to new and enlarged dangers to liberty and freedom itself ... . .. . "



"!\obody seems to be willing to answer. No. body can answer the question . And nobody c a n give the answer, simply because it is not in an)" part of the act. There is a date. It is the 4th of July. Of what year of our Lord nobody knows. There is the tenth year after t he commonweal th is established. But who of us here can say when that commonwealth will be established with all the strings attached to it? So you see, the basic argument of the advocates of the law about fixed date for independence exists only in their imagination. There are many lawyers here. They have all read the law. Will they tell me if they have seen in the law the fixed date for independence'1 J hope it is not excessive courtesy t hat prevents them from answering my question. E1Il.'isiO)lS

T ype of Freedom Under Bill

"But let me admit for the sake of argument that there is a f ixed date. Let ue say i ndependence is set for 1946. We had better make it 1945 fo r if I say 1946 there is a lapse of 13 years and advocates of the bill may t hink it malicious on my part to choose 13 years. Let us make it 1945. Now, let us take a dip into the future. 1 will lift t he curtain for you and show you wh at is in store for us under this law. Let us suppose that we have called a convention . We have approved a constitution . Ten years have elapsed. The fateful Fourth of July has arrived. We have organized our government. We ha ve elected t he chief executive of our republic. "Now we are on t he Luneta. We are partiCipating in the ceremony inducting the first president of our co untry. Joy is in the hearts of all. We are proud of the fact that at least we ha ve one of our f lesh and blood at the head of our own government. We have marched proudly past t he monument of Rizal cal路rying in our arms in triumph and exultation the fir st pres ident of our nation. Happiness reigns supreme and tears are in our eyes as we see our glorious flag wavin g triumphantly in the breeze. alone, no longer under another flag. 'W e see in it the realization of our nalional drea ms and we thank God at last we have received the boon of our freedom. "We then take the president of the Philippine Republic to Malacanang, pass ing over


streets strewn with roses, as bands of music strike martial airs, and Filipino soldiers click their heels and present arms to their commander-in-chief. We finally leave him alone in Ma lacaiiang in the fullness of his power, proud of the honor conferred upon him by his peop le, grateful that his country should now have the power to bestow s uch gift to any of its nationals.

Signs of U. S. Power路 Seen on all Sides "Flushed with victory and power, he decides to take a drive in hi s limousine. He decides to go to Dewey Boulevard to feel the evening breeze on hi s fevered brow. As he drives along t hat bea utiful boulevard, what does he see? Before him is the symbol of American power-the American navy. Before his eyes are the American g un-boats, cruisers, destroyers, and silhouetted again st the darkening sky, waving in all its glory, is the Stars and Strip es. uHe continues driving and decides to go to Pasay, to visit the old man Quezon, the past leader of the Filipino people who is living in his retirement after he had opposed the law that had been accepted . Aged, weak, trembling in t he knees, old man Quezon goes down his stairs and pays his homage to the president of the Republic. The president then continues his drive. He turns to the left, goes to visit the governor of Rizal, and what does he see ? Another symbol of America's might -Fort McKinley. Here is the American army, and again waving over rifles and bayo路 nets and can non , is Old Glory.

Sense of H elplessness and Futility "He sees all these and as he sees them, there is impressed upon him an overpowering sense of helplessness and futility. He remains si-' lent, but I ask you: Is this independence? If this is independence, I don't want it. While the American flag waves over our country, let not anyone forget that it is here because it represents a country sU.-ong enough to be here. "If somebody meets me in th e dead of night in a n alley and with a gun compels me to give him my wallet with P100, 1 don't think it is humiliating that this should happen to a nyone. But if somebody scares me and without any coercion I willingly give my money



a nd I refuse to f ight, t h en that is humiliat in g. Ther e is no humili a ti on in bein g licked. It is humiliatin g wh en you refu se to put up a f ig ht. That is what obtains with t he HawesCutting A ct. If it is imposed upon u s, well and good. B ut knowing it to be onerous and unjust an d we accept it meekly, t herein lies what may be termed adding ins ult to injury.

U. S. Has Authority Without R es ponsibility " One of t he most seri ou s objections to the law is t hat America here has t he a uthority without t he r espon sibili ty. Before the world we appear a s a n independent count r y, a nd yet we have he re m ilitary r eservat ions, n aval bases, and other such restd ctions t hat r eall y nullify our vaunted f reedom. There is a provision th at at first gla nce appears ha rml ess. I ask J ustice Santos , and I appeal to him because h e is a r eal constitutional authority, unli ke other s who cla im to be but a re not, to read t his prov ision a nd study it. It provides that the President can expropriate any public land in the Philipp ines f or public uses. "Now remember t hat 'public u ses' is a phrase that has been given a wide lati t ude of inter pretation by t h e s upreme court of th e United States. Suppose it is defin ed that s ugar is for some r eason or other 'a public use.' Can not the President expropriat e a certain piece of land, h ave it planted wit h sugar , establish there a cen tr al, a nd then f rom an American por t, as Cavite will be under the Hawes-Cutting act, an d in A merican bottoms, ship that sugar to th e United States ? While we are th us prohibi ted from shipping our sugar t here, it will be perfectly possible for Amer ican s her e to do so. This is plausible.

Shows Danger to Coastwise T'rade " Then again consider t hi s seriou s question. Ther e is a prov ision in the Jaw that g ives the Americans her e t he same t reatment that is accorded our nat ion a ls in business after independence is g ranted. The coastwise shipping in all nat ions is l'esel'ved f or the nationals of th at n ati on. But we have th e Dolla r line her e engaged in coa stwi se shipping. Under th e Hawes-Cutting Act the same privilege will r emain . Then the Japanese will learn of it and demand the same privilege. If we deny it to them they will say that we are discriminating against the Japanese, and since we can-

not affoxd to offend that country, we will have to grant it. And then, also, to which_ ever nation may ask for it, I wonder what will then happen to my good friends Vicente Madrigal and Ramon Fernandez, in their coastwise shipping business.

"Pr obation" Period and The High Commissioner HNow let us discuss the situation under the commonwealth and let me call your attention to the word used by Senator Bingham in describing this period. He calls it 'probationary.' It is really a probationary period, a period of trial, and in the meanwhile it deprives us of all means to make good in that trial, so that when the test ends, we are helpless, and we are defeated. U And now we come to the American High Commissioner. Those of us who see the dangers in this provision are branded as imaginative, as fanciful, as G,}1i1dren seeing terrors in the dark, as cowards. It is said that we exaggerate the dangers that we claim are inherent in the position itself. My an swer to this is : Turn the pages of history-and recent history at that. Study the history of Haiti, of Cuba, of Nicaragua, countries depl'ived of their rights and privileges by apparently innocuous provisions of their organic laws.

Cuban.s Protested Platt A mendnumt " Take Cuba, for example, and the Platt amendment. Do you realize what powers are in the hands of the American government because of it? Do you realize that the Cubans protested again st it vigorously, that it was rejected by Cuba's constitutional convention, and that a specific definition of it by Secretary Elihu Root was necessary before the Cubans accepted it and only by a majority vote of fi ve. with four absent in the Cuban constitutional convention? "With the Platt Amendment America had the right of intervention under certain conditions specified in the amendment. But not content with this, America enforced another method of intervention which it caUed the 'preventive' policy, by means of which General Crowder, when he was made ambassador, had laws enacted by the Cuban government dealing with the elections, finances and other subjects of purely domestic concern. Do yoU


caB this independence, or even autonomy,? Do you mean to say that we are any handsomer or any braver than the Cubans, so that the Americans will not do the same to us under the Hawes-Cutting act? I doubt that we are .any more courageous than the Cubans were when they resisted the Platt Amendment to the last, and yet we are willing to accept the Hawes-Cutting act without discussion, and cannot even credit those who oppose it in good faith.

How Comm.issioner Can Compel Laws "Let us apply that situation to our own. Let us suppose that we have our commonwealth again. Let us suppose that we have n American high commissioner. Let us suppose also that we have in Malacanang a Fili pino chief executive who does not want fight and who wants to settle everything by means of cooperation. The American high commissioner goes to him one day and tells him that he wants a certain law passed. The Filipino chief executive at first refuses to listen to h im. After a little argument, the high commissioner then tells the Filipino chief execut ive that he had received a cable from the war department and t hat tj\e department considers it absolutely essential that the bill be passed. There is emphasis in the words 'war de~artment' and 'absolutely essential' as the high commissioner leans back on his chair and looks at the Filipino official. The Filipino official begins to tremble and thinking of the consequences of a refusal, consents, and the law is passed. Do you call that autonomy'? Do you call that freedom '?

Anned Inte1'vention Peril Ever P)路esent "But suppose we have a Filipino chief executive who feels inclined once in a while to put up a f ight, and does not believe in any compromise when the nation's dignity and self-respect are involved. Suppose the high commissioner makes the same proposition to him and he tells the commissioner, as Governor Harrison once told a Filipino leader, that only over his dead body would such a proposition go through. Suppose he tells the Commissioner that he has an indomitable Oppus in the house, or a stormy petrel like Pefez of Pangasinan, who is small but is like a


'siIing Jabuyo,' or a senator Tarlaqueii.o ~w ho feels that it should not. be done because he is a Tarlaquefio, or a Batangueiio senator who brooks no dictation, and that these legislators are against the proposed bill. What will happen'? In a few days there is a fiesta somewhere with some display of fireworks, and that will be misrepresented as a revolution and as soon as there is a revolution, the army intervenes, and when the at'my intervenes, it does not sing, it shoots, and there is a bloodshed and carnage, and ruin and destr uction.

More Autonomy Under Present Organic Act "So the best policy under such a commonwealth is to do as we are bidden, to serve America's special and vested interests here. kno\ving as we do the consequences that our refusal will entail. And the Filipino chief executive, knowing this, will comply with all the requests of the high commissioner, and when he sends for the legislative leaders, and they protest and remind him of their duty to their people, he will ten them in a whisper, 'never mind the people, let us give them job~ and they will be satisfied.' ICCompare this situation with that obtaining under the present Jones act. What can the governor general do if the leg islature rufuses to pass a bill in which he is interested? All that can happen is that may be the governol' will refuse to appoint a justice of the peace in Lucena, or he will not appoint Anonas as undersecretary of public works, or he will not make Major Lim the general of the constabulary. This is all that can happen. Remember how we fought the late lamented Governor Wood. I think we fought that old man more than he deserved a.nd yet what could he do'? This is the situation under the Jon es act. Under the Hawes-Cutting act, on the slightest pretext there can be armed intervention which is unheard of now, under our present organic 1a\v.

Cites Hurley, Stimson On Anned lntcr"uention "Speaking of armed intervention, let me call your attention to the letters written by Secretaries Hurley and Stimson to President Hoover. In such letters they predict armed intervention here, and let me repeat here again that when the army intenrenes, it does



not sing but it shoots. And when the bullets begin to fly, may I tell my friends that perhaps those who are now being branded as cowards for oppos ing the law, maybe the fir st onES to rise and meet such bullets on the field of action? This is not the time to laugh, my fri ends. This is a serious situation which we may have t o meet squarely.

Danger S een in Social R elations uTh er e are a thou sand and one other things in t he law that should make us think seriomdy before a ccepting the law. Consider the situatIon of say the Pampanga planters. At the end of t he seventh year of r estricted imports into the U nited States will begin the real hardsh ips. While th e small planter s w ill then be lan g uishing slowly and suffering in poverty, t he huge central s will sti1l be making money. Cons ider the fr ame of mind of s uch planters. I s it not possi ble that in their desperation t hey may set fi re to the sugar cane plantations and perhaps blow up the centrals ? W hen t hat time comes maybe our g overnment f inances will have been so r educed that we shall have a lso r ed uced our constabulary, and then again will come armed inter vention by the Un ited Stat es. uI say a gain that thi s act is not a forward step compared w it h the Jones act, but a The Jon es Act g ives indebackwa r d st ep. pendence a s soon as a stable government is established here wit hout any other condition, while un de r t he H awes-Cutting Act there are many cond it ions a nd r estrict ions, plus the m ai ntena nce by America of military and naval reserva t ions.

J okers in. Measu1'e W ill B e Disas t1'ouS " I wish t o call your attention, my friends, t o wh at Senator Pittman, one of t hose who sincerely and in good faith worked for the approval of this act, had to say on the subject of America's authority here. This is on Page 331 of the Con g ressional Record of December 12, 1932, Vol. 76, No.7. When Senator Vandenberg questioned him a s to what authority and power .America had over the Islands, Sena tor Pittma n made t he following signifcant remarks that I want to emphasize to you today: II ' Responsibility without power? So says the Senator from Michigan. Why, we have

700,000 acres of land in the Philippine b. lands that have been designated and set aside by the President of the United States for miJitary purposes, for naval purposesl for hospital purposes, for school purposes, for all kinds of purposes-far more than we need-much of which we will surrender thousands of acres of which were reserved for the purpose of anticipating a new law by the legislature of the Philippines with regard to rubber.' "That is an important point. There are many more dangerous provisions in the law that I do not have time to discuss. There are many jokes in the act which are so tragic in theiT consequences, jokes that are real jokers, that will undermine our best interests. that I shudder at the thought of th e effects it will have on our people and our people's future. '4Again I s ay. this law is worse than the Jones Act. All that we get here is to have a Filipino live in Malacanang instead of in Pa路 say. but what price do we pay for such an empty glory! We will bow and kowtow and salaam to a Filipino President or Governor General, we will probably call him President becaus e we Filipinos are fond of bombastic titles and degrees. But what do we get? What do we pay for it?

A cceptance Negation. Of Fundamental Plea "With this law we are accepting meekly the limitation of our trade with the United States, the denial of our right as citizens of free travel in the United States while our country is under the American flag; we are accepting a supposedly independent govern路 ment surrounded by the American army and navy; we are depriving ourselves of that eternal argument bed rocked on truth and rea路 son that we are under the United States against our will and we are thus a subject people with a sovereign power imposed on us against the consent of the governed , beca~se under the Hawes-Cutting Act we accept wlll路 ingly what is given us and therefore what we have is with our consent. USenator Pittman said that the American people cannot deprive us of our rights except with our consent. The Hawes-Cutting Act has the provision regarding our accepting or rejecting it. It has been said that I was the



a.nthor of such a prOVISIon. This is not true. What is true is that when I found out that iUch a provision exists in the law, I instructed the mission to see to it t hat it was kept, for when I found how onerous and one-sided the law is, I decided that I wanted to have that weapon in my hands so that I can have it rejected here. But as Senator Pittman has very well said, the American people cannot deprive us of our rights except with our con5ent. Let us accept the Hawes-Cutting act, !nd my countrymen, we will then seal with )ur acquiescence the deprivation of our peo~le of their most sacred right to their free:10m and welfare.

Rejection 'Will Throw Burden on Con gress "Let us not be afraid if we do not accept this law congress may enact a measure re;tricting our products and yet giving us no Independence. When the Hawes-Cutting Act is ,ubmitted to the legislature, conscious of my responsibility to my people, I shall vote against it. If congress approves a law reitricting our expo rts and offering us no hope for freedom, let it do so. It will be an act of tyranny and let it shoulder the responsibility. "But if it does that, nothing can have more salutary effects for our nation. It will galvanize us into action, it will show us the utter helplessness of our situation as a subject people, it will revolutionize our national character, and it will make us realize that if we want to be fl'â&#x201A;Źe we must make ourselves worthy of the blessings of freedom. HI am against the Hawes-Cutting act because it is a backward step in our fight for ,OUT' national ideal. It is the duty of those who advocate this law to tell the people what its consequences are as it is the duty of those who advocate its re jection to tell the country the results such a l'ejection will entail. I call -on all to speak th eir minds frankly, but with out passion. It is the future of our country is at stake. It is our responsibility to guide our people intelligently, honestly, and m selfishly."

Four days before Senate President Quezon departed for the United States on the S.S. "Oonte Verde" on March 18,_ 1933, the Tribune, in its editorial of March 14, 1933, published the follow-


ing comment, entitled "Let Us Enlighten the People," thus : "We heartily agree with Senate President Quezon t hat the people must be enlightened as to the real consequences of the rejection or acceptance of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, but we must confess that with his usual skill and dexterity he states a few truths and then takes advantage of them to weave a fantastic tale that is hig hly imaginative and not convincing. We expected him to submit facts and fig~ ures to support his assertion. He not only f ailed to do this , but his narration was so fantastic that at t imes during his speech we thought we were in the grip of a nightmare. It will not en lighten the people to draw for them chimerical pictures of what may happen here. It is not logic to describe a possible condition of affairs that mayor may not eventuate. We would have liked the senate president to have given us arguments and not fantasy; figures and not fictio n. But since he a llowed his imagination to soar in the heights of fancy, we will also follow him there, and we will also s ay that it is j ust as probable and just as plausible that the American high commissioner who so terrifies him may be one who, like some of the former governors-general sent here, among them the present one, will do his utmost to help the Filipino people. If the senate president can take for granted t hat the American high commissioner will be of the worst type available, why can others not also take for granted that such an official will be the best that can be secured, the best in the sense that he will do nothing but serve the best interests of the Filipinos? Who can say that one prophecy is better than the other? We are not the ones to ten our people t hat everything un der the Hawes-Cutting act will be heavenly, and that we will find our path strewn \vith roses . No. We know that there may be difficulties and hardships, but those difficulties and hard ships are not so hopelessly insurmountable as they are pictured to us by Mr. Quezon. Now that Senate President Quezon is about to leave our shores on an important mission, we want to assure him that he has our best wishes and our prayers that he may succeed.



But in t he spirit of friendliness and helpfulness t ha t has always insph!ed our attitude towards him we ventu re t o make the suggestion that this is t he time when he sh ould be more cif a realist than a prophet."

Filipinos Divided on the Hare-HawesCutting Act_-As soon as the news of the passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act r eached the Philippines in t he earlY: part of 1933, the supporters of the Osrox Mission strongly advocated its ac-' ceptance, while t he IOpponents of the measure spoke in favor of its rejection. Some of the leading opinions are given herein below, for future reference. Dr. Rafael Palma, then president of t he state university, in his statement in favor of the acceptance of the HareHawes-Cutting Act, said as follows: "HAWES-CUTTING LAW BETTER THAN JONES LAW

By Dr. Rafael Palma P'resident, University of the Philippines "The Hawes-C utting 'bill, a s approved by Congress, has many a?vantages over t he present organ ic law of t he Philippine Islands. Blind is he who does fa il to see them. T he first and most fundamental advantage of all and on which there could probably be no controversy is the power given to the Filipino people to formulate its own constitution. The degree of liberty of any people is measure d by its initiative to draft a political co nstitu t ion. This power is inhe rent in tile right of sovereig nty, and the granting of it to the Filipino p eople under the 1)1'0visions of the Hawes-Cutting bill is a sure s ign of t he goodwill of Congress to give us our indep('nnence. Another advantage is that the bill provides for the estab lishmen t of a government to be known as the Government of t h e 'Comrmonwealth of the Philippine I slands' whkh is more autonomous, in many respects, than the presen t government of the Islands, becaV5e it allows the Filipinos to select its own Chief Executive, and this would make possible th e concenti'ation of r esponsibilities ill

their hands. The most glaring shortcominl of the actual system of government in the tPhilippines is the duality of responsibility, which is a fertile source of conflicts as Was wItnessed under the regime of Governor Wood. This duality ·of responsibility will di sappear under the commonwealth goverr.. men t and the Filipinos will have full initi a~ tive to conh'ol their domestic affairs. 'I'he third advantage is that the bill sol . . . es and clarifies the political uncertainty which has prevailed for years and years since the inception of the American. occupation. The bill enumerates the steps to be taken for the withdrawal of American sovereignty at the end of a certain period of years. This facl se rves notice to everybody that on a certain day the Philippine Islands will assume its place among the independent nations of the world and those who do not want to live under thes protection of the Filipino flag can take steps to wind up their affairs from now on. Jl know of no valid reason for rejecting th e fundamental provisions of this bill which. t o my mind, materializes, in a practical anJ concrete form, the political aspirations of the Filipinos, as repeated ly voiced by our local Legislature. In asking for our independence, as we have done up to the present timp • we neVler had in mind the economic and com· mercial advantages that we are bound W lose or fail to profit in our existing tariff relationships with the United States. Our fundamental reason was that our people will feel happier under the folds of their own flag and under the yoke of their own laws than under another flag and unde.r CYthcr laws. To repudiate independence now out of economic conside.rations is tantamou.nt to selling our birthright for a plate of lentils. It is true that the bill contains restrictions in the making of t h e constitution; limits the powers of the commonwealth; and maintains in the hands of the United States the present naval and military reservations. These restrictions and limitations are but part of the pi'ice we pay for our freedom. No people can obtain its freedom without paying a price for it . The reason for these restrictions and limitations is, however, well known. It arises,

THE A:\iERIC:\...~ -\DMINIST:::R:.:.:.:'T::.:.:IO:::N _____________ 2_85

n the one hand, from the desire of the sovwhile it exercises its sovereignty over {hi ... count!"}路, to protect its own interest, and (n the other hand, from the selfishness of t ugar anrl other interests which, at all cost, (lesire to limit the free entry of Philippine J,roducts and laborers to the United States. These are state reasons which we cannot sucre!'t'fully deny. God has willed, however, tl1at the very antagonism of these interests t as furnished us a cha