Page 1

Above Picture: His Holiness Pope Pius Xl Lower Pictw'e: Reve1'er:d Mickael J, O'DokeTty, .t11'chbishop of Manila



prief Historical Sketches OF

Philippine Catholic Churches

by RAYMUNDO C.~AS Author of "The路 Music ana Theater of the Filipino People"



r Ti Rp , jRATI0N



Manila, Philippines 193 7


by 1& 5~ I,

.,. I.



1606 Copyright, 1937 By RAY'MUNDO C. BAl'fAS IN THE PHILIPPINES All Rights Reserved





Manila, Philippines





PREFACE The Philippines, where Ferdinand Magell an an d his men landed in 1521, is an old Catholic country in the Orient. In coming to these Islands, Magellan brought with him the torch of Christianity and western learning that has enriched our past and present history with the culture and art of the West. However, meeting an untimely deathJ he failed to see the fruits of his work. Miguel Lopez de Legaspi came later and founded t ile City of Cebu in 1570 and that of Manila in 1571, appol'tioning the latter city to the Spaniards. Administrative buildings for the royal government, also chapels and hospitals were soon erected. Then began the political existence of our country under a forei'gn power. The preaching of the Holy Gospel was one of the chief tasks of the religious orders, and the first to undertake this labor was the Order of Saint Augustine,路 who camp- with Legaspi in 1565. The other orders that labored tor th e conversion of the inhabitants w~re those of Saint Dominic, the Jesuits, the Franciscans, the Recollects, the Benedictines and the Capuchins . . Laboring incessantly, they undertook to master the native dialects, while they were building the early churches and founding schools for the natives. The boys wer e taught reading and writing, singing and dancing, also how to play the flute, harp, guitar, and other musical instruments. The natives ~re found to be skillful musicians and theatrical performers. During the town festi. vals, the people would stage comedies and dramas in their native languages and occasionally in Spanish. The Spaniards were successful in their preaching of the Catholic religion and did a great deal for the Filipinos so far as their advancement in culture is concerned.

VIII In writing these brief historical sketches of Philippine Catholic Churches, my aim is to bring to public notice the accomplishments of the religious orders in this country. The knowledge of a religion, I believe, will shape the future of the individuals and hence of the nation, if the teachings of such religion are car~fully observed. Spain may be blamed for being slow in teaching the FiUpinos self-government, but on the other hand, she should be congratulated for what she accomplished both in education and in religion in the Philippines, when success and progress seemed impossible because of the people's ,o pposition to the Spanish pol'itical administration, as shown by the frequent revolts of the liberty-loving natives. The Catholic churches as they stand today are the imperishable relics of Spain in these Islands. They are like books from which an observer ma~l read the past and present history of the country. Their h'istorical value and architectural designs will be the source of great inspiration for lovers of art and history. There is no place in the Orient, I think, that truly preserves the beauty and splendor of European arts as the Philippines, where one finds artistic monuments and expertly adorned churches, purely the handiwork of those urnes during the Spanish regime when the complicated machinery and other great in!Ventions of our times were scarcely even a dream. I:now~ng that the students of the present generation are interested in the study of Philippine civilization, I hope that this present work will inspiI'le them to study wjth zeal the history of Philippine churches and architecture, and thus, the real value of our culture in the past, wffll be better l1nderstood and appreciated by them. With great pleasure, I extend my thanks to Father Henry C. Avery, S. J., who is at present Rector of the Ateneo de Manila, for reading my manuscript and for giving me valuable suggestions; to Father Jose Prieto del Pozo, O. F. M., for his article. "Los Franciscanos y la Miusica en

IX Filipinas" and to PrOfessor Antonio J. Molina of the Conservatory of Music, Undversity of the Philippines, who so kindly gave me a copy of the biography of Father Manuel Arostegui Whose life I have briefly written in this book. Furthermore, the author is und-er particular obligations to Mr. E. E. Baker, an American educator, for his painstaking criticism of the work <lnd for his constructive suggestions. RAYMUNDO C. BA&AS

1450 Kalimbas, Sta. Cruz Manila, Philippines January, 1937

FOREWORD It would be a pity for visitor;3 to come to Manila and

gO away again ignorant of the history connected with the old churches of the vicinity. So much of the spirit of the old Philippines is expressed in them, so many events have been connected, intimately with them, so many famous persons have been identified with them that their record forms a more interesting source of information that will lead one through many absorbing bye-facts.

We wish the present work of short sketches of Philippine churches all the success that the labor of the author, deserves.

HENRY C. AVERY, S. J. Rector of the Ateneo de Manila

Manila, Philippines December 19, 1986


The Manila Cathedral ................ . .... 1 The Santo Domingo Church ................ 9 The Recollect Church ...................... 15 The San Agustin Church .................. 19 The San Francisco Church ................ 26 The Virg'in of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo ........................... 32 The Santa Ana de Sapa Church ............ 40 The Binondo Church ......... : . . . . . . . . . . .. 44 The Sampalok Church ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46 T,he San Sebastian Church ................. 50 The Pandacan Church ..................... 54 The Paco Church ......................... 56 The San Miguel Church ................... 59 The Quiapo Church ............. . ........ , 62 The San Ignacio Church ..... , ........ , .... 75 The Obando Church ...................... 78 The Santa Cruz Church ................... 79 T,he Cathedral of Cebu .................... 83 The Ruins of Guadalupe .................... 86 The Ermita Church ....................... The Church of Maasin ............. . . . . . . .. The Holy Ghost Church ................... The Malate Church ....................... The Tondo Church ....................... Bibliography ............................

87 88 89 90 91 91



Manila is for its beautiful cathedral~ and churches. Tourists co.ming to. this city ask to. be shown the Manila C~tho.lic Cathedral and o.ther historical churche3 no.ted fo.r their carvings and sculptures. these buildings o.f the Shrine, the :\1anila Cathedral in Intramuro.s is best known,-mainly because o.f its ecclesiastical impo.rtance rather than fo.r the beauty o.f its architecture. Histo.rical reco.rds stilI preserved in the Natio.nal Library sho.W that the present Manila' Cathedral suffered · many alteratio.ns due to. fires and earthquakes it came· to. its present locatio.n in Intramuro.s. The first Manila Cathedral was nothing than a paro.chial church built s~mewh€re o.n Bagumbayan drive, near the Lmleta, Miguel Lo.pez de Legaspi, the first governo.r <?f the Philippines, came to. Manila and founded this city in 1571. This was also. the year, acco.rding to 'histo.ry, that the first paro.chial church in Manila was erected by Father Juan de Vivero. fo.r Legaspi's tro.o.Ps. The church was dedicated to. the Immaculate Co.nceptio.n. It was made o.f bambo.o. and nipa. T.he first parish priest, Father Juan de Vivero, was assisted in his missio.nary W10rk by Fathers Juan de Vivaneta, Nioolas Picco. and Juan de Villanueva. *In this book I have descrihed the differerut edifice5 known a s the Manila Cathedral, as first, second, third and fourth cathedrals, respectively, in accordance with an officia.l pamphlet--Souvenir of the Manila Cathedral-publi,shed in 1908. However, the Philippines Historical Researoh and Markers Committee enumerated them as first, second, third, fourth and fifth .;:athedrals. This difference ~rises from the fact that in one case a temporary structure was included in the reckoning, while in the other. it was not. I


The First Cathedral The Philippines then being regarded as a colony of Spain, King Philip the Second of Spain, chose Father Domingo de Salazar who arrived here in 1581 as the first Bishop of Manila . . Under his spil"itua:l administration, the first parochial church Was converted into a cathedral the year of his arrival, by virtue of a Papal Bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII. The cathedral Wias dedicated to the ' Immaculate Conception. The following year, however, this was damaged by a typhoon, and in 1583, it wru;, burned. Bishop Salazar Wlas a charitable prelate. He showed his real love for the Filipinos by his neble and kind deeds to them. The expenses for the reconstruction of the ca路路 thedral ~re willingly assumed by him and by other Spaniards residing in Manila. Later on, he was elected Archbishop of Manila. But before taking his new; post he died (1594), leaving the cathedral still incomplete. Father Ignac1io de Santibafiez succeeded him in the Archbishopric of Manila, being practically the first Archbishop. The Second Cathedral Historically speaking, the second cathedral was built in 1592. Eight years later, in 1600, Manila suffered volcanic disturbances, that damaged the incomplete cathedral. Father Miguel de Benavides, the founder of University of Sto. Tomas, made all possible efforts to obtain donations from the people for rebuilding the ruined temple. But in July, 1605, ~ death brought his labors to a close and the work already begun was again abandoned. Eventually, the second cathedral was completed, and blessed by Archbishop Diego Vazquez Mercado on December 6, 1614. Unluckily, this temple was ~ompletely ruined by the earthquake of November 30, 1645, and a provisional chap-

el was then ~rected oh the plaza of the Governor's palace, then near the Ayuntamiento building. This may be called i.'he third cathedral. The Real Third Cathedral In 1653 the Archbishop, Miguel Millan de Poblete, administered the Archbishopric of Manila, and labored for the immediate reconstruction of t.he cathedral. On April 20, 1654, the first stone of the third cathedral was laid by him amidst elaborate and 1mpressive ceremonies. Besides donations received from the people, he gavle all he possessed to make the work a success. The Spanish King had also given monetary assistance. In 1671 the new cathedral was inaugurated. It was completed by D. Jose Millan de Poblete. Nevertheless, befor,e the end oj that century, the Archbishop Diego Camacho y A viJIa also labored for the cathedral, spending P40,000 for its left tower and for other churc.h ornaments. It was on the eve of June 3, 1863 that many of the strongest edifices in Manila were destroyed by a terrible earthquake, including the cathedral. Two humble and learned Filipino priests, Fathers Pedro Pablo Ponce de Leon and Pedro P路elaez, were fou!1d dead under the huge masses of fallen stones of the ruined cathedral. Thereupcn, a project to erect another cathedral which would withstand any future volcanic calamities took fonn in the mind of the Archbishop. Work on the next or fourth cathedral was practically commenced in 1871. The Fourth Cathedral One of the architects for this cathedral was Luciano Oliver. In 1872 Vicente Serrano Salaverria was also elected as architect. But in August, 1873, to improve his failing health, Serrano w:ent to Spain, and Eduardo Lopez Navarro, tihe engineer of public works, succeeded him. in

4 his work. Going. to Spain in 1878, Navarro was succeeded by Manuel Ramirez Bazan. On the seventh and eighth of December, 1879, the present temple, the fourth cathedral , was blessed by the Archbishop, the Most Reverend Father Pedro Payo, O. P., who came to the arChbishopric on May 26, 1876. His interes~ ing and useful rife, which was characterized by humility, k'i ndness and punctuality in the performance of spiritual obligations, came to a close in 1889. This last cathedral of Romane~que-Bysantine architecture, WillS erected on a stone platform. At first, it had a tall tower of four stories with balconies. But these were destroyed by the earthquake of 1880. Its three strongly built arched portals faoe the statue of the King of Spain, D. Carlos de Bourbon, on Plaza McKinley. At the doorw,ays, stand four large images of the four Evangelists, as guards. Above the central portal, are the images, of the apostles, P~ul and Peter, and~ at the very top of the temple, "are two angels with a cross. Enter'i ng the central portal, left side, we see the chap" el d Saint Joseph with Saint Mknael Archangel on the left and Saint Raphael Archangel on the right. Above IS the imag,e of San Juan de Dios. Then comes the baptistry. The marble font standing in the middle and the altar with the canvas showing the Baptism of our Lord, are rich artistic treasures. ' The chapel is protected-by two iron doors. The chapel of Ntra. Sra. de Guia comes next. It is called the Parroquia del Sagrario. The chapel of the Virgen de los Dolores is the next on E' to he seen. It is the favorite among women, who find in it an atmosplhere of reverence am] exclusiveness which appeals to them. Near the high altar at the left is the spacious choir-

5 loft where the organ is placed. It is protected by iron grating. Used by the Cathedral ecclesiastics, the room under the choir-loft is dignified in appearance. The wooden stalls arranged in a semicircle and the archbishop's stalls in the center are delicately carved. 'Po the left of the hi~h altar is the sacristy, on the walls of w.hich hang the beautiful old portraits of the different archbishops. There are kept the rich chests made of selected Philippine woods that hold the costly v;estments. The ceiling is supported by massive pillars. The high altar is very unique in structure. Here is exp.osed tlhe Immaculate Conception, an imitation of Murillo's painting, by the Fillipino sculptor known as Sales. Over this altar is a broad space resembling the sky in color with many heads of fllying angels. The cupola is lofty and instide of this is a circuJar balcony wlhere the rnayas are often seen flying gayly. Th3 four Evangel!sts are seen in frescoes at tlhe corners of this dome. The chapel, dedicated to Saint Peter, is at the right of the high altar. In it are kept the remains of Father Pedro Payo wjho died in 1889. The adjoining dhapel is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, with Saint Antonio on the left and Saint Nicolas de Tolentino on the right. Oppo~ite is an oJd portrait. The Sto. Sepukro may be seen in this chapel. Near this chapel, is the chapel of Our Lady of Mercy, between Saint Pedro Nolasco on the left and Saint Ramon Nonato on the right, A portrait of the crucifixion is on the opposite wall. T.he chapel dedicated to the Nativity comes next, and on the opposite wall, thangs a canvas of Saint Antonio de Padua. The last chapel at the right, toward the central po).'tal, is dedicated to Saint Juan Nepomuceno.


Noted Tombs In this Cathedral, rest the remains of some of the prelates of the Catholic Churc'h in the Philippines. At the back of the high altar on the right side, is a rectangular mausoleum contain'i ng the remains of Joseph Aranguren and at the left is another one for the remains of Joseph Seg'ui. In a niche in the back \V',all of this altar are kept the remains of the Spanish Governor, Simon de Anda y Salazar. College Of Boys' Choir Of The Cathedral About the middle or the 18th century from the Most Rev. Father Juan Angel Rodriguez XIV, Archbishop of Manila, who took his seat on January 23, 1737, came the idea of creating a musical instituiion for the Cathedral. But ~s he died on June 24, 174~, his wise project wag effect by the Most Rev. Father Juan 'de la Fuentes Yepez who succeeded him. This musical institution was f ounded in honor of "La Santisima Tninidad'.' It is called "College of Boys' Choir of the Holy Cathedral" (Colegio de Ninos Tiples de la Santa Iglesia Ca~edral). It may be considered a conservatory of music; for there was no real conservatory of music 'in the city at that time. Its faculty w:as composed of a director, a vice-director, three music professors and an academic teacher of primary 'i nstruction. The three professors had to be clergymen. The first taught solfeggio and vocalization; the second, organ and composition; and the third, stringed instruments. However, in later years, the qualifications of the music prof,e ssors were altered. Native Filipinos and Spaniards were admitted into the institution as music professors. The course of study followed wasl similar to that of the Conservatory of Music in Madrid. AI. boy had to be at least six or seven years of age before he could be admitted into this school, and was exam-

7 ined :first by the three professors over Whom the direc~ tor presided. The boys were taught to play on the violin; piano and organ, and to read m'u-:;ical notations either fo rward or backward. Boys who remained in this school f or more than five years, became musicians io>y pr ofession. Antonio Garcia, a noted pianist and violoncellist, and Simplicio Solis, a religious composer of note, were the prominent graduates of tlhis institution. Among the professors of this institution were : Blas Echegoyeu (solfeggio), Remigio and Apolinar Calahorra, Oscar Camps (piano and solfeggio or harmony and composition), Luis Vicente Arche (organ and composition o'r piano), Ramon Valdes (violin and violoncello) , Igoocio and Bibiano Morales (violin), and Hipolito Rivera {so\feggio). Among the earliest Filipino subchancellors were F at.hers Gregorio Gomez and Hermogenes Dandan. Father Luis Calpe, a professor of singing and vocalization, was the; Sochantre of the Manila Cathedral, amI Father Joa.quin Calpe was the director of the institution in 1878. Father Eulogio Sanchez who died in his home in San Juan del Monte was the dir~ctor in later years. He took lessons in solfeggio from Jose Muezo, a bandmaster, and piano from Oscar Camps. He wrote some religious compositions. Bâ&#x201A;Ź<cause of ill health he left the institution and lived in San Juan del Monte. In sp.ite of physical , weakness he regularly performed his duty as priest. F ather Pedro nandan, a noted tenor, a presbyter and "sochantre" of the Manila Catholic Cathedral, died in 1897 in the open camps where the Filipinos were fighting for liberty. At present this College of the Boys' Choir of the Holy Cathedral as different from what it was formerly. It was about to be converted into a se!mi-seminary by Father Cesar Guerrero, the son of Leon Guerrero, when he was its director. But as he went to Lingayen as it.s first BishQP,

8 his idea .vas not exactly carried out. He was succeeded in his post as director by Father ,\ViIIiam Finnemann. Its presEnt active director is Father Simeon Gutierrez. Conclusion The Manila Catholdc Cathedral, through the combined efforts of the church dignitaries of the Cathedral, has be· come one of the most magnificent temples in the Philippines. We should not forget 1lhose who brought to successful completion this temple of God. The names of Capt. Juan Sar~ento and his Wife, Isahe.l d~ Paredes; Capt. Antonio de Espinosa and his wife, :Maria de Arriaza; Capt. Alonso Faranccn and Archbishop Diego Vazquez de M€rcado should be held in lasting remembrance. They erected nearly all of the costly chapels in this Cathedral. In this Cathedral are held the most solemn religious ceremonies in the city. Several times on its high altar has be€n exposed the Virgin of Antipolo. It was on the night of November 28, 1926 that the Virgin was l~st brought to Man.ila and placed in the lofty shrine of the Cathedral amidst solemn ceremonies. Here, in November, 1935, was sung a Te-Deum in honor of the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Thousands of people seek the Cathedral daily, As an immense temple of God, the Manih Catholic Cathedral is continuously visited by the people of the Phil'lppines and by tourists coming from foreign lands. It typifies the religious devotion of a people stretching over the centuries from 1571 to the present time, and testifiES to their determination in rebuilding it several times, subsequently placing therein the then most honored ecclesiastical dead, and making of it a shrine for the Patron Saint of the Phil'ippines, the deeply venerated Virgin of Antipolo.




Historkal Sketch


In 1587 the DominIcans reached the Philippines from. Cadiz, Spain. It was they who were responsible for the early construction of the Santo Domingo church in Manila. The first chur~h, only a chapel, was inaugurated on January 1, 1588, and masses and confessions have been held in this church since then. In 1589 the church was partly destroyed by an earthquake, but there were no personal injuries. Father Alonso Jimenez directed the reconstruction of the second temple Which was made of stone. Donations were given by such persons as Captain Domingo de Mendiola, Captain Castillo and Maria Perez. On April 9, 1592, it was inaugurated with great solemnity. This second temple or practically the first church, exceeded the former in strength and durability. But unforâ&#x20AC;˘ tunately this ' was devoured by fire on April 30, 1603. Then it wtas reconstructed once more. T'o protect it from further fires and earthquakes, it was strongly built of stone. Donations were again asked of the people. This third temple did not last long for in spite of its 'solid construction it was ruined by another earthquake on November 30, 1645. Only the high altar remained after that great upheaval. T.hen the fourth temple \WlS constructed. Better materials were used. There were wooden arches and three naves inside the church. The artistic interiOr designs were executed under the direction of Father F'rancisco Gainza. Initiated by Father Castro, the facade was modelled after that of St. Paul's in London. The church was inaugurated with great festivals on June 15, 1862. On June 3, 1863, the Philippines experienced one of

10 the strongest earthquakes in its history and this church was greatly damaged. To have the daily mass, the Sto. Tomas University erected a temporary chapel in its building, dedicated to the Virgin of the Rosary. This Was the situation up to November, 1864, when Father Benito Rivas ordered the erection of a public chapel close to the conv,e nt. This was used as a provisional church until August 15, 1867, w'hile the permanent church was under construction. A few months after the earthquake, Felix Roxas presented a new polan for the church'.,:; reconstruction, partly following the plan of the previous church and at the same time utilizing some of its remaining parts. - Then the fifth temple was erected, a few months afte1' the previous one was destroyed. On August 30, 1864, the cornerstone of the present churC:h was laid. In it was pbced a lead box, containing authentic art objects, gold coins, medals of saints and other things belonging to the "Orden de Predicadores". Philippine building materials were used. The i-mmense columns, resembling the spreading branches of the trees in the forests, are of acle, molave and ipil. The vaults are of zinc or galvanized iron With mouldings of baticulin. The colored glass windows were ordered from Europe. T'leSe give a beautiful light inside the church. The four "retables" were made under the direction of Father Joaquin Sabater, a professor of drawing at the University of Sto. Tomas while Albereoni directed the painting of the main altar. It should be remembered that Father Pedro Payo had worked very hard to bring about the immediate ccmpletion of the Santo Domingo churcb. On August 14 1867, although it was not yet totally completed, tfue Virgin of the Rosary was transferred to this new church, and as soon as it was completed, it was blessed by the Illustrious and Most Reverend Father Mariano Cuartero, in company with



the other dignitaries of the church. The first mass was .celebrated on Saint Joseph day. by His Excellency and Illustrious Father, Francisco Gainza. The church was designed by D ::m Felix Roxas, a famous architect, of that time. The Gothic archi tecture is dominant. Its floor is made of our native molave and n arra, and the pulpit is of fine carving, with the im ages representing the different saints of the Orjer. A dove is attached to the sOunding board of the pulpit, above 'which, is an angel. The choir-loft is spacious and is prote,cted by ~rought iron railing manufactured in the Philippine3. Over the central doorway, on the roof, is enclosed in a glass case the original Virgin of the Rosary, which has been there for many centuries. The Altars The central altar has three saints. In the center, is Saint Dominic; at the left, is Sail1t Francis, and at the right, Saint Theresa of J,esus. Above Saint Dominic, is the statue of Sa'int Mary Magdalena. The cupola above has many colored glass windows. Inside, is a balcony surrounded by iron railing. . Our Lady of the Rosary has a separate chapel at the right of the high altar. Th~ s image was donated by the Governor-General Luis Perez Dasmar'ifias and carved by a Chinese, under competent direction . Many persons claim to have secur,ed much help fron,. this marvelous image-especially women, Who place the skirt of the image over their abdomen, during difficult delivery. It has been reccrded that this image saved the idJands during the Dutch invasion of 1646, and that on October 5, 1907, it was canonically crcwned. Its ivory hands and face, costly garments a:r:d cro-wm are very artistic. Saint Dom inic is at the left of the image, kneeling and receiving a ros~ry w'hile at the right is Saint Catalina de Cena. In the same chapel, are

12 two more lefty altars: the one on the right, is dedicated to Saint Vicente Ferrer, and the other on the left, to the Holy Family. In this chapel, the interesting historical canvas painted in Rome in 1909, represents the priest, Sannt Domi~ nie, baptizing a Chinese while the two other natives stand watch'ing him. N ear this chapel is the sacrlisty in which are the chests of camagon with their fine carvings. These chests contain the costly vestments of the priests. A big crucifix 'i s at one end of the hall near a stairway leading to the monastery. Below this image, is a half~ length portrait of the Virgin Dolorosa. On the walls of the sacristy, are canvases of interest and value from a relig~ ious standpoint. In the spacious monastery, are also canvases of the dif~ ferent martyrs of the Dominican Ol'de'r . The Virgin Japo~ na with her pretty child is near one of the walls. It is well preserved in spite of the long years since it was brought from Mexico witn the Virgin of Peace of Antipolo, in one of her travels. On the left of this image is the portrait of the Sacred Heart of JesuS'; and on the right, the Sacred Heart of Mary. There are four more altars in the main church. The tw'o on the left are dedicated to the Immaculate Comception and to Saint Thomas respectively; i:he two on the right, to Our Savior and to Saint Joseph. BeloW! the Crucifix i"s the "Santo Sepulcro" which can be seen thru the glass cover. From the lofty ce'iling of the church, the costly and 'leavy chandeliers hang like clusters of flowers from the branches of ,a tree, and on the lateral walls, are the images carved in wood, showling the different stages of the life of Christ. These wonderful carvings have remained in a good state of preservation to the present time.

13 Religious F'c asts The patron saint of this church is Our Lady of the Rosary. The district festival is held in October of each year. The novenario hEld in this month is attended by many people. On the ninth day, a solemn procession comes forth from the church, passing thru the principal streets in Intramuros. The Choir Of Boys The convent of Santo Domingo church, like the Manila CatHedral, has maintain€d a choir of boys. Young boys have been admitted, in the convent to study singing and organ playing. Some of our native musicians. have received their early musical education · from this convent. One of then was Francisco Santiago, now a doctor of music, and the other was Serafin Magracia, a noted pianist. The Dominican Schools The Dominicans have help€d the country in m",ny ways. They have not only help,ed the peQple by teachin" them the Christian faith and by building the Santo 1!omingo Chul'ch but also by establishing many colleges, the greatest of which is the present University of Santo Tomas, founded in 1611 by Father Miguel de Benavides. This institution was inaugurated in 1619. Several changes have taken place in the institution since then. In November, 1645, it r.eceived the title of "University" from Pope Inocencio X, and in 1785, th€ title of "Royal". So it is called the "Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas". I t was modelled after that of Mexico, the country thru which the Philippines was at one time govern€d. Its first rector and chancellor was Father Domingo Gonzales. Dogmatic and moral theology, philosophy and medicine, are among the various courses offered. Accord-

14 ing to the Royal Decree on October 29, 1875 the courseS to be offered were in juri'sprudence, ecclesiastic, medicine, pharmacy and notary. Since 1734, civil and canonical law has been taught, foTlowing the methods used by the univer~ ~itJ!es of Europe. The faculty of philcsophy and letters was founded in 1896, while that of medicine and surgery dates from 1871. Research work has been encouraged and the museum cf the institution contains rich specimens for the study of the natural sciences and history. The new building of this institution near Espana street in Sampalok is modern in construction. It is an immense concrete building in which all the branches of the institution are housed. Women are now admitted to study education and other courses. 'The othEr institution administered by the Dom'inicans is the San Juan de Letran College, founded in 1630, by Father Juan Geronimo Guerrero. It Was at first established for the Education of Spanish cliildren, but later extended its activities to include the educaticn of the natives as we.Il. Until 1706 it was called "Seminary of Orphan Children of Saint Peter and Saint Paul". But later on, the name "San Juan de Letran C.~llege" was adopted. Its first Retor was Father Geronimo de Jamora. Now, the curriculum of the government schools is follow~d' with slight mcdifications. ConGlusion The present church reached its completion thru the cooperation of the people and the Dominican Order in the Philippines. The achievements of the Dominicans in this clJuntry should not be overlooked. Educationally, they have contributed their part by the establishment of educational institutions, Wlhile religiously, they have built the temple of Santo Domingo church in Manila, which, it may confidently be hoped, will stand for centuries to come.




The First Temr>le In 1606 the Recollect Fathers arrived in the Philippines, having as their first superior, Father Juan de San Geronimo. The residential 'house and garden of Governor-General Acuna in Bagumbayan were bought, and there, a provisional convent was constructed for them. N ear it was also built a small church; and sinc.e it Was inaugurated on September 10, 1606, the day of San Nicolas de Tolentino, it W!as dedicated to this Saint. Tne Illustrious Bishop of Cebu, Father Pedro de Agurto, an Augustinian Recollect, officiated at the mass, and Father Pedro Solier delivered the impressive dedicatory ::;~rmon. The prominent political and religious elements of the community attended the ceremony. The Second Temple In 1608 the Recollects held their first "Capitulo ViceProvincial" in the Philippines and' the project of erecting a new and stronger church and convent in Intramuros was discussed and planned; and acco.rdingly on September 10, 1608, was inaugurated in Intramuros fhe second temple in honor of San Nicolas de Tolentino: and to it was transferred the sacred image of San Nicolas de Tolentino, brouglht from Spain. The patro,n saint of that of Bagumbayan at first Was San Juan Bautista, Whose day was that on which Governor Pedro Bravo de Acuna died (June 24). This church was destroyed in 1642 by the order of General Corcuera. As the church was often destroyed, one Bernardlino del Castillo was so greatly influenced by his wife, Maria Enriquez de Cespedes, wlho often visited the Riecollect church for her dervotioIl! to San Nicolas de Tolentino, that the wprked for the reconstruction of another temple of stronger materials.

16 'rhe Later Temples A few years afterwards, another church and convent were built. This was the third temple. But in 1645, a terrible earthquake visited Manila and partially destroyed this church and convent. Then ancther church was erected with much sacrifice on the part of the Recollects. But this, in turn, was entirely destroyed by another earthquak~ in August, 1658. To forestall further similar calamities, it was determined to erect a more solid and substantial edifice. When the English att,a cked Manila in 1762, they destroyed a part of the interior of ~his church. Since then, many repa~rs have been made within it. In 1780 repairs were made on both the church and convent. At 8 :30 o'clock on January 8, 1881, this ,c.hurch of the Recollects was 'inaugurated. A solemn mass Was held in which was sung Nedermeyer's mass, the most beautliful parts of which are the "Gloria" and "Credo". Father Pedro Catala was the tenor and the 0rchestra d'i rected by the Filipino violinist, Manuel Luna, made the occasion more impressive by its splendid rendition of the , music. ' Father Julio Saldana pronounced an eloquent sermon. A great ccncourse of people were present on that occasion. Tlie Altars The present church is made of stone, bricks and wood. like the convent, and they resisted the earthquake of, 1863. The pillars are of bricks: and the vaults of wood'. Formerly the choir was above tWb lateral altars near the sacristy. Before one reaqhes the c.entral altar from the main door, three altars along the left side wall and three along the right side wall could be seen. These altars along the left wall are dedicated to Santa Gertrudis, Santa Rita and

17 Saint Joseph, and c.pposite them, are the altars to San Ramon Ntra. Sra. de la Salud brought from Mexico and Sta. Monica, respectively. The main altar is lofty and delicately carved. Here are exposed many images. In the center, is the image of San Nicolasl de Tolentino, whose day is observed in the month of September. . In the right aisle, the altar facing the congregation is that of the Virgin de la Consolacion. Left of the main altar, is a spacious chapel dedicated to Jesus the Nazareno, betw,een Sta. Maria Magdalena on the right and Sta.i Veronica on the left, while above is the Virgin Dolorosa. In this chapel, ar,e four smaller altars, two on the left and two on the right. Those on the rif;tht, ar,e the altars of Ntra. Sra. del Pilar and the Ecce Homo which is between Saint Sacarias on the right and Sta. Isabel on the left. Above the Ecce Homo is the image of Saint John the Baptist. Opposi~e these two altars, are the altars of Ntra. Sra. del Carmen am! Sta. Lucia, r.e spectively,

The Nuestro Senor de la Paciencia came from Mexico in 1653, and according to one account, it was carved' with devoted patience by Don Juan de Araus, an Aragon'ian. Hence, the image was named Ntro. Sro. de la Paciencia. The cupola of the church has an inside balcony like \ theSe of some other churches. 'l'he portraits of the four Evangelists are below the cupola. In this church are deposited the remains of great men such as Alfonso Fajardo, 1jhe Governor-General of the Philippines in 1617, and thOSe of hus Wife, Dona Catalina Zambrano. Adjoining the convent there was an infirmary sufficient to accomodate some of the sick people. It possessed an oratory for the patients.


Famous Recolectos The Recoletos have also produced great works in the Philippines. Father Juan de la Concepcion, a great w.riter and ~historian, contributed mueh to the literature of this country. Father Diego Cera, born in Villa de Grans, Spain, was a priest and a musician who taught the art of making organs. He came to the Philippines as priest and organ buildeT of the church about the end of the 18th century. One cf the instruments which he created was the famous bamboo organ wh-i路ch is now in Las Pifias church, and another was sent to Spain as a gift to the queen. From her he received in return a chalice and a pair of golden vinaj'eras set with precious stones. However, his masterpieces were in the Recollect church in Manila. But in 1898 as the Spanish soldiers were quartered in the church, they tore out the pipes and other parts of the organ. Father Diego Cera was the first curate of Las Pifias when the Recollect order took possession of the place spiritually, in 1795. He began the ~onstruction of the bamboo organ in Las. Pifias in 1~n8, and after some four years of continuous labor completed it in 182'2. In connection w.ith the construction of the Las Pifias organ, 950 bamboos were carefully and pati路e ntly seasoned. For six months they were covered with sand from the beach in order to make them and t? protect them from being attacked by bamboo bugs. Nevertheless, the organ was damaged first in 1862 by an earthquake and then in 1882 by a heavy rain as t'he roof of the church w\as blown off. Then it was partly repaired and from 1888 to 1917 it was not played o;n at all. But Father Faniel, a Belgian missionary, with the help of the to~~n people of Las Pifias, undert00k the task of repairing thr路 organ, so that at present it can still be played. This grgan is the only one of its kind in the whole

19 So Father Diego Cera should be held in gratefi11 rem€mbra~e€ by the Filipinos. H~ died ill 1832 when he was the Prior of the San S~:" bastian convent in Manila, at the age of seventy years. Before concluding this description, it should be stated that the Augnstinlian Recoll~cts were among' those mission· aries who worked very hard for the benefit of the F~Iip'i· no people. They worked with all their heart. . They were patient and industrious. Whenever they began a thing, they would h.ever stop until it wtas completed. In fact, their life was a life of labor and sacrifire. world.




1. he San Agustin church erech;'ld by the AugHstinians b I')l'l:e of the oldest chul"chtts in thQ PhHippines. The ord€.t of San }>.gustin arrived here in 1565, with their superiOl\ Father Andres de Urdaneta. On J unQ 24, 1571, this or~er constructE;'d its first chapel and convent, h'lad~ or oamb09 :md nipa. Then in 1574, when Limahong, the Chinese pi .. rate, came her,e, this temple and other buildings w:ere burned by his. own soldiers, and the costly gifts sent by King Philip II were destroyed with the chapel. , Then another church waSi constructed of wood but was burned 'in 1583 while the obsequies in honor of the late Governor-General 0,£ -the Philippines, Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosll, were being held in {to The "curtain of the catafalque suddenly, cau.ght fire and' could not be extinguished. This started one of' the largest fires in the history of Manila. In 1599 the COrl'lel'stone 'Of the neW church Was laid by Bishop Agurto. . It should be" remembered that its can· Btruction Was under the direction of a Spanish architect, Juan Macias. and later, under the lay brother Antonio Her·


rera, the son of the Spanish architect, who erected the Monastery of the Escorial in l\tladrid, In March, 1606, this church was. also damaged by fire, but was provisionally repaired. When Father Herrera took chal:ge of the re-erection of the churclb, the stones used came from Guadalupe, Meycawayan and San Mateo, while the l;ime was prepared at PaYatas, near San Mateo. T,he first stone was laid by Father Pedro de Agurto, the Bishop of Cebu. Church Description This church, according to old historians, res.isted the earthquakes of 1645, 1754, 1852, 1863 and 1880. It is an immense structure with thick stone walls. Its architecture is Conrinth'ian and Ionic. At first it had two belfries, but that on the left was demolished by a volcanic disturbance in 1880, while the right clock tower and belfry were left undisturbed. The earthquake of 1863 did not do great damage to the church. On that day, the convent became a little hosp'ital for those who were injured as a result of the earthquake, and could not be acccmmodated :in the San Juan de Dios lfospital as it also had been destroyed. This was 'a publicspirited and noble work on the part of the Augustinians in the Phil'ippines. Maestro Adonay, the former organist of the church, who was then a young man, helped 'i n nursing the sick. The tall pilasters supporting the sides of the chapel â&#x20AC;˘ constitute a strong feature. Light is admitted through the windows along the left side, none coming through those facing the monastery. The arch (If t"ne nave shows how exact the builders were in its construction. Another thing that gives surprise to any visitor is the mural decoration of the church. Vi=wed at a distance, they seem to show actual carvings, but in r,e ality, the sur-

21 face of the walls and ceiling are plane and smooth. The painting Wlas executed by a noted Italian painter, Alveroni. The pulp'it is ornamented with delicate carvings. It js on the right side of the church not far from the middle altar. A small image stands above the sounding board. The artistic chandeliers are all of crystal and are carefully made. When lighted, the church ; presents a magnificent view. The Altars The Saint Augustine church has many altars noted for their classical designs. They extend along both sides of the church. At the left side near the central portal, is the chapel of Ntra. Sra. de La Asun(~ion with the image of t'h e Ntra. Sra. del Pilar above. Then follows the chapel dedicated to San Jose and the Holy Child, with the San Juan de Sahagun above. Opposite this is a portrait of the Blessed Alfonso de Orozco. N ext i~ the chapel of La Purisima Concepcion. At her back is a view of the sky with heads of angels. Opposite this is the portrait of Saint Augustine at worship, with angels, Christ and the Virgin around him. Then comes the chapEl of Sta. Clara MOlltefalco. There are four images of angels as pillars of the altar. Opposite this image 'is Murillo's fine picture of the Immaculate Conception. In the transept at the left of tne high altar, there are two large altars; one of them is dedic:ated to the Holy Child. Opposite this, is a canvas shov,~ing one of the Augustinians tied to a tall post. They were the martyrs of Japan. The other in the left side aisle 'is dedicated to Santa Rita de Casia. Below the Santa Rita de Casia is the Sto. Sepulcro. The St~. Cristo de Burgos formerly in the piace of Std. Rita de Casia is now near the main door of the路 church. It was carved in Madrid in 1877 by Jose Alcoverro y Amoros.

22 In a big reom directly to the left of the high altar is an altar dedicated to Saint Augustine, with the image of Sta. lVIomca above. The high altar is grand with its Corinthian pillars. Here is exposed San Pablo Apostol, the titular patron Saint of this church. At the right, is the image of Saint Nicolas and at the left, of Saint Augustine. Above, is the symbol of the Holy Spirit (Dios Espiritu Santo). The chapel directly to the right of the high altar is the chapel of "Las AngustJias". On the altar is a magnificent painting of the "Descent from the Cross", a sublime and moving picture. Near 1Jhe right Wlall stands a huge crucifix, a very antique image as is shown by its appearance. In the transept at the right of the high altar, is the chapel dedicated to "La Virgen del Consuelo". This c'hapel has twb old and attractive paintings of religious value, hanging from the walls. One of them is "La Purisima Concepcion". In the chapel followmg this, is the altar of San Nicolas de Tolentino. Opposite ~is a painting of a nun, Saint Clara, of lVIontefalco. 'Dhe next chapel is in honor of the Holy Family with San Miguel Arcangel above. Opposite this is a painting of the seven archangels. The next chapel is dedicatEd to Sto. Tomas de Villanueva. It faces a painting cf the Blessed Bellecini in w'orslhip. And the last chapel represents the souls in purgatory. Above is San Ni,colas de Penitencia. The COIllVent The convent is made of stone and Philippine wood. The sacristy, being large and well fortified, was the place where the Spaniards hid themselves when the English attacked lVIanila in 1762. The English occupied thE' church by force and when they were gone, the silver, gold and silk garments of the images ,vere missing. They also

profaned the gtaves of such great m,en as Legaspi, Salc~.. do) Lavezal"es and many others, 8XcA.vating and mix'ing up their ashes, which were later carefully collected and placed in the easternmost chapel of the transept by the Augusti. nians.. Further'm or,e) the politkal significance of the place was marked by thQ fact that in the silent sacr'isty of thjs chUl路ch the terms for the Americah Occupation of Manila were discussed and signed. The convent possesses a big libtary which is very dif~ ferent from the ordinary library filled largely with modern books. For in it ate preserved books written in Greek, Hebrew, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, English also Malay ' dialects, plus the principal languages us,ed in the Philippines. . These books no doubt will be of practical value to us if we have an opportunity to see and ~ad them. The "CapillaH Of San Agustin Church The organ in the choir-16ft is of historical importance. It was ' installed there, a~cording- to Father Niceforo Me:tino of the convent, when the English took possession of M,nnila in 1762. As it was already in use before that date, repairs had to be made later on. However, it 'is a magnificent Cf.gan, and various musi,cal cOl'l1binations can still be from it. The convent of San Agustin trained boys in vocaliza~ ti011 and possess.ed a fine orchestra band organized about. the year 1870 by Maestro Marcelo Adonay, appointed Maefl.tro d~ c ll.p'ill a, This organi~ation Was knoWn for its sple.ndid interpretation of classical compositions of Euro'Pean mal3ters. Father Arbst~gl1i also directed this orchestra for a time , but when he left the islands for Spain to improve his railing health, Maestro Adonay who was helped by his brothers, reassumed his old position as its dir~ctor, Leaving the cobVen~ Maestro Adona)" was suc~

24 ceeded by Fathers Anger Oyangurp.n and Jose Foj who were versed in music. Unfortunately this organization has lost its former splendor. At the Augustinian convent at Guadalupe about 1601, was also founded an orchestra band. Father Juan de Torres furnished the organization with musical instruments in 1643. Among those WflO were educated in the San Agustin convent in Manila were: Jose Vallejo, David Jamena, Capt. Pedro Navarro, Baltazar CR.stueras, Cristino Aguilar, Roman Malauin and Tomas l\1路ellaren. Of course we should not forget that Maestro Marcelo Adonay himself, who had been the organist of this convent until 1914, and who died on February 8, 1928 in Malate, ManUa, received his early musical education from this same convent. Noted Augustinians ~he Augustinians are lover of music, fine arts and poetry. In the sixteenth century, there lived in this convent a lay brother, named Father Marcelo de San Agustin, who wlas a composer and an organist of note, and a teacher of vocalization. Father Juan Bolivar w.ho mastered the harp, organ, vic lin, flute and other musical instruments came here in 1739. He was a not.ed cantor for which he became famous in Manila. He composed three volumes of different Glorias, Credos and Chr'i stmas Carols. He had many good pupils in music in Panay 'where he stayed. In 1718, Father Lorenzo Castello who, being a celebrated singer, was 0a;lled "Orueo Agustindano", arrived in the Philippines. In Manila he had "ery many Tagalog and ] pupils. He; also stayed in Panay where he also had talented pupils. He reformed the church choir books and composed many religious works Hmong wHich were masses, Christmas Carols and various airs. He composed: Arte de canto llano y canto de organo. He was highly es-

25 teemed in all parts where he stayed for his genial character, good voice and rare ability to compose. In 1737 came Ji'ather Ignacio de Jesus who wrote with his own hands most of the choir books of San Agustin convent. He was a Prior of Guadalupe and there directed a fine' chorus. Father Jose Calleja came here in 1750. He could play with proficiency, any musical instrument. Father Nicolas Serv'e nit. was an organist who taught numerous pupils in Manila. A lay brother, Father Juan Alfaro, was also a good organist of Manila. Father Barto]ome Vega was very religious and was a musician of note. Father Juan JadraqUe composed: Arte de canto llano y canto de organo. And lastly, Father Juan Andrade was a choir-vicar and a celebrated .cantor in Manila. The lif.e story of a great musician, Father Manuel Arostegui, must now be recounted briefly. F'ather Arosteguf was born on March 31, 1854 in Ochandiano, Province of Vizcaya, Spain. His first music teacher was his father who was an organist. He was a choir-boy at the Cathedral of Burgos whe路r;e he learned harmony under Mr. Barreda, a celebrated teacher, and then under his own brother, Agustin Arostegui. He became a priest in 1876, a prof.essor lin a college in Valladolid in 1882-1886 and 'in the Real of Alfonso XII of the Escorial in 1887-1895. He came to Manila in 1886. He wafl noted for his religious compositions,, if enumerated here, would occupy a lengthy space. Father Manuel Blanco was anothe'r Augustinian who not only devoted hi.s time to religion but alsJ to the study of natural s-cience. He was a great botanist. He was poor, humble and studious. Born in 1780 in Navianos, civilly belonging to the ProvinCe of Zamora and ecclesiastically belonging to Santiago in Gali.cia, Spain, he came to Manila in 1805. In the Philippines, he was assigned as a minister to

26 different provinces. It was his stay in these places that gave him an opportunity to study Philippine plants. In his leisure hours .he would go to the woods and forests gathering curious plants as speciments for his study. It was in 1837 that the first edition of his famous 路'Flora de Filiipinas" was published, and in 1845 the second edition was made. Unfortunately, en April 1, 1845, at the age of sixty-five years, he died in the convent of Guadalupe, where he had lived peacefully as a priest, as a writer and as a scientist.



The Early T,emple The San Francisco church which was constructed by the Franciscans is one of the oldest churches in Manila. Having no definite plaCe in which tu live when they arrived in Man'ila in 1577, the Franciscans stayed first in the convent of the Augustinians while the Franciscan church was under const'ructicn. Ca.ptain Martin de la Rea. was in charge of the ,c onstruction of the convent While Marshal D. Gabriel de Rivera directed the construction of the church. Having the necessary materials needed for the construction of the temple and convent, the Franciscans were engaged in the work from June 24, 1577 to August 2, 1577. It was made of bamboo and nipa. On August 2nd of that same year, it was inaugurated and dedicated to the Ntra. Sra. de los Angeles. In a public parade, the Franciscans happily marched from Saint Augustin convent to this new church. The founder of this convent was Father P.edro de Alfaro. Built of }light materials, this church did not last long, In Manila, it has been observed that fires often took place

because most of the houses at that time were made of bamboo and nipa. In one of these fires, this church and convent were consumed, and therâ&#x201A;Źfore the Frandscans were once more without a home. They then stayed in the Augustinian convent in Tondo. This fire which Qriginated jn the San Agustin church, took plaCe in 1583. The Second Temple In 1584 there came to Manila once more, D. Gabriel de Rivera, known to everybody as the protector of the Franciscans. He worked hard for the re-erection of the Franciscan church. To guard against its being destroyed by fire, it was ordered in 1586 that It be constructed of wood and stone; and in addition, a Elmall hospital for the sick would be built. â&#x20AC;˘ In 1602 it was improved for the tliird time at the expense of D. Gabriel de Rivera. The Later Temples In 1738 when the Provincial Minister was Fath~r Sebastian de Totanes, he decided to demolish the old ¡and weak church, and to erect in its place, a better and stroner one. When the old temple was completely demolished, and the things needed for the new construction were ready, the cornerstone was laid on November 5, 1739, by D. Gaspar de la Torre y Ayala; the Governor-General of the Philippines; and the blessing was pronunced by Father .Juan Angel Rodriguez, the Archbishop of -:\Lanila, in the presence of the Cabildo ecclesiastics. The Manila Cathedral orchestra furnished the musio for the oc~asion. For the church, D. Francisco de Vivanco donated P8,000. On March 10, 1740, the work Was already in progress. The walls of the church mere more than eight varas in height. The economic side of the work w~s under

28 the direction cf Father Isidro de la Santi sima Trinidad, with the cooperatdon of other devotees. This church was completed about the middle of the 18th century. Ruined by the earthquake of 1824, it was rebuilt the same year. Again the church and the greater part of the convent were ruined on January 14, 1839. The rebuilding of the church and convent, was directed by Father Vicente Ingles. Near this church at the right, is a big chapel called the chapel of the Third Order (Tercer Orden). The Altars The Saint Francis church with Romanesque interior is of mixed architecture as seen in its Corinthian and Ionic pillars. The side walls are supported by Corinth'ian pillars. The pilasters are of different styles-Doric, Ionic, etc. At the main altar which is, deIicately carved and magnificently built, is Saint ~ouis, King of France. The altar is artistic, having the Apotheosis of the Virgin over it, and is, made of molave, a wood native in the Philippines. Here are kert the relics of the various Saints as the '-'Protomartires del J apon", also an image of the Virgin. On the right of the main altar, is an altar facing the congregation. It is the chapel of Saint Joseph. On the right, is Saint Clara and on the left, Saint Theresa. Above, is Saint Isidr::, . The altar of Saint Antonio is at the right aisle. It is between Saint Pascual on the right and Saint Diego on the left. Left from the main altar, is. the altar of Ntra. Sra. del Carmen, facing the congregation. Above, is Saint Roque. Ai: the right, is Saint Catalina, and at the left, Saint Juan. The altar of Saint Pedro Bautista is in the left aisle. Saint P~dr(} Regalado is on the right and Saint Pedro Alcantara, on the left.

29 Oll! the right side of the church is a small chapel of the Angustias. (Jesus on the lap of the Virgin). Oppos,i te this is a spacious chapel dedicated to "La Purisima Concepcion", which was placed there on January 15, 1750. In 1756 thru the help 0f Francisco Antonio de Jugo, this chapel w~s deccrated with marble. The statue at the right 'is Saint Ana and that at the left is Saint Joaquin. Below, is the Sto. Sepulcro, donated by Captain Francisco Cosio y Mier on April ri, 1735. The wood cut of which it was carvEd came from the forests of C~bu. On the right of this altar, is the altar dedicated to Saint Pascual Bailon, and opposite this, is the altar of San Francisco de las Lagrimas. On the the right wall of this chapel, is a canvas of Saint Ildefonso, and on the left wall, is a canvas of the Holy Family in Nazareth. ,-" - ~ " The dome of the church is huge and elegantly -designed, and a gallery runs around the spacious cupo,la. The-choir-loft is wide and well ventilated. The organ, so many years old, is in the cho"ir .. Joft, in a gaJllery screen. The Patron Saint The patron saint of this church is Saint F'rancis of Assisi whose feast is held in October. This image has been Other saints, rhere since the church was first erected. however, such as St. Antonio de Padua, Immaculate Concepcion, St. Serafico, St. Fr:mcisco S. Jose and St. PEdro Bautis,t a are also venerated here. ApprOVEd by His Excellency Mr. Vive-Patrono Real, in this church vv~as founded the Arehicofradia del Cordon of ~he N. S. P. S. Francisco in 1(;04. The Franciscans As Musicians Like the other rEligious orders, the Francis:cans have distinguished themselves as musicians. In the first religious schools they have established in t'he Philippines, they

30 taught the natives religious songs and how to play on certain musical instruments such as the flute, violin and organ. Among the famous seminaries in the Philippines at that time was the one established by Father Juan de Garrovilla5 in Lumbang, Laguna in 1606. There, about four hundred boys from different towns were educated in music. These same boys, after completing their musical educ'ation, were sent back to their respective towns, where the religious orders employed them as music teachers in their Catholic schools and organized orchestra bands for religious purposes. San Pedro Bautista, Pr-otomariir of Japan, was a ptominent musician, who taught the natives some plain: songs at an early period. Father Geronimo de Aguilar, an excellent musician according to tradition, and the first music teacher in Camarines frcm the year 1586, has left several compositions: called Lamentaciones. Father Juan de Sta, Marta, a singer of the Cathedral of Zaragoza and sochantre of tEat of Zamora, came to the' Philippines in 1605 and directed the music in the seminary in Lumbang, where he tal1ght the boys how to sing, how to play musical instruments and how to manufacture them. Shortly before his untimely dE: ath he composed a mass. He died on August 16, 1618, in Ma1jila. Fat'her Francisco PHis de la Concep.cion was in the Philipp'ines from 1671 to 1672 . .. HE' composed an album of M otetes for four voices for Via-Orucis. Father Jose de la Virgin staYE'd in the Philipp'ines in 1717 -1767 and wrote Arte dlel Canto Gr.egoriano which was published in Manila: 'in 1727. Father Pedro Parra was in the ManiTa convent, 18641867. He composed two Manuals, one of which was for the monastery of Sta. Clara in Manila~ and the other wa..<;:


a complete colledion of cantorales published in Manila in 1874. Father Cipriano Gonzales, a mISSIOner in the Philippines from the year 1876, has left various musical compo路路 sitions, among were a mass and letanias for full orchestra. Thus, the Franciscans have contributed not a little to the ' musical education of the Filipinos. The Franciscans as Historians and Writers Among historians, scientists and writers, the- Franciscans have many important figures. Felix de Huerta. Juan de Jesus and Juan de Sta. Marta were historians, geographers and writers; and Brother Jose de Valencia was a naturalist worthy of mention. Among the Franciscan writers and lexicographers were Fathers Alonso de Sta. Ana, Melchor Oyanguran, Diego de la Asuncion, Juan de Plaoencia. and others. They mastered Tagalog. Fathers Manuel Crespo, Andres de San Agustin and others mastered the Bieol and Antonio Figueroa, Sanchez de la Rosa and sev:eral others, the Visayan language. Conclusion The Franciscan order has accomplished numerous w'orKs in the Philippines that deserve public praise. Their life was full of sacrifice. They built many towns, administered to many souls, helped the needy and nursed the sick. They built many hospitals for the poor, including the San Juan de Dios Hosptttal which suffered much from earthquakes; the Hospital Real, now known as Sternberg, which was improved by them; the San Lazaro Hospital which until now is of great help to the people and the Hospital de Aguas Santas de Mainit at Los Banos in the province of Laguna, where they labored w'ith zeal. .




The Town of Antipolo In the south central part of RizaI, a province organized in 1901 and named tin honor of our hero, Jose Rizal, is the small town of Antipolo, situated on the hilly western branch of the Sierra Madre Mountains. It is east of Manila and is one hundred and eighty-five meters above sea level. Antipolo is a town rich with tropical tr'2es and legendary springs. The woodland paths, fhe gre-en fields and hills, the native nipa houses protected by tre2s, and the fasC'inating sunset-these make the place pleasant and poetical. The native inhabitants are Tagalogs. How this town came to be called A.ntipolo is interesting to know. Just as the district of Sampalok in Manila was called Sampalok because many sampalok trees were once growing in the district, so the town of Antipolo was so caned perhaps because in this t0wn, the i;ree called antipolo (Artocarpus incisa) grows in abundance. To mderstand better how the pres-ent town 路 of Antipolo came to be as it is, I shall first trace its early history. Morong, now only a town of Rizal Province, once embraced, according to a historal report of the Bureau of Education, all that part of the present provance of Rizal along the northern side of Laguna de Bay, and the northern and northeastern parts of the province. When Rizal 路<ti-~lS organizsd into a province, the town of Morong was 'i ts first capital. Later, Pasig became, and is still, the capital of the province. Th 2 founding cf the town of Antipolo was due~o the early Franciscan missionaries in the town of Morong in 1578, who administered it (Morong) until 1591, the date

33 when it was ceded to the care of the Jesuit Fathers. On 'March 25, 1591,Father Pedro Chirino, the chosen minister f0r Antipclo, Taytay, and other neighboring towns, was joyfully received by the people in Taytay where he held a mass. It was on "Dia de Encarnacion". In 1616,- the ministers of Taytay, Cainta, Banis and Santa Catalina had their residence in Antipolo. The Churdh Built under the direction of Father Juan Salazar, the Antipolo church is situated on the hillSi overlocking the town . . It is spaCious, and is made of stone found in the locality. There are three bi路g altars which are decorated spc~- (, "Iially on festive occasions. On the high altar is exposed the Virgin of Antipolo.,' It was ' erected at the place in which the antipolo tree, where the image of the Virgin was rften found, was located. In the cupola above, is the portrait of the Virgin and the tree where her image "vas found. TJle ,altar at the left is d2-dicated to Santo Cristo and that at the right, to Saint Joseph. All of tbese altars are modelled after the Corinthian style as are most of the altars of the Manila Catholic churches. From the side walls of the church, hang the six wood carvings, manifesting the different miraculouS! powers of the Virgin. 'They shew how the Virgin used her divine POWH on many critical occasions. As we enter the church, at the right near the central portal, is the baptistry. There is only one church tower, and its bells were manufactured in a Manila foundry. The Virgin of Antipolo and her Voyages. The Virgin of Antipolo so much venerated by the F'il'ipinos, according to ancient chrolJicles was l!Jrought here


34 from Acapulco, a port of Mexico. by the Governor elect of the Philippines, Juan Nino de Tabora. The voyage began in March, 1.626, and being completely safe from all the perils encC'untered on the Ee~ this beautiful image arrived 'in the Philippines on June 29, 1626, and w'as placed' for the time being in the ancient Saint Ignacio church, Or the Jesuit church, and then later in ~he ancient Manila Cathedral. It was. conducted amidst a rellg'ious procession, and the ceremonies were attended by a vast number of people. A solemn mass was said and church bells tolled and cannons fired on her arrival in Manila. When Governor T.abora died, the image was given tf) the care of the J 'e-suit Fathers. In Antfpolo, th ~ Virgin is claimed to have shown many miracles. As she wtas often found among the branches of the anti polo tr,ee, this tree was afterw'Ilrds regarded sacred by the natives and the Jesuit Father, Juan de Salazar, thcn the Rector of Antipolo, ordered that the tree be made, to commemorate the marvelous deeds of the Virgin, as her pea'e stal, since at that epoch, the church was yet under construction. Hence the image is called the "Virgin of Antipolo." The most religious people used to employ th~ bark of that tree as medicine. From November, 1639, to March, 1640, the peaceful town of Antipolo Wf,lS disturoed by the Chinese uprising, the inhabitants be'i ng killed and t!he church burned. The raiders were surprised to Eee that the Virgin's image, after being thrown into the fire, was not burned and stilI retained its beauty. To protect the image from futul'3 troubles, Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera ordered that it be transferred to Manila and then to Cavite, where it was venerated for about fourteen years. Being known as the protector of sea travelers. this image w'a s .many times taken to Acapulco in Mex'ico on different voyages, after the year 1641.

35 On June 10, 1647, the Holla nders could n ot s uccessfully capture the port of Cavite for it was strong'l y defended, it was said, by the Virgin of, Antipolo. In 1648 the same image was pla,ced aboard the E ncarnacion and in 1650, aboard the San DiJego, for Acapulco, from 'Which it again safely arrived in Manila. In 1651 it was. aga'il! brought to Acapulco on the San Francisco Xa~ vier and it safely reached Manila in 1653 after a long an d stormy voyage. At its arrival here, it Was receJved wit h a solemn mass held in the old Church of San Igl1a cio. The Govern . r-G€n eral Sabiniano Manrique de Lara and Archbishop Miguel Poblete, agreed to conduct the image the next day back to its old sanctuary In ARtipolo and to call it from that time on, "La Virgen de Buen Viaj e y de la Paz." It was then given to the charg'3 of the J e3.. uit Father, Luis Espinelli, th e Rector of Antipolo. That morning's trip to Antipolo was a happy one, having been attended by a multitude of people who w ent in boats up the Pasig ~iver. To r1ake the occasion more solemn and at the same time imposing, beautiful altars and bamboo arches decorated with flags and flowers were erected on both banks of the rive~·. From Ta ytay to Anti· polo, the procession could hardly move because of the number of people along the way. B2tween Taytay and Antipolo, several small altars richly decorated had also been constructed. There the image was taken doWn once in a while. In 1659 as ordered by Governor-General Lara, the image was again placed on the ship S an Jos e for another trip to Acapulco. In 1662 it safely reaohed Manila from w'hich it was again t8,ken to Antipolo. It was in 1746 that Governor-General P. Juan de Arrechederra presented to the image a fine cane. That same year the image was broug'ht to the Sta. Cruz church in Manila, where its arrival was greeted by the sa For lute of the cannons and w.itlh relig'i ous ceremonies.

36 the last time it was placed en the ship Ntra. Sra. del Pila'l' bound for Acapulco. Then on January 23, 1748, it arrived in Manila from Acapulco with another Saint's image called J apona, on board the Capitana. His Excellency Father Juan de Arrechederra, the Governor and Captain General; Father Juan de la Santisima Trinidad, the Archbishop of Manila; and priests and people from Manila and neighboring provinces met these two images at the harbor and conducted them in a long procession to the Sto. Domingo church where they wer'e worshiped. Later on, the Virgin of Antipolo was taken back to Antipolo by way of the Pasig River during the 18th, 19th, and 20th of February. JIappy was the journey for the people were dancing- and singing and many decorated boats accompanied the boat On which the image was. Many people on the banks of the river watched the procession as it passed by. The image was occasionally placed on the altars temporarily built near the river banks. It was honored by songs accompan'ied by musical instruments such as violins, harps flutes, and oboes, until the portal of the Antipolo church. An interesting feature witnessed on that occasion was the loa, a metrical discourse recited by young boys or girls, in honor of the Virgin. In 1904 the Virgin of Antipolo was brought to Manila and was offidally rec-eived with a civic-religious procession. It was placed on the high altar of the Manila Catholic Cathedral. The extern congregationl'ists of the Ateneo de Manila and tho~e of the "Normal de San Javier" sang in honor of the Virgin the especial music for a fragment of the first scene of Rizal's melodrama in verse, Near Pasig (Junto al Pasig). This inspiring music was composed by the Spaniard, BIas de Echegoyen, once a popular music professor 'in Manila. In 1926 this Virgin was again brought to Manila on the occasion of its coronation. It was on November 27,

37 1926, at 6 o'clock in the morntng that a farewell mass was held at the sanctuary of Antipolo and at about 8 o'clock the Virgin conducted to Manila on a silver float donated by a millonaire in Betis, Pampanga, passing thru Taytay, Cainta and Pasig. In the last town, .the image was housed in the churcih where on 'the following morning (November 28) at about 7 o'clock, a pontifical mass was offliciated by the Apostolic Delegate. The mass being over, the trip was continued ~iom Pasig, passing thru San Pedro Macati, Tejeron St., Herran St., to the C~tholic church of Paco from whi,ch at 2 o'clock P.M;. , the religious and solemn procession started toward this New ' Luneta where the I. . coronation, witnessed by a great number of people, took place, and where, in honor of the Virgin, the hymn, "Reina del Solar Filipino", composed by Francisco Santiago was rendered by a grand chorus and the Te Deum was sung under the auspices of San Paul priests. Mons. Jose Dimbla was the master of ceremonies of the coronation. From the New Luneta after the coronation, the image, accompanied by bands ' cf music and the public, was conducted to the Manila CathoHc · Cathedral where on its arrival Father Juan Anguela, S. J., . delivered ,the welcome sermon, and ,where the "Pange Lingua'~ ' and "Tantum Ergo'" were sung by .the semina1"istas. ,While the image of the Virgin. Wlas hi ' the Cathedral, for nin:e ' days, rel'igion8 rites we)"e performed with sermons in ' different tongues 'suchas . Tagalog, . Pampango, Pangasinan, Ilocano, Vi sayan, Ibanag, Bicol and English, delivered during the high masses by the different priests for the' benefit of the public. . ," . Then on the 6th of Dec.embet' ·at about 8 o'clock in the evening, the sacred imagefollowted by .many torches started from the Cathedral on its way to , Antipolo. The song of Rizal was sung by young gil'ls at the foot of the monument · on the Luneta, irom w'hich .a number of automobiles that . followed the image started their long proI

38 cession toward Antipolo where ihe Virgin was received with enthusiastic veneration that same night. The Music of the Church The parish priest of Antipolo, Father Jose Ma. Gamero, v.~ith the co-operation of the people, secured a new organ for the church. It was ordered from Mr. Albert Moser of Germany and arrived in the Philippines in 1924. Being made by a factory of reputt~ in Germany, fJ1e organ is said to be one of the best ever brought to this country. Maximo Trinidad r路e adjusted the parts of the organ upon its instaHation in the churoh. Pedro Raymundo and Hipolito Rivera, both products of the "Colegio de Nifios TipIes" of the Manila Catholic Cathedral, were the organists of the Antipolo church. They were later succeeded by Irineo San Pedro. Trip to Antipolo The church of Antipolo is yearly visited by the people beginning the first Tuesday of Mayor even earlier. It is due to the many miracles shown by the Virgin and perhaps seen by the people that religious persons make yearly pilgrimage to see the Virgin. N ttvertheless, in Antipolo, they don't merely visit the sanctuary of the Virgin but also take baths in the beautiful, health-restoring and cool springs found there, linked as they are, with many interesting tales. In ancient times the trip to Antipolo was more enjoyable but longer than it is now. Big boats finely decorated with multicolored papers could be seen on the Pasig River near the bridge of Spain (now demolished) or near the Magellan monument in Manila. People riding on these boats had with them their orchestra bands. Along the banks of the river were many restaurants (karihan) constructed of bamboo and Illipa, in which na-

39 tive food such as suman $a ibo s , fluto, bibingka, mangoes, and many other things were sold. It was when the boats passed by these karihan that the passengers would leave theif' boats for a while to eat or huy w,hatever they wished. From Taytay to Antipolo, the people would ride on the hammocks each carried by two men who were waiting on the way for customers. Carretelas were not so often used. for as the road was not so smooth as it is now, the journey was difficult. As soon as the passengers alighted from their hammocks!, candle-sellers ;1nd poor children, chanting beggar s-ongs, would meet fuem. At that time people who had bought some candJes would be given free lodgings by the sellers. 'rhe hospitality of the people attracted the friendship of the neighboring towns. Indeed, this characterized the social condition of the people in Antipolo, at that epoch. It is now eas'ier and cheaper to mal{!e a trip to Antipolo because of tbe abundance of vehicles, particularly automobiles. Those who go there in the morning by motor can come back to Manila also the same morning, and the journ~y is no longer dangerous. Conclusion The religious character of the people of Antipolo and of those of the neighboting proyinces 'is still preserved. The social chara.cter of the peopl,e seems, however, to have changed. Tbey do not appear to be as hospitable now to pilgrims and visitors as formerly. Notwithstanding the distance, the native Catholic pilgrims never fail to visit the shrine of the Virgin once a, year. Antipolo is one of the mo:;t sacred and interesting places in the Ph'ilippines both for its antiquity and the imperishable bequest of Spain to these islands--the Virgin of Peace and Good Voyag,e.




Location The district of Santa Ana is bounded on the north by San Felipe Neri or Mandaluyon; on the south by San Pedro Macati; on the east 'by the Pasig River and the barrio of San PedriIlo; on the west by San Fernando de Dilao or Paco; and on the northwest by Pandacan. This district is a peninsula. It may be asked why this has been called Santa Ana de Sapa. It was so named because it is located near a marsh (estero) originating from the Pasig River. The Tagalog term for marsh is sapa, meaning a swampy place. Historical Sketch Founded in 1578, Santa Ana de Sapa was the place where the Franciscan missionaries preached the gospel in Lamayan, at that time a barrio of the district. In 1586 'i t was fused with Santa Ana. Many places like Mandaluyon and San Juan del Monte were virtually under Santa Ana before. But later on, as Manila continuously progressed, such places became independent. Fathers Pedro de Alfaro, Juan de Plasencia, Diego de Oropesa, Francisco de Sta Maria and Juan Garrovillas were among the early missionaries who worked faithfully for the conversion of the natives. In 1580, Father Pablo de Jesus was the minister in Santa Ana. The first church d€dicated to the Virgin of Santa Ana was made of nipa and bamboo. In order to erect another church of stronger materials, the Archbishop collected donaUons from the people. On September 12, 172'0, under the w'ise guidance of Father Vicente Ingles, the construction of the church and convent was commenced. Amidst great ceremonies the

41 first stone was laid and blessed by the Governor-General , Father Francisco de la Cuesta, the Archbishop of Manila , who also denated P5,000 for the church's construction. This was an event that the people of Santa Ana observed in a special manner. The church with its one tower and the ~onvent as we see them now are made of stone and wood and are built on somewhat high gronnd. It overlooks the Pasig River and is surrounded with old stone walls. It was one of the churches that suffâ&#x201A;Ź!r'ed much cluring our memorable Revolution. The Patron Saints and the Altars In this church two saints are honored: Ntra. Sra. de los Desamparados and Santa Ana. The statue of the first was brought from Spain, by Father Vicente Ingles, after seeing the original image venerated at Valencia. On the 23rd of January, 1726, Father Fran::jsco de la Cuesta, in the presenoe of the highest officials of the City, handed to this Virgin a fine crystal cane ",,-bich is still preserved until now. The second was donated by Governor Juan Jose de Obando. In the high altar, stands the statue of Ntra. Sra. de los Desamparados, and above is that of Santa Ana with San Pedro at the left and San Pabio at 1fue night. Above Santa Ana is San Miguel Archangel. To the right of the high altar is another one fac'ing the congngation. It is dedicated to San Francisco; and left of the high altar is an altar dedicated to . La Puris'ima Concepcion. " There are two more altars along the sides. The one on the left wall is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the other on the right to San Antonio de Padua. The baptistry is on the right gjde of the church near the central portal. The portraits of Saint John the Baptist and of our Lord are there. â&#x20AC;˘




42 Long ago iN Santa Ana t1here was a small chapel commonly known as the "House of the Virgin". Later on this was convert.ed into a tribunal for the benefit of the people. Besides this there was also a jail, a school supported by the people and a cemetery which is no longer used. Ancient Inhab'itants The earliest inhabitants of Santa Ana had queer names-noticeably different from thos-e commonly heard today. There once lived there a chief called Lacantagcan who had a wife named Buoan. Their first-born child was called Palaba who had a son called Laboy. Laboy had also a son called Calamayin whose son was Christened Martin, the first Christian name in the district of Santa Ana. However, Lacantagcan had a son by a girl of Bornean blood. He was called Pasay and later resided in the place now called Pasay, which iB south of Manila. Pan day Pil'a Panday Pira, another important character of Santa Ana, was a cannon maker, whose artillery foundry was burned by the Spaniards in 1571 when Legaspi first came to Manila. The Tagalog word for blackmith is panday, of whom there are many in the Philippines. Before the arrival of the Spamards, Manila was already defended by a fort with large cannon. It Was Pira who made these. How the F 'i lipinos learned to make cannon has been recorded in some old books, still in existence. Centuries ago, the Chinese began to make a practice of coming here to trade, and according to our old histories they were the first to use gunpowder and to manufacture cannon. Hence, having frequent intercourse with them, the Filip'inos at least learned now to use and make cannon.)


A few years after the Spaniards settled in Manila, which as a city was founded by Legaspi, they needed to protect it from the Moros who often came here, and from other marauders. So they sought the help of Pira who fled to Pampanga when Manila was captured by Legaspi. Being especially called upon, he gladiy returned to Manila, and stayed at Santa Ana, where he built a foundry in Lamayan in 1584. In 1590 this was transferrea to the Walled City. In 1805 its operation was suppressed. This was a great obstade to the progress of a people like the Filipinos Who were in great nEed of strong fortifications. When Panday Pira died, both Filipinos and Spaniards mourned his passing. To tlhe Spaniards, eVen thoMgh he was a Mohammedan, he was dear, for he had been the'i r cannon maker and their good friend. Santa Ana Today , As in former years, the Franciscan Father:; are concerned with the education of the youth, a very patriotic work. In tlhe convent a private school is nQw conduded for the children of Santa Ana. Besides this school, there is also a big public school known as Santa Ana Elementary School, which is one of the model schools of the city.




The First Church The following years after the arrival of the Dominicans, in Manila in 1587, Father Domingo de Benavides baptized three Chinese men in Binondo and some who were about to die. Hence, permission vms given by Santiago de Vera to bll'ild a churcH for the natives and for the Christian Chinese at a place then called Baybay near Tondo. Before 1614, the church had been constructed. It was under the auspices of Ntra. Sra. de la Purifi..cacion. Many Chinese in Binondo have professed the Christian faith since then. In the church, st.ayed father Benavides and Father Juan Cobo who tried to learn th~ Chinese language so that the could preach and teach religion in a more effective way. The Present Church As the Christian Chinese were increasing in number, a place called Binondo, now a distdct, was chosen for the erection of a new church. This is tlie church we see now. Its tow'e r has five stories octagonal in shape. At its top is a mirador, from which can be viewed distant places. In the earthquake of 1863, the roof of the tower wns destroyed. It is a bdg church noted for its antiquity. It has only one central portal. N ear it at the right, is the baptistry. The marble font is in the center. The choir-loft is above the central portal opposite the central altar. The Altars The main altar is noted for its fine architecture. In the center is exposed the Ntra. STa. del Rosario, the patron Saint of the district. The image of San Francisco is at the right of the Virgiin and that of Sto. Domingo, at 1jhe left. In honor of the Virgin, the novenario is held in

45 October of every year, and on the ninth day there is a solemn procession. At the right of the high altar facing the congregation, is an altar dedicated to San V'icente Ferrer with San Antonio de Padua above. Here is venerated a relic of the Saint placed in an artistic reliquary sent from Rome 'i n 1866 to Father Vicente Sales. In the side aisle is an altar of the La Stma. Trinidad, an o'il painting. It is between other two saints. Above, is, an image of the Virgin and below is kept the relics of Saint Giriaca in an artistic urn. According to the church reeords she Wlas a martyr. Her remains were exhumed in 1827 at the cemetery of Ciriaca at the Campo Verano in Rome and in 1859, her relics were sent to Father Antonio Orge to be placed and venerated in the Binondo church, Manila. At the left of the high altar is an altar to the Sacred F'amily. This is between two other images. Above, is the image of San Juan and below. of Santa Potenciana. In the side aisle is the altar of Virgin Delorosa. Above it is the Santo Cristo and below is the Santo Sepu}cro. Besides these altars there are three mo'r e large altars. The two along the right side of the church are dedicated to La Purisima Concepcion and to the Holly Child, while the one on the left side of the church, to the Virgin del Carmen. The Patroness Saint The patroness Saint is the Ntrn. Sra. del Rosario. The district festival is held in October, after that of Sta. Cruz. On the last day of the novenario a High Mass is held in the morning and 18, solemn procession in the afternoon at 6 o'clock. About the doors of the church there are many ferias where the people spend their evenings.


Conclusion The district of Bin{)ndo is a Chinese community. Most of the Ch'lnese live there, and 'most of them are CathoHcs. The people there are engaged in different works. Those who live near the shores are rpostly engaged in fisIiing. N ear the churcl.1 are big Chinese stores which were built . long ago. Along the Escolta, w'h ich is also a part of Binondo, the buildings are now principally of modern construction. The district of Binondo is among the busiest places in the City of Manila, and bids fa'ir to continue so.




The district of Sampalok is one of the most thickly populated distr,k ts in the City of Manila north of the Pasig River. This district has been c-alled "Sampalok" because in this local'ity sampalok tre'e s grew in abundance. These trees are grown for their leaves, fruit and flowers, which are used as meddcine and for fl,a voring food. In this district many new streets have been and are continually being opened, and many schools and universities have been built. Among the most noted 'institutions of learning located here are the National University and the University of Manila. Historical Sl(eich Formerly this district was spiritually a part of the di strict of Santa Ana de Sapa, a district south of the Pasig River; but in 1613 the stone church was constructed and dedicated to Ntra. Sra. de Loreto, the patron saint of fire, and authority to separate Sampalok from Santa Ana de Sapa was granted.

47 The public 路should not forget that the Maestro de Campo, .Don Pedro Ohavez, and his wife, Doii~ Ana de Vera, donated the ,land where the ohurch nqwsta!lds and finan~ed tpe construction of the church. , 'rhe .first minister of the Sampalok: district was Father Agu5tin" de' Tordesillas. . . In i639 the C4inese burned this church, and in the following year it w~s rebuilt under the guidanCe of Father Andres d~ Puertol,lario. 路 In 1666, as it was in a poor condition, it was ' agw"in r,epaired and constructed under the direCtion of ' Father Francisco de Sta. Catalina. In July, 1880, both the church and convent were 'destroyed by theearthqttake of that ' year. They wer'e then repaired by Father Pedro A.' Flores. In 1888 the belfry destroyed in 1E80 was reb,u ilt by Fa,tlaer Ramon Cavieda:s. It was this priest who ordered the Gonstruction of a cemetery on th~ left side of the church, in 1890. When the mother of Fath~r Francisco Ortiz, one "of the parish ,priests of Sampalok died, the deceased was placed in one of the niches of this cemetery with a solemn ceremony. This cemetery has slince been demolished. I




. The Present Church The present church is made of, ~ton.e and wood. Formerly, in front there was a big yard enHosed by a low stone w-all having three gates. But a part of this yard has ,now become the' continuation of a street Which was recently j:!xtended, the ~tone, wall be'j ng demoH~hed. Near the" right side of the church is ,a n old and spacious stone ' c~nvent where the parish p~iest and the sextons live. Also there is a parochial school, ' where young children ~re trained in religion arid morals. ' This 'is one of the important functions of the parish) priest -to educate the peophn~f his localitY. ,," Entering the central portal, on the . left one will ' be::-

48 hold the baptistry, · a small room. 1.1 he wooden image of Saint John the Baptist, baptizing Jesus Christ, stands there, and the marble font is in the c€nter of the chapel. The high altar is delicately carv-ed with antique designs. Here, there are many saints. The Virgin de Loret-o, considered by many as miraculous, is in the middle. stand'j ng over the roof of a house. This image is richly dre·ssed during the feast. Right of the high altar stands the huge imag·e of the Sacred Heart of Mary and left of the same altar, stands the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The altar at the right of the high -a ltar is dedicated to San Antonio of Padua, w~th another image above, and that at the left lis' dedicated to Saint JosEph, with another image above. The choir-loft of this church which is not so large as those of other churches, is provided with a harmonium. The Church of V. O. T. NeaI"l the parochial church of Sampalok stands another old church commonly known as the church of the "Venerable Orden Tercera" (V.O.T.). It is somewhat larger than the parochial church, and is under ~he direction of the Franciscan'S. This congregation (V. O. T.) was founded in 1619 in Paco where it remained till 1783, then being transferred to Sam pal ok. It was in 1794 that the Brothers (Hermanos) erected a chapel near the convent. ~here, was celebratEd the feast of the "Hermanos Terceros" until 1880 When it was totally ruined by the earthquake. A\!cording to some accounts the present temple commenced in 1883 under the direction of Father Ramon Oaviedas.

49 Religious Festivals For nine days in the mOnth of December a novenario is held in the parochial church of Sampalok in honor of the Virgin de Loreto. On th~ evening of the ninth day, a solemn procession com~s from the church and passes thru the important streets of the district. Long before this feast comes, many ferias are built near the church and ill former times, ,e n the last day, a native play was staged on a platform built of bamboo near the church. This, being free to the public, was an occasioll when everybody could see the performance. Beginn'ing December 16, for nine mornings the "simbang g;abi" is carefully 'observed in this church. It is always crowded especially du~ing the Good Night Mass (the night of December 24th). ' Holy Week is also Celebrated here with pomp and Jl procession of the Santo Sepulcro takes place in the evening. About three days after this, there is anotJher procession in the evening called "Prosisyon sa sunog" in order to prevent conflagrations in the district. The Printing Press The printing press was introduced into Manila in the seventeenth oentury, and the convent of Sampalok church at one tr~me was famous for its printing. Among the historical books printed here were; "Cronicas de la Apostolica provincia de San Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos de' N. S. P. San Francisco en las Islas Filip'inas, China. Japon" etc. in 1738-44 (3 vol.) by Father Juan Francisco de San Antonio; and "Historia General de Filipinas" in 1788-92 (14 volumes) by Father Juan de la Concepcion. The convent ,has benefited the P80ple both educationally and religiously. Like the Quiapo church, the Sa.mpalok church has been under native priests for a long time. So the peopIe, es-

50 pecially those who are residents of that place, should always help the church of their district whenever their help is needed. The strength of Catholicism in a place practically depends upon its sincere supporters.



The Earliest Church San Sebastian is a small sub-district of the district of Quiapo, spiritually regarded as a part of the latter. Its jurisdiction was merged in 1816 with that of San Anton in Sampalok; and being thus united, the two were called "Buena Union." The earliest church, made of nipa and bamboo, was founded by Father Rodrigo de San Miguel. It has been under the Augustinian Recollects, and waR constructed as early as 1621, and dedicated to San Sebastian, the martyr. In 1651 'it was burned by the Chinese, and later bn, it was rebuilt. This second one had only one church tower and its roof was made of bricks. The old San Sebastian dhurches like the other Manila churches had suffered much from earthquakes. 'Dhree churches were destroyed. The first was in 1859 during the time of Father Antonio Ubeda; the second, in 1863 during the time of Fa~her Juan FE:lix de la Encarnacion; 2nd the third, in 1880 during the time of Father Leandro Arue. The last one was opened to the pubHc in 1868, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1880. Since the previous churches were not built of strong materials, it was decided to erect a new and more durable church. Father Esteban MartiNez proposed its construction and an engineer, Dn. Genaro P<alacios y Guerra, drew the plans. In the meantime, Father Martinez was succeeded in the priory by F'ather Fidel de Blas; and the latter

51 was followed by Father Gregorio Serma, who brought into reality the idea (If his predecessors. The church was dedicated to the Virgin del Carmen. The Present Steel Church Father Gregor'io Serma obtained the cement and F ather Toribio Minguella ordered the steel materials f r om Belgium. Such materials w:ere manufactured in Belgium by the Societe Anonyme D'EntrepriSes de TravOIUx Pu blics, of which Mr. J. Bazain, was the technical chief and Mr . M. Becquet, the director. The materials wtere brought in separate pieces and were assembled here in Manila. On September 11, 1890, during the time of Father Bernardo Muro, the first column was erected. The work was almost completed when he was sueceeded by Father Francisco Moreno, who inaugurated it, August 16, 1891, in which year it was also opened to the public. The church, surrounded by wrought iron granting which adds something to its stately beauty, is built on an elevated platform. It 'is Gothic in style, and has two high, tapering and graceful steeples. It has three front doors and twio side doors. The door on the right side leads to the garden cf the monastery. T,he 'huge and tall pillars inside, with their carved slender ribs like the spreading branchees of a tree, suppor t the broad ceiling. The artistic pulpit made of native w'ood and ornamented with delicate panels and carved figures of different church Doctors around the sides, is OIl! the right side of the churdh near the right altar. Above its sounding-board, stands an angel and below is a dove. Its deSligns were made' by the Filipino painter, Lorenzo Guerrero. Tbe chandeliers suspended from the ceiling were manufactured in the shop of Hilario Zunico, ~hile their designs were exe.cuted by Isabelo Tampingco.


The stained and colored glass windows of the church represent the life of Christ from His birth to His death. These came from Europe. Some of the carved figures and images in the church were made by Eulogio Garcia, a Filipino sculptor. The designs of the retablos and confessionals were executed by Lorenzo Guerrero. However, the painting of the temple was directed by Prof. Lorenzo Rocha, assisted by his pup'ils-Antonio Sanchez, Clemente Paredes, Isabelo Tampingco, Felix Martinez, M\3.nuel Martinez, MI!lllUel Espiritu and Simon N. Fortic. The Altars There ar'e three big altars: one on each side of the high, main altar. In the central altar, is seen the image of Ntra. Sra. del Carmen, which on festive occasions is richly dressed with its gold crown set with costly diamonds. It is between Saint Theresa on the right and Saint Simon Scotius on the left. Above the Virgin is the image of Saint Sebastian, the martyr, between two angels. Above the high altar is the cupola artistically adorned with the color' ed portraits of the order of the Carmelites. At the right of the high altar is a big altar near the monastery, dedicated to Saint Joseph, between Saint Augustine on the left and Saint Nicolas on the right. At the left of the high altar is another big altar dedicated to the Holy Child, dressed lik'e a Captain-General. At the left of this image is Saint Monica and at the right, Saint Rita. The small altar at the left side of the high altar is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, while that at the right, to the Sacred Heart of Mary. The District Feast The district festival of this church extends from January 21 to the 29th inclusive. The patron Saint is San

51 was followed by Father Gregorio Serma, who brought into reality the idea of his predecessors. The church was dedicated to the Virgin del Carmen. The Present Steel Church Father Gregor'io Serma obtained the cement and F ather Toribio Minguella ordered the steel materials from Belgium. Such materials were manufactured in Belgium by the Societe Anonyme D'Entreprises de TravGlUx Publics, of which Mr. J. Bazain, was the technical chief and Mr , M. Becquet, the director. The materials were brought in separate pieces and vviere assembled here in Manila. On September 11, 1890, during the time of Father Ber nardo Muro, the first column was erected. The work was almost completed when he was su(',ceeded by Father Fran cisco Moreno, who inaugurated it, August 16, 1891, in which year it was also opened to the public. The church, surrounded by wrought iron granting which adds something to its stately beauty, is built on an elevated platform. It 'is Gothic in style, and has two high, tapering and graceful steeples. It has three front doors and two side doors. The door on the right side leads t o the garden cf the monastery. T,he 'huge and tall pillars inside, with their carved slender ribs like the spreading branchees of a tree, suppor t the broad ceiling. The artistic pulpit made of native w'ood and ornamented with delicate panels and carved figures of different church Doctors around the sides, is on the right side of the churdh near the right altar. Above its sounding-board, stands an angel and below is a dove. Its deS[gTIs were made by the Filipino painter, Lorenzo Guerrero. Tbe chandeliers suspended from the ceiling were manufactured in the shop of Hilario Zunico, ~hile their designs Were executed by Isabelo Tampingco.

52 - The stained and colored glass windows of the church represent the life of Christ from His birth to His death. 'l~hese came from Europe. Some of the carved figures and images in the church were made by Eulogio Garcia, a Filipino sculptor. The designs of the retablos and confessionals were executed by Lorenzo Guerrero. However, the painting of the temple was dirâ&#x201A;Źcted by Prof. Lorenzo Rocha, assisted by his pupHs- Antonio Sanchez, Clemente Paredes, Isabelo Tampingco, Felix Martinez, M\l:lnuel Martinez, Manuel Espiritu and Simon N. Fortic. The Altars There are three big altars: one on each side of the high, main altar. In the central altar, is seen the image of Ntra. Sra. del Carmen, which on festive occasions is richly dressed with its gold crown set with costly diamonds. It is between Saint Theresa on the right and Saint Simon Scotius on the left. Above the Virgin is the image of Saint Sebastian, the martyr, between two angels. Above the high altar is the cupola artistically adorned w.ith the colored portraits of the order of the Carmelites. At the right of the high altar is a big altar near the monastery, dedicated to Saint Joseph, between' Saint Augustine on the left and Saint Nicolas on the right. At the left of the high altar is another big altar dedicated to the Holy Child, dressed !i~e a Captain-General. At the left of this image is Saint Monica and at the right, Saint Rita. The small altar at the left side of the high altar is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, while that at the right, to the Sacred Heart of Mary. The District Feast The district festival of this church extends from January 21 to the 29th inclusive. The patron Saint is San


Sebastian, for 'whom the ehurch was named. The patroness Saint is Ntra. Sra. del Carmen. On the ninth day, there is a solemn procession that passes thru the impol-tant streets. The image of Ntra. 8ra. del Carmen followed by priests is always at the end. Conclusion The San Sebastian church possesses an organ of modern construction. It came from Europe and was instal..led here not long ago. Unlike the priests of other ~hurcihes, except those of the Santo Domingo church, the friars of this church no"...' new:r allow ferias about the churchyard duI"ing, nne district feast. Instead, plants and trees arc grown there to make the place beautifal ,and f:tresh路. For the religious education of young girls, a beaterio called "Beaterio de San Sebastian", founded in 1719 by four chaste native maidens, was erected near ~he church. At present there is a college for girls in front of the church where modern instruction is offered. It is managed by mothers. There is also a Catholic school for young boys in the convent, in which religious instruction holds chief place. This sub-district of San Sebastian therefore ranks with other districts being on a par with them, so far as religious and academic training is concerned.






Panda can is a district south of the Pasig River. It is like a small province with its many trees and houses made of nipa and bamboo. Though small, it is r'ich in legends and interesting historical events. Here lived ourvernacular poet, Francisco ,.Baltazar, known by the poeple as Balagtas. Hiis life there becam= entangled with political events of the time when he fell in love with a native lady who was said to poss,ess unequalled beauty and charm. The people are peaceful. They have a public market near the church which is near the riv,er. Originally, Pandacan was only a barrio of the district of Sampalok. H-owever, in 1698, it was separated c'ivilly, and spiritually in 1712. Its early minister was Father Diego de Villalba. In 1859 its administration was integrated with that of San Miguel,' 3,nd for many years, the church has been under native priests. The Earliest Church Long ago there were many swampy places in Manila where domestic animals wander'ed and thifl was true of Pandacan. The place vcl'lere the present church is now located was onCe a swampy place, the roaming grounds for carabaos. On the right side of the present stone church was a well where, it is said the town people discovered tfr1e Holy Image of the Santo Nino. The water of this well was formerly used as medicine by the common people who believed that their sickness would be cured. At present this well, being regarded unsanitary by the government, is covered and protected by a little stone chapel, inside of whkh is a small altar of the Santo Nino. The construction of the stone church and convent was begun in 1732' under 'tihe direction ()f Father Francisco del Rosario and continued until 1760 when it was cQmpleted by



parochiial curate, Father Florencio de San Jose. But the earthquake of 1852 destroyed a part of the church tower and the entire c<Jnvent. ThEY were rebuilt in less than two y拢ars, however, by Father Mafluel Beltran, the curate, with the hdp of the people. In 1880 ano~her earthquake destroyed the entire church and the greater part 0: the convent. Then Pather Serafin Terren and his sucoessors erected another stone church and convent. It was in 1896 th:lt the church was completed under the directien of Father Leopoldo Arellal~O, with the help of the people. In 1886 Father Saturnino Sanchez Seco crdered the construction of a cemetery, which was not completed for lack of funds. The Altars and Tcwn Feast The altars are not 80 elaborate as the altars of the other Manila churches. The Santo Nino commonly known as the Santo Nino of Panda-can is placed at the ma'in altar. Tt j~ said that this image has shown many miracles to the natives. Sometimes, they said, it would disappear :from the church, and then would appear again. The district feast of the Holy Child (Santo Nino) is held in January of every year. There is a novenario and there are many ferias in the churchyard. However, not many peoph attend this festival because of the fact that the people now are divided into two sects: The Catholics and the Aglipayanos. 'rhtre are more Aglipayanos there than Catholics at present. 路 Hence there is no solid union among the people so far as religious a<;tivities is concerned. Musical and Literary Culture The district of Pandacan is ~lso a land of mus'i ~~ and drama. In 1893 there existed in Padacan an organization ealled the Musical Circle (Circulo Musical) founded by she Franciscan Father Cipriano Gonzales of the convent.

56 His aim it"Vas to loster musical education, both the study of vocaliz.ltion and stringed instruments. In general, the people there ar2 lovers of musical instruments l'ike the violin, and of theatrical performance. There were many dramatists and mus~cians there such as Pantaleon Lopez and Ladislao Bonus who honored the place of their birth by their histrionic works and musical compositions respectively. Pantaleon Lopez, at first a church s~ngel', 2evotsd the latter rart of his life to the ':V'Titing of plays. "l\hsam:mg Kaugalian", a three-act zarzuela, was his earliest work. It w'as staged in 1901 at the Filipino Theater, no longel" in Existence. He left some unfinished works to his wife, after his death which took place on September 22, 1912. Ladislao Bonus was a self-taught musician. He went to Hanoi as director of the, onc:; famous Arevalo Band of Manila, which executed for the first time his "Pasadoble Hanoi." He composed the music for Paterno's opera, "Sandugeng Panaguinip." This composition was descr'ibed as a piâ&#x201A;Źce of work rich in "Wa'g nerian passag-es and saturated w:ith Italian sentiment and Oriental voluptuousness." Me d'ied on March 28, 1908.





The district of Paco is south of the Pasig River and was formerly called Dilao for the re/1son that dilao plants, '\yhich produ.ce a yellow dy,e, w'8rc once abundant in that place. This name was pl'leserved until 1791 during the governorship of Felix Berenger y Marquina, when the words, San Fernando, w(ere prefixed to the old name. H ence, Paco" was formerly called San Fernando de Dilao, This district was founded by the Franciscan missionaries and as there were then only a few mi ssionaries in

57 the city, it was at farst under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Santa Ana de Sapa. The Different Churches The first church in Paco, dedicated to La Purificacion de Ntra. Sra., was made of light materials-nipa and bamboo-in 1580. But from 1599 to 1601, it was rebuilt of stone by the inhabitants of Paco, under the able direction of Father Juan de Garrovillas. On October 3, 1603, it was attacked and burned by the rebellious Chinese, but in 1606 was repaired and made into a stone church at the expense of Don F'rancisco Gomez de Arellano, archdeacon of the Manila CathoU.c Cathedral, who wished to see an everlasting temple built in Pace. Then in 1762, it was again burned, this time by the English who occupied Manila. A few years after this, or to be exact, in 1791, a provisional bamboo and nipa cnurch V\.~as constructed and the different pueblos were combIned and called San Fernando, by order of the Superior Governor. During the period from 1793 to 1794, the stone convent was constructed under the dirEction of Father J oaquin Segui. However, it was repaired in 1854. The people, nevertheless, wiished to have a better church. So the relig'ious order and the people worked to~ether to realize their desire. It was in 1809 that the construction of a new and fine temple called "antigua iglesia de Paco" was began under the direction of Father Bernardo de la Concepcion. It was completed in 1814. From 1839 to 1841 the church tower was being built under the direction of Father Miguel Richar, who in 1842 directed the casting of a sonorous bell. In 1852 the 路church was ruined by the earthquake of that year, and in 1880 both church and convent were completely destroyed' by the great shock of that year. ,!'his was a great lo~s to the people Qf Paco. In 1881 was commenced

58 the reconstruction of the chur,ch by Father Gilberta Martin, from the alms or donations given by the people and from the kind belp of a Spaniard, Don Manuel Perez, w'ho don~ted all the galvanized iron used in the construction of the church. When it was about to be completed, it was partly destroyed by a typhoon in 1892. The reconstruction was completed in 1896, under the direction of Fath::r Gilberto who labored with zeal as a Christian missionary and benefactor. T,his last Paco church constructed under the Spanish regime was built of stone and wood. The altars were magnificent. The d,one presented an a~pect of grandeur with its splendid glass windows all around. The chur;-h was famous for its ancient 'Santo Sepulcro which Was visited by those devout Catholics dur'ing F'ridays and Lenten season<;. But unfortunately, during the Fili'pino American war, the church was bombarded and cQmpl,e tely burned together with the costly and much venerated image of the Santo Sepukro, oi} February 5, 1899. This was felt to be a great loss by the'路people of that community. Only some parts of the stoDle basement of the old cnurch remained, while the rest was completely devoured by the hungry flames. The Provisional Church In 1909 the Begian Mission took possession of the Paco parish, and in 1910, FatJher Raymundo Esquinet worked hard for the erecthm of a provisional concrete church near the place where the former one had stood. This church was small. At the middle altar, was the statue of La Candelaria between San Jose on the right and the sacred Heart of Jesus on the left. Abov'e this statue was a t:mall image of the Holy Child. N ear the main altar just at the r,i ght corner, was a small altar also dedicated to La Candelaria.

59 The new Santo Sepulcro was un the left side near the main altar, and near this stood the Virgen Dolorosa. The baptistry was at the left ~ide near the main entrance and the portrait of Saint John the Baptist was placed there also. The Present Concrete Church In 1924 the parish priest, Farther Jose Billi.e thought 'Of constructing a new and large conerete church for the district c.f Paco. It was in August, 1911, ~hat the cornerstone of the present church was laid. Modelled after a church in Be1gium, the present temple has tW;) pointed steeples provided with Neon light crosses. The facade has six doors, over which is a balcony. It is cause for great pride that the construction of this new church was made possible by the voluntary contributions of the people of the district. This onCe more shows that the Filipinos are faithful Catholics.



The district of San Miguel in Manila was under the spiritual jurisdiction of the J 路e suits from 1603 until 1768 when it came under the native priests or clergymen, on th~ occasion of the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Philippines. From 1777 it was administ8red by the Franciscans and annexed to Paco (San Fernando de Dilao). San Miguel proper. then. was located near a short river callEd "Tripa de Gallina" and was known as "San Miguel Viejo". However, when the place was burned in 1783, it was, by order of the Superior GcYP-rnmcnt, transfErred to the placs it now occupies, and was annexed to the ecclesia<;tical district of Quiapo, where it remained untjl 1797. With the permission of the Vice-Real Patrono, its administration


was transferred to the Franciscans again. curate was Father PEdro Malo de Molina.

Its first

The Early Church The church dedicated to San Miguel Archangel was constructed under the direction and \\11th the help of a seccular priests, and was completed in 1835 under the direction of Father Esteban Mena, with the loyal assistance of the people. The belfry was ruined by the earthquak~ of 1852, and Father Francisco Febres dlirâ&#x201A;Ź<Cted its re-erectiol1, also the repairing of the church with some improvements. In 1880 the entirB church wa;s, completely destroyed by the earthquake and the convent was left in POOr condition. To have ¡another church, the curate, Father Marcos Hoyos, wlith the money saved and with the alms coIIected fre m the people, ordered from Europe a steel church. This project, however,.w as not accomplished. In 1886 when the curate of San Miguel was Father Emilio Gago, the church was repairGd, and with the help of the people two belfries were built. The Present Church Because of the poor quality of building materials used, this church did not last long. It was rebuilt, with the help ~f the people, especiaIIy by ollie of the richest families in Manila, the Roxas family. The total cost of the construction ' ()f the church asee'n ded to about P40,000. It was inall- . gurated on the morning of September 29, 1913. N ear the main portal of the present church at the left, is the baptistry wlth the pcrtrait of St. John the Baptist and a marble font 'at the center. The middle altar is artistic. In tbe oEnter is the Ntra. Sra. de Lourdes, ab'ove which is the image of San Mjguel ArchangeL At the right of the middle .image 'i s the image

61 of San Francisoo with the Sa.cred Heart of Jesus, above, and at the left, 'is, San Antonio de Padua with the Sacred Heart of Mary above. Right from the main altar, hanging on the pillar, is the i1mag 2 of San Juan de N epomuceno; and left from the main altar, also hanging on the left pillar, is the image of San Cayetano. Right from the main altar, the altar facing the congre gation is dedicated to Ntra. Sra. de Lumen, a portrait (estampa). It is between the images of Santo Domingo ('n th :: right, and San Vicente Ferrer on the left. The altar on the right side aisle is dedicated to Ntro. Senor de la Columna. Below is th8 image of the Santo Sepulcro. Left from the main altar, jjhe altar facing the congregation, is dedicated to San Jose which is between San Espedito on the right and San Mateo on the left. On the left side aisle, the altar is dedicated to La Purisima Concepcion, which is between San Francisco de Paula on the right and Santa J osefina S)fl the left. Town Feast and Parish Priests 'r.he town festival of the district of San Miguel is held in the month of September of each year. FOr nine day:; there is a novenario a)nd on the last day a solemn procession comes out of the church to pass through the different streets. In San Miguel, the ftirst F'ilipino priest of the cfmrch was Father Juan AsHo who was succeeded by Father JOS8 Chanco. Father Hipolito Arceo w,as the third native priest. He spiritually administered the church of San Miguel from 1900. He had traveled abroad to broaden his religious education.




At present, Quiapo is one of the most attractive districts in Manila and has one of thE' largest markets, called ths Quinta market. The San Sebastian church is supposed to bs a chap.el of the Quiapo church. Intere3ting stor'ies in connection with the patron s,aint of the Quiapo church are often told by the p,eople of Manila and being connected with religious beliefs, the,se stories are not forgotten. Historical Sketch Many years ago Quiapo was, according to some chronicles, under the spiritual juri:;diction ot Santa Ana de Sapa, now popularly known as Santa Ana, a district south of the Pasig Riv,s r. Tlhis dated from 1578; but when en August 29, 1586/ Governor-General Santiago de Vera signed a license to separate Quiapo frcm Santa Ana de Sapa t the former became an independent district, now called the district of Quiapo and having a r~hurch called Parroquia de Quiapo, v,<deh was form :'rly caLled the Parochial Chur~h of S~. Jotn the B:1ptist, th:: titular patr,n saint of the district, whose day faIl3 on June 24. This d'i~trict is on the northc-rn side, of the Pasig River and is one of the most j:, rogressive ~n the city. In Manila, as is known, ~ach district has its own Cath~ oi'~c church. T'he earliest Catholk church in Quiapo was, like the antique houses in the Philippines, made of nipa and bamboo. It 'was constructed ~nd dedicated to the Holy Name of Jesus, by the early Franciscan mis:sionar'ies w'ho came to the Phillipines. However, in 1598, when the Gov'erl1or-General of the Philippines was Francisco Tello de Guzman, the Illustrious Father Ign?vcio de Santibafiez, the first archbishop of Manila, asked the people for some donations in order that he could ope)) here a secretarial de-

63 partment. Without any difficulty and with the co-operation of the people, this was soon accomplished, and so Father Antonio de Nombela became the first minister of Quiapo. The early church was destroyed many times. In 1574 w!Ien Limahong, a Chinese pirate commanding a small army entered the city of Manila, several churches in cluding this church were burned by Ids soldiers. However, they were driven away by the Spaniards and the Filipinos. In 1762 when the English captured Manila during the Seven Years' War, they attempted to destroy the church. But with the help of the Spandards who were devout Catholics, their purpose was frustrated and they were dri ven away. For about two years, they held the city, but by the Treaty of Paris it was finally restored to Spain. It was during the governorship of His Excellency Rafael Echaque and during the time of Father Jose Ma. Guevara, parish curate of the Quiapo church, that Manila experienced the great earthquake of 1863. Many build路 dings and churches were destroyed and many people killed. As the Quiapo church was ruined, a temporary one was, built.F ather Eusebio de LeO!!, worked hard for the reconstruction of the ruined church, which was effected in 1879. The Governor-General of the Philippines then waR His Excellency Domingo Moriones y ~urillo, who served as governor of the islands from 1377 to 1880. It was in 1889 that the church was completed, Father Manuel E. Roxas Manio being parish priest of the church at that time. He directed the con&tmction of the wooden ceiling and the sacristy back of the main altar. He was a native of Kalumpit, Bulacan, and Was a famous ~ducator and a wise preacher. He had traveled abroad anl~ h ad written both in Tagalog and Spanish, several works on reIn "La Independencia" ligion. He was also a patriot. dated January 19, 1899, a letter written by 'him to Gener-


al Emilio Aguinaldo was published. It was written in Kalumpit on January 14, 1899. In the last paragraph of that letter he said that where our brave soldi-ers with their bolos were, there would be a humble clergyman with a Crucifix, to give aid and to attend to. those who fell, and to encourage those who were victorious. On August 3.1, 1898, he delivered a patriotic and historical sermon in the church of San Fernando, Pampanga, where our flag was blessed. The mass and a civic-rel'igious festival were held to commemorate August 3, 1896. The Philippine flag pr,e sented by the maidens of Pampanga to the regional regiment soon to be created, was blessed. In the afternoon, the flag was unfurled at the flagpole near the municipal building of the military government and the Philippine National Hynm W'as rendered. Father Jose Ma. Guevara, already mentioned, was another patriotic priest. He waa a native of Bataan. On board the "Flores de Maria", he was deported to Marianas Islands in the Pacific Ocean in 1872, after the outbreak of the Cavite revolt. Such was the history of some of the Quiapo parish priests during the Spanish times. For a long time the district of Quiapo was under Filipino priests, who' labored much for the benefit of the people. 'the Churdh and Altars The church, though built of st-:me and wood, went up in flames. It had one main door and one lateral door on each side. It had one churcJh tower in which the big bells were hung. The massive pWars supporting the ceiling were distinctly artistic. The convent v,rhere the par'i sh priests reside was connected with the church. This church was visited by Catholic devotees especially on Fridays, New Year and during the Lenten sea!'>~)!lS, when sp ecial religious services were held.


Entering the central portal of the church, one would behold at the right, a chapel in which was a huge black crucifix. There, people knelt, prayed and kissed the wounded feet of our Lord. . Somtimes handkerchiefs were rubbed over the feet. By so doing, the devotees believed that their ailments would be healed. This chapel was dark because of the smoke of the lighted candles placed there in honor of our Lord. Opposite this qhapel was the baptistry, near the stairway leading to the choir-loft where a fine organ costing P2,OOO was once located. There. wa~ also a small black crucifix. Designed With Corinthian pillars, the central altar where Jesus Nazarene (Black Christ) blessed by the Archbishop Basilio Sancho in the 18th century and by Pope Pius VII in the 19th century was exposed to public view, was artistic, classical, imposing, and occupied a position between two d()ors leading to the sacristy. At the right of the central altar, facing the congregation, ~s an altar to Saint Joseph with the Holy Child. Above these images was another image of the Holy Child standing alone. In the was, another altar to our Lady of the Rosary. At the left of the central altar, was the altar dedicated to the Holy Family with ~aint Sebastian above, and in the side-aisle, was another altar to Saint Theresa of Jesus. There were other artistic altars in the church which had been recently built and donated by certain devout Catholics. The beautiful chandeliers which were all of crystal were hanging from the high ceiling. These were all lighted on feast days 'a nd during other ilmportant religious services. The Church Burned .I

One of the most important losses in the district of Quiapo in 1929 was sustained in the burning of the Paro-

66 chial Church of Quiapo. The (ire began before eight o'clock on Wednesday night, October 30, 1929. It was said that defective electriCt wiring was responsible for the fire, which started near the entrance of the baptistry just at the back of the altar of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, an altar that had been donated by Mi&ses Agueda and Jacoba Paterno on October 10, 1915. The flames crept upward to the choir-loft and then to the ceiling and the roof. These being very dry, the fire ,spread wit.h great rapidity. When the fire began the curate of the church, Father Magdaleno Castillo, was din'ing with a visitor, Father Januario Cordovez, who upon learning that the church was on fire, rushed to the main altar and took the Blessed Sacrament. While he was carrying tbis, ;he met Juan Javier, Jose Carrion and Bon'ifacio Abdon, viho were going to the sacristy to give what assistance they might. Tpese all aided the priest in opening the sacred case contai'ning the Blessed Sacrament which was taken for the time being to the residence of Dr. Ram'0n Javier at Cane El Porvenir, and placed on the altar there. But it was not allowed to remain there lor.g for it was soon taken back to the convent after the fire had been extinguished. The next thing done was to rescue the Holy Nazarene or Black Christ. This was removed by persons who bravely rushed to the main altar, passing tlhrough the door from behind the church until the~ reached Regidor Street. The image was then temporarily placed in a small house No. 701, at the corner of Regidor and P. Paterno Str路eets. When the fire was over, the Holy Nazarene was taken that same night to the residence of Sra. Juana Vda. de Ocampo, at Calle Palma, not far from the ruined Quiapo church. The result of the fire was that the church, according to the parish priest, sustained a lOSS amounting to many thousands of pesos. The greater part of the roof and almost the entire ceiling of the church, the benches, the crystal chandeliers, the small black crucifix in the choir-

67 loft, and the ~2,OOO~r:esci organ~ql1 of these wer e convert. ed into ashes. The main altar was only slightly burned. The parts of the edifice that remained after the fire were the side stone walls, the belfry with the big bells and tibl8 thick stone facade. On the night of the next day, Thursday, October 31, the Holy Nazarene was brought to the main altar of the ruined church. In the morning of that same day (October 31) 1929) a mass Was held at a sma.Il altar temporarily built in the sacristy, just behind the main altar of the ruined church. The following day, which was Friday, November 1, 1929 (All-Saints' Day) the mass Was held under the convent where a prov'isionll.l altar was built. Mlany people attended the mass and kissed as before, 1)4e feet and hern of the robe of the Holy Nazarene. Daily thereafter, there Was a maSs in the convent. Services at the RUined Church

In order to hold masSes in the ruined

church, the :roof, ce'iling and the floor were eleaned. All those pieces of w:ood that might fall down any time were removed and put in order. The church now being- 'in readiness, its doors Were open~d to the public on Friday, December 6, 1929, and masses have been 'held since then. But the saying of masses in the ruined church was soun prohibited by the a uthorit:es on the ground that some hurned timbers of the roof might fall any time, resulting in injury or even death to the worshipers. Hence, the "simbang Gabi" was held under the convent where a provisional altar Was erected. The ceiling and roof of the ch urch were inspected and the weakened parts removed. Then, as it Wlas believed the church was again safe, the Christmas Eve Mass (Noche Buena) was held in it on the night of December 24, [929, The benches were arranged inside, and broad pieces of


\lV hite cloth W€re suspended near the roof across the ceiling to , any timbers that might fall. The music for the occasion was similar to that of previous years save that a harmonium was used instead of the organ. There was also a "panawagan" attended by many people. The district fiesta in January, 1930 was celeLr:1tec1 v"i th much pomp and ceremony by the i.nhabitants of Quiapo. The masses were held in the damaged church, the novenario extending from January 1 to January 9 inclusive. In, the morning of the first day, the High Mass commencerl at half past eight o'cIcck. Many people attended it and there was, a s' usual, fine music. The orchestra and chorus that assembled nEar the right lateral altar were directed by Dr. Ramon Javier. On the morning of the ninth day tne orchestra in the High Mas·s was directed by Maestro Jose Carrion, and in the afternoon of the same day there was a solemn precession. The people lined the streets through which the procession passed and many were at t.heir windows solftly saying their prayers as the Holy Nazarene was being labcr'ious,l y bc,rne along on the shoulders of a band of men w/ho hadr made vows to perform this heavy task at least once a year. Following the Holy N azarEme wue thousands of men, women and children 'Walking reverently, carrying lighted candle,s and uttering their own prayers. Some, besides the lighted candles carried t,h eir babies in th€ir arms. Because cf the miracles believed to have been' done by the Nazarene, ~housands are attracted to the temple to kiss the feet of the image and the hem of its robe. Thus was celebrated the town fiesta that year. The people attended the mass with full devotion to God. 'T hey knelt in the ruined church, n0t fe:lring any calamities that might come to t.hem such as the possible falling on them, of burned timbers from the roof. It was an inspiring sight to see the thousands of people assembled in the ruined church to pray and hear the mafo:s.

69 W;hen the year's feast was over, the priest was very busy. He requested Mr. Juan Nakpil, the architect who . voluntarily was making the plan fer the new temple, to' finish it as SOon as possible. It was to be built, however, without dEmoli&lhing the side wal!:s ({nd the facad. e of the old church, but modifying and improving its appearance and form. Mr. Napkil W;as trying his best to plan a new temple that would be bEtter and more beautiful than the old one had ever been. Musicians and Religious Music Excellent music is a feature of the Quiapo church services. 'Dhe organ that was burned had a super'ior tone. In lieu of this, Father Cecilio Damian, coadjutor of the 8ta. Cruz Church, gave his old harmonium to Father Magdaleno Castillo, the parish priest of Quiapo, to use for the time being. As it had not been used for a long time, it needed some repairs, and Father Castillo had them made. On festive occasions, such as Christmas and Lenten seasons, the singers here are not merely amat.eurs; they are mostly professional musicians of the Quiapo district. To acquaint ~urselves w'lth the music of the churClh the following data are perhaps essential: Natalio Mata (July 3, 1833-May 15, 1896), a native of Quiapo, was the first organist of the church. He was a noted music teacher, who was known for his pathetic church compositions such as the "Seven Sorrows of the Virgin" (Los Siete Dolores de la Virgen) sung during Good Friday evenings. However, he died kaving this work incomplete. But his son, Manuel Mata (June 13, 1861-April 1, 1901), also a native of Quiapo, who succeeded him as organist of the same church, compoE:€d the remaining parts of the composition. On October 15, 1882, one of Manuel Mata's compositions, "Plegaria a Santa Teresa de Jesus", was awarded a second prize consisting of a medal and a


diploma which he received from the Governor-General in a musical contest (Gertamen Artistico Literario y expos icion de artefactos del pais en honor del centenario de Santa Teresa de Jesus) held at the Archbishop's palace. The judges were Camps, Ruiz and Villemer. Later on, Mrs. S'a lud Mata, the sister of Manuel Mata, succeeded him as organist of the church and remains such to the present time. She is a popular teacher of piano, besides faithfully attending to her daily church duties. There have been many amatrurs Who became singers in this church. Nevertheless, only a few of them have been r'emembered for the church never keeps a wlritten record concerning them. Balbino Carrion was one of the earliest singers in this church. In his life-time,he made a wooden pillow with delicate carvings. In accordance with his requ~st, this p'illow was buried with him w:hen be died. But when his remains were exhumed it was disinfected and placed, by one of his sons, Jose, in a glass urn as, a remembrance. His remains now res,t 'in the Quiapo church. Both Juan and Jose, his sons, became church singers. The one died at 19, in 1886; the other is now a music teacher and singer. He began to ~ing at the age of ten years, having studied music under the late Man~el M.ata. He composes also to a limited extent. Victorino Carrion, who was older than Jose, was a teaeher of vocalization and a noted tenor. He sometimes sings in the c,h urch during the district festival. He had many pupils in vocal music. His songs accompanied by the Molina orchestra have been recorded on the Victor phonograph discs. These songs were: "Felix" fr : m the z'a rzuela "Minda", "Luis" from the zarzuela "Lukso ng Dugo", I "Silvio"I from the zarzuela , "FiIipinas para los Filipinos" and "Ang Bagong Fausto," Hilarion Angeles, Agapito Enriquez, Valeriano del Rosario and Juan Salvador were also singers in the Quiapo c,hurch. T,he first of these was a tenor, who composed

71 some kundimans with words by 路himself. He had a good education and could ' improvise Tagalog poems or music. The second of these singers was also a tenor while the third and the fourth were noted basses. Masses and R.eligious Festivals The Requiem Mass in honor of the noted F'ilipino pianist, Antonio Garcia, was held in the Quiapo chur路ch in 1919. Other services of 'importance have been held in this church, which is .frequently the scene of imposing religious ceremonies. Beginning December 16, and continuing for a period of nine days, the si1nbang gabi is C'arefully observed at four .o'clock in t!he morn'ing, the Catholic residmts of the district participatin.g in the services. These are happy mornings both for young men and young women 'who, after their devotion, enjoy a walk in the cool, fresh m -rning' air; and during' the Spanish times, when the mass was over, the people \:;ruuld go to Dulumbayan. now Rizal Aver.ue, with an orchestra accompanying. The members of the church choir are, in general, fair dalagas and youngmen who sing Chr'istmas carols. Filipino wirs are selected, strengthenin.g in the minds of the people, the spirit of Filipino nationalism. The district festival of Quiapo commences with the New Year, January 1. From thi:; date the novenario is held 'in the evening and continues until the ninth day. This festival is celebrated with pomp and solemnity. During the Spanish regime, beautiful k(J)luskus made of bamboo with native fashioned lanterns and artistic decorations Were erected near the church. But this old custom has fallen into abeyance, perhaps becau~e of the changes in the religious ideas of the people. In connection with the music for special occasions like the New Year, Dr. Ramon Javier, a music-lover, acts as director for High Mass with the cooperation of the Molina


orchestra and other musicians. On the ninth day, there is a High Mass with music rurect€d by JOSe Carrion, and in the afternoon, a long and solemrt procession issues from the-church at six o'clock and passes through the important streets of the district. Usually as many as twenty bands of musk go with the procession, and even more. When the Lenten season arrives, the Quiapo church is crowded by many people from ManHa as well as from the neighboting provinces. Holy Thursday is an important day. f"ormerly, there were two processions: one "va, held en Holy Mcnday and the other on Holy Thursday. But now there is only one. The music on this occasion is mournful. The last day of the week, Good Friday, is held in deep reverence and the church is in mourning. At noon are given the Seven Words of Christ (Siete 'Palabras) with an impressive sermon, ending at 3 o'clock P. M~, when OUr Lord breathed his last at the same time with the two thieves on their crosses. Many thousands are crowded in the church to hear the sermon and to look upon the Christ as in the hour of his death. In the eyening of the same day at about nine o'clcck, there ig a pesam,e 'i n this church ""'1ith pathetic music. It is the only church in the city that cdebrates this occasion. At the main altar temporarily built with a black curtain as the back ground, the Santo Sepulcro lies near the cross on Which it was nailed, and near it stand the statue of the Virgin Dolorcsa with a very sorrowful face and with a sword piercing her heart. The dead thieves on their orosses are there also. The granaeur of the altar decoration, the church music, and the solemnity of the CathoUc ritual, a ritual dear to the people for generations-all these attract and appeal powerfully to residents of Manila 'a nd adjoining provinces.

73 Some Beliefs It is believed that the word Quiapo ~as given to this district becaus~ in the' river near Quiapo, abound many water lilies which were called quiapo. According to Dr. Javier, a man of broad experience, many years ago the image of the HJly Nazarene was white in color, but due to its old age and to the constant use of a kind of oil or perfume, over the surface of the ima'ge, its color has gradually and constantly become darker. This is路 true also路 of other old images in Manila such as the' Sto. S,epu1cro of Paco wbich was burned during the PhUipp'i ne Revolution ' in 1899. ',: Many years ago, it is .s aid, the. parish priest one day called upon a Chinese carpenter to repair the back part of. the body of the image of the Holy Nazarene, for it was being eaten by the white ants (alllHY). While the Chinese was chiseling and hammering the destroyed parts, he heard a voice uttered by the image in this manne r: "Poco, poco, Chino". Hearing this, he ran awa y, leaving his work. He was afraid to return. . It is also said that one of the fingers of one of the hands of this image Was broken, that is, it breame short. The priest hi~ed a sculptcr. But whenever the sculptor would fasten the new part of the finger, it W'ould become either s'h orter or longer. Hence, his work was not successful., One night, a man rode in a carromata in Intramuros. The driver was asked to stop near the churches tliere. Whenev,e r the carromata stopped, the passen'g er would get out and enter the church. After he had visited many churC'hes. and . the night was far spent, he request ed the '

74 ,

driver to take him to tlte Quiapo- convent. Upon reaching this buiIdin~ t3e , passenge; left tfe ~~~r~ma~a land .went illtd the converit. The driver waited outside. At last. as .. t the man aid -not come back, ~e went to the, parish priest. {lnd asked him who wns thl!t- vi§itor who had come there a wbilf b~fofe.. ,;:rp,~ ) p~i~t re,plied!,thaLhe, In o visitor that night. Witp this an.sWcr d!he .<ilri~er suspected{ that it was the Holy Nazarene- who made ja _milagro, and so he re!l\s-rp tl'l ae,c ept the . payment offered by the,' priest. /.I~hel oiaob ·tha-t the Quirapb churc·h fot d long time h~s b,e en under nativ~ prieSts is 'a l thl'ri-g tHat dd~tinguislie~' it from oi1her, Manila Catholic cHutel'e's. Besides Fatlier Magdale'no Castillo, the other prl'e st who 'Wisely adrhiIiistered the Quiapo church was Fafher Calixto Villafranca, a ' nati-(re' 6~ ivlJariit~hdjotig1 Cavrt~.' tHe 'h ad lJffect~d' 'sorne " j J J'1 'it I , ' _,I ) . [ J, ,I I I r~for~ls in Jt~~, ~n~:r~br '~~ " the {h~rcli, air~tmg the ~0It1 s~ruct~qn ~o.fJ ~ .~~rl~ I ~tqP~) pa m)nt rpf~per ch,l,l,~~h, ~p,4 ' tpe yearly palnlmg of Its extenor~ , I t • I • ...1 Thl~ , church, it SllOU,lq be U1j1Qerstood; is famous not because it ~s ,weJI q~dt=tr_ed, ~big -and bf&autiful, but be- ' cau~e' the re;nafns of General Antonia nlln~ ' w'ho rdied: wlleri ' his services were greatly needed- by his countrym-en, and likewise thos'e of " his "sister, t r Luna,' r a '''faMou;') pianist, -are dep@sited Jil'l' it." I, "j'l . J I . A dhurch is' an In1poha'nt entity 't o shap~ :the ' ch~lr~cter Of.- the peopl~ ' by ' str€ngtheHing theh- b'eiief in G~d. I it is ' more-thaIi I'an edifi'ce: ' IIi ' ~rlkihdles in 'o~r b 'e arts the t~tle spirit of patriotism and b~n~volence. For above all, the CathoI,ic chpr~?tes",o~ .lY.l~p}la ,aH,d tpe, PfAvinces ,! alte lasting monuments ,e rected py a Christian people to perpetuate the right I of , the Christian Jreligi,Or.l< in this [archipelago, where , ~e seeds of Christianity , sown by missionaries Iwlho 'l andeg. witll Magellan in 1521, will continue to grow. I







~ ....



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75 . The Present Church The present concrete church is about to be completed. Unlike the previous one which W/as burned" 'it has two belfries and a magnificient dome, 'and it is much longer. The construction of tihe ,dome and the sacristy was begun about', the middle of this year (1936). The colored glass w~n足 dows on the side walls were designed a'n d executed w~ith artistry and skill. Two rows of chandeliers hang from the ,ceiling. This description, however, is not complete, for the church is still undler construction.

I -X-



With Father Domingo de Salazar, the Jesuits, the order that had worke~ much along educational line, arrived in the Philippines in 1581', 'and were expelled from these islands in 1768. In the Philippines, they began to erect their own church not long after their ~rl"ivaI: At first, a tempo'r ary' 'wood(':11 temple and a convent were b!lilt outside the Walled City. It was iIi 1596 that the first permanent church and convent were. completed and dedicated to Santa Ana. " 'The Next Temple ' In 1682 the first church and convent ,~re ruin.ed by the earthquake and another temple was reconstructed and dedicated to San Ignacio de Loyola, canonized in 1622. The Present Church The present church WRs constructed under the diI'lection of FrariciscoRiera, S. J., and blessed in 1889. Its front part is surrounded by a wrought-iron grating. Its

16' interior has handsonie·rwood-..can dng,for which the molave was chosen because of its extraordinary durability.-· It r J s~oul~.: b~ r:eme:mee~~d, ~~~( jt'.)Y.fs~ J~aRr,lo ~anwi_~gQel" Bf ~lipino scu1ptor; \\'Iho dlr.ected the mtenor deC,JratlOn .:;u1d af~hitect Felix Itfixas, th~ - de~igns. Jlh~riori[S\J)1ico made) the bell~!'~an~ _ iH~t'a:l on~a~~~'. an?,,_!;r~Hffs~8 ' Jt,?d~r,ed~:; me marBl~ w'or'k found ill ~he church. ~






·i .






5r;~ T~~ ~ttenWw of a visitGr will Tbe att:ractetLat -(mt'e by the two rows of fluted pill~r§"J with, mast_erf,\l.Uy' , cj:lJv, ed icapj~) tals along the sides of the church, supporting the arches. Medallions of saints of ..the _9r-de.r., carved figures of angels and palm and oak branches adorn the stately columns. The bread--eeiUn.g is carved wftlrpat'ien~e.Y Here are seen many carved Jlanels. ~h~ altars apd tt\e oolumn£ of th1i' na~e ar~; qf eo!in~~ti~ (st~.Ie;: JA~ enh~nrce the) c~a~~~l; ~~~ t~ ':~p,gel, ,H~~fr.s~ ~~~n$. t~E1~' ~~~felabra~ ,: - - One of'tii"e mo'st arfistic p'a rts' of the chu~~is the hi~~l al~ar, wher~ .t~~ , ~_~ : 19pati~,~ L9:t,Gla 'Yith :1~nJfe,I~. ~F his: f~t, stahds. ' T_~ere are't~rJ im'"gels witH 'lffie. sym~l~ 0% Saint )~at}'us , at, ~it~rfJi<!~ qf tbe \J.~I?;et' PQhiol)., ,~bov~ __. the six, s~t>p'or;:i~~J pjll~r~ . . ,Th.i~ t9-f.t~!F.'Il~:rs" flJ;~ on e~qh) side of Sti~~ rlgEat_i~s~ , O~.., t~t~, '1 ,tar the.-,);, ~~tie'Ht ) work of' art IS a rephca of Leonardo Da Vfncl's "The- Last Supper". On the two ~4~---6)~ =~w stapue of St. Ignatius y are Sa'l nts Francis Xavier and Francis Borgia. The tabet:naH~ isuppofffn1!f tHe Blessed "Saeram€'nf ris ""b~low T the'




c tip al a'.




9 ' ; _ ,/

" , i ;I'J J 'i


OliB ';:1



-,~ lJ

_ .,":j

At tne ' Ief·t~ffthe-high ~t:ti- is tife fsaerist'~' Wl1e¥~ 'Sajht ) Peter Claver, Saint A,lphol1sUS ~od~[gu~ and Saint FranciS' Xavier, dying, thb' two oiJ"painbnig-'- by Zaragoza, areex~ipited. . ;-- .:"' I r-tT Ther.altar at, the -left of the high altar -is ' dediC'ated 'to': t {i~ Sacred Heart of Jesus,. standing between Saint Josephl.~ c:..v -I


' - ••


... -



77 and Sf!;int John Berchmns, and the altar at the right; of the high altar, to the Immaculate Conception, with Saint Louis on the left and Saint Antonio de Padua on the right. The pUlpit, supported by a fluted column, is a real masterpiece. Here are the four Evangelists and St. Peter with his keys. There are tw'o hig'h reliefs: "The Great Commiss'ion" and the "The Descent of the Holy Ghost". There are other statues also including those of Hope, Faith and Charity. B€low, are handsome figures of six angels find a wreath of carved oak-leaves. The sounding-board is adorned with angels' heads and the dome is exquisitely made. The Jesuits' Educational Work The Jesuits came back in 1859 to continue their educational work in the Philippines. They were among those who moulded the educational growth of the Filipinos by building many ·e ducational institutious. The San Jose College wla s officially opened in 1610. In 1859 the Jesu'its took charge of the so-called "Escuela Pia" of the city. This was a free school undlO-r the auspices of the municipality. The children there were given primary and elementary instruction. In 1865 this institution was converted into the so-caUed ,Aten€o Municipal de Manila, now under the American Jesuits. This college is noted for its splendid museum rich in literature and natural history. Most of our great men came from this institution. T'he Normal School in Manila was founded by the J es·· uits. It functioned from 1865 to 1901. Its first building was where St. Paul's Hospital is now. In 1880 the building was burned, and in 1886 the school as transferred to Ermita. The Manila Observatory Was also founded by the Jes-

78 uits Among its noted scientists were Father AIg!1e and Faura. It is carrying on an important work in forecasting the weather and local earthquakes.



By a decree of May 4, 1753, .lose Francisco de Obando, the Captain-General of the Philippines, created the now so-called town of Obando, where Catholic devotees go from different places in the Philippines. The law, nevertheless, was not enforced until 1754 and. the first minister was Rev. Father Francisco Manuel de Olivencia. Geographically, the town of Obando which is visited by the people especially during May, is in the southwestern part of Bulacan, near Manila Bay. The Patron Saint The church is dedicated 路 to San Pascual Ba'ilon, the patron saint. The first day of the town feast is in honor of San Pascual BaHon; the second. day, in honor of the Virgin of Salambao (Ntra. Sra. de la Concepcion) ; and the third day in honor of Sta. Clara de Asis, the ancient image of which belonged to Meycawayan until 1623, when it passed to 路 the possession of Polo. Once upon a time, on June 19, 1763, two brothers, Juan and Julian de la Cruz, went fishing in a place called Hilingdoon. When they lifted their "salambao" from the sea, they were surprised to see a ~tatue of a Virgin in it instead of fish. The image was brought to the tOWr11 for the people to see, and to the sanctuary where it was venerated. Being found as we have seen in the sa;lambao, it was named the Virgin of Salambao.

79 The Town Feast During May, the month of the town festival, those people who visit the shrine of Obando danc3 in the church and in 11he churchyard, with decorated hats on their heaqs. Those who have no children go there to ask that thcy be given an heir; those wno are singIe pray there for their triumph in love; and those who are sick pray for their recovery. The Inhabitants Having a fertile SDil and being- near the sea, the land offers good opportunity for agriculture and f'ishing. Ml3.ny oysters are obtained from the waters near Obando. The peorle furchermore are engaged in weaving cloth. They are industrious and good Catholics.



, The Santa Cruz church is one of the old churches of Manila. 'T he earliest temple mts erected in the 17th century by the Jesuits. It was made r.f stone and wo od. On June 3, 1863, it was destroyed by the earthquake and in November) 1868, its reconstruction was commenced. This was during the time of Father Agustin de Mendoza, a native of Malolos, Bulacan, who was deported to Marianas Islands Dn board the Flores de Maria in 1872) the year when Fathers Burgos, Zamcl'a and Gomez were executed on Bagumbayan field. He; was a Licentiate in Theology and Canon Law, and his famous articles appeared in EI Clamor, La DijsCllSiol1, EI Eco Filipino (1864-71).

80 The Present Temple The present temple is also made of stone and wood. It has beâ&#x201A;Źn repa'ired recently, during the time of FathrJ: Quesada, the parish priest. It haa three naves, and three large doors: one on the front s'ide and one on each lateral side. It has one belfry. Big pillars support the ceiling. The pulpit is somewhat similar to those of other churches. The Former Altars The altars are noted for their delicate carvings. The main W(ooden altar is Doric and Ionic . . In the center is located the woodE.n image of Ntru. Sra. del Pilar w' the Holy Child whose body and hands are made of ivory. Above this image, is the symbol of Santa Cruz, the titular patron l'laint of the district. There were three old altars belcnging to the Ionic order. The first was located near th~ Evangelio and was dedicated to Ntra. Sra. de los Dolores. Here were thre2. wooden images--Sta. Maria Magdalena, Sta. Marta, and San Juan Nepomuceno, with ivory hands and bodies. T'l1e Sto. Sepulcro was here also. 1:he second altar, near the Epistola, was dedicated to San Jose. Saints Francisco Xavier, Ignacio, Lorenzo and Vicente Ferrer, wJth ivory hands and feet were here also. The third altar near the central portal of the church at the left was called the Baptistry, where a marble font was installed in March, 1862, and where were placed wooden images-San Juan Bautista, San Rafael, San Roque and San Antonio de Padua. These th:'ee altars wue rearranged as follows: The first was located n.ear the Evangelio, between San Pedro and San Pable, and wag. entitled San Estanislao. The second near the Epistola, between Sta. Rita and Sta. Filomena, Wl'ls dedicated to Ntra. Sra. del Rosario. The third, under the belfry, was called Chapel of the La San-

81 "

tis'ima Trinidad, where once w;as displayed a big painting of the La Stma. Trin'i dad about for:ty-two feet in height, with three images: those of San Gel'onimo in a s~all urn , San Mateo and San Antonio Abad. The Altars at Present The main altar has been very slightly altered since it was built. Between San Pedro on the right and San Pablo on the left, stands the statue of Ntra. Sra. del Pilar. In this altar is also kept an urn containing the relics of St. Feliciano, the Martyr. At the right cf 'the main altar is the altar facing ~he oongregation, dedicated to San Estanislao with a child Whose hands and body are made of ivory. This image was donated by the people of Sta. Cruz district. The altar in the right aisle is dedicated to Ntrn.. Sra. del Rosario, between San Roque on the right and San Rafael Archangel on the left. At the left of the main altar, and facing the congregation iSI an altar dedicated to San Jose. In the left aisle, is the altar of the Virgin Dolorosa, between two other images.- Below the Virgin is the Sto. Sepu1cro. The Baptistry is on the left side of the church near the main portal. Here is seen the wooden image of Saint John the Baptist. Erected outside the Baptistry near its right lateral wall, the altar is dedicated to St~. Cristo. Standing outside near the left lateral wall of the former c'hapel of the La Stma. J:rinidad, and facing the altar at the right of the main altaY, is a new altar d'edfcated to San Antonio de Padua. Near the base of the dome, near the capitals of the foUr p'ilars supporting the ceiling, are the portraits of the

82 four church doctors-San Geronimo; San Agustin, Bishop, San Gregorio, Pope; and San Ambl.路osio, Bishop.


Festive Occasions The district festival is held in October of each yeal't with solemnity. There is a novenario during nine days; and on the ninth day there is a solemn prooession that passes thru the main streets of the district. The Virgin del Pilar is richly dressed on festive occa~ sions. The robe and garments of the路 Virgin and those of the Holy Child have gold designs an.d were donated by one Buenaventura de los Reyes in 1855. During Christmas eve, there is an evening mass. The Nativity is exposed to view at the main altar. The imageS of the Virgin and that of Saint Joseph are about 1-1/ 3 yards in height. The Holy Child's body and hands are m~de of ivory. T,h e garments are trimmed with gold, Those images were donated by Don Jose ModeL Conclusion It is good that the proposed abolition of the Sta. Cruz church wn.s not carried out. So, th~ church will 路 remain in the same place until further change is made in the fU ture. It has been observed that the Rolemnity of the place 'is at present greatly marred f due t ~) the fact that around the church and under the convent are public stores and offices which are noisy all the time. A degree of respect may be given the church if there are no such things .on: its premises. A temple of worship should be surrounded by an atmosphere of solemn'i~y and quietude_ 6




In the sixteenth century, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi commanded the fleet that sailed for the Philippines, the verdant islands found by Magellan in 1521. In April, 1565, Legaspi and his men entered the harbor of Cebu. It was an important event in the histcry of Spanish colonization, for it marked the beginning of the new Spanish colony in the Orient. The H rly Child Jesus, 'l:he image 01 the Holy Child Jesus venerated now in Cebu was given to the Queen of Cebu by Magellan when he and his men came to that pla\!e in 1521. Having first landed at Limasawa, he sailed fr0m that place for Cehu, and there another mass was held aiter landing. The Cebuans were glad to accept the new religion. Rajah Humabon and man~ Cebuans were c~lristened. including thi; Queen of Cebu. The First Church

. .").

This image was discovered by one of Legaspi's soldiers in a native house, who reported to him what he had seen: Legaspi went to the place, and see;ng the image, he wa~ surprised. He knelt and venerated it, kissing its hands and feet. As one of the aims of Spain was to teach and spread the Christian faith in these islands, the erection of a church: after Legaspi had found the image, was tbe earliest accom路, plishment of his soldiers. The church being erected, the Ci.ty of Cebu was founded in 1570, and it was calkd the City of the Most Holy Name I)f Jesus. Here was t~e oldest church in the P'hilippines, erected by th e Augustin-ians and dedicated to the Holy Child Jesus. The place

84 for the church and convent w,as determined by Father An~ dres de Urdaneta, the companion of Legaspi on his voyage. Though the first church erected was made cf nipa and bamboo, the early Spaniards \,yere contented for they could begin their ,work as Christian missionaries. In front of the convent was erEcted a big .:;ross to commemorate the first mass held in Cebu. HOWeV2l', we must understand that the very first mass in the Philippines wa.s said ill Limasawa, an island south of Lcyte, in 1521 when Magellan and his men landed at that place. When the first church of Cebu was burned, the Bishop of Cebu, Fath r Fedro de Arce, offered the "Ermita" of the Ntra. Sra. ce la Concepcion of: that city for the erection of n convent. The permission to erect the church and convent was given on April 29, 1621. On May 8, 1628, the church and conv'e nt Were again burned, and were re-Erected during the time of Prior Juan de Medina. Hcwever, these edifices did not last long. The 'e rection of the present church was commenced about the year 1730 when the PriOl' of the conv,s nt was Father Jose Bosq ued. J n 1733 when Father Jose Trevino was the Prior, the w.o rk for some reasons was suspended. In 1734 the same work was resumed. According to Marin y Morales, the church and convent were fcunded in 1735 "by Father Juan Albarran. As the work was continued, cement was used instead of bricks as had been planned. Father Diego Bergan') furnished the cement and the Prior of San Nicolas, Father Antonio Lopez, asked the help of the Cebuans in this magnanimous work. It should also be remembered that the Cebuans of Mactan, an island east of Ceou, with their Minister, Fath er Francisco Abella, also helped the priests in providing the cement. All co-operated to make the work of the early mis,'Sionaries a success. It was on January 16, 1740, when the Provincial of Cebu was Father Vicente Ibarra and the Prior of the con-

85 vent was Father Visitador, Father Juan Albanan, that. the Holy Child Jesus. was transferred to the new cnurch. The PrC3E'nt Cathedral The architecture of the, present .c athc::dral is Doric. The main altar is skillfully and elaborattly carved. There arc many image路s, in evidence in the CEntral shrine being that of the Sto. N:fio in rich attir2. This image attracks the people on account of its antiquity and the interesting legtmds ccnneeted w'ith it. The main door is magnificent. When the prior was Father Francisco Bergasa (1.894-9'1), repairs were made on the church, wooden pillars being .e rected, and the interior being lined with galvanized iron. The church tower at the left is about 20 meters in he'ight. It has three stories. In the second is located the big towtr-clock, and in t!fle third thcl'路e are four arches with balconies for the four bells which are dedicated to the La Santisima T,rinidad, Virgen del CGl.rmen, La Puris'i ma Concepcion and San Agustin. Today this cathedral of the Sto. Nino of Cebu stands as a monument of the past civilization, of Wlhich it is one of the rich treasures.






Per'haps there are no ruins in the Philippines that proclaim more eloquently the happines as well as the sadness of the past, than the historical ruins of Guadalupe in San Pedro Macati, Rizal Province. Such is the impressioll. made upon those who have visited the place. About 1600, Father Antonio Herrera, the son of the Spanish architect of the famous Esccrial in Madrid, came to the Philippines. It 'was under him that the Guadalupe church was built, its foundation being laid in 1601. Much manual labor was employed in its building. The stones used in its construction were obtained from the Guadalupe quarry and the hard timbers from our primeval forests. Like most churches in the PhEippinss the interior was Doric. Huge pillars supported the broad vault. In 1880, tlhe church was ruined by the earthquake, and in 1882, Father Jose Corugedo directed ita :reconstruction. ~. The primitive image venerateCl. here, the Virgin of Guadalupe, came from Estremadura, Spain. It is said that this image was stolen during our revolution in 1898, and since then, it bas never been seen anymore. The monastry of this church. like those of its sister church€s, contain a great treasure-its lIbrary, It possessed manuscripts on scientific subjects pertaining to the Philippines, a number of documents and copies of Father Blanco's Flora de Filipinas. But during the bloody fight between the natives and the Americans, which took place in San Pedro Macati, those rar·e and precious manuscripts, documents and pam-p hIets were burned or otherwise destroyed. Now, nothing remains of this ancient edifice of unique architecture and historic interest, excepting the mossy stone walls that were once the pride of the peopl~ of that vicinity. Tim€s without number has war's destructiveness been

87 demonstrated in this country as elsewhere, when the great creations of man, sometimes the work of centuries, have been destroyed in a day. In the Philippines, during the revoluti.?n many things of artistic and historical value were lost to the rising generation. May such calamities not occur again on this soil, the land of our immortal Rizal.



Ermita is a district south of the Pasig River, and near Manila Bay. The earliest church here was made of stone and lime and was dedicated to Nuestra Sra. de Guia, which was found on June 24, 1571 among the pandan palm grove by one of Legaspi's soldiers. According to some traditions this image was fond of traveling from place to place. But some believed that Christian people frOlIll India brought it here. The first church was built prior to 1606 and in 1610 it was burned. I Wlas rebuilt and the earthquake of 1645 destroyed it again. Before 1658, it was reconstructed. In 1662 for military reasons, it was almost demolished by the Governor-General Sabiniano Manrique de Lara. 'llhe Cath. ol'ic reli路g ion being dominant, it was rebuilt and blessed by Archbishop Poblete, February 7, 1666. Prior to 1706, it was ruined again, and rebuilt in 1712 by Archbishop Cuesta. In 1762 the British soldiers captured and destroyed it. Then in 1810, "it was reconstructed on its pres,ent site. The church as we see it today was completed in 1885. When the church was destroyed by the British, the original image of Nuestra Sra. de Guia was transferred, to the Manila Cathedral and anothE'r image was left there. In 1918 the image was restored to Ermita church by Archbishop M. J. O'Doherty of Manila.

88 This image is now' in a slhl'ine at the main altar. The altar at the right is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Mary and near it is an image of Jesus Nazarene. The altar at the ldt is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and near it is an image of Sto. Cristo. ~-x--



The town of Maasin on the western coast of Leyte was founded in 1755 by the early mIssIonaries. The word maasin in Tagalong means "plenty of salt" and the town was so-called because it is neal' a rivulet, the water of which is salty. The Church and C0nvent The old church and conven i ] of Maasin wlere built long ago. Its construction was commenced by Father Serapio Gcnzales and completed by another FathEr' who directed the work of preparing -the lime, cement,stones and other ma-terials for the work. The early missionaries took deep interest in the erection of the early church and convent. ( The church was; constructed In 1839 by the parish curate of Maasin, Father Jose Pac:. While the consfrucCon was in progress, Father Paco lost his eyesight from some unknown cause. But notwithstanding this misfor~ une he did not neglect his duty. He still labored very hard, believing that by giving directions to the laborers he could complete his work even though he could not see. He selected the best stones, attended to the preparation of the lime and sand and aided in measuring the walls. After about thirteen years of constant and faithful work, the temple and convent were completed, to tJie deep satisfaction of the public; and there was general rejoicing over the successful conclusion Of their long labors.

Not long after the inaug'uratie:t1 of the church, Father Paco's sight, pronounced incurabb by the doctors, returned to normal. This was a marvel to the inhabitants, and occasioned much surprise among them. After the church and convent, the erection of a school came next in importance. It was built thru the ef. forts of Governor Enrique Fajardo, Governor Pedro Covez Mondejar and Father Victoriano Garcia. Hence, the town of Maasin was early provided with a school wherein the youth could be trained both educationally and religiously.



At present, although there are many kinds of religion in Manila, the Catholic religion i~ predominant among them. This is shown. not only by the attitude of the majority toward the new reli'gion, but also by the erection of Catholic churches in the different parts of the 路 city from time to time. One of these new churches is the Holy Ghost chureh erected on Rizal A venue through the unselfish efforts of no other than His Grace, William Finnemann, auxilliary bishop of Manila. The place where it was erected was for路路 lnerly a cemetery, a holy piece of ground that housed the mortal remains of men and women. T.his was called the 'Santa Cruz cemetery, and is perhaps one of the oldest in the city. PriOr to 1670, it was already in existence . . . It was in September, 1928, that Father Finnemann began his great undertaking. As the money granted him by the archbishop of Manila was not sufficient and as his own parish could not raise the full amount needed, he appealed for help to Catholic communities in the United States. In this he Was successful. At present the church is not yet complete. There are

90 no massive pillars to support the ceiling such as are found in old Manila churches. It is dedicaLd to the Holy Ghost Another thing that which is placed at the main altar. makes this church of the Holy Ghost unique is its crypt located under the main altar. Thi.s contains 444 niches. The vault is illuminated by a special lighting system. The mcn 2Y collected from the rent of these niches will be spent for the church construction. . When this edifice is completed, Man:Ia will possess a church modern in construction, and very different from the other Manila churches. I


- - xXXIII.


The Malate church is noted for its historic impc rtance. It was in September, 1762 that the Br'itish soldiers occupied it, at the time when Manila was captured by them. The church was founded about the end of the 16th cen-: tury by the Augustinian Fathers and dedicated to Ntra.Sra. de Los Remedios. Both the church and convent are of stone. The church Was damaged by the earthquake of 1863. Then it was reconstructed by Father Francisco Cuadro and restored in 1895 by Father Nicolas Dulanto who came here en November 21, 1888. The patron saint of this church is Ntra. Sra. d3 los Remedios. Every year a novenario is held in this temple and on the ninth day a solemn procession comes from the church and passes through the principal streets of the (listrict. Every Saturday morning, many mothsrs bring their children to this church. There are masses and outside the church, near the doors, there arc candle venders and toy sellers. In fact, this is a happy day for children and espe.cially for those who are infirm.




The Tpndo church built on a high platform is an old temple of God, in Tondo. It is made of wood and stone. Its construction was due to the efforts of Father Manuel Gonzales and Casimiro Herrero. The old cemetery was the wPrk of Father Mariano Gil. The church has two steeples alld a dome. The high altar is of ancient design. Here, in the middle, stands the Sto. Nino, the patron saint, to whom is attributed many miracles. Every year, tbe district festival is celebrated here w'l th pomn. Many people specially children arc brought to the church to attend the solemn procession in the evening. THE END

BIBLI OG RAPHY Buzeta, Manuel Father-Diccionario GEograiico Estadlstico Hist6rico de las Islas Filipinas, Madrid, 1851 (Vol. II), p. 221. Chir'ino, Pedro Father-Relacion de las Islas F'ilipinas y de 10 que ellas han trabajado los Padres de la Compania de Jesus, Manila. 1890 (2nd Ed.) Delgado, Juan J. Father-Historia General sacro-profana, politica y natural de las Islas del Poniente llamadas Filipinas, Manila, 1892. Fonseca, Joaquin Father-La Catedral de Manila, Manila, 1880. Huerta, Felix de F'ather-Estado geograiico, topografi<;o, estadistico, hist6rtlco-r'eligio~0, de la Santa y Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio Magno de Religiosos Menores y descalzos de la regular y mas es-

92 trecha observancia de N. S. P. S. Francisco, en las: Islas Filipinas, 1865. :M arin y Morales, Valentin Father-Ensayo de unn Sintesis de los trabajos realizados por las Corporaciones Religiiosas Espaiioles de Hlipinas, Manila. 1901 (Vol. II), pp. 263, 350, 351, 352. Marcellan de San Jose, Patricio Father-Provincia de San Nicolas de Tolentino de Agustinos Descalzos de In. Congregacion de Espana e Indias, Manila, 187!1. Martinez de Zuniga, Joaquin Father-Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, MJadrid, 1803 (Vol. I) Moreno, Francisco-Historia de la Santa Iglesia Metropol'i tana de Filipinas, Manila, 1877. Montero y Vidal, J ose- Historia General de Filipinas desde el descubrimiento de dichas Islas hasta nuestros dias, Madrid, 1887 (Vol I). Ruiz, Licinio Father-Sinopsis Historica de la Provincia de San Nicolas de Tolentino de las Islas Filipinas de de la orden de Agustinos Descalzos, Manila, 1925 (Vol. I). Saderra Mata,Miguel, Father and Saderra Maso, Miguel Father-Coronacion Pontifica y Tercer Centenario de la venida a Filip'i mls de la Virg2n de Antipolo, Nuestra Senora de la Paz y Buenviaje (16261926) Ilustracion Filipina-November 15, 1859 and January 1, March 15, 1860. AuguS!t 15, 1860. l.a Ilustracion Filipina-January 21, 28, 1894 (Vel. Ill). El Oriente-October 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 1875; December, 19, 1875 El Oriente-February 15, March 5, April 16, 1876. El Oriente~March 25, 1877. ReV'ista Catolica de Filipinas-May 19, August 11, 1889. Souvenir of the Manila Cathedral, 1~08. The Tribune Magazine, January 10, 1932, p. 6.

Brief historical sketches of Philippine Catholic churches  
Brief historical sketches of Philippine Catholic churches