Page 1

HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATI0N

495

Grade fl. - Rhythms and dramatic games continue with less emphasis. F olk dances are more prominent. The other aetMties continue in progressive form s. Grade 11I.--Singing games are omitted. Folk dancing and games are emphasized. Rhythms and dramatic games are gradually slighted and increased attention given to games of skill and folk dances. Stunts on apparatus are now useful if equipment can be made available. Very simple equipment will suffice. Adequate apparatus made oE bamboo was seen in some places. Grade IV-Rhythms and dramatic games are drepped in this gJade and dances and games constitute the major part of the program. Stunts a nd marching continue. Grades V, V I, V fl.-In these gradles the beys andl girls should be separated for physical education. AdjUstments in class perioQs will be required here and in the earlier grades for overage pupils. but with the proper solution of overage in the schools. this program will be' entirely feasible. The girls' aotivities should comprise games, marohing, and stunts, but are to be built mainly around tolk dancing. The boys' program should include foIk danc~i and marching, but is to be made up chiefly of games of skill and stunts. In these grades a beginning should be made in athletic participation and in training for sports. , High School.-The girls' program in tQe high school should be a eontinuation of the dancing and game ac~ivities o~ the gr.ades, leading in the fo~mer from folk to national, character, dog, and naMal1 dancing; in the latter from games of low to games of high organization such as baseball. The boys' program should increasingly be in games anG! stunts. In the agricultural high sehools the recreational side of these activities should be par-ticularly emphasized. In this entire program from the p~irnary through tlie bigh school the activities should be conducted to conserve and develop the valueS desired. Self-disoipline, self-elontrot self-direction are possible in large measure, The very freedom of the organization and of the movements do not mean necessarily less discipline, less order, less cooperation. O~ the contrary more or these desirable social qualities can be developed. Leaders properly trained secure sueh results. REsEARcH.-Researeh in physical education should produce valuable data that are essential to any seientific administration of the program of activities. It can eontribute to the physical wel.fare o~ the;


496 EDUCATIONAL StJ,RV:EY OF THE PHILIPPINES Filipino people. The foHowing indicate the nature of some of the first problems that should be studied: ~ I)' What is tile normal w.eigllt for Filipina ellildren aeeoJoing to height and age? ~2) What va~iation in weight. height. and age is to be made fo~ Tagalog. Ilocano. 2rcol. Visayan? (3) What physieal activities are best suit~d to Filipino children. judged by physical efficiency records. health. and social' crite~ia? ( 4) What dances. games. and stunts af the different provinces a~e suitabre for general and special educational Jilu~poses? (5) What will a study af posture reveal) ~6) What are the narms in certain vital measmements far childl:en of different ages and the two sexes ~ PREPARATI0N OF TEAeHERS Teachers of physical edueation for the pToimary and intermediate schools should 'reeeive their tFaining 路in th.e narm~1 sohools. 11hese will demand regular classraam teaellers. It is undeswable ta train speeial teachers for bile Filipino elementary school even if it were finaneially possible to do so, Special teachers af physical education foTo the high schools and colleges. and su!,!ervisors of physical education shauld be trained at the University of the Philippines. Demand for this latter training must be established before courses are offeted or students can be enrolled. PH~SICAL EDUCATION IN llHE N0RM~L S0H00Ls.~lIwo naurs a -y;eek through the four years should be provided. Tohe can tent of this training follb)Vs: ''First Seme3ter

r hour-IDramatic. gamesil rnythms.

Se.cond Semester singing,

games" an~ stor.y , pJ~ys. hour:""'-Folk and na"tio'uall dan~e;路.

liour-G~'IJ)ej . of

of low organiza-

1. hour-Folk, and 'na.tional dance5.

SF;G0ND

YEAR

Firlf Seme.s(er

Second SemeJter

f hour-Theory and practic_c in individual

r

.kill

tion.

gymnastics requiring study of anatomy and kinesiology. hour-Athl~tic games and sporis. Men and women in separate groups.

hour-Athletic games and ~port~.

Men

and women in separate groups. hOQ,r-Theory and practice in the conduct of game5, athletic meets, conte5t5, and tournaments.

THIRD Y-EAR Fint SemesJer hour-Stunls.. apparatus exercises. ana marching. hour-Recreational activities, 50cial dancing, games for parties, gueS5ing game5, etc.

Second SemeJler hour-Stunl!,

apparatus

exerciaes.

and

marching. hour-Theof.Y of phY5icai education and training rules.


HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

49ll

FOURTH YEAR Fin' Semc"ter

Second Semesfer

hour-Men: Athletic . game. and 'pOJ'tl .

hour-Athletic game. and aports.

Women : Natural and clQg danc-

Men

and women in separate section.

hour-Men·: ~Iog danoing. athletic and

ing. hour-Tel ling and meofUring reluh, of activities,. Records.

gymnutic dancing.

'Women :

N~tur.al

dancing.

PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN PHYSI0AL ffiDUCATION AT THE UNI¥ElRSITY.-In addition to tile program of physical education ,for the general student body of the University, there should be offered in the College of Education professional tr.aining rourses leading to the bachelor of science degree. These courses shauld be offered as there is a demand for special teachers in the high schools of physieal edueation and supervision of health and physieal educatian in the system. It is haped that such demand will a~ise within a few years to warrant an offermg something like the following: FIRST YEAR General college course directed toward tile scienc;es. especially biology. SE€ONP YEAR General college course directed towaFd the seiences, especially psy- · chology, anatomy, and physialogy. THIRD YEAR

~NJi)

F0URTH

y~

Courses of the type given, for the naFmal school more detailed and providing more practice. At leas~ 3 hours a week far one-half year to be devoted to practice teacJ\.ing. The course for super-visofs should prowde in the third and faurth years less practice and more tIleary particularly in (a) the organization and administration of physical education, (b ~ tests and measmement of results, (d management of school meets, (d) educatianal hygiene, (e~ personal hygiene appliedl and (I) health examinations. It wauld be desiralile for the University to admit lor the supet:Visol1s course gladuates of the Schoof o~ NUrsing who had Iladl experience in the schoals. HEJ.Ll1H EDUCATI0N IN THE N0RM1\L SCH0eLS.-Teachers of health education are to be trained in the nOFmal schaals in a manner similar to the training far physical education. The students will be regular classroom teachers. Five hours a week fOF one semester should be given ta healtll education. This oourse should have the follawing content: (a) Forty (40~ hours would be given to health supeevision covering morning inspection and physical examination of siliin, eyes ~cancilition 2U064--32


498 EDU<CATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES and vision). ears (condition and hearing) -. nose. mouth (teeth and tonsils). glands. posru~e. and feet. This course should be taught by a nurse rather than a physician .mecause the latter would tend! to an. academic development of the work rather than a professional one. There would also be given instrucition in how to make a sanitary inspection of school buildings. and the essential elements in the hygiene of instruction. (b ) Forty (40) hours would be given to personal hygiene applied. This weuld be the basal course for inst\1uction in hygiene and sanitation in the schools. The tellt sheuld be a modern tellt in personal h¥giene that supplied an adequate background for teacl1ing this subject. (c) 1"en (10) hours would be given to pr.actice in making inspections and physical examinations of children. (d) Ten (10) hours would be given to modern methods of health instruction in the primary gFades covering the use ef charts dramatizations. health pla~s. records. and other peftinent material. l1he five (5) hours a week for one semester should give the student familiarity with the basal facts of hygiene. the essentials in detecting abnormal conditions in the body. something in modern methods of health inst\1uction. and in practice in making physical examinatio.ns. TEACHERS IN SERVICE.-For the program in physical education teachers in ser¥ice should be prepared in in~titutes. assemblies. and summef normal schools. by offer·ing units of the program set up fOF the regular year. In similar fashion the necessary program of health education. both in health supervision and in health instruction. will require active organization for improvement of teachers in service. This can 'be accomplished in similar fashien. REC@MMENDAl1IONS

Some of the proposals of the SUJ'iiVey Commission can be carried into effect at once; others must await preparation of teachers and other considerations. Here will be indicated those which seem to be of immediate importance and those which will have to wait. To Iile Accomplished at Once

(1) COUNCIL OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATI@N.-This should be appointed by the Secretary of Public Instruction. and be composed as follows: ~a) Supervisor of Health and Physical Education. Chairman; (b) Secretary of Philippine Amateur Athletic FedeFation; (c) Representative of the American Red Cross; (d) Representative of the Junior R:ed Cross; (e) Representative of the Philippine Health Service. The function of the Couneil should be to at once: (a) Coordinate all the agencies at work in the schools particularly with reference to


HEALTH AN];) PHYSICAL EDUCATION

499

health examination blanks. records. and methods of r~porting; and (b) arrange schedules of wOfk and distribute efforts in line wit~ needs and facilities. The Counell would have responsibility for coordinating all the health and physical education activities ca11'ied on by any agencies in which Filipino school children participated. . (2~ SUPERVISOR OF HEALTH AND PHYSICAL ffiDlJCATI0N.-The duties of this office would be to organize, direct. and administer in the schools the programs of health education in its twa phases. and physical education. This office would supply the lad<: of cenual direction that is so seriausly absent at the present time. The supeFVisor would be responsible for research to be canied on and would undertake to present to the public an accm-ate pictme af the heallli of i'ilipine children. Since at present tIlere are few Filipino teachefs trained i.n both health and physical education and with experience in this work. it woulCf appear desirable to secure an AmeNcan for this pasition. (3) THIRTY (30~ AsSISTANT SlOPERVIS0RS OF 짜lEALTH AND PH짜SICAL EDUCA'FI0N.-This personnel would indude the present supervising teachers of hygiene and sanitation and shoul<d me r>ecruited at the present time lar.ge1Y from the nursing profession. Until others can be trained or those in service adequatell\ prepared. the supervision they could give would necessarily neg1ect the physical education program. (4) Repeal of Act No. 3029. As Soon as Possible and Within 'fwo to Three Years. the Following Should Be Accomplished

(1) Modification of health instruction. to secure: (a) Presentation of health tapics two times a week for. fifteen minutes

in Grades I and II and two times a week ar tlWenty minutes each in Grades In and IV in the hygiene per-iod. Tllese topics in ~pe are suggested in preceding pages. Some of value are in the Manual of Civics. Hygiene. and Sanitation. They will require more . background and understanding of the subject than naw is passessed by most teacners. and will not be satisfied my en~meration of the steps taken in washing the face. "flhe health instruction for Grades V. VI. and VII is indicated in the chapter on Eilementary Education and also in this section of the report. (b) Presentation of health lessons that grow aut of morning inspection. accidents in the school. geography lessons. industrial work. and other school subjects. "Fhis is -the vital way to teach hygiene in' the lower grades. directly in relation to situatians that have meaning. Such teaching will require 'more elasticity 'in the generaf pragram and academic supellVisors will judge the teacher not by her. ability to keep


5QQ EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF .THE PHILIPPINES exactly to her lesson plan and time schedule {police supervision} but by the gualit:y of he~ instruction. (2) T:raining OJ first-aid teachers in normal institutes and nermal summer school to do the kind of very helpful work inaugurated by the division superintendent of Nueva Ecija. Such teachers are regular classroom teachers who have had a little training in caring for. emergencies and giving treatment for sores, styes, bails, inflamed eyes, and other simple conditions. Administtatively their work can be aN-anged easiliY ta assign them in municipal schaels for iliis work for one to two hours in the day. (3) Establishment in the high schools and institutions of similar rank a course in personal hygiene applied. This course should have three periods a week for ene semester. Where there are prepared teachers, instruction should be given in social hygiene. The pra1!llems af sexe·ducation r.equire a teacher wha understands the physiology, hygiene, and sociology inyolved; who is interested in social and meral education; and who can teach without embarrassment or undue interest. (4) Modification of the physical education program to secure: (a) Relief periods distributed threughout the scheol day. (b) Use of games and stunts for relief purposes entirely in the first four grades and la~gely in the inter.~ediate gr.ades. (€) Abolitien of the ealisilienic· drill at recess time. (d) Organization ali the relless for play purposes, by using staggard periods and having teachers in charge. (e) Rebuild the game and athletic program in the afternoon. (I) Permit the coachers of athletic teams to accompaniY teams to athletic meets. (g) Where trained teacners are available, assign them to large high school as teachers of physical educatien and assistant directars of physical educatian in the provinces ~ane ta each province}. Assignment of academie classes to such teachers should be made only upon approval of the Supervisor of Health and Physieal Education. ' (5) Twenty (20~ additional assistant supervisors of health and physical edueation. As Soan as Possible and Within Three to Eight Years, the Fallowing Shauld Be Aceomplished 1. A syIrabus of physical educatian activities suitable to the needs and opportunities of the Filipino people. 2. A syllabus of health supervision giv.ing: (a) Standards for classification of abnormalities. (bj Standards for participation in sehaol actIVIties. (.c~ Authorized treatments ta be made at the sehool. (d) Other essential guides in this vital work.


HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EE>UCATION

50I.

3. A syllabus of health instruction for the primary and intermediate grades to include. (a) The range and type of topics to be used, providing for progression and avoiding the dangers that lie in meaningl'ess repetition. The child should grow in knowledge of and skill in health as definitely as he does in industr路ial or academic subjects. (b) Methods in the use of charts, diagrams, projects, posters, and notebooks for teaching health. (c) Instruction for the use of the health materials growing out of the health examinations. These vital situations should be dealt with in the oral language periods of all grades. 4. A syllabus of general science to include the nygiene and sanita~y applications in relation to the needs of the Filipino people. This syllabus would be used in Grade VII. The instruction should be daily. 40-minute periods. The content in ' hygiene and sanitation may be suggested here: . , . (a) Correlations of hygiene and sanitation in relation to the general science topics. (b) Essential hygienic and sanitary, facts that Filipino children need to know in order to live intelligently in the Philippines. There would be no attempt to develop the subject of physiology as such. Necessary anatomy and physiology should be taught as needed to explain principles and render practice intelligent. Illustration of this may be indicated here: Chil.dren should know about the blood and its circulation but not for academic purposes. What factors strengthen the heart, what weakens the heart, use of patent medicines and alcohol, the cause and effect of anemia. The anatomy and physiology needed to make these and similar facts understandable should be taught. This can be organized and presented in a syllabus. The present text for the seventh grade should be used as a reference in which assignments should be made by the teacher. 5. The fifth, sixth, and seventh grades should receive \lital helllth instruction in the home-making courses for girls especially in foods. clothing, and housekeeping. and in the agricultural and industrial courses for boys. 6. Dental clinics for each province, established either by the school or through the Red Cross with supel'Vision through the council of health and physical education. 7. Regular teachers trained in the normal school to carry on a rational program of physical education, to conduct health examinations. and to give health instruction.


562 EDUCATI.oNAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES 8. .special teachers of ~hysical education for the high schools and normal schools. Such a high-school teacher should be appointed also as director of physical education in the ~rovince. These teachers snould be tFained at the University. '!I .. Assistant super:visors of health and physical education to be trained at the University, afte~ graduation from normal school and two years teaehing experience in the sshool. 10. An assistant to the Su~ervisor of He",lth and ll'hysieal Edusation. To Be Accomplishe\!J Within Ten to Fifteen Ye.ars I. A special teacher of physical education in eveFY municipality of 10,000 inhabitants or over. Fig. 25 shows the organization that should be effected within ten years.

~~OPQAD Oll<iANI1:Al10N

Of HEALTH &. PHYJ1CAL EDUCA110N

IlUllAO Of LoUGATION.

COUN"Cll. OF HEAl.TN PlffollCAl.

AND ' toUO"TION

A J./Il/TA'NT ..AIPtQ..~t( 0Q..A./

I I

P IjY,dIc...A Io. WEA LTH

I

~TH J UPtR.V1JCON

or

HU \...TH

t.OUC.~"I ON

PfrrJICAL LDUCATloN

Ht ,6.lTH it(J'lIlUCTlOO C.l a ~$

"-com T!UICh~r.s

I

i路 . I

~

I

~;

;!

g

~:

,I", .....

Col,",

.

i{Y- ' _'

.

AtJl)

lIIllU

.J

Fig. 25

COST OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS.-The 路 plans for reorganization of the health and physiGal education have' be.en guided largely by consideration of cost. It was desirable to effect a plan that would not appear impractical because of seemingly prohibitive cost. The Com-


HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

503

mIssIon believes that such has been accomplished. In fact. so little is involved financially in the recommendations above that this section of the report may not receive adequate attention because of its lack in this respect. The new positions should provide as follows: (I) Sup.rvilOr of health and phy.ic:o.l .duc:o.tion : Salary .............................................................................................................. 1'6.000

T rllveling

eXpeDIe • .... ........ _ .................•. ... _ ............ . _........ ......... ...................

1.500

(2) Tw.nty (20) a•• i.tant .up.rvi.ors o~ h.alth and physic.1 .ducation. Sal· ary i. baaed upon the preaeDt compensation of the supervi.ing IcacheTS of hygiene and 3D.nilalion.

Salary of .ach 1'1.270. For tw.nty .............................................. .......... Tray.ling .xp.n.... 20 .t 1'310 ................................................................

25.400 6,200

Grand total ....................................................................................

39.100

It is not helpful to estimate the cost of the program at tbe end of the five and ten-year periods. Changing salary scales and other conditions should be met as the needs arise.


CHAPTER

VI

THE PRIVATE SCHOOLS The primary duty of the Educational Survey Commission is to make a study of the public-school system of the Philippine Islands. with a view to evaluate the accomplishment of the past twenty-five years and to suggest methods of improvement. This task is so big that it has absorbed most of tile time. attention. and energy of the staff. The study made of private schools. therefore. Ilas not been as thorougll as the study made of public schQols. But wherever the survey staff 'Ilisited throughout the Islands. one and sometimes two of its members devoted themselves primarily to a study of the pr-ivate schools. Moreover. they applied the same achievement tests as they did to the children of tile public schools. The super-intendent of private schools provided them with some of the available data. statistics and reports which they requested. They feel justified. therefore. in presenting the following facts and conclusions as fully warranted by their studies. Under the Spani~h regime, most of the schools that existed in the Philippines were private and they were controlled by the Churdi. There Were relatively few ,of them because they were intended for the education of the c&i1dren of the p~iy;jJeged classes an.d not for the children of the masses. The democratic system qf public schools introduced by the Americans became at once popular-, and within a few years the public schools could not accommodate all .who wished tQ attend, and the church schools did not increase rapidly enough to accommodate the surplus. Hence private adventure schools arose to meet the needs of those who could not secure entrance either to the public schools or to the church schools. They increased rapidly because they were found to be very profitable. The growth of these schools of secondary grade is shown in the following table: TABLE 58.-NuMBER OF RECOGNIZED PRlVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF DIFFEREN l' TYPES

Ye..

Boys

Girls

C~~~~f-

Total

---------------I ~--------路

1908 .......... .. 1908 ... . ...... . ...... . ............. .. . . 1915 .......................... . 1918 .... . ............ . .. . . 1919 ................... . .... . .... .. .......... .. 1920 ...... . ..... . .. .. . . ... . .... . . . . . ......... .. 1921. ....................... . . . ......... ... ... . 1922 .................. . ....................... . 1928 .................... . ................... . .. 1924 ..................... . ....... . .......... . ..

10 10 10 11 12 16 18

18 L7 17 19 20 22 84 S8

80 .2S SS 87 41 60 72 86

61)

60 66 72 84

121 142

606


506 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES The number and enrollment o£ ehurch and private seeondary schools which have received recognition are given in the following table : TABLE 59.-CLASSIFIOA'fION AND E N ROL LMENT OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS

N umoer ot 8chools

Year

Catho-

lie

. .. . . .. .. ... ... .. ..

1913••. .. . . , . \ . . . 1918.... 1919.. .. .... .. .. .. . ... 1920.. . 1921.. . .. 1922 .. .. 1923 .. 1924 .. .

........ .......

P roteS-- N onsectaut tarian

- - - --- -16 28 81 88 84 85 59 61

l-

4'

10 12 18 15

18 18 22 26 28 87 49 66

Enrollment Total

Catho· lie

- - 80 50 60 66 72 84 12~ 1~2

2 .029 8,016 8 .052 S ,146 8 .278 8 .425 3.573 a .646

Total

Prates- Nonsectant tarian

- - - -- -59 358 489 620 807 1 ,027 2,008 2,580

49~

~ .491 2 .427 6.360 6.568 9.088 11 ,210 18 .280

I

2 .585 4.879 5.968 9, 126 10.658 18.490 16,1191 19 .406

. As graduates of these schools of elementary grade sought entrance to the public high schools and g~aduates o£ seeondary g~ade sought entranee to the Uruversity of the Philippines, supervision of the ehurch and private schools beeame necessary. Hence was established in 1913 the Division of Private Schools immediately under the controL of the -Secretary of Rublic Instruction. l'his di¥ision at present consists of a superintendent of pr.il{ate sehools, an assistant to the superintendent of private schools, and two supervisors of private schools. The superintendent of pr,ivate schools may grant or withhold approval of schools that have applied for it and withdra'w approval that has anile been granted. A sehool that has been denied approval or. from whieh approval has been withdrawn may no longer post over the front door " Recognized by the Government" nor ma!)' its pupils be transferred freel;y to the pul>lic schodls or graduate to the University of the Philippines. lihe four persons mentioned above must inspect and Rass upon the applications for Government recogpition of the many new private schools that are annually organized, and must supervise the administration. of the hundreds of ehurllh and private schools that are spread throughout the Islands and that extend from primary grades to univerSIties. It is a hopeless task. The Division of Private Schools is supported out of the funds of the Bureau of Education but the Director of the Bureau has no contTol whatever of its activities. The Commission has elsewhere expressed the opinion that the administration of the pub lie schools is too rigid. It wishes now to express the opinion that adequate supervision of private schools does not exist. T here are three kinds of schools under control other than public eontrol in the Philippine Islands; viz., pFivate adventure schools, Protestant Mission sehools, and Roman Catholic parechial schools and


PRIVATE SCHOOLS

507

colleges. They will be treated in that order and recommendations then ,made with reference to their supervision. PRIVATE-ADVENTURE SCHOOLS There is no law or regulation in the Philippine Islands today to prevent a person, however disqualified by ignorance, greed, or even immoral character, from opening a school to teach the young. It is true that in order to post over the door "Recognized by the Government," a private adventure school must first be inspected by the proPer Government official, but a refusal to grant such recognition does not by any means result in such a school ceasing to exist. As a matter of 'fact, there are more such nonrecognized private schools than of the recognizecl variety. How many, no one knows, as the Division of Private Schools keeps records only of the recognized type. The following statement has to do only with the "recognized" private schools. The Commission is glad to report that it visited some such schools where it found conditions equal to those of good public schools. Unfortunately, they were so few in number that the statements which follow must be accepted as applying to the great mass of these schools. , ELEMENTARY SCIdOOl:.S.-These schools seldom own the buildings in which they are situatecl and hence are found in rented builaings or rooms. As practically all oÂŁ them are operated for profit, little attention is paid to the sanitary and hygienic condition of the physical plant. The rooms were usually crowded, badly ventilated, ill-lighted, and almost always unprovided with adequate toilet accommodations: These schools are supposed to follow the course of study of the public schools, but practically everything except the straight academic work is omitted, such as industrial work, school gardens, and physical training other than calisthenics. Because of lack of supervision, the time allowance for subject~ as prescribed by the Bureau of Eaucation is not always followed. As those in control showed little knowledge of the modern science of education, it was not surprising to find some of its simplest principles violated. Periods devoted to the fundamental school subjects were often found late in the day when small children are tire.d. Some of the classes were very large, few of the teachers show any familiarity With other than antiquated methods of teaching. The textbooks were nearly always old and uninteresting and violated every character.istic of a good modern textbook. Most of these private elementary schools were pathetic affairs. SECONDARY SCHOOLS.-Everything stated above with reference to the bad physical surrounding of the elementary schools applies with still, greater force to the secondary schools. These appea~ to be largely


6(;)8 EDUCATIONAl!. SURVEY OF l1HE PF-lILIPPINES "cram" schaols and hence no attention is paid to any subject which does not count upon examination. Physical training seemed to be unknown. and. as there w.as seldom any playgrounds about these schools. sports and games were nonexistent. The equipment in most instances was ridiculous. Not one of the many schools visited had a librar:y of a thousand volumes. Mtilougn bialogy and physics are part of tne secondary curriculum of the public schools which these private schools are supposed to follow. the equipment for doing so was hopelessly inadequate in almost every instance. In one large private school with hundreds of students. there was but one microscope. though the representative of the Cammission was proudly snown shelves filled with bottle containing insects. fishes. and other specimens all liberally cavered with dust. The teachers of these secondary p~ivate schools are of a great variety of preparation and many exhibit complete ignorance of imy pedagagic p~inciples o~ teaching. Few. appeared to be professionally interested in their work. This is explained by the fact that they were twice as ol ten employed on part time as on full time. the depamnent r,epanting 628 af the former to 3ID0 of the latter. In one instance. the representative of tile COlnIDission requested permission of the person in charge of one of the large provincial private schools to see the budget in order to find aut haw much had been set aside for apparatus and equipment. but no such thing existed. Nor was he able to disGaver any other details concerning the school. They seemed to me ' carried entirely in the o:wneF's head. and the owner was not there at the time of tile visit. COLLEGES AND 'lJNlVERSITIES.-Na statute ai" Gavernment regulation 'in the ~hilippines d1efi lles what a Gollege or uni'lersity is. The result is that a great many schaals of secondary grade call themselves colleges and even universities. Even in Manila. where the best of the private institutions of higher eaucatian are situated. all have preparatory departments of secondary grade ana same even of intermediate grade. These institutions in Manila report that they are "organized and incorporated under the insular laws." Apparently. however. the insular laws do not require any report af income. expenditures. OF other aspects of university administration to be reported to any Government official. ~he incame of these institutions is obtained entirely from fees. no one of them having any endowment. and. apparently. anly the incorparators know how the income is disbursed. . Only one af these institutions in Manila is at present conducting work in a building of its own. Manila University nas' one such builCling and the National University is now ereGting one. All are carrying on their work in rented buildings which were never intended for eduGational purposes. and hence all the unfavorable physical conditions mentioned


509

PRIVATE SCHOOLS

above as characteristic of the elementary and secondary schools are true of these higher institutions to an exaggerated degree. The major part of their work is conducted at night and il was inspiring and yet pathetic to see the large numbers of these eager young men and women crowded into the badly-lighted, badly-ventilated rooms often having difficulty to distinguish the teacher's voice from the one in the neighboring room or from the noise of the street. The equipment of all these institutions is woefully inadequate, the laboratories fo~ the teaching o~ science being but car·icatures of the real thing. Some of these universities, whichl it must be remembered, maintain not only high-school and college departments, but schools of law, dentistry, pharmacy, education, and commerce, have libraries of the following sizes: Name

.

Far En.stern Collego .. .. . ..... .. .. . .... . ....... ..' : ........... . ..... . UniVQrslty DC Mon.Ila . . . ... , ..•.... .... .... ... . .....•. ....•.•......

National UnlvcnlJity . .... . . . . ....... . .... ... ..... .

Volumes

Number of students

680 ..... . ... . . . 1 .818 8.255 1 .574

And it must be remembered that the library of the university students is the same for tl\e students below, university grade of which there is usually an even greater number.. The next chapter of thi report is dev,oted to the University of the Philippines, and in Part IV on the Faculty, the standard of preparation for teaching in college or university is explained. Bf-iefty, it is at least the possession of the Master's degree. In the institutions which the Commission consjders the strongest of these private universities there were teaching last year : Title

N umber

IDoctor of Pbilo.ophy................................................................................ Doc lor of Science...........................................•................ _................. _....... M aster of A rta or Science ............................................ __.................•........ Bachelor of Arts or Science...... _............................................................ Doclo" of Medicine or Pharmacy.......................................................... Holders of lower degrees (Associate in Arls, High.school Teachers Certificate. etc.) .................................................... _................................

2 I 7 39 13

Total ..............................................................................................

67

5

In other words. there were 10 teachers or 15 per cent of the total who measured up to the standard. The Commission does not know how many of these teachers are full-tinle teachers, but in answer to the Commission's questionnaire it was disclosed thab no teacher in the whole institution taught more than eleven hours per week, and the majority little more than half that number, and none had any committee or ad. ministrative work. It is a fair assumption that nea~ly all are part-time teachers. Teachers on part time, paid by the hour or lectures, have


510 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIUPPINES very little interest in the wer,k they are doing other than te finish doing it and (,orrespondingly little interest in the pupils they are teaching. llhough these teaahers have but few hours of instruction they teach very large classes. None ef iliese ins~itutiens had any seetiens with less than 20 students and few aetween 20 and 30, but there were many sections of 30 to 40, and one university haa 30 sectiens with more than forty students in each. Obvieusl!Y there can ae little supervision of written wo~k under sueh cenditiens of instr,uction and theFe can hardly be any question tnat there is veFY little wOFk requir'ing independent study. The student studies the textaodk and recites upon its content. This was the chief form of recitation heard ay the representative ef the Commission in these private universities. As the great majority of the students work by day they have little time for other 'f~rms of preparation. Fortunately, there exist some tests whereby the results of these unfavorable conditions may be measured. In the next chapter of this report may be found the results of the Bar Examination and of the examinations of the Medical, Dentistry:, and ~harmacy Boards. 'J1he lew standing of tne private universities in these respects fawly indicates the accomplishment in all respects. Who ~re these ~usands of students that crowd the private universities ,~ Apparently they are young men and women who have come from the provinces to Manila to earn a living and at the same time take advanced school work. lthe following taMe, Gompiled by one of the private universities at路 the re<juest of the Commission, is very significant. TABIlE 6O.-SHOWING i'!ROPOR'fION OF SllUDENiFS illVlNG All HOME, IN DORMITORIES, IN BOARDING HOUSES

College Liberal (Aits . , . , Education ,., . Pharmacy . . ... . Commerce . Dentistry

Law ..

Total enrolled 898 204 98 133 81 666

Home

Dorm!路 Boarding tones houses

--- - - - 8 2 10 0 1'6

6

20 6 3 40

837 182 89 117 78 610

The only one of the private universities visited by the Commission which maintained a dormitory was Manila University. The dormitory was for girls and it was excellently administered ay a member of the teaching staff who lived in it witli his family. ~his table shows that the great mass of the students attending the private universities live in boarding houses. As to the nature of them, the universities, so far as the Commission could discover, were in ignorance. Nor did there seem to be any, supeF楼ision of the peFsona). affairs of. the stude..nt to discover his /leeds, his moral environment, the extent to which he was self-supporting,


PRIV ATE SCHOOLS

511

whether he was properly nourished. and the many othe~ aspects of student life in a real university. CONCLUSION.-An unprejudiced consideration af the fact presented under the caption Private Adventure Sehoors leads but ta one canclusion, viz: the great majority of them from primary g~ade to university are money-making devices for the pwfit of those who organize and administer them. The people whose children and iYoutll attend them are not getting what they pay for. It is obvious that the system constitutes a great evil. -rhat it should be permitted to eJcist with almast no supervision is indefensible. The suggestion has been made with reference to the private institutions of university grade that some baard of control be organized under legislative contral to supervise their administration. The Commission believes that the recommenc;lations it offers at the end of this chapter are more likely to Bring about the needed referms. The Commission cannot lea:ve this subject withaut pointing aut the partiar reslilonsibility, of the puMic-schaol system for these canditions. As has already been stated. although these private adventure schools. especially of secondary and universit:y gr.ade. maintain day, sessions. the great majority of the students attend in the late afternoon and evening, 拢ram!) to 10 o路clock. There a~e but few: public sehaols open for their education. hence they must attendl pri\late schools. The Bmeau of Edueation ought to be. supplied with sufficient funds ta support. at least partialIiY. sufficient evening sehools for the benefit af the ambitious young men and wonien who must work by 'd ay and who wish to study by night. il f adequate funds are not availabre for the entire support of such evening schoals. a much smaller fee might be charged than is paid in the private schools. for the element of Iilrofit woulli be eliminated. With the better teachers fram the puelic daiY schools and with physical surroundings more conducive to real effort. the oppartunity for the education they seek would really be open to these yaung Iileopl'e. PROTESTANT MISSION SeHoo.Ls The Protestant mission schedls present a pleasant contrast to the private schools. As the commercial stimulus is lacking, few of the bad features mentioned cORcerning the private schools appear. None of. the mission schools visited has attempted more than it can reasonably accomplish. This is partly du.e to the fact that the various. Pwtestant denominations have . agreed to divide the fiela among them in order to prevent competition and dUlillication. The school buildings v.isited were not crowded. nor i1l. lighted. nor insanitary. Care seems te ha~e been taken in the seleetion of teachers and as the schools were always administered by Americans. the children had the advantage of a greater


512 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY< OF lHE PHILIPPINES amount of instructien in good English. Invariably there seemed te exist a fine spuit of service among the teachers and the children appeared to l:Je very happy. There are 'Very few missien institutions conducting courses of college grade. The Central F>.hilippine College at neilo is doing good work with inadequate resources. The most influential Protestant institution of higher learning is Silliman I.nstitute at Dumaguete en Negros Island. In location, acreage, buildings, equipment, and sanitary arrangement, this institution is a most attracfi'Ve contrast to the private universities described above. Its library of 8,000 volumes administered by a frained librarian has been most wisely selected. Its finest building is devoted to the teaching of the sciences. It has one of the ablest staff of teaehers in the Islands. The reci~ations heard Ely the Commission's representativ,e were most ably conducted and the spuit that pervaded the plaee was one Ilf the finest he experienced anywhere. Moreover, throughout the Islands the Cemmission heard only wQrds of praise for the graduates of Silliman Institute, particularJy of those whe entered the public schools as teachers. The Cemmission expresses the hope that the supporters of Silliman may see their' way clear to give the funds nec;essary to enable it to expand路 its work and increase its usefulness to the people of the Southern Islands .af the AFchipelage. ROMAN CATHOliC Il'IS1'lTUTIONS ELEMENTARY SeH00LS.-Under the Spanish regime, practically all educatien in the ~hilippines was cenducted under the auspices o拢 the Catholic church and a censideFable part ef it sfill is. As in the case of the Protestant mission schools, the Cathelic schoels have no commercial taint attached to them and hence few of the unpleasant physical feafures that character,ize the private sclleels .are present. Many of them are held in convents and monasteries amid pleasant sUFToundings and the Commission recemmends that, wherever possible, that practice be extended to other such institutiens. In most of the elementalY schools visited by the Cemmission the ehilruen appeared happy and interested and the work of geod character. I,n seme, however, tile textbooks were very antiquated and the methods of teaching quite formal. These sehoels were usually in the provinces where they are still sometimes under the control of Spanish-speaking religious. Moreover, in many of these seinoels there is an ,undue preportion of time deveted to "accemplishments" like drawing, music, and embroidery which make a good showing to the visiter but often distracts attention from the fundamental subjects ef the scheol. SEeONDARY EDUCA1iION.-The secondary sehools under the eontrol af the Church are nearly always upon a much higner plane than the


PRIVATE SCHOOLS

513

primary schools. In some there are still lacking adequate eCijuipment for the teashing of the soiences and sufficient lib~ary facilities f0r mode~n methods in the teaching of the humanities. On the other hand, some of these schools rise to the highest standards of successful oper.ation. De La Salle College administered by tl}e Christian Iilrothers in Manila. has, without exception, the finest plant for a school in the entire Archipelago. The building, dormitories. dassrooms, laboratories, refecto~ies, and sanitary arrangements are all that san be desired and ought to sel'Ye as a model for other sehools in the Islands. Moreover., the reeitations heard by the representative of the Commission were exeellent and the 路 progressive spirit evidenced by the nne group of Iilrothers in charge make quite certain a fine future for the institution. Similar cammendatory statements can be made of some of the gir.ls路 school like Santa EscoIastica College with which the representative of the Commission was much impressed. HIGHER EDlJCATl0N.-Higher education uQder Catholic conwol is administered by two institutions, tile Ateneo de Manila and the University of Santo Tomas. Four years ago, the Ateneo wl\ich was founded in 1859, 路was put in charge 0f American Jesuits, and in that short space of time, the ~ol颅 lege has been transformed into Ol\e of the most successful institutions visited by the Commission. It is admirably equipped for its work in every respect. It has one of the finest war.king libraries in the Islands which is admirably administered. Its laeoratories and appaFatus are so modem and adequate as to ma"e tile visiting educator. rejoice to see them. All the te.achers are Americans, all the instructian is in Emg]j-sh and the representative of the Cammissian listened to some of the best conducted recitations that he heard in the Archipelago. Pi. remaFicable spirit of alertness pervaded the institutian. What has been said of Sllliman Institute should be repeated far the Ateneo de Manila, viz: that it ought to receive all the support necessary to maintain and ellipand its work. The Vniversity of Santo Tomas is the oldest university under the American Hag, having been established in lI!iOO. It has been all the.se years under Spanish administr~tion and it is yet, thaugh fwa years ago English was made th.e language of instructian. Hawever, except far the few Americans on the faClulty, the English employed lealVes much to be desired. The war.king library and most of the equipment are old and inadeCijuate. The methads aF teaching are of the formal type which prevailed everywhere not so lang sinCle. 'Fhe results of instruction are given in the tables of the bar, medicall, Gental, and pharmacy examinations in the following chapter of this repoFt and need no cam. ment. The 'University is at present engaged in the erectian of a' 2Hosl-ss


514 IWI0CATloNAL SURVEY OF THE FHIUPPlNES splenaid group of bullhlings on the outskwts of Manila in the midst of an adequate campus. The representa~ive of the Commission "isited the par.tlally ere'eted builaings, and inspected the model ana plans. When . this plant is finishea, ana it is expeete<!l tl\.at it will be finished in another year, Santo Tomas will unquestionably have the finest Iluilaings, apparatus, and equipment in tile eritwe fucoipelago and equal to any universify of its size in the Unitea States. tf the University becomes stafl'ea :with equirlly modern teacllers, its future is assurea. The Commission hopes that Santo 'if.' omas will realize its possibilities, not anl!Y for its awn sake, but also in erder that a strang private institutien may cempete with the UniYersity .of the I~~hiIippines in aa"ancing the intellectual ana professional welfare of the ~sl'anas. The Cathelic Church has an unusual oppertunity to renaer a great ser'lice te the 'pee-ple of the Pl1ilippibe fslan<!ls. ft is quite eviaent thal for fnamy years to come the public scnoels will' Ile unable te a€cemmoaate all . the ahilaren whe seek an eaucation. 1'lle Church has, in man!}' places v<isitea lily the Cemmissien, th.e necessary plant in the fanm of cenvents and menasteFies in part e~ which schee1s can be instalIed. It nas a ae¥eteCil be<!ly af nuns and fathers who with instructien might @eceme effieient te~chers. :mile meney sav.ed thereby in salaries might be used feF momem equipment anm appaFatus. By prav.iaing sucli ssoeol £aeilities, the Cnurch can $aye tbousanas ef ~mung peeple the aisappeintment that fellows eaucatien in se many ef the commen;ializem private schools. REC@MMENEll\1110NS.-1l!te C:ommission rece.mmenas that legislation be en.actea te j;ltehilhit the dpenrng ef any sclloel b¥ an in<!liv.<iaual OF erganizatien witoeut the per.mission e~ ~he Seeretary ef Public InstruetieD-. What tlefeFe granliihg such permission the Secreta!,), assure himself that such scheel measures Ul'l te proper stan<!lart1ls in the fell owing respects, an.a that the centinuem existence of the sc;heel be dependent upen ,its centinuing te confer-m te these eent1li~ions: ( 1) The location ana GenstFuc;tien af the @uilaings, tile lighting and :ventilatien ef the reems, the n.ature of the lavatories, efesets, water SUNP!)", scheal furniture anlil aJilparatus, and methoms ef deaning shall be sueh as te insure h,y;gienic Gen€litio)Js for both pupils ana teachers. (2~ 1Fhe li@Fary and laberateFY facilities shall IDe adequate te the neeills e£ insbFuctien in ,the suliijects taught. (3~ Tihe dasses shall net sbew an excessive number of pupils per teaGher.. 'i]j'he Commissien recemmenas 40 as a mallimum. (4~ The teaeners soall meet qualificatians equal to those of teacher-s in the public sch.e-els ef the same gFade.


PRIVATE SCHOOLS

515

(5) The efficiency of instruotion and the general moral and intellectual tone of the school shall rank well as disclosed by r.igid. thoroughgoing. sympathetic inspection. (6) The school principal shall each year fill out and file a blank with the Secretary of Public Instniction c:ontaining such data as may be nec:essary to keep him informed of the condition of the school. To administer such a system the Secretary of Public: Instruction must be provided with an ade-quare staff of men and women who have the scholastic. professional>. and personal auainments necessaily to make it a success. Such a staff does not exist at present in the !Division of Private Schools. An adequate staff does not necessarily mean a large and expensive staff. It does mean one !!omposed a~ persons familiar with modern methods of schaol administration. and not content to do their work as a mere matter of farm. but filled with a zeal ta make the entire educational system af the c:auutry a great farce in its progress and welfare. Supplied with such a bady o~ administrators there is no reason why the pcivat~ schooTs of all grades should not be adequately inspeoted and sURernsed and high standards af effic:ien!!y be maintained.


CHAPTER

VII

GENERAL ADMINISTRATIQN In the ,foregoing chapters has been set forth a study of the product of a quarter-century of education in the Philippines. There have been many occasions in the report to point out striking achievements. The mere physical outcome fs important: a going administrative system in forty-nine provinces; more than 1.000.000 children in schools; a plant consisting of over 6.000 buildings mast of whicll. are very well adapted to educational needs in the Philippines; a teaching personnel of more than 27,305 persons nearly all of :whom are Filipinos. Remember-ing that in 1900. when the American educational pioneers first came. practically nothing had been accomplisned to give the masses of Filipinos an educatt'on. the quantitative results alone of the past twentyfive years are very significant. Since 1900 a complete school system for a people of diverse language groups scattered over a score of islands has been evolved from almost nothing. The leader wllo planned the educationaf program far the Philippines took in all levels and all ~pes of education. The scope of the system has been diagrammed and repr.inted in Fig. 26. The scheme was designed from American models and provided for education over four fairly distinct levels. primar.y. intermediate. secondary. and higher. Within t1\ese a dozen types af instr.uction have been evolved: general "academic" education of various kinds. industrial work. farm and shop work • .normal training. schools of business. law. medicine. and education. scnools for the deaf and the blind. To carry the scheme an elaborate field-adminisrr.ative sta,ff has been set up. Its scope can be glimpsed ,from a mere enumeration af the principal officers of the system: Division superintendents......................................... __ ............. .................... Academic superv isors...................................... __ .... _................ _... ................. IndultTial superviaors .. _ ............................. _................ ...............................

65 42 41

H igh·school princip.I •. -.............................................................................. Trade.school princip.ls.............................................................................. Agr.icultural Ilod farm-school principals.................................................. Supervising leachers of hygiene and sanitalion........................................ Normal~.choo'l principal..............................................................................

57 25 2'

Division academic and industrial aupervilOfS..........................................

1.72

District supervi.ing teachers .................................................. _............... .

497

10

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Fig. 26

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GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

519

The breadth and ramifications of the system can be tahn in from Fig. 27, an organization diagram showing how the l3ureau of JÂŁducation was staffed on February I, 1925. We shall recur to this diagram shortly. From this outline of the administrative machinery which has been developed may be inferred the general nature of the educational program which it has been proposed to carry Oll. THE FROGRAM IN QPERA;rJ0N

The actual magnitude o~ the proposecl program llannot be appreciated without an understanding of the soeial situation in wnich it has its setting. N or can the adequacy of the program be juclgecl -apart from a contemplation of the suitability of eclucational aims and Fesults to the conditions undeF which the lives of the people affected are t9 be lived. Furthermore, the ability of the Filipina peaple to suppart education must determine whether the proposed ,pragram is an impossible ideal or is a feasible plan which requires only time for its realization. In other chapters of the repart are discussecl various consideFatians which bear upo the adequacy of the program, upon its feasibility, and upon the degree to which its aims are being realizei:!. Of first importance are such considerations as haw well the currillula used in schoals of the various levels and kinds fit th.e social situation of Filipino people. and the capacities ani:! interests of Filipino children. In both af these respects the program is in need of revision. The degree to whillh the program sUllceecls in gimg to dlilclren tile contemplatecl educatian is conclitioned by the expertness af. the teaching in the schools ancl by the length of time that pupils stay in the sllhaaJ.. In both of these particulars the system is natahly weak Teachers are untrained ancl children stay in school so shoFt a, time that ,it is extremely cloubtful whether many hundrecls of thousancl af them leave the school with any lasting effects of their schoal experience. The situation in regard to seconclary eclucatian is similar ta that in the elementary schools. A type of general seconclary eclucation is being offered which does not fit sOllial needs. The lower years of the schools are full of pupils who are unable to da the w.a,11k. and wha will receive no profit fram the short time they remain in the schaols. All of these faets. set forth in detail in ather selltions a~ the rep art. hear upon the question of the propriety of tl\e educational pragram which has been unclertaken. They leacl to at least one very clefinite conclusion. That there is need af administrative rev.ision of the program of eclucation and a strict evaluatian of every ane of. its items in terms of Philippine needs.


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ORGANIZATION DIAGRAM OF THE BUREAU .oF EDUCATION

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GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

521

THE FEASIBILITY OF THE PROGRAM.-As to the feasibility of the program from the standpoint of economic possibility. it is difficult to predict how much any social group can and will contribute for the support of schools. The extent of educational offerings must be limited by that willingness and ability. The important consideration at the present moment in the opinion of the SUFVey Commission. is to shift interest from the extent to the excellence of the education offered in public schools. It will be no easy task to refuse to open schools unless funds are available which. wisely used. will guarantee that the sehools will be good schools. It is imperative. nevertheless. that this policy be followed. It is .equally necessary that the Filipino people shall be protected from low-grade education offered outside the public schools. In their eagerness for education they are ready to buy such school opportunities as are offered. They have not yet had the experience which develops discrimination in quality of schools. This situation is dealt with in the chapter on Private Schools. So much for general considerations underlying the operation of the system. We turn now to the chief purpose of this chapter: A study of the efficiency of the administrative sy,stem which has been evoh'ed to opeDate the schools. THE CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION IN -THE PHILIPPINES

THE ADMINISTRATION OF SCHOOLS IN THE PHILIPPINES Is A eovERNMENTAL AND HIGMLY CENTRALIZED FUNâ&#x201A;ŹTION Education in the Philippines is not merely a public institution. It is a direct function of the central government. Contrary to the practice which has been evolved in the United States. American officials have developed a highfy centralized scheme of administration and control. This scheme has been determined by the influence of two wic;lelydifferent theories of general government and educational administration. The system has dev,eloped among a people habituated to a highlycentralizec;l government-a heritage from hundreds 06 years of Spanish rule. The system. moreover. startec;l in the first year of the American occupation and its civil organization was a fairly rapid outgrowth of the first school organization established by the American military personnel. These conditions. coupled with the lack of local governments capable of controlling schools and with a lack of social experience on the part of the Filipino people which would have made local control feasible. resulted in the development of a highly centralized adminis-


522 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIl..lPPINES tration. That Manila plays a dominant role in the conduet of sehools througheut the Islands is clearly set fe~th by the administrative diagram, Fig. 27. THE I)EPARTMENT 0F PUBLIC INS"FRlJC11ION Is ONE OF THE SIX MAJOR GOVERNMENTAL DEPAR1lMENTS

Educational affair.s of the Philippine Government are administered b짜 one ef the six exeeutive departments, known as the Depar.~ment ef

OI AG QX~\

THt

"D)1 I NI~TlO!"'''ION.

THl

G [ N [ ~" L

or

PUBLIC liOUC).l\ON AS 2.ElAllO TO

GOVE2MM(HTOr THE PHILIPPINE 15l 'Aft 05

F.liI. 28

Public Instruction. The relation of this department to the GovernorGeneral's Office and the relations of the present feur divisiens within this department to each other may be easily seen in Fig. 28. This simple presentation, however, falls far short of indicating the very complicated arrangements that have been evolved.


GENERAL... ADMINISTRATION

523

The Department of Public Instruction is the sole executive department provided for by law. The Vice-Governor is the Sectetary of Public Instruction and the head of the publie,sehool system. He is cha~ged by law with supervision of private education; and is chairman of the Board of Regents of the University. He is appointed bY' the President of the United States. BUREAU OF EoucAJ:ION.-The largest division within the IDepartment of Publie Instruction is the BUFeau of Educafion. This Bureau administers the pUblic-school system for all grades melow the university. Eor the relation of the divisions of this Bureau to eaeh other and fOF the number and distribution of its personnel in the central ofiic!e at Manil,a. see Rig. 27. The chief of this Bureau is the Director af Education. Like an other directors and assistant directors in the Philippine GoveFnment.â&#x20AC;˘ he is nominated by the Governor-General subject ta tne confi:rmation of the Philippine Senate. The eouncil af State al~o exerts an inHuence upon. educational administration through the requirement tnat every appointmenf to a positian carryin,g P3.000 annually must be approved individually. naming the persan involved. T,his proy.jso cavers every administrative position and many of tile high-sehool pasitions in the Islands. According to statu~e. the Bureau of Education comprises all officials and teachers in the entire public-school system outside the 'Yniversity of the Philippines. Outside the centFal ollice. whose persannel is given in detail in Fig. 27. these numbered 26.37~ on Deeember 31. 1<n4. That part of the Bureau of Educatian outside af the centtal allice in Manila is generally referred to as "the field." The wark in the field is administeted by division superintendents. The larger number of these are assigned to pFoÂĽinces which carrespand ta the states witnin the American Union or ta counties within a state. (Jthers of these supeFintendents an a s)!l'ecial assignment ha~e chaFge of particular schools suppoFted and administered lDy the Il;lsular Gaver-nment. The following quotatian from the Twenty-third Annual Repart of the Director of Education. published in l<n3. descr-ibed "the field" and its relation to the Central Bureau. h also gives the interpretation or' the nature of the central eontrol held by the Director of Edueatioll at that time. The statistics in this quotatian have been changed so as to bring the figures up to date for Deeember. 1924. Field Organi:afion.-In the 6old, there were in December, 1924: 49 school divisioDs aDd 4 Insulllr schools administered by division sup.erinlendents, 38 oj wllom were Americans and IS of whom were Filipinos.


524

EDhl~A'iFI0NAIL S~RVE¥ Q)F THE

PHlDLlP'PINES

As a rule , the bounds of (he school divisions are identical with the Dounds of the provinces. lihe offices of. most of die division superintendents are located in provincia.l capitals and are referred to as division offices.

Attached to most of the division offices 8rc division supervisor.. of academic and of industrial education and to some, tliviaion supervisors of hygiene and sanitation. In December, 1924. there were on duty 17-2 divi!;ion academic and industr·ial supervisonl 2 of whom were Americans and 170 of ",hom were Filipinos.

For each school district into which a school division is divided there is a district supervisor. called supervising leacher. In December, 1924. there were in tnc Islanda 497 supervising teachers, 18 of whom were Americans and 4'79 of wnom were Filipinos. Division superintendents are appointed by the Director of Education and to him they are thus held directly responsible. Division supervisors and district supervisors are held responsible directly to division superintendents and indirectly to the Director o~ Education, as are also pT<incipals of. provincial high. normal. agricultural, farm. tude, and commercial schools. Brincipals of municipal and barrio schools are helC1 responsible directly to .distTict supervisors. indirectly to division superintendents. and through division auperintendents, to tRe Director of Education. Classroom teachers are generally held responsipie directly to their principals, inClirectly to supervisors and division superintendents. and through division superintendents. to the . Director of Education.

Iilrie/ly sKetehed these are the majar autlines of the administrative organization whic~ has been set up ta earry an edueatian. What are its chief merits and defeets ~ ONE OUTSl1ANDlNC!l IDEFECT IN l1HE CENTRAL AoMINISTRA1'ION (;IF EDUCATION: THE CSONSTANT ]DANGER 0F GOVERNMENTAL INTERFERENOE

"f1he administratian of schools is a teehnical and tharaughly professianaf matter. An¥ arganization of a scllool system is unsound which makes school administra~ion subject to political control. either actual or patential hy either leg,islative or executive officials a~ the general gov.ernmen~. At the very autset of irs analysis therefore the Cammission finds itself campelled to criticiiZe emphaticall¥ the form of control of public educatian. lIhe IilUFeau af Education. in carrying an its wark. is operating under the constant danger af political interference. Several striking illustrations can be given of this situation. 1. The Council of State appFoves major edueational appointments.The present regulations af the general gover.nment requiFe tile cansent of the Council of State on all salaries and promotions af ~3.000 or ov.er. This places potential contral of educatianal administration. even in its details. in the hallds of a palitical body. 1t gives the Cauncll of State virtual veto power over the decisions of the Director of Education on any important administrative policy. The appointment. tenure. and advancement af every division superintendent of schools and practically every high-sC!hool principaf in the system. is really subjeC!t to palitical control.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

525

This arrangement the Commission unqualifiedly condemns. It is not a sufficient defense of the plan to say that the appeintmenb and promotions of school officers have not actually been interfered with by persons outside the professional staff of the Bureau. The fact remains of the potential danger of political control. Furthermore, the fact should be stressed that the approval of the Council of State on major educational appointments has not always been perfunctory. In at least two years the annual contract for the Director of Education was not approved until after March first. I n principle the present form is essentially unsound and should be modified to give the Bureau of Education complete and final power over its own budget. The Commission would go much farther in its disapproval of present methods. It has in mind especially the practice of voting a detailed budget for itemized purposes. Legislative control should proceed no farther than the pe~iodic approp~iation of a total educational budget disuibuting funds only among the large divisions of educational activities. The DireCltor under the general supervisioJl of the Secretary of Public Instruction should be left free to administer that total budget as the professional needs of the schools demand, limited only by this very general distribution of funds. 2. The dis1ribution of insular aid has been determined by the Government.-The Cemmissibn regards tllal, as a professional function of the Bureau of Education\ insular. aid should be disuibuted to schools purely on the basis of educational needs and service. Political considerations should be permitted to play no part. Under the present arrangement they not only may but have played a very considerable role. The Commission recommends, therefore, thaI power over the distribution of insular aid be given to the Department of Public Instruction. 3. The allotment of school building aid.-One of the most striking illustrations of the effect of giving the control of insular aid to the Legislature is in the case of allotment of school building aid. rrom 1907 to 1919, inclusive, the distribution and release of insular aid for school buildings was under the control ef the Secretar-y of Public Instruction. Provisien was made under the Gabalc!len Act by which barrios and municipalities were aided in the constructioJl of school buildings. The recommendation of plans for using the aid was made by the division superintendent. the building plans were approved by the architects of the Bureau of Education and the Bureau of Public Works. A study of insular aid shows that a numaer of changes have taken place from 1919 to the present. Up to the former date, the distributien and use of insular aid was on a thoroughly professional basis.


526 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE. PHILIPPINES In l,cll20 a raaical change was maae by taking the allotment of building aid fer schools out of the hands of the Secretary of Public Instructien and transferring it to the Secretary of Cemmerce and Cemmunications. subject to the approval oÂŁ the Presiaing Officers of both heuses of the Legislature. altheugh the recommendations as to allotments originated with the SecFetary of Public Instruction and the Directer ef Education. In the 1922. 1923. and 1924 Public Werks Acts. the Legislarure vested this function of <l-pproval in a joint committee ef the Legislature created for the purpese. This aFrangement was found unsatisfactory ana in the 1925 Pub'lic W e~ks Act the cilistribution of the alletments was made by the Legislature itself. specifying in the Act the individual alletments to be recei:ved by the various provinces. municipalities. and ~arrios.

As a result. when the allotments were made within a prevince. they wete eften wicilely aistrili>utea ana so smaU in ameunts as to be almost valueless. In a certain province. aid was given for 26 buildings. No such item was fer mere than P3.00Q. man:y were for P500. and most were for PI.000. This province securea mere than any other prevince. 1'his method of handling the building aiCil inevitably places the Director of Eaucation in a very aifficult pesition. Sjnce he must go to the Legislature for echtcational appropriations. he naturally cannot neeCillessl:y antagonize its membeFs ner can he well refuse offered approprIatIons. His only receurse was to recommena to the Covernor-General a general policy which woula enaole the latter to veto most of the unaesirable items. He did make such a Feeemmendation. laying dewn the policy that all items less than P2.000 should be vetoed. This was aone ana seme items were eliminated'; but among them were some desirable allotments. At blanket veto pelicy could hardly eperate in any other way. The Direotor was therefore subjected to unfair criticism. When cemmunities saw the appropriation-act item passed for their school. they tenaeCil to ceunt tlie aid as alreaay granted. When this item was vetoea. they were of cOurse bitterly disappointed and their resentment was aroused against the Director and against the ~ecutive. If the responsibility haa been placed directly upon the Director. in the first plaC!e. as it sheula have been. he coulCil have made his standards clear ana have used c;\lscretion on inaividual items. 4. The selection of te!xdbooks lias been taken out of the control of the Bureau of Education.-In former years. the Director of EduC!ation ana his assistants determinea the selection of textboeks in terms of the professional needs of the sC!hoels. TIe selection of !;,ooks is a thoroughly


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

527

technical task. It demands special insight and experience in curriculum construction. in technical knowledge concerning how children learn. and exact information concerning the financing and administration of the schools. No persons outside of the Bureau of Education are really qualified to decide such important educational questions. Nevertheless. the Legislature has in this particular also ignored basic principles of school administration and has given the control of textbooks selection into the hands of a board so constituted that the Director of Education has virtually little power. The only member on tile board who is technically qualified is the Director of Education. A second member is the President of the University who may know the needs of the secondary schools but cannot be expected to be familiar with the elementary-school situation. The others are representatives of the Legislature. The Commission thoroughly disapproves this ehange in the method of textbook selection and recommends an immediate return to the method fo~merly employed. Four examples have been discussed to illustrate the hampering influences of direct governmental control over the administration of Philippine schools. The exam pIes given provide ade"luate evidence to show that the situation involves mone than the mere potential danger of political interference in the eonduct of school work. They illustrate the fact that in the past few years there has been and there is now actual interference. In the judgment of the Commission the administration of schools cannot become efficient until all aspects of control over education is given over definitely and fully to the Department of Public Instruction aI\d to its Bureau of Edueation. THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT HAS NOT AoEQUA1'ELY FINANCED THE ADMINISTRAl'ION OF SCH00LS

Not only in laek of complete control over its professional actIVIties is the Bureau of Education hampered in ca~rying on its work. It is the judgment of the Commission that it is blocked especially by the lack of financial support by the general government. The eonditions upon which this judgment are based will be set forth. 1. The total funds allowed the genen;zl office of the Bureau of Education Were actually less in 1923 than they were in 1913.-ln spite

of an enormous development of the system in the past decade the provisions for its general administration have actually declined. Table 6) supplies the data.


528 EDl!.JCA'fiONAI:... SURVEY OF THE F'HlLIF'F'INES TABLE 6 1.-AMOUNIJ'S AND PERe<ON,.ACES OF EXPENDI'I\URES FOR THE GENERA~

OFF"":

OF THE Bt!JREAU OF EO't.J(!:ATlON AS RELATED TO TOTAL €JOVERNfy!ErNIJIAl!. EXPEND. I,.URES FOR ED{;CA'110N.

1913. 1918, 1923

[Sou:r.ce: Annual Reports, Bureau of Education]

~

l_9_m___ I___l_9_18___ I___

_ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ II___

Total govCl'nmental eJ:"penditures fall education . . . ....... . \ P7 ,146 .802 ._ P9 .6_69 ,S06 Expenditures oCgeneral office of Bureau of Education. . . . S<tl,094310 .640 ']]otal govellnmentai expenditures {or education.. . . .. . . . . 100% ~ 00% Exp-enditures of' general office of Bureau of Education.. . . 4 .7If S.2l!

l~9_23___

1!'28 ,687 ,101 B09,868

100% 1.81

'T eta'! gover,ntnental expenc;litur,es fe~ ec!lueation inereased 2(i)0 per eent in the ten years f.wm 1913 ta 1C)l23. Tine suppor-t of sehool administration in the same interval aetuall\Y c!ledin.ed. Dming the period tlie Philippine seheol system eKpanciled more than 100 per eent, 3,000 new schoels were opened, 5(i)(i),(i)(i)(i) mere pupils weFe emalled. 15.000 ,teaehers were aac;lea to the system, 4,000 new iDuildings were built, and ellipenditures multiplied threefeld. 11,0 spite e£ sueh an astenishing expansion the planning ana diFective otganiil:atien respensible for. keeP'" ing this gr.eat machine eilkiently, gaing was aetually. cut c;leWD in personnel and .geneFal faoilities. 1n 1913 ilie Philippine Legislature deveted 4.77 pe~ eent of its educatieiJal expenaiture.s to genera:! administr.atien, a preper.tien fairlY' cammensurate with that aetermined by best practiees in Ame~ica . In 1923 it was devotrng to aaministratien enly 1.13 Ner eent The shortsightedness e£ this poliey ef r-esrr,ic~ing a se.hooI system at the top- is perfectly deaF. It stanas eut newhere more clearly than in the glaring inadequacy e1 the sever-al divisi.ans ef the geneFal affice. Consiaer what is happening te [he Academie Division, the very crwc ef the administrative maclline. The arganization diagram af the Eu~eau of Ec;lucation r.eveals a prafessienal personnel eompesed of one chief, one assistant chieF, ana two chiefs ef seetions. Analysis of both the existing peFsonnel and of the activitieg, which sheuld be earned an in the division shows hew ver-y inadequate is the former te ae wark ef a IaFge scheol system. Where shoula Iile, fer examFile, a per.manently empleyeCl spe'oialist ana sectien en cur.Ficulum reconstFuetion. 'Fhere is none. There should be a superintendent ef secendluy edueatien with an effieient planning and supery,isery pe~sennel. There is nene. There sheuMI be a la~ge sectUen de¥eting all its @ergies to the building up and maintaining o£ eflieient primary educatiop·. There should be a specialist and as.sistants aevoting full time ta the preblem of child acceunting, cenducting studies of age-gr.ade distribution, failures, prometiens, eliminatien, and retar.c;latien. There is none now. There


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

529

should be a complete personnel in charge of tests and measurements. The present one consists of a single person. There should be a superintendent of health and physieal education. There is none. There should be a section eontinuously engaged in the scientific study of the oral and written language problem. There is none. There should be a very large sta ff of traveling agents, supervisors, inspeetors, and the like. The present staff is grossly inadequate. We need not carry further the contrast between needs and facilities. The situa tion is clear. The general government is hampering the carrying on of education by not appropriating suflicient funds to develop an adequa te orga nizing and directing staff at the top of the system. 2. Inadequacy of individual salaries.-Not only in the failure to !!lrovide for needed types of administra tion but also in the inadequacy of salaries paid to individua l school offieers is the Bureau of Edueation being hampered. The sal aries of the staff in the centFal office, judged by any reasonable standards, are wliolly inadequate. Although they ra nk well with the salaries paid in other Government bureaus, it should be remembered that mosl' of these bureaus as in other governments are doing routine work. This is the )ast thing a really effective central educationa l office should concentrate upon. Routine wor,kers are comparatively cheap in Government offices or business. In the othe~ Philippine G overnment offices where special ability or responsibility is dema nded, the salary is higher than in the Bureau eÂŁ Education. In the Constabulary, in the Bureau of Public Works, in several other departments, positions Gorreslilonding to the central offiee staff positions, receive higher salaries. In recent years a long list Qf capable men have left the central office of the Bureau of Education because they could earn much more in business. Furthermore, the central office salaries are inadequate as eom!!lared with the salaries of the field. For example, in the eentral' office only the Director of Education receives more than P6,000;' only three as much as P6,000; only four as much as P5,800; enly eight as mueh as P4,500; and only nine as much as P4,000. In the field outside the central office, one man receives P7,000; eight have P6,000 or more ; eighteen have P5.500 or more; thirty-three ha ve P5,000 or more; fiftyfive have P4.500 or more ; sixty-seven have f'4.200 or mQre ; and eightyseven have P4,000 or mQre. It is absurd to expect that the eentral staff can render. effective help in technical matters to men in the fi eld when the central office â&#x20AC;˘ Se.ven thousand IWo hundred pesos regularly and P4.800 additional by special co otrod if the Counci l o~ State approves. 21-1064--34


530 EDUCATIONAL Sl!.JRVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES cannot offer salaries which will attract persons of high ability. If real leadershifl is to be exercised by the gene~al office. the persons occupying the positions mus~ be of unusual ability and prestige. The present salary schedule fo~ the higher positions of the central office cannot new compete with field salaries. Furthermore. the salaroies of the most important central-office flositions are markedly lowe~ in purchasing power than the corresponding salar,ies of 1914. The salaries of ten central-office positions which were included in bath the 1914 and 192~ organizations we~e campared with the very moder.ate a1l9wance af counting the flurchasing power of one peso in 1<j) 14 equal' to that of 1.5 pesos in 1'924. On this basis the ten 1924 salaries were faund to be from 2"] to 50 per cent loweF than the corresponding 1914 salaries. Under such conditions it is absolutely impossible to build up and maintain a central-office staff of able administrators. UNDER SUCH CONDITIONS. Wl'IAT ARE THE CHIEF CI'IARAGTERISTIGS @F SCHOOL AnMlNIST.RA'TION IN THE PHILIPPINES? The for.egaing flages have es~ablished clearly that the Philippine schaols are being directed by a central administration that is ham-per.ed by legal restFictians. by llack of contral af prafessional palicies and p~ograms. and i)y inade(!juate financia'i suppaR. The influence of the latter difficulty is revealed esJiiecialllY in the lack of professional leadershifl in the central affice. These conditions of course determine the character of the gui<ilance that the schools are getting. SCHOOl!. ADMINISTRAl'ION Is Dâ&#x201A;ŹlMINATED BY CI!.ERICAL ROUTINE AND ACCUR~TE ACCOT!JNTlNG ANI'> BY AN ABSENCE OF PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP.- The central' administra~ive staff of a school system is commissioned to carryon three majar functions. To it is entrusted. first. the custodianshifl of flroperty and the disbursement of educational funds; second. the inspection af the w:or.k af the administrative and teaching officers under its general cantral; third. the fllanning af instructional programs. the wise selection anGl assignment af the teaching staff and the guidance and canstant inspectian of teacheFs in service. Of these three. the third is by far the most crucial to "the development af fine schools in the Philippines. I t is true that each of the others is a necessaFy. functian of administFation especially in a system which is carried on as an executive branch of the central government. , It is the judgment of the Commission that whereas the Bureau of Education has accounted for flraperty and disbursed funds with meticulous regard for accuracy and has inspected schools with fair approximation ta what its financial capacity would per.mit it has very greatly fai'l ed to, fulfill its obligations of professional leadership. Let us


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

531

consider the degree to which it has succeeded in executing these three functions. The fact that the guarding of property. the accounting for funds. and the maintenance of complete records consume much of the energy of the Bureau of Education is clearly indicated by the organization diagram. Figure 27. This diagram. drawn up during the Survey by the Bureau offioials. shows how completely the custodianship of property and funds dominates the Bureau. The Academic Division is lest behind the Property Division. the Accounting Division. and tile Records Division. The placing of the divisions in the diagram is of course only a symptom. There is reason to believe that it is a very real symptom of an attitude toward the respective tyl"es of work. an attitude bred of years of experience as a part of a reutine gevernment maohine. The real guiding organization of the Bureau is or should be the Academic Division. The next most centl'al sources of leadership of the field are the industrial lind agricultural divisions. now brought together under a single division he.ad. These three. or two. comprise the true educational department of the central office. They shoUld be brought together under one department head and a broad fundamental program of academiC!:. industrial, and agricultural work evolved. fitted alosely to the economic and social life of the Filipino people and adapted thoroughfy to the mental capacities of the children in the schools. This Educational branch of the Central Bureau naturally should dominate the directive office. Its work is the activity for whioh all of the others are organized and caliried on. Comment has already been made on the striking gaps in the personnel of these divisions. gaps which it is imperative to fill if the Bureau is to become thoroughly efficient. THE ROUTINE ASPEC"FS OF THE WORK OF THE BUREAU ARE VERY EFFICIENTLY CARRIED OUT.-The many problems that arose in connection with the Survey presented concrete situations for testing the efficiency of the work ef the Bureau of Education. Requests for infermation were turned over to the office foree which put to the test their ability to supply information quickly and intelligently. All of this work connected with the Survey represented extra work. It was done not only efficientfy. It was done cheerfully. The work done in expediting the activities connected with the Survey gave abundant oppertunity to estimate the efficiency of the records chief and of the chief clerk. Building and other cost figures showed what the Accounting Division was dbing. In addition to this. many interviews were held with the Director of Education and at least one day was spent with the Assistant Director. the Assistant to the Director. the acting chief of the Academic Division. the


532 EDUCATIONAL StJRVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES chief aeeountant. the aGting superintendent of the Industrial Division. the recards ehief. and the prQlilel',ty officer. On each af these. notes were written up and submitted to the official far eanection. THE BUREAU CARRIES OUT THE CLEAR INTENT 0F THE LAw WITH EXTREME CARE.-The New York City Educational Survey in 1912 laid dawn ane standard far judging one aspect of the efficieney of any sehoal administration whieh has since beeome widely aceepted. This standard is the extent ta which the administration as a part af the general government is a model in conforming to that government's requirements as expressed in its laws. ] udged by this standard. the eentral administration in the Burea'Q of Education has an admirable record. The Commission finds that in spite of exaslilerating legal requirements which might well tempt a competent professional schoal man to evade same af them, there is practicalI!)' no such evasian. On the contra~ . there nas been less attempt than might have been expected on the part of the Bureau to disentangle itself from governmental red-tape and to make of itself a public rather than a governmental agency. It has amplified rather than simplified the t)'pe of procedure which has its preeeGient in the work of government offices in general. 'The Survey Commissian is not unmindful af the conditions whieh have given rise ta sueh detailed and inflexibte regulations as are embodiea in the Service Manual and general orders. The admini&trative machinery has been i'>uilt by a personnel both untrained and largely inexperienced. To put an educational system inta operation at all has been a tremel)aous task. and it is not surprising that the easier means of aceomplishing Fesults has been resar,ted ta instead of the more aifficult means of flexible administration ;which ean care for particulaF cases and exceptional situatians. But this type of administration is showing its ill effects. It simplifies the wOFk of administrators to disclaim responsibility for diseontent among the Iilersonnel by referring to civil service regulations and to other legal and quasi legal provISIons cavering P0intS in question. "The effect of this praeeaure upon the actual personnel will be discussea in a lateF section.

How THE CENTRAl. OFFIâ&#x201A;Ź:E FUNeTlONS: AsSIGNMENT OF WORK Specialization and noninlerference.--Specialization in the central office is confined to the business and clerical sides of the work. For years there has appeared in the Civil Service rosters a 1ist of the personnel with titles to inaicate their general fields of work. On the business side this classilkation is S0 aefinitely workea out that each person in the Records and Accounting Divisions is assigned to a fairly definite line of work.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

533

There is. however. no eorresponding specializ:ation for the heads of the divisions in the educational work proper. The limifed number of these heads necessarily have very large fields to cover. They are so over-burdened with work that specialization of the type found in progressive American state departments is impossible for them. The definite assignments of work reduces to a minimum interference of workers in the central staff with eaeh other in the sections where it is the case. On the other hand. there does not seem to be any particularly strong morale or team work such as is desirable in a central staff and such as a progressive American state department strives to build. Also. the rather rigid definition of function results in much passing of documents from department to department within the affice. Clear assignments of duties.-5ffort was made ta find out what has been done in the way of assigning duties to the teehnieal members of the central staff. Little evidence appears of any formal attempt to do this thing which is one of the earliest steps in securing effective work in any professional or business group. Such a proceclure was followed years ago in tFie Bureau. The Records Division. far el<ample. had such a schedule laid out in the year 1914. The Accounting Division and the service section revised their old schedules in 1<n5 and 1924 respectively. The cQief clerk had schedul~ which were laid ou~ years ago. The only copy had disappeared and coulC! nat be found when asked for. Most of the present worker~ have come since these schedules were made out and have simply dane what they rh(mght best to do in their respective fields. consulting with the Director from time to time. There is very great need for an organization cha rt far the work within the central staff similar ta that which has been made up for the Bureau of Education as a whole. Only as wor1;ers have a clear assignment of duties can they be expected to economize their efforts and to produce the muimum of wOFth-while results. The chief clerk has started a study of this kind for the business side of the wark in the central staff. But there needs to be also a similar study made for the chiefs of divisions outside of the business side of the !i3ureau. The nature and amount Qf the work actually can'ied 011 by each staff member.-Observations of the administrative procedure point to the canclusion that the important persons in the central office are badly overworked. Practically everyone of them is attempting to do the work which. in a state department in America. would be carried on by several members. The Director and Assistant pir.ector. for example. are attempting to do a large amount of work as inspectors from the central office. In the United States. this work would certainly be assigned to other men.


534

E.DUCATIONAL SURVEY .oF TH~ PHILIPPINES

Each ef ~he dire<lters is attem~ting to do the wor.k which should be the task of from two te three men to be done effectively. The chief of the AGademi<l Division has five major responsibilities; namely. (1) courses of study. (2~ examinations. (3) supervision and inspelltion. (4) sehool s~atistills. and (3) j'lublieations. Anyone of these in America would be regarded as a fun-time job for one man. The same thing is true of the aGting chief of Industrial Division with the three lines of work. (1) gardening. (2) inspection of agricultural schools. and (3) industrial work. In similar fashion. the Assistant te the Ji)ireGtor has charge a~ pension work. sehool buildings. athletics and sp'ecial assignments. Every one of these items involves sufficient wOFk for a <lompetent man or woman. Ther.e is no possible way of handling SUGh work adequately my an!), amaunt of mere deFieal assistan<le. The clerical force as the eentra!' staff according to the approj'lriation act is one hundred ten mernmers. it is ver.y difli<lult ta estimate the amount af wark <lanied on by this staff. In any organization so large there are a!lwa;ys found some memmers mudl mare efficient and much more (wnscientious in t1'iew work than athers. In ad!:litian much o~ the cleriGal work is 0 ' a sart that fails to inspire interest or devotion on the part of employees. Persans in wark in which they are heartily interested Gan spend many maFâ&#x201A;Ź haurs a clay in canGentFated effert than can a derical worker. 111'te work af the latter has usually no inrr.insic interest for. him. Furthermore. since the Bureau has Deen so hardpressed for money. tl'tere has been na possimility of increasing salaries of the olerkal wOFkers. thus ,removing the incentive which. after interest in one's ~ask. is the strangest ur.ge to 'n ard work .A:gain. it is practically impossibl'e to judge the output of work of any derical staff by simply observing tne physical attitude of the memmers. It is frequently ~ossible for a good elerical worker. to j'lros.uce a faF lar.ger autput and work of a mUGh higher. qualit;y ID)i' taking a number of shart rests ar intermissions in the course of a day. Tnere may seem te the casual observer a good deal of id!'ing. But the results from a staff operating on this basis may be far higher in moth autput and quality than those fram a staff Ilels. rigis.ly to t1'iem s.'esks all c1lay long. During the three months of. dbservatian of the work of the Eureau by the Cammission. there were always clerks working overtime even on Sunday. These clerks were nat Gompelles. to sta;y and tney receiveS. na extra ~ay and they were net making Uj'l lest time. 1Ji1he.y were there oecause they thought the work s.emans.es. them or. because tIley haS. been requested to cOPlplete a task by a given time. Their attitude and presence were favorable signs. The mere volume af s.eeuments whiGh are handled in the offiee is eviden<le of ins.ustry on the par.t of the organization. In generaf it


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

535

may be sa id confidently that the thing whi~h the offiGe is arganized to do. namely. clerical work. it does with a high degree of effioiency. It is the higher level of wor,k -the technical side af administratian-that is not properly represented in the Bureau's wor.k or in its staff. SPEED OF WORK.-For the kind of work attemll'ted. the central office has a good record for speed and ability to get things done when they will count most. Results and data Were produced with commendable speed when requested by the Survey Commission. it shauld be understood. however. that these requests were in mest cases fer data such as are kept as a matter of routine. There was not the same ability to produce any such results on requests whiGh demanded new classifications or interpretations of data. The routine work of all departments seems to be well erganized and well done. The annual rell'Oft appears far earlier than ,in most American states. The publications andl the mimeographed letters come eut on time. ECONOMY OF EFFORT AND ABSENCE OF LOST MOTI0N.-A very striking aspect of the operation ef the central office is the extent to which the time o~ important persons in tile llIur.eau is ta:ken up en unimpertant work. The more important ll'ersons are required to sign many documents. to do many reurine things. to Gauy on an almest inconceivable amoun of diiudgefiY all et whi~h might ~ust as easily or even more easily be peFfor-med by denicaI wor.kers. Part of this diffiGulty is due to the fact that most of the stafli are trying te cover too many fields. In such a situabion dte inevitable tendency is to do 'routine work and ts oeGUpy one's time with details. A man overburdened with teo many things seeks relief in details because more of tl1em can be handle'" in a day with less thought anq strain. A part of the diffieulty, l1ewever, is undoutedly due to the development of routine py itself. Any offiee or.ganization tends to pile up routine work. Unless c1erieal work is left to derks. there is no possibility ef having the important men sav;ed for important work. Until this latter is done. it will be a waste of money to ll'ut more workers in the central office. ~he central office has all the derical workers needed. Their services shourd be used in a fashion which 路will enable professional workers to devote theiF time to the more important problems. The elimination at some of the routine things now done would free enough employees from the ll'resent foree to caFry on the additional activities invelved in the ll'rofessional aspects of the Bureau's work for which specially prepared men should be ll'rovided. Part of the speed with whicl1 the office work is done is due to an effic;ient system of saving tiyJe in writing by the use of printed or mimeographed routine fOFms. There are forms for indieating the rusl1-


ing of wa~k, fOFms to indieate when a peFsan is to read a daGUment, ta wham ne is gaing ta pass it next, what he is ta da 'wi!h it, and so on. WheFeas the 13uFeau accounts faF pFapeFty and funds and does its "'papeF ;w;ar.l\''' effectively it ignaFes fundamen!al ptablems of child accoun~ing.. Whe type aJi aFganizat·ion and the method af administration in the Fnilippines have resulted in a great amount of "paper war,k" that mus! be done by scJhaal men. The lDurden which this puts upon tne men in the fiel<!l is tre-ated in the sectian dealing wi!h the human aspeets of administnatian. Twa autstanJing defeets eE the worok ef eolle<l~ing infarmatien by the eentnal effiee are notable, in addition te tne mere dogging magnitude ef -it. Ion the first plaee sorts eE infeFmation whien are indispensable for defeFmining aaministrative pllecedur.e aFe net ealtected. The aeeounting system fer funds is notably effeetive. lBut the more. imlila'!:tant aspeGts af ehild: accounting, cheeks up.en retur,ns faF maney' spent, in terms of. eduGatianal results ana the lil!ie aFe over.IQeked. 'Fhe :J!l.ureau is metieulous in administering money. !Iii::very sii!feguard is pravliiilelil to pFevent the misuse ef funds and ef materials. IT.veF.\!: persan in tne system must give striet and Erequent ~CGaunt fer eveFY item 8£ sGhaal prape,r.ty entrusted to his caFe. But na sud\. eflieetive s ~fegual1as have been thFewn alDeut the disoharge of eaueational Fespansibilities. In its proliler lillace in this reliloFt is discussed the tremendous secial aniil eGanomic waste repFesentem bi)' non-prametion, elimination, and tile repetitien ef grades my, lilupils. The pregness ef a penny frem tax Gollecter te tl1e person wno IfinalliY- slilends it is traced and guarded. But ef lilupil pFegFess through selloels-age pFogreSS--rlO systematic Fecord is Kept and De slileeial stud¥ has e¥er been rnade. The curniculum, wnichnepresents tne mede of appfication e£ teacher and pupil energy, nas never lDeen fitted te social neems eJ the Islands, as is proved by the failure ef pupils te pregress threugn the gFades in a satisEaetory marmer. There has been ne peroiediG junking of eutwern edueational practices as there is a year.ly destruetion af eutiworn scheel equipment. Agii!in, reperts cellected de nat appear to be ear.efully and f'Fuitf.ully interpreted and used fer punposes of aaministrative planning. This situation arises £ram tne fact that filing clel'Jts Gan be cheaply hired while onl¥ adequate sal'aries w:hieh tne Elureau nas not been abJe te eifer in recent years, will attract tedlnieally trained and able persens. t:he DiFe<ltaF of E.du<lation Gannot be el!peeted te read all of the reperts which Gome to the 'B uream There sheuld IDe peeple in his efike who ex.amine Felilorts, interlilret the dat.a and plan praeedures, and go te the Director wibh the cendensed results of tI1eir wor]:, fer advice, approval ancil Feyision.


GENERAL ADMfNISTRATION

537

The Commission is not in a position to pass judgment as to comparative importance of reports now required or to make specific recommendation looking toward the elimina~iol;l of a pa~t of the large number required. That the actual number might be reduced without inte~­ fering with the kinds of information collected by substituting annual summaries in the place of monthly rel'lorts seems possible. EDUCATIONAL PUBLlCI'fY.-A central office as l~ge as that o~ the Bureau of Education has conside~able need fo~ securing a favo~able attitude on the part of the 27,000 field workers and of the general public. It needs this favorable attitude to back up its policies. Tne more progressive state departments in the United States deliberately issue bulletins to educafe teachers ana laymen and to promote a sound I'lublic opinion favorable to the work of the departments and consequently to the cause of publiCI ed'ucation. There is no definite I'lrovision · for anything of this kind in ilie cent~aJ office at present. The result is that when any difficulty of the field over an educational policy comes up, the aggrieved person is liable to r-ush to the puollc I'lress with his stOFY. The central administration in the Bureau preserves a dignified silence. The public obtains its side by accident if at all. This was not formerly the case, in the central office, and from all accounts the publicity work formerly carried on produced a more favo~­ able attitude for the office in ~imes of stress than seems now to exist. There seems need for sl'lecial efforts in the central office at present to tell the public the truth 0)1 educational problems, to give out authoritative interviews on difficulties. and to distFibute "releases" to the papers on educational questions. Only by doing sudh work can the cen~al office expect to educate its public as do the state departments in America which lind publicity so necessary and so advantageous. The amount d~ space devoted by dail¥ papers to educational news indicates that the men best able to judge wbat people read with interest; namely. the newspaper men. believe that news about sdhools is of general interest. If misinformation is sometimes circulated. the reason for it may well be that there is no source irom which n;po~teFs and editors may obtain accurate information. Newsl'lapers are a great educational agency. Their help is invaluable in eaucating the I'lublic about education. THE BUREAU'S PROGRAM 0F SECt:;JRING AND ASSIGNING ADMINISTRAT0RS, TIle administration of education in a highly centrali2ed system liKe that of the Philippines depends for its efficiency to a very great extent upon the skill and care with which administrators are selected and as-


§38 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES signed to strategic positions. 1f1lle Survey Commission has been gr.eatly impressed DY the differences whidl exist metween provinees in the general efficiency of the schools. These differenees are surprising because the centralized organization tends to reduce such differences. They weFe hlUncl to me due in large measure to differences among the men in charge of the var.ious divisions, to the (lIersonal qualities of the division sU(llerintendents. The program of the mureau in secuFing and assigning administrators to the field is, therefore. of great importance. SELECTION

Administrative officials are selected in aecordance with the following principles: First. No administr.atoF is chosen exee(llt f.rom the fielld itseH. This tends to produce a g00cl spirit in the field because a man who nas shown nis efficiency in one position can hope to rise to a higher one with a better salar;y. In the American states a different policy might be pursuea. l1her.e F?~ogressive state sU(ller.intendents ddiberately enc0urage the importation of capable sch00l administFators direet from the other. states. That poliey is less easily (lIossible in the F'hilippines. Capable administrators of long exper.ience will not come fOF the salaries offered. F uFthermore, conditi0ns in the [Philippines are so different from those of the States that it woUld be difficult 60r a sdlool administrator from the United States to adju$t himself to the novel conditions in anything less than one OF two ;years. Naturally, a€lministrators of proved ability f.rom the Unitec!l States will not go thFough a period of ap,prentieeship for administrative work in the Philippines. The .l3ureau then is forced back upon a policy of. securing its higher personnel from those already in the field. This policy has seriously handicapped the administration in respect to the professional aspects of its work. The system has meen eompelled to draw too laFgely upon its own eX(llerience in fo)'muIating policies and in developing technical procedures. The results of study and research in the field of education which haiVe so influenced school practice in the United States dming ' the last twenty-five years nave not meen made availabl'e for the modification of scnool procedure in the F'hilippines. They would have meen made aiVaiiable had some plan been found by which a ted'lIlical staff in the );3ureau of Education would na¥e adde€l the benefit of the newly-developed technical knowledge to the experience of men old in the system. Second. No man is given an administrative position until he has first served as a teacher. This insures that in his work as administrator he will kn0w the teaching side of the scn001 work Instruction is the nub of school work. Administration eXists only to insure that the


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

539

teaching process may go on under the most favorable physiGal conditions possible. The Bureau has tried to provide a technically-trained personnel for administrative work by sending Filipino students to the United States to prepare for educational careers. The best trained of these have frequently spent years in the States. They not only need a previous teaching experience for sucGessÂŁul school administration in the Philippines. but also familiarity with Philippine scho()l conditions. Their work in the States has necessarily been given almost exdusively with reference to American conditions. These conditions are vastly different from those in the Philip('lines. Many af the pensionados . when they first return are almost as completely out of toueh with the actual school situation as though they were coming from Ameriea for the first time. Furthermore. as many of them are comparatively young, they frequently return with an abundance of theory but no practical experience. The procedure of the Bureau in assigning them to teaching position at the start is the best practical device for giving them the sane and practical attitude towards their work without which they eannot hope to make efficient sehool administrators. Most of them are very capable young persons with good training. Started in teaehing positions and allowed to fill more responsible positions through g~adual promotion as they sHow their capacity, they maRe capable administrators. Third. The Commission has reason to believe that for any acilministrative position, either at the start or as a promotion, the best man available is sought. The numerous complaints of Filipinos that the Bureau was favoring Americans. and the equally numerous charges of the Americans that it was favoring Filipinos. are the best testimony possible to its impartiality in this matter. ASSIGNMENT OF ADMIN1STRAlflVE OFFICERS.- The assignment of division supe~intendents. high-school principals. and other adminisuative officials as well as of Insular teachers in the sehoal system eonstitutes one of the major problems of the central ' office. The general poiicy is to leave appointees in one position for but a short time. There aTe exceptions. but they are not numerous. llhe average length af sewice of divisian superintendents in a single provinee is two years. Far highschool principals. the average is one and one-half years. There is a great deal of conflicting ()pinion as to the causes and justification of this policy. Aceordingly. the views of the eentral office and of the field will be stated briefly. The central office takes the position that the authorities there are in a better position than anyone else to know just where men are needed and where the individuals will best succeed. For this reason it maintains its right which has come down thru the years by customs


540 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE. PHILIPPINES and procedure, te transfer men for the good of the service whenever it seems this the best thing to do. It points out that a provinee may ha:ve hacil for. severa:l years a superintendent interested . and sueGessful in securing buildings. By the end of this period he will have done most of what he could for that province. He could then serve the cause of education better in another province and the province itself would be benefited by having a new man strong in some other line. It also peints tt;, the numerous cases an record in its files where superintendents have gaUen into fin·ancial difficulties through aver-extension of schools or the unwillingness of lo€al authorities to Faise enough revenue, or through personal difficulties with the local authorities. Anyone familiar with sehaol administration knows that a new man in any such situation would often do far more ~or the SGhool than could the old superintendent. Again, the central' office maintains that transfers are a~ten in the line af pramation ancil that under existing salal'Y regulations, it is f.refijuentl)' impossible ta promote men except by maving them in suecession as a va€ancy occurs in a better-paid positian. It claims the assignments are not made in any more arbitrary manner than is absolutely necessary and point to the €orrespondence which exists in abundance in the records ta show that men are consulted before transfers. I states that the giving a'ut ef the assignments at Baguia is anly a praof ef this, me€ause tile €onferenees with all the superintendents at once make it possible ta give rilen their preferences and gives them chanees, which could be given in no other way, to express their desires and te make known the needs o~ the different divisions. Twa different views af the prablem have €ome from the field. A considerable number of superintendents and pra€tically a:ll high-school principals have told the Commission that their tenme of office has been altogether toa short for the good of their work and that they suffer financial sacrifices in many af the transfers and these transfers are made in an arbitrary manner with little consideration for the preferences of the individual. On the ather hand, a number of able superintendents nave gi.ven substantially the €entral office's statements. One of the best of ·the superintendents, a man of long experience and wide acquaintance in the Islands, saicil he had never personally known of a division superintendent shifted against the latter's will. He said that while superintendents, of course, had to be shifted sometimes for the good of the service, a man was always given a ohance to take or deoline the best available pesitioD'. He, furthermore, pointed out that some positions were sa undesirable that it was unfair to expect any superintendent to stay long in them.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATIGN

541

Without attempting to determine the eX'ac;t truth from these conflicting reports. it is nevertheless possible to point out two elements that have important bearings on the prablem. l'he first is the expense involved in a transfer. The second is the length of stay of a superintendent in a province. When a superintendent is transferred. he is allawed transportation for 1.500 kilograms of personal belongings. The railroads. however. have the right ta measure this by volume and call it 1..5 cubic meters jf it is to their advantage. The result is that a superintendent often has to pay for any effects over a volume equal te that of a bel{ ane and one-seventh of a meter each way. This is a cubical content no bigger than that of the desk at which he werked in the old place. To expect any superintendent to pack his household effects and aooks into a aax of that size. is preposterous. H e ca nnot take his things except by paying extra. If he sells, he sells at a aig loss. This persenal-effects allowance needs to be increased a great deal. Again. when he is transferred. he .ha~ transportatian enly far lIimsel拢. All the other members of his family go ",t his expense so that a man is penalized for having a family and the more children he has. the greater the (;lenalty in transportabion expenses. h is true that a superintendent is often transferred to a promotion. But since the average length eE stay in a division is only twe years. and of.ten enly one. it is a delusion to say his premotion offsets his extra moving expenses when he will not stary in the province long enough 'to cateh up on the de/ieit caused by moving. In 37 per cent of the transf~s of superintendents frem 1~13 to 1'924. the transferred man received no increase in sal<!ry and of course made the usual financial sacrifice on IQoving in additien. Provisiens similar to those made fer oBieers in the Cohstaaulary and other lines of Government services should be made for officers in the Bureau of Education. Table 62 summarizes the data on the length of time superintendents have stayed in their divisions during the last twelve years. To I'>e perfectly fair only the superintendents whose terms clearlw- began and ended in this peried were taken. Every man serv,ing one year for a sllperintendent who went on leave to the States was eliminated. From this table it can be seen that the av.erage and middle term for both Americans and Filipino superintendents has been two years. Moreover. nearly half o~ the superintendents, beth Americans and lFilIpinos, have been in their divisions only one year.. It is impossiiDJe far any c;livisio/l to secure goed seheol werk with any sueh fu;e"lilent challge ef its chief official. When a superintenclent stays in a divi路sion only ene year, as did nearly half of the divisien super,intendents serving full terms


542 EDUCATI0>NAL SURVEY QF THE PHDU1PPINES TAB"" 62 .-LENCl1HS OF STAY OF SUPERINTENOENIfS IN THEIR DIVISIONS,

1913-1924

Hneludes only terms beginn ing and ending in tliis VClIiod and omits tCrmB of one-.yeall substitutes] AmcrFili~ icana pinos

J路year term ..................... __ .. _... __ ...... .............. _........................................ . 2-楼ear term ............. __ ....................... __... ................. .............................................. 3~year: term ........................................................._............................................. . 4-year term ......................................................................................... ................ 5~yeaT term............................................ . . ........ ....................................... .. 6~yeai term ......................................................................................................... .

58

44 26

IS

10 5 4

2

3 I

Tolal ................................. ............................................................ .........

146

23

Average term in years. __ . ................................................................................... M iddle term in years ............................. ........................................................... . Most common term in years ............................................................................. .

2 2

2 2

~ource : Station List of Bureau of Education for December of each year.

in the last twelve years, the actual sch001 W0TK in the division re<;eives only a little more th~n half 1his time. He is supposed to be on duty ten months. From one to two m0nths of his time will be required to cheek up the property anG! <liuties of his predeeessors. To get his a'ffairs into proper shape to turn them over to his suecessor will require the same length of time. Months will pe required to become familiar with the teTor.it0ry and pers0nnel 0f the div,isi0n. It is a c0mm0nplaee knowledge in the U'nited S~ates that an administrator is worth very little in his positi0n the lirst year. He is supp0sed to spend that lirst year in getting Fead:y to be 0f service. He has no sueh enOFm0US derical and property duties as do superintendents in the Philippines. It is perfectly clear that under tlle situation 0btaining in the last twelve years appF0~ID1atel~ half 01 the provinees ha'Ve not had m0re than live or six months a year of the attenti0n of their division superintendents for really effective school work. Many 0f these tramfers eannot fair,ly be eharged to the policy 0f the administration. They are the results of condiV!ons en~irely outside the control of that administration. For example, in the twelve years stugjed. fOFty-one Amer,ica,n superintemlents retired under the Osmeiia Retirement Act and twenty 0thers resigned. Naturally the superintendents retiring and resigning were in the mare ID1portant previnces. I~ was imp0ssible to put in beginners in these provinees. Tl\e only thing to do was to move men from still smaller divisions. The Fesulting ehains of transfers could not be legitimately charged against the eentral administration alone. INSPEGTI@N AND SUPERVISI0N BY THE CENTRAL (JFFICE

A central educational office must inevitably do a great deal of inspection work to see that sta:ndaras are enforeed, property is ace0unted


GE,NERAL ADMINISTRATION

543

for, ~he laws and regulations are obeyed. Judged on such inspeotion work. in comparison with the American states, the central office will rank high. The records and correspondence at headquar.ters shew the completeness with which inspection is carr,ied out. Moreover.. tl1e present Director has made inspection and supelTVision much mere extensive. Me has reduced the number ef provinces not visited in anyone year from thirty-~wo in 1919-1920 to two in I!}Z3-lcn4. He has alse incr.eased the number of provinoes visited by each inspector. himself taking a heavy part of the load. There is. however. an inequality of inspection ameng provinces which need to be watched clesely. as may IDe seen frem Table 63. TABLE 63.-NuMBER OF SEPARATE INSPE<ITlONS f:ER DI'VlS10N FOR "PHE FIVE YEARS,

1919-20

TO

1923-24.

G:OMBINED

rEnoh st.'!parnte visit to the province of an inspector. counts one ina-pection but visits to pnr:ticu)nr. achools only ore not counted]

Provinces receiving i.r;iapectioD

-------------------1 La Union and Tarlnc . ............. .

Cebu DJld Nuavn Eeljn .... \ . . .... , POlUpnngn nnd PangnainDJ1 .•• . .. ... .

IloUo ..... ........ .. . , ., ......... . IlacO! Norte, 110C08 Sur. llod lJagunn .... . . . .......... , . .. . Cn,vUe nnd Riztil .. ........ .... . Abrn. Datnngos. Bulnean, Cnmnrincs Sur, Cnpiz,

Toyab~.

Number or times in.apected 18 12 ill 10'

DOd Zom-

boongn .......... , . ...... .. .. . Albny, Leytc. MiM,mia, nnd Romhlon .

7 6

Provinces receiving .insp.ection

Number of times inspected

Monilo~ Occidental Negroo, SQtsogon, and Cotabato ....... . . lBattuin. Mllrinduque-l Mountain, Nueva Vizeaya, Oriental Neg~.os, Samar. anti Sulu . .............. . CagoyanJ [Babela~ Mindp,ro, iP.a1aWD.Q.. Surigno, Znm'baies, Agusan, Bukidnoll, Elnvao, and Lanao . . . Antique and Gam'Ol'ines Nor-te .. .. . Masbnte...... . .. .. . .... .. Bntaiies .. . ... ,

Bop-ol,

The absence of teohnicians in the centralooffice staff has caused the inspectional natuFe of these visits to be emphasized at tI1e expense of the supervisory. The nature ef reports ef field visits written by persons from the central offioe oleaFl¥ indicates tI1e inspectlena'l peint of view. Attention tends te be center.ed upon the minutia of. management. There is little evidence that the lar.geF pFo])lems ef the schoel system. su"h problems as those of instruction and of success of irrstr.uction. ef adeq).Iaoy of the curriculum to meet sooial needs. are preminent in tI1e minds of central office visiters to schools. Tl1e effect e£ this upon the field supervisory force. and upon ,tI1e scheols is disoussed else:where in the report. The outstanding . weakness of the E'uJ:eau is in this particular. For lacle of suffioient funds to pay them. the office has not on its staff the people who should be attaciking the fundamentaL technical problems of Philippine education. But the BUFeau does its purely managerial work well.


544 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES DOES THE BUREAU OF EOU€ATlON HAVE THE CO/iiPERATION OF OirHER DEPA'RTME';NTS OF THE GOVElRNMENT UNBER E~Is:FING C0Nm;to10Ns?

Information eollected by the Commission indicates that tne Bureau of Education has on the whole enjoyed the cooperation of other coordinate parts of the Government. In particular, the Bureau of Public Works, the Civil Service Bureau, and the Philippine Health Service pa~ticipate in wO)1k which is pr.imaFily the funetion of the Bureau of Edueation. The eonditions under whicn such work is done ate at ~imes and in certain ·respects unsatisfactory to IDoth sides. No evidence was found of antagonisms toward the Bureau or any deliberate attempt by another department to hamper its work such as sometimes occur in govevnmental departments. Such troubles as occur in this field come from the faet that the Bureau of Education is a part of the Philippine Government, operating under that Government's general regulations, and no~ hom friction with the other. coordinate depar.tments themselves. CONCLUSIONS IilN THE AOMINIS'fRATION OF THE CENTRAL OFFICE

(1) The pr.esent administration of the central office has conducted the central office on a higher business and inspectional plane and given greateF vaJue for the money than eoult! IDe reasonably IDe expected. (2) The service of this office to the educational system, howeveF, is on the professional or promotional side far short of that of the best of American state departments of education. (3) Any material progress of the central offiee in the direetion of the professional serviee reeommended as a goal in paragraph (2) depends pFimarily on freeing the office ,fwm outside interference in professional matters and upon g.ranting it much more money for operation. (4) Granting more money to tile central office will be a waste all around, unless the outside interfeFences specified in paragraph (3) are removed, and unless it be spent to improve the educational leadership which is now lacking. (5) If <;ldequate funds are made available, a large number of professional supervisoFs with adequate traveling expenses should be secured and set to WO~K promptly in the central office. These wOFkers should be in such field as: . Industrial arts Home economics Buildings T eacheT< tFaining Currieulum Secondary education Tests and measurements, etc.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

545

(6) Unless these outside interferen(les are removed and funds are 5uppfied the only practicable improvements are some relatively trivial ones, such as (a) more attention to humanizing administration; (b) elimination of some of the paper work; (c) a clearer determination of the work of each staff member and a greater delegation of authority by the Dire(ltor so that he may save his energies for the most important matters; (d) a listing of desired data with their possible uses and the reorganization of statistics so as to provide more useful data. An example is the reorganization of the cost data so as to show per-pupil cost figures on the clifferent kinds of schools. THE WORK OF THE DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT The division superintendent is p~imarily the representative of the Bureau of Education in his clivision. Theoretically, he has great responsibilities and is in almost complete control of the division's educational affairs. He is expected to do all that the Bureau of Education could do through a ~ld representative, to report to the centraf offi(le the things that he cannot consummate by himself, and to follow the instrU(ltions of that central office on this or any other matter. In the main his work is of seven kinds: (I) The appointment and assignment of tea(lhers, (2) field WOr-K done largely through the supervisors and supervising teachers; (3) finance; (4) erection and maintenance of buildings; (5) reports and general correspondence with the central office; (6) investigating charges against teachers and pupils, and (7) teachers' institute. These will be dis(lussed in order. I. THE ApPOINTMENll AND ASSIGNMENT OF TEACHERS.-The permanent assignment of tea(lhers is an exceedingly important part of a superintendent's activities. He has to choose his teachers carefully â&#x20AC;˘ .see that they are placed where they will be most effective, and check them up 011 their work. His labor here is complicated by the fact that the insular teachers may be withdrawn at any time for assignments elsewhere. Whenever a teacher resigns he has to fill the place as early as possible. This work on appointments and assignments take no small part of a super,intendent's time. 2. FIELD WORK.-Under the instructions of the central office. the division superintendent is expected to devote about four-fifths of his time to field work. This is, however, wholly out of the question for most of the division superintendents, and the larger the division the more of the superintendent's time will have to be spent in the office. He accordingly must spend a great deal of the time with the supervisors and supervising teachers going over their work and checking up their reports. However. he must spend considerable time himself in visitations because a system of the central office checks him up and demands to know from 2UOSt---SS


546 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE Pl"IILIPPINES time to time why he has net v,isitec;j personally more schools in his div,ision. In the fielo work the division superintendent must take the responsibility fer administer,ing the examinations sent out by the central office, for seeing that the papers are graded and tlie results sent to headquarters. In the last few years the difficulties connected with examinations have entailed much mere work on concientieus division superintendents. When <iJuestiens beceme known they nave to make out new questions er mimeograph the questiens in different order" and so on. 3. FINANcE.-l'he werk in finance occupies a large share ef the division superintendent's attention. It has two main phases: first, he must allot the insular funds, the distribution of which within a prevince is left to him. If he is willing to take the ·responsibility for the distribution of these tunds he has an eli!portunity tG de geed whi(lh few asministraters in the States have. MallY school super·intendents find se many difficulties, se many outside pressures for particular applications of these funds that they wish the distribution in the prevince to be put on a more automatic basis and taken out of the superintendent's hands. Second, the divis'ion sUliler-intendent must take tile respensibility for raising local revenues fer s€hools. In tI1is he is helped censiderably by the supervising teaehers. This work includes helping the municipalities to make out tneir budgets. This must be done in November or December in erder that the councils may finally adopt the budget as early as possible the next year. Since most of these (louncils have their meetings very close together, the division superintendent cannot attend all of them, so that he must rely on the supervising teachers tG repr.esent him. There is much wor-K in connectien witn veluntary contr.ibutions, which are eften neld back with the idea tnat more aid may later be secured from the Insular Government. Or there may be a tenden(lY to give veluntary contributions sufficient to Iun a part of the year only. The wise superintendent will net allow a schoel to open unless ne has funds assured for the whole year. Thus he may have to insist on the municililalities maKing eut liWo budgets, with double the werK fer him. In the last few years the over-extensien <'if schools and the (lutting deWD ef the insular aid given under the ThiFty-million-peso Act have greatly increased the burdens of the division super-intendents in relation to finance. There . have been deficits sometimes so gr.eat that superintendents have been tr-ansferred in order that a new man coming in might check up and get the finances on a sound basis. In all of this financial we!'k a sUlilerintendent's success depends largely upon his per-sonal contact and effectiveness with the provincial and municipal officials.


GENERAL ADMINISTRA nON

547

4. ERECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF BUILDlNGS.-In most divisions much of the superintendent's time is consumed with building problems. He must enforce the central office standards for new buildings. This involves much special knowledge and great attention to detail and is successful largely in proportion to the business and financial sense of the individual. He must do a great deal at times to stimulate local governmenrs to transfer funds, or local communities to raise voluntary contributions for buildings. Much of this work is necessarily done through the supervising teachers but the ultimate responsibility is with the superintendent. In cases of bad storms, the building work for a superintendent is enormous. lIocos Sur, for example, in one storm lost practically two-thirds of its buildings. The supe~intendent was faced with the task of finding temporary quarters for all of these schools--and with the tremendous task of reconstruction of the buildings which had been destroyed and damaged. 5. REPORTS AND GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE CENTRAL OFFICE.-These take up a very great deal of the time and energy if they are properly done. As pointed out elsewhere, tile amount of work involved in them is almost incomprehensible to an administrator in the United States. Much of the work is done by the clerical force, but if it is to be done at all acourately the superintendent must take charge of it. The result is that repORS from the division offices are either inacourate or perfunctory when made by the clerical force OF else they consume a large amount of the superintendent's time. The correspondence with the central office is very voluminous and very time-consuming. Documents accumulate as many as twenty-six and twenty-seven indorsements, and papers involving ten or more indorsements are not at all uncommon. 6. INVESllIGATING OHARGES AGAINST TEACHERS AND PUPILS.The Philippines have a very laFge number of cases of charges brought against teachers and pupils for various things. They are frequently of suoh a serious nature that they require exoneration of the teacher or his immediate disoharge from the service. The testimony is usually so involved and so contradictory, that getting at the truth is extremel짜 aifficult. The documents in a case may accmmulate fOF months. The superintendent has to investigate all these cases and aavise the central office. I n particular, charges against teachers or pupils for immoral conduct or against pupils for cheating and the like take a very great deal of time. 7. TEACHERS' INSTITU.E.-This takes ordinarily three weeks of the superintendent's time. Through these institutes, the many ne:w and untrained teachers who enter the service each year are given their only


54'~ EIDUCAl'IONA:L SURVE.Y ©F Til-lit PMU.Il"l"INES

pteparation ,foF the-iF work_ Throughout the whdle year the superinteneent must spent;! mueh of I\.is time and give much of his attention to this weFK e~ tFa,ining teachers in service. CHIEF HANElICAPS T0 HIE W0RK 0F THE DIVlSI0N .sUPERIN::I:ENIilEN'liS

lin the judgment of the Commissien iliere are fOUF handieaps to the sueeess ef a diy,ision supenintendent, all e£ which eoula be easilY' ~emediee. ~hese are as follows: ( 1) Lack ef specifie definit,ien ef his powers and duties. The Serviee Manual eught to be PlJt in suw shape tnat a div.isien superintendent ean definitel;v learn what he may and may net de. This has been ~ully discussed elsewhere. (2) Lack _ef sufficient derieal help. The division offices have a consideral)le number e£ clenks, the 1''n4 Civil $ernee Roster lis..ting 132 derks in the Sf> divisions. iHawever, the nurnber af these cleFks in 1'!l24 is praeticall;v the same as the numhler in 1C} t 4 when there were onlyane-harf as many children as naw, and seheal e:x;penditUFes were only ane-third as rnueh as 1'l1ey are naw. Judging from obseFVatians in a number af alllces IRe denl!'s in the divrsiall ~upeFintendent' s affiee are very much a"er-waFkee and certainl!), work far l\.aFder than deJiks in other prellincial effices. 'Tliey wark mere hours a day; they eome on Saturdays and l1alid'a.ys, ane in general do far more than the cleFks in the other ofikes. MoreoveF, the salaFies are smaller than the salaFies o£ deIill:s in other offices. 1ihere are a number a£ cases wheFe competent clerll:s in the division superinteneenti's offiee were offered higheF salar.ies in pasitians requjping sll.arter haurs oj affiee wer'k. Moree"VeF, the salaries in a divisian superintenQent's affiee, as a matter o£ eommon business preeautian, aught to llie better 1'han in other pFOvinciaI offices. CleFKs in the latter offiees alway,s have the possibility of advaneement. A competent clerk in the pFevincial fieasurer's office, fOF example, has the passibility of rising to a pFov;incial treasurer's position or ultimately to be t!'te I'nsular Auditor. But tnene is no such possibililiy befare derks in ilie diMisian superintenMent's affiee. "Elley eannat hape ta be division superinte..nQents or, in fact, ta get inta -teael'iing unless they leave their clerical posif,ians to take a new sant af training to fit them fer eeucatianal watk, 1Ihis matter of, cl'erieal help ,in ~he divlsian affiees is sa seT-ious that it eanfiet be ignor-ed. The present p_oliey is net to allow tI1ese affices anY' - mare c\'erical help. If iliat poliey is eantinued, then the only way that , the work af these offiees ,ean be aecomplished is ta eliminate vast amQunts af the ceFrespondenee anQ reperting waik eaFTied an in them.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

549

(3) Lack of travel expenses. The superintendent and the supervisory staff are seriously handicapped by insufficient travel expenses. Formerly P440,OOO were allowed for the entire Bureau of Education, but at that time travel on the transports was feasible. Now the transports are so few and sail so seldom that they cannot be utilized as much as formerly. Consequently, the travel of teachers going to and from the United States is much more expensive. This cuts down the allowances possible for the division superintendent's offices. Moreover. the 1925 travel appropriation is f>50,OOO less than the previous year. The results of this parsimony is found in inadequate traveling and in automobiles which are wholly beneath the dignity of the educational service. The travel allowance has been carefully allotted by the central office on the basis of what was done in the provinces. "Fhere could hardly have been a better allotment of the aid than that which the Bureau has made. ( 4) Failure to assume responsibilitY. There does Qot seem to be in the field as a whole enough willingness te ~ake more responsibility and exercise more authority. On this matter there is considerable differenee of opinion as pointed out elsewhere. But unless this is definitely straightened out and division superintende\lts know from the Service Manual or from explicit statements from the central office how to exercise full resp.onsibility, many of them are not apt to do so. In the opinion of the Survey Commission. the field work can be greatly benefited if the division superintendents exercise more autherity on their own account than they are now definitely authorized to do. THE DISTRICT SUPERVISING TEACHER

The district supervising teacher is both a supervisor and an administrator. His work of supervision is discussed in the seetion on supeFVision in the chapter on elementary edueation. In the preseQt section only his administrative duties will be considered. The administrative work of the district supervising teacher may be considered conveniently under two heads.-field wor.k and office work. He ordinarily has his headquarters in the municipality which is the center of population of his district. Often it is in the central school. This office is equipped with desk. typewriter, and filing cases. For office help the supervisor depends lIpon such assistance as he can secure ,from teachers whom he calls upon for help. In this office the supervisor must answer the voluminous corresponaence with the division superintendent and central office. Here he prepares


55(j) IWUCA TIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIUPPINES the many reports that are required of him. Service M,a nual. are: Y early reportsJanuary 1.

These. as listed in the

Outstanding obligations against the Bureau of Education.

(Par. 262.) Report on c1ean up week. Data for annual report. Number!. dates. and places of issue of cedulas of Insular employees. p

Januar:y

January Fe~ruary

15. 20. 15. Industrial schedules and reporls.

(B. of E. Forms 60, 61. 62. and

64.~

March March

1.

Report on civico -educational lectures.

15. Garden Day reporl. Report on class standings. oral examinations. and inspeotions. List of teachers and applicants to be matriculated at division normal institute.

March

30.

Characler and efliciency reporls. Recommen cfation

(B. of E . Forms VII and 66.)

by towns and schools for assignment of. teachers in

June. Annual report . Report of differences between district and division office properly. Requisition fOf; books and supplies for neJ:t school year. Rep,ort of examination. primary. and intermediate. (8. of E. Forms

xv-m

XVI'il and (A).) Promolion in (ÂŁ;rades I. II. anll Ill. (B. of E. Form 140.~ eonsGljdaleCl reporl o~ promotion. Grades I. II. and Ill. (B. of E. Form XX.) Report of absences of regular: municipal teachers during the scnool year.

Teacher's clearance.

~B.

of E. Form 122.)

Abstract of pupils' funds report by schools and consolidated report for the district.

Induslrial enrollmenl. oulpul. and househoICl producls. Form 63.) October 15. November 10. Decemb er 1. December 15.

(B. of E.

Report on class standings for subjects of O ctober. examinations. Report of results of October examinations. Arbor Day report. Recommendation for distribution of funds for new municipal estimate.

161. Quarlerly reporlsReporls 01 properly consumed. (B. of E. Form 101.~ ~Par. 569.) Quarlerly industri~1 reporl. (B. of E. Form 15~. revised.) 185. Monthly supervising district reports-

Monthly attendance reporls. (B. of E. Form Ill.) Sales of Books and Supplie,. (B. of E . Form, 112 and 113.)

(Par.

550.) Reports on special school funds.

Reporl of Iravel.

(B. of E . Form XIV.)

Travel and general expense vouchers.

Time record,.

(<1:. S. Form 46.)

(Gen. Forms 6 A and 5 A .)


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

551

In addition to these. he must prepare his annual budget-no small task in itself- and must make requisitions for all materials needed in his district and distribute them when received. This work is done ordinarily in the evenings--and on Saturdays and Sundays- for all school hours are set aside for supervisory work. To accomplish his field administrative tasks. the supervising teacher must travel from place to place over his district. He does administrative and supervisory work on these same journeys. How much of his time is taken in travel ,may be judged from Table 22. This field administration consists largely of dealing with public bodies-municipal councils and citizen organizations--and with parents of pupils. In each munieipality the supervisor attends the meetings of the council at which school affairs are to be discussed. This means a meeting in each municipality every month. for school affairs are the most important business handled by most municipal governments. In many barrios are school committees. volunteer bodies appointed by citizen groups who .are carrying on some project for school betterment. ordinarily a d~ive to secure a school site or to raise money and secure material and labor for constructing a school building. The supervisor must meet with these committees. review their wo~k and advise about farther activities. Where such a comn;!ittee is not organized and there is some pressing school need. he must work with the people to bring about such an organization. Out of this sort of wo~k come the voluntary contributions which form no inconsiderable part of the total amounts devoted to education in the Islands. The supervising teacher must meet parents who have grievances and must make such adjustments as are possible. The problems presented are endless in variety. and time-consuming in their number. The supervisor is responsible for keeping schools open. Me sees to it that teachers are in the schools ; making temporary appointments to fill unexpected vacancies and recommending for permanent appointments. The training and experience of the men who carry on these heavy and important tasks are shown in Table 21 . And it must be borne in mind that these administrative duties ought to be the smaller. part of the work done by these men. Their pFincipal wo~k should be supervision. SOHOOL PRINOIPALS AS ADMINISTRATORS

Principals of schools have much clerical but little truly administrative work. Their activities are descr,ibed in other sections. those of elementary schools in the section on elementary education; those of high-school principals. in the chapter on secondary education.


552 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES THE HUMAN SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION

The World War taught .all the nations a g[eat new truth. This is that neither nations nor armies are mere aggregates of human bodies to be used as machines. Instead. both nations and armies were dis.lOvered to be made up of individuals with distinct mental attitudes far mote important than any l'lhysical powers Ot activities. A group with a high morale or esprit de cor.ps was founa to triumph over a ' group. other-wise equal. which Was deficient in this characteristic. aften ev.en aveF a group mare efficient in many physical ways. The wmld futthermare discovered that this morale aould be cultivated ar develaped. if one but knew haw ta do it. as effectively as physical strength or dexterity could be developed. It is accordingly worth while to apply this truth to the school administrators of the Philippines. Are conditions in the Islands such as to produce a high mar-ale or esprit de corps in the administrators-the SLXtyfiv~ division sUl'lerintendents. the farty-two academic supervisors. the forty-one industFial sUl'lervisors. the more than four hundred supervising teachers. the fifty-seven high-schaol l'lFincipals. the one thousand fortytwa principals o~ eJemefltaI)r schaols. and the twenty-eight chiefs and assistant chiefs 1 of the centFaJ office? 'This in<i)uiry can pe answere~ only as tl\.e v.a~ious things which will appeal to scl\.ool administratars. will stimulate them to do their best wor,k. and will keep them happy and wa~king profitably. are considered. The mote impartant of such stimuli will be discussed seFiatim. . 1. Does school work in the Philippines offer the administrator sufficient dignity of position. responsibility. and opportunities so that the stimulation of the work itself ,will tend to oceupy a man's energies and keep him happy I Tl\.e answer to this is an unqualified "yes." The Directar of Education Fanks in prestige and social pasition with any official in the Government. save a few obvious superiors. The div.ision sUl'lerintendent ranlCs with the governor of his pFo짜ince. The divisian supervisors rank with comparable pFovincial officials. The sUl'lerv,ising teacheF with 'his av.eJ;sight of several municil'lalities pFactieally enJoys a Fank all his own. ~ecause af the isolation of l'lFovinces and ot the magnitude of the wotk within a province. division supeFintendents. supervisors. and supervising teachers are thrown much upon their own resources and have abundant oPl'lortunities for initiative and individual action. if they but desire such things and will take the resl'lonsibility. Complaints to the contrary are common but these seem to come in the main from those who because of their inexperience or lack of initiative are necessar,ily checired more dasely by the central office. 1

~

listed in tne Civil Service Roster.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

553

It seems clear that any administrator who is c;ompetent to act on his own judgment and is willing to take the responsibility, can do so in many important matters without serious limitations. Furthermore, sinee all promotions are made from the system ' itself, there is nothing to prevent a man from starting in as a teacher and gradually working up to a position in the central staff. 2. Does school UJork in the Philippines offer- the administratol' a life reasonably free from unnecessary UJorty oVer personal finances P With , slight quafifications the answer to this is "no." J;he salaries are not adequate and have not kept paee with tile increased cost of living. The average salaTY of superintendents, when the increased cost of living is taken into aceount, is at least 15 per cent less than it was in 1913. It is true that the wives, qualified for teaching, of school administrators, have abundant opporttmity to teach. Many of the wives of. American administrators Ilave been foreecd to this for. by no other means (lomd the famify get a finanei'al start. Tl\.ey cannot. however, do this and give their children a mother's personal care nor. exeepb as they have exceptional manageilial ability, maintain a home 1n the most efficient manner. There is a nominaf gover-nmental medieal attendance for teachefS at reduced Fates, but it is Qot always satisfactoTY. The ti:ansfers from proWnce to province are a finaneial hardship on superintendents. They have an allowance for mo:ving their household goods and their. own transportation expenses are paid. But they- cannot move many things safely. Sud) tl\.ings have to be given a way or sold at a loss. They must pacy: the transportation of other members of the family. In any ease, tl\.ey cannot move without considerable financial sacrifice. The lack of a permanent residenee for the division superintendent, .fillnished by the l3ureau of I:.cilueation, frequently causes great financial hardship on a new. super.intendent. A residence sueh as is furnished file <Elonstabulary officers (possibl!y in some cases a rent allowance sueh as these offieers sometimes ha;ve) , would add much to !'he real salary of the division superintendent and more to his peace of mincil, with comparativel;y little outlay by the Government. The .need is so o1)v.ious that it seems strange that the recent recommendations of the division superintencdents to this elfeet have not been followed by the Legislature. The American administrative personnel in partieula路r is constantly worried over personal finances. The salaries for Americans are too low and the travel allowances for the return trips to the States neeessar路y to keep them effeetive and professionally growing, are too low. It takes practically all they can save in five year-s to make the trip to the States in the sixth year, according, to the official poliey o拢 the Department of Public Instruction. They are harassed by the uncertainty


as to whether- the p.ension system may liie changea to their ser-ious disadvantage. ~hey ar-e fear~ul that if. they do not lea;y;e soon, they may, not be allowea a ,falvor<tmle pension ar,r-angemenl. Ff they had stayed in the States, Mley would now be ear-ning far- more than mey, can secure her.e. mut they ar.e now. so out of the eurrent in t'l\.e States that they hesitate to retUFn to a situati on with which they ha,v,e been long out of toudt T:he prtlspect of having to go baek with a row salaFY and p'ossibly no, appr-eGiaml'e pension f,rom tlle Philippines produGes a mental attitude that is very mad for- the hundr.eills of. thousands of, Filipino child\;en 'under. them. 'iFhese Amer-iean superintendents ar.e too few in num&er- for. any, per.sonal discomfor.t on their part to lIave mud'l weight. But tnere is in many of them an aaministtative power that could not me secmed with sev.eFa'1 times the e~q!)enditure on new men, and poss/My not at all by any e:x;penditur.e Ilowever lar-ge. Ev:ery effon should be made to ~eep iliem contented ana prailluetive in the ten or. fifteen o/ear.s of, . hignliYl efl'eGtiv.e seFVice of which many of them ar.e capaMe. If these men ane driven out c;Juickly By low. salar.ies and fear for the f,uture, it iWill be an educationill otl'ense against tile Filipino Clhildr.en. 3. 11:;. tlie sCl'hool administrator in the Pliilippities wlio falls into the

inel11itab'le loedl di'fjidltres on pr.ofess(onal matter.s\ thru no .fault of liis OLVn, "ertain to be pnomp!lg ccmed for by the eentral adminisfiration ~

1Ihe answer. is "yes," an general, mut with oGcasional notable exceptions. No man in the Rhilippine pualic-school system who has trouble$ in professional matter.s aecause of an;y ,remeaial'>le f.ault of his own r.eceives less than f.air tr.ea.tmenl. Me is- certain to be transferred with. out pr.ejuaice and without loss of salar.y, to a new locality and given ever.y, op,p,or.tunit짜 and encoUF~gl!ment to statt again under- mor-e fa,vor.able conditions. in this r-espect, the iilhilip,pines are far ahead of the Amer-i~an pFactiGe wner-e the cena:a], state department is frequently powerless to hell'! a deser짜ing man who nas !roumle in one loeality to start anew in anoilier plac.e. MoreveF, the tilansfer custom is s.o st'Fongly entFenched in the Bureau of ~duGal!ion t'l\.at even men per.sonally at fault aFe ghr,efi another. chance and often do mucn aetter my reason of ,the lesson leamed througn mist<l'Kes in a for-mer- situation. In its effor-ts to e.OFrect soeial situations wnieh inter.fete with teacher-s' and aillministr.ators' sueeess\ the Jil'ur.eau ,has aeen less aCltive. 11eachers have lileen transferred who migl'it aetter. na,v.e aeen ['eft in positions in which they, have had tFouble with students or- local groups, and the lilacking of the whole Gove~nment ;force Imrought to &ear upon the situation jf necessary to eor-Feet it.

4, Does selioo'l wor'k in the Pliilippines offer SUfe and steady pro. fessional growth to the adminisiraior,? The answer te this under


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

555

present conditions is on the whole "no," but there are some excellent stimuli to such growth. Four things are necessary to stimulate an administrator to steady prdfessional growth : (a) The challenge of the work itself must be enough to command his best efforts; (b) His administrative superiors must stimulate him constantly to grow in the important professional aspects of his work; (c) He must have reasonable opportunities for the contacts with his professional associates, for the development of ~ professional spirit without which men in any line of endeavor cannot grow professionally; (d) He must keep up with the important advances in the professional literature of education. (a) The challenge of the school work itself is sufficient to eommand the best efforts of the most capable men in the world. Americans in service in the Islands have all the challenges they would have in the States. In addition, the numereus difficulties conneeted with new customs, different methods of thought, language problems. and the like. are sufficient to call forth higher powers than would ()e developed in a less difficult situation. (b) The administrativ:e supepiors in the Philippines. under the eonditions for some years past. have not offered to men in subordinate positions sufficient stlmuIation to professional growth. Due to a shortage of funds, the cen ral office has not had the kind of staff neeessary to spur them to advancement in profeSSional lines. Tile central s.t a/f has in recent years been chiefly concemed with the routine phases of its work. It has insured honesty of expenditure. safe-guarded property and checked mechanical activities. All of these things are fundamental and must be done. But it has not been staffed with specialists competent to give help on professional problems. There is. however. one important aid to professional growth, wruch the central staff gives. This is the custom of submitting to the annual convention of the superintendents in Baguio each May. aU proposed changes in policy, recommendations for legislation. and the like. Much of the work on these is done by committees of supe~intendents and they thus are led to consider and debate many impor.tant ,prollllems of sehool administration. This conference activity affords much incentive to the kind of growth desired. This policy is calculated to result in more consulting of the field. in the placing of more responsibility for the determination of policies upon the field without any avoidance by the central authorities. than obtains in American states. (c) The school administrator in the Philippines is particularly fortunate in some respects in the opportunities to come in contact with other men in his field of work. The various conventions for superin-


556 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES tendents, supervisors, and sUJile~vising teachers at Baguio, to and from which the traveling expenses are paid, are a great asset to the system. The inter-provincial athletic meets also give sUJile~intendents and highschool p~ineipals ~he oppor~unity: to meet athe~s in their fields. In such contacts, exchange of prafessional thought is always possible. Fu~ther足 more, superintendents may obtain permission to visit the work and province of other superintendents. The cenwar office encourages this type of visitatian and prescribes it for superintendents who need it on their special problems. (d) The school adminiswator who wishes to grow professionally must keep up with the literature of his field. This is particularly important in the Philippines where distances and inaaequate travel facili6es make ,peFsanaf (wntaots unusually difficult. There is comJilaratively little incentive to keeJiling up wi~h this literature in the system at present. The superintendents are sa hard driven that they cannot keep up with the technical litera~i1re of education. few Jilrogressive state deJilartments af eduea~ion el!:peet men to do tllis on their own account. Instead, they issue publicat1ans which condense and interpret such literature for the fiekl. The same thing is dane on a national scale by the United States Bureau of B'.ducation, The publications of the latter are freely available far all the. division superintendents in the Philippines. Blut conditions are so different in the Philippines that the school administrators here must modify much that is approved for use in the United ,jiltates in order ta make it applicable to Philippine cenditions. The central sta'ff, at the Bureau af Education shaul<!! be equipped with the necessary personnel and funas for editing and issuing a monthly news bulletin which wili give to the field the best thought and the latest facts on education in the F'hilippines and the essentials from other countFies, pa)1~ieularly the United States, earefully adapted for Philippine canditions. i>. Does the school administrator. in the Philippines have f~eedom and eneouragement to grouJ in his special professional interests? While the evidence on this has been conflicting, the answer on the whole seems to the Cammission to be "no." This situatian is due to a number of difficult conditions, some af which could be easily changed, and some of which could not. lIhe Cammission found a numliler of superintendents who were aoing excellent work in speeial prafessional lines such as language instruetion, classification and pramotion, helpful supervision, training of teachers in service. Most of these men were working with no special cooperation from the central affice. Some have ' lileen restrained by that office from earrying on such special enteFprises. Undaubtedly, new supermtendents are held rigidly to the letter of official regulations. On the other hand.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

557

many of the older superintendents seem to be pursuing their own particular professional interests rather consistently. The policy of frequent transfer is in part designed to allow a superintendent to carry on the work in which he is partioularly able. and by using him in several divisions in suecession. to bring to a higher standard that phase of tile work. His administration in each can then be followed by that of a specialist in some other line. This would indicate that superintendents are to some extent encouraged to develop their own in~erests. There is considerable difference of opinion among superintendents as to how muoh freedom they have to develop their special professional interests or to make modifications of the curriculum and methods of instruction so as to fit their particular needs. Much of this difference of opinion seems to be due to a lack of knowledge of the rights and duties of a superintendent. These are embodied in the Service Manual which was last issued in 191 7 but whioh has been supplemented with special instructions and circulars issued in large numbers since then. One of the first essentials to freedom is a bill of dghl$ which will be clear and definite to all concerned. A new superintendent would have to work for months to make out his rights and duties from the present direotions of old Service Manual. printed slips to be pasted in for later corrections, and the numerous official mimeograph communicatians issued to supplement it. The freedom af supedntendents to work aut their own special interests professionally would be much more certain if a new edition of this manual were issued so that they could quickly know just what they could do. It would. howeveF. take a competent man a year to put this manual into really useful shape. No surface tinkering can possibly make it into the bill of rights and stimulus to professional growth that it should be. There is. moreover. in the policy of the central staff a regulation calculated to kill most efforts at individual growth prefessianally by the school administrators of the Philippines. This is an almost universal prohibition on the publication in the Islands of articles on professional subjects. The only exception appears to be artides or papers presented in the eonferences a.t Baguio. Since the aentFal staff contrals these conferences and their programs. papers presented tnere are naturally as a rule satisfactory to the staff. The school administrator. like any other employee of the Bureau of Education. is free to publish articles on professional subjects in tne United States. This regulation is based on a general one prohibiting any goyernmental official from publishing without first getting the consent of the chief of his division. The Director of Education. howev.er. has apparently under Executive Order 103 of the general government. laid down the policy that because of lack of staff to read manuscripts.


558 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES and because of the danger of attacks upon the Bureau af Education, a danger not ta IlIe lightly cansidered in the Philippines where there is an almost unrealizable ~everence for the printed word. na professional arotieles may IlIe published Illy sehoolmen. In the United States. the prohibition upon publication af such articles weulcil IlIe Fegarded as a device caleulated to insure the perpetuation of pIofessianal ignorance in the educational warkers. There the publication of such a~ticles is cansistently encaur-aged as an incentive ta professional growth Illy the schoolmen and consequent IlIetterment of their wark. It is to the interest ef all the school peQ"}>le af the Islands ta have this palleY changed as soon as possili>le. The Bureau should be supplied with the staff ta da the reading if that has to be done. But the Survey Commission is not con짜inced of the necessity of this precautian. The super-intenctlents' convenbien at Baguio cauld easily draw up a cade of prafessiona1 ethics for such writing. Some undesir~IlIle and harmful articles migl'tt aFlpear. But if a committee chosen from the stafli J'lTomJ'lfly and firmly deal with the writeFs under the code. there would be na particular trouble an future artieles. and the advantages of tile palicy shauld certainly autweigh its disadvantages. In additian to stimUlating pwfessianal growth. such a policy an publication would afford a- desirable outlet for much of the present disagreement of the field with generoal educational conditions. The English deliberateliY permit soap-bax oFatory and attacks against the Government on the theory that it is far IlIetter to let such things drain O.ut into the open than to let them devel'op into sUPFlressed camFllexes and irritate the whole system continually. 6. Is the s"hool administrator in tlie PhiIrppines sure of r.eeognition for individual growth? The answer to this is "yes." within the limits of routine under whi"h the central sta'ff is at pFesent compelled to oper-ate and "no:~ for the professional growth deemed desirable by the Survey Commission. The centFal staff has a very tllOrough system of reports and records supplemented Illy personal visitation IlIiY the directaFs which enalllies them to keep track in an inspection~l sense of the work of all important administratars. 1'eTo the elements cOll.ered. this work has efficient. It should IlIe extended to cover the elements of J'lrofessional growth for which all proagressive state aeparotments in the other. countries strive.

7. Is the work of the sehool administrator in the Philippines free from needless drudgery and r.outine? The answer to this is "no." although again the condition is one whieh the central staff cannot of itself change wholly.


GENERAL ADMINISTRATION

559

Anyone familiar with education knows that the school administrator cannot escape a cer,tain amount of administrative routine. numerous small duties as energy-(wnsuming and as irritating as the chores of a farm are to a capable farmer. The farm cannot be run withaut the doing of the chores. nor a school system without its administrative routine. But just as no farmer can be a success and few farmers can be happy if much time is devoted to the farm chores, the schoal administrator can be neither successful nor happy if his routine wark takes much time or energy. Because of the highly centralized school system of the Philippines. there is here an amount of paper work and other forms of sheer drudgery almost inconceivable to a school man from the States. Same of this paper work is prescribed by general governmental regulations. Some of it is an inheritance from the early military regime of the Americans with its inevitable paper work and intFrcate system o~ routine endorsements. Much of it has been developed by the Bureau of Education in years past. The need of eliminating useless paper work and of simplifying reporting procedure has been recognized by both the general government and the central staff in the Bureau. Both have made recommendations fo~ eliminating unnecessary correspondence but nothing important seems to have resulted from such recommendations. This work of eliminating needless drudgery in sohool recording and teporting should be energetically pushed to an early conclusion. A committee of the superintendents and representatives from the central staff should go over every blank. report and special request lof the central staff to the field. Every useless item or one for w:hich no clear need is felt. should be eliminated. A muoh simpler form of endorsement should be worked out. All tllis takes far longer time tnan tile Survey Staff could possibly give to it and moreover it can be done successfully only as men familiar with the details and the dovetailing of reports into each other. are constantly consulted. Such a procedure would undoubtedly eliminate much paper work. What ,it die:} not eliminate cauld then be proclaimed as the bare minimum prescribee;! by the fiele;!. It waule;! then be done by the field in a much more c;heerful spillit. In any event, however, the division offices need more clerical help ane;! a better type of clerk as is pointed out elsewhere.


CHAPTER VIII FINANCE Of the many serious educational problems failed by the Filipino people, none is of greater importance than finance. In fad, the problem of finance is "fundamental and the solution of most other problems waits upon the increase of revenues. As in the United States, educational expenditures have grown with great rapidity. But in the Islands the problem of meeting advancing school IlOSts is greatly complicated by the fact that only the foundations of the system have been laid. Only a fraction of the children of school age are in school. Moreover, the present work of the school is unsatisfactory. Consequently, whenever additional school revenues are raised, those who determine school expenditures are confronted with a dilemma. So long as many children are denied the most elementary scHool privileges, should money be expended on improving the instruction already provided? To this question there is no simple and wholly satisfactory answer. Until the essential facts and interp etations on a number of large phases of school finance have been thoroughly studied, no answer which is reasonably adequate can be given. The growth of educational costs, variations in unit costs (costs per pupil, building costs, and the like). school revenues, insular aid, the gene ai-revenue system. and the relation of educational expenditures to economill resources must all receive consideFation. These several large divisions of educational finance will now be discussed m order. THE GROWTH OF EXPENDITURES FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION

In the year 1923. the governmental expenditures for the maintenance of the public system of education' amounted to P23,587,lOI.' In addi.. This includes the University of the Philippines, Goverrunent students abroad (pen. â&#x20AC;˘ ionados) and the schools under the Bureau of Educarion. b The aggregate cost of public education in the Philippines below the university is reporled by the Director of Education in his annua.l teports. The cost of maintaining the UnivenilY of the Philippine!. the only collegiate instilution supported by the Philippine Government, may be laken from the reports of the President of this institution or from the annual report. of the Insular Auditor. Under the account of the "Executive" the expenses for the support of "pensionados'~ in the United States and foreign countries are allO taken from the littler reporls. Since 1919 through the Philippine Educational Agent in the United Slate. and the Bureau of ll.llular Affairs, this department of Government hal taken charge of these students. The dltla in this chapter exclude the expenses of the Philippine Library and Museum. and the Aquarium of the Bureau of Science. They, however. include the expenses for the tupport and maintenance of schools for defective but not delinquent children. Since voluntary conlTibU:lions are paid by the same general population which produces the school revenues, the data include this form of school support. 214064-36

561


562 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES tion. volunt~ry contributions to the extent of 111.095.940 were raised. 1i1hese sums which show tremendous increases ave~ the expenditures of 'ten years aga seem large. But. except as the educatianal expenditures are analyzed and considered in relation ta other governmental expenditures and related activities. their significance cannot be grasped. Under the heads of current expenses,' capital autlay! total educational expenditures. per capita expenditures. and distribution of educational expenditures according to type o~ education. this analysis win be attempted. CURRENT E~PENSES

The annual current expenses of the public-educational system of the Philippine Islands for the years 1'!I03 to 1'!l23 are reported in Table 64. For the first fifteen years the facts are given at five-year intervals. but from 191111. for each year. [,n inte~preting this or any other table giving data in pesos over a consider-able number of years. tile reader must keep in 'mind the /l,uctuatians in the value of the peso. An apparently large increase in casU may merely tecord the deprel!:iation of the wrr.ency. As .shown by the facts given in the table the current expenditures on public educatian lnc~eased by 2.3 times Cluring the last ten years and anly 65 per cent during fhe ten-yea~ period fram 1903 to 1'!I 13. Ailthough dUFing the last four years and from 1'!113 to 1918 there was a distim:t slackening in the rate of increase o~ expenditures. each year shows an expansion aver the preceding year. The accelerated pace during the years 1919 and 1920 was due to the special appropriation of P30.7@5.824 (Act No. 2782) which was expendable during the fi~e consecutive ye.ars from 1'!I1!j) to 1'!I23. During the last two years owing la a failUFe to apprapr.iate the complete allotment. the increase in expenditures was somewhat retarded. This failure was due to the insufficiency of funds. The facts are presented in Table 65. Thus. while in each of the first three years the schools received the entire appropriation expected. in 1'!I22 they were farced to be content with but 89 per cent and in 1923 with !:iut 64 per cent of the allotment. This restriction of tevenues ser.iausl:y hampered the growth af the schaok 1 Current expenSe3 include all expenses for administration. salaries of teachers. super路 intendents and super.visors, wages of laborers. traveling expenses, maintenance of buildings and equipment. illumination, consumption of supplies. etc. The money value of deprecia. tion of equipment has been deducted from the reported current expenses. l Capital o-uilay includes expenditures for land. buildings. parks and monuments. and equ ipment. To avoid duplication. expenses for the payment of loans are neither included under capital outlay nor under current e;penses. Proceeds of the loan ha.ving been ex .. pended either for. current expenses or: capital outlay. Equipment includes schonl fur .. niture, librar}' books, apparatus. and the like. Tliat which is consumed within a year is considered equipment, in order to distinguish it from supplies. which cover things easily worn out.


563

FINANCE TABL£ 64.-CURRENT EXPENSES' OF

[By

tS v~yellT

PUBUC

1903-1923

EDUCATION ,

intervals entire Philippine IaJanda]

Y...

Year

Expensea

1'16 ,210.,884 1920 .... .. 19l!1.. . . ... ......... .......... . 18 ,799.680 1922 .. . ........... . ... ...... . .. 20,430 , 660 20,816 , 22'1 1~8 •... .. . .....•............

1903 ............. .-.............. !'S,795,846 1908..... ....... . .... . ... . ..... . 4,761 , 362 1913 ......................... .. 8,273,678 1918...... . .................... . 8, 129,796 10, 627,476 19 19 .......

1 Insulsr, provinelnJ, and munleipal eombined. Non..-50urees: Bureau or Audile and Bureau of Edueation.

TABL£ 65 .-PERCENTACES AVAILABL£ FOR PUBUC EDUCATION fROM THE THIRTYMILUON-PESO ACT IN EACH Of THE FIVE. YEARS

[Source : A nnual Report

ot the Bureau of Edueation, 1928] Appropriation

Actually available 1'796,000 9,9U,OOO 6,926,400 7,047 , 829 7,047,829

~86,O OO

1919 .. . 1920 ... . 1921 .. ..

Perc:cntage actually available

9,919,000 6,326,400 . 8,710,440 11,096,984

100 100 100 89 64

The rate of incre'ase of cUfllent educational expenditures cannot be fairly considered in isola... tion. It should be compared with the increase "'''~ ~~ ~~ os, of other governmental ~ ..........:.:.: ~ (OUCA110Jf current expenses, In ). ~ this way one is able to "I' get a picture of the rel, ative emphasis placed ~ on education. Through ~ Nor eOV[ f"M' NT , OF <0"""21> [DUanO 2NMttlT UPPOR.T the percentage of in- ~ 0 ;r:::.~ c.TIV1;r1£ 1"1-1,%, crease, derived by taking ~ one year as the base, for both educational and (OUC.A ,0" I>'---~ noneducational expendivt~Q\' ~" tures, this comparison "q~\\~ ~ ,.,.10 " may be made. The >-~~;. fo-'relationships may also be m, YIAP. revealed by noting the "" "" I'" variations in the percentFl • • 29 age of total governmental expenditures devoted to education. The former method of comparison is utilized in Table 66 and the latter in Table 67.

.

p

q

~

..

.. /f

!

PO~,T

.

.

.

...

~

...

lUI

~N _

_ _


564 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES In the first o~ three tal!Jles. with the year 1Cj) 13 as a base. the relative increases in educational and noneducational expenditures are compared. CleaFly from 191 3 to 1918. the latter increased more rapidly ilian the fOFmer; hlut since 1Cj) ,19 the educa~ional expenses have increased the fasteF. In 1Cj)23 in comparison with tile diskibution o~ ronds in 1913. the educational expenses were relatively 1.8 times as large as tlle noneduca~ionar expenses. This indicates the growing interest of the filipino people in education. PFesented in another fOFm in TaMe (;,~. these fallts show in a yet more stri~ing way the Fecent increased emphasis on education. Although the percentage of the total public revenue devoted to education was less in 1Cj) '18 than in 1913. the schools regained their position in 1920. and gFadually fOFged ahead until in llCj)23 tile current expenditures on education were three-fifths greater than in 1Cj)13. TA~LE 66.-RELATIVE RATES OF iNGR\:ASE IN TOTAL GOVERNMENTAL (iNSUbAR, PROVINCIAL. AND MUNICI~AL COMBINED) CURRENT EXPENSES FOR EDUCATION, AND FOR NONEDUCATIONAL PURPOSES, 1913~I92!l

[Sources : Official repor.ts of the Bureau of Audits and of the Dur.eau ot; Education. with duplieations ~ emoveda Percontage o( 1913 as base of 100

Amounts

Year

1918 . 1918 . . ..... 1919 . .. 1920 ., .. . . ..... . .. ... 1921. . . ..... .......... 1922 ... . . . •. 1923 ...

.\ \

r r

!Educlltjonal

Noneducational

Edueationa!

1'6 .278.573 8,129,796 10,627,476 1.6 , 210,884 18 , 799,680 20 , 430,650 20 , 816,227

F37 ,565.993 58 , 148.777 78.658,158 78,152.784 71.136.657 67,04'1 ,575 67,617,715

Per cent 100 . 0 129 . 5 169.4 242 . 5 299 .7 325 . 7 331.8

Noneducationnl Per em' 100 . 0 154 . 8 196. 0 208. 1 189.4 178. 4 180 . 0

1FABl!E 67.-PEMENITAGES OF 110TliL ~OVERNM"".llAL CURREN'!' EiKPElNSES DEVOTED TO EDUCATION, VARIOtlS YEARS, 1913-1923

(Sources : Official reports of the Bureau of Auaits and 01 the Bureau of Education. with duplications removed] Amounts

¥ear

Education

Percentago devofed to Total.govern· education mental I

Per cent 1913 ... . ...... . ........ ... .. .. .... .. .. . 1918 . . . 1919 1920 1921.. . 1922 . ......... . . ... .. .... . 1923 . . .

1'6 , 273 , 578 8 , 129, 7·9 5 ~O , 627,476

15.210 , 884 18 , 799,680 20 , 480 , 650 20,816 , 227

P48,I!88 , 966 66.278.572 84.280.684 ~3,368 , 668

89 , 986,337 87, 472,225 88 , 488 ,942

14.8 12 . 3 12 . 6 16. 3 20.9 23. 3 28.5

1 'Dbese are net expenditut:e3 and do not include aebt payments. amounts paid to sinking' (unds, investments in private corporations. advances to railway and otber companies, trans fer of (unds to the Gold Standard Fund , p.rtiolt adjustments, ana intetgovernmental transactions or other creait adjustments.


FINANCE

565

/

CAPITAL OUTLAY

Tables 68 and 69 give figures on the relative increases in total expenditures for capital outlay similar to those of, the previous sections on current expenses. According to these tables the l%ilippines have. on the whole. clearly favored educational as against noneducafional needs on capital outlay. In this connection. however. it should be noted that in 1923 education received from the Thirty-million-peso Act only 64 per cent of the original appropriation for that year. None of. the appropriations in this act could be directly expended for buildings. But naturally, if the full-o~iginal appropriation for 1n3 hac!! been available, the expenditures for school buildings by local autho~ities would have been greater. TABLE 68.-RELATIVE RATES OF [NCREASE IN TOTAL GOVERNMEN'FAL CINsuloAR, PROVINCIAL, AND MUNIOJPAL~ EXPENDIT'lJ~ES FOR eAplTAL OUTLAY. FOR EOU€ATtON AND FOR NONEDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. PHILTP:BJNE [SL:ANDS, FOR GERlTAlN YEARS, 1913-1923 (S<lurc~:

Offieinl :r·e porU or the pureau ot> l\udile and of tile Bureau of Education, with duplicatio)l8 removea ]

\

Year

~ I . ......... .

1013 ............ . . ... . ...• 1918 .. . .... . .. . .............. . ... . ... .. .. ,' 1019 .... . 1020 . .... .. 1021. ..... . ..... . ............... , ......... . 1922 . . .......... .. .... _.... .. ....... . .... . 1923 .................. , ........ . . ..... .... .

Percentage of 1913 ~ base or 100

Amounts

Edueatiottal

Noncducational

Edueationa!

Noneduca.,. tiona)

Ptr ern'

'Peremt

P-873 ,229' 1"6 ,078,098 1,629,611 12.846,769 2,667,936 16,022,680 2,896 .309 17.699.,799 4.072,760 18.6<11 ,364' 2 , 601.218 16 ,908,248 2.770,874 9.426.316

~OO

176 294 332 (66 297 317

100 211 264 291 307 262 156

TABU: 69.-PERCENl'ACES OF TOTAL GOVERNMEN'FAL EXPENDITURES FOR €:APITAL OUl'LAY DEVOTED "0 EDU€ATlON. VARIOUS YEliRs, 1913-1923

[Source : Official .reports of the 'Bw::enu of Audita and of the Bureau of Education... with duplications removed] Amounts

Year

~---'-~Il'=o=taJ~-I.~:~:~~~ Education governmental education

1913 ....... . 1918...... .. 1919 ............ . .... ... . . ... . ... .. . ... ........ . .... .. 1920.. ....... . . 1921.. . ........................... . ... . ........ . 1922. , ..... , . ... . .... •..', .•... 19~ ....... . ............ ... ..................... .

1'873.229 1"6,951.327 1,629 . 611 14,376,280 2.667.935 !8.690.616 2.896,3~9 20 .. 696,108 4.072.760 22.714.1-14 2,601.218 18.509.461 2.770,874 12.197.!89

Re, cent 12.6 JO.6 18 . 8 1'4 . i 17,9

H ..O 22.7


566 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES TOTAb EDUCATI0NAL EXPENDJ:IlURES (CURRENT< .EJGF\ENSES AND CAPIT<AL Ol!J'FLA¥ COMBINED)

1n Tables 70 to 73. inclusive. are presented facts with regard to total educatioual expenditures. Naturally these expenditures exhibit practically tl1e same Ghanges as the Gurrent expenses ana capital outlay oharges. From these taMes three outstanding conclusions may be drawn. First. educational have increased far more rapidly than the noneducational expenditures. As a consequence. the percentage of total gover.nmental expendirures c!levoted to education is mUGh greater than in earlier years. Second. expenditures for education ha:ve increased far more rapidly than expenditures for Ilighway construction and health. Tllird. in spite of tbis growing t;mphasis on educ:ation the Philippines devote a smaller percentage of governmentall eliipenditures to education than does the median American State. TABtE 70.- REtATIVE RATES OF INCREASE IN 'FOTAL GOVERNMENTAL (INSUI1AR, PROVIN'eJAI., AND MUNICIPAL) EXPENDITURES FOR PUBLIC! EDUOATION FOR ALL PURPOSES. AND FOR NONEDUCATIONAL P URPOSES, PHILIPPINE !stANDS, Foa CERTAIN ¥EA!,S, 19 1 3-~923

[Sources': Offieiaa rePOrti of the Bureau of Audits and the Bureau of Education. with duplications removed]

Per~g!::~{fltg13 as

Amounts

¥ear

\. \ n...

1913 . .... . •. . . .. . . . • . ..• . .• ~·· 1918 . ............ . ........•• • ..... .. , ~919, ... , . " . . • , .. .... , • . .. • . . . , . . . . , .... . 1920 .... , . . • • ,., . . . .... .............. ... . .1921. ........ ... . .... . .. .... ............ ..

1922 ........... . ... ..... . . ....... .. . .. . . . . 1928 .... . , . . .. " ......... __ ... . . ....... ... .

Ea~catl~nal

Nonedueational

'1'7.146,802 ,P 43 ,643 ,491 9,669,306 70,996,546 IS , 195,4H 89,676.838 18.106,, 193 96.862 ,683 22,872.440 89,778,011 23,031.858 82 , 949.818 23.587,101 77,044,030

Edueationa! 100 136 185 263 320 822

380

N'oneducational 100 163 205 219 205 1,90 177

WAseE 71.-BERCEN1\"ACE o,F TOT.w G OVERNMEN'l'AL ~INSUl.AR, PROVINC!JA!.. AND MUNICIPAL) Ci.:URRElNIF El<RENSES AND CAPITA~ @UnAY, DEVOTED TO E DUCATION, VARIOUS YEARS, 1913-1 923

[Sources: Official rePOrtS of the Bureau of Audits and the Bureau of Education, with Quplieations removed] :Amounts Education

Percentage devoted r.o Governmental 1 education

'1'7,146,802 9,659,306 13.195.411 18 .106,193 22 .872 . 440 23.031.868 23.587.101

l!'50 , 790 .298 80.654 . 862 102 ,87.1 .249 118.968,7a6 112,650.451 105 ,981.686 100.631.131

¥ear 1913.... __ i91s.. .. . 191~ .. : .. . ;. .• . . ... .. .. ... ... . . ... • •....... ... .. . . . .. 1920 .. . .. , ~ . . • . . . .. , .. .. ... . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. ... _.... . . i.92i. .. . ... . . . ... . . ............. . .... . . .. . ........ ..

1922 .... , , . ... . . . . . .. . .. . .... . .... .. .... .. ... ...... . 1923.. .. .. __ . __ ........ ... . . ..... ' .. .... ......... .. 1

14.1 11.9 12.8 15 .9 20.3 21. 7 23.4

'llhese are net expenaiture8 and do not include deBt payments, amounta paid to aJnkinll

funas, investments in pr:ivate corporations. aavances to railway and other. compapiea, tra nsfers of funds to the Gold Standard Fund. prior. adjustments. and inter·&,overnmentaJ transaet!onS. and other credit adjustinents.


FINANCE TABLE 72.-CoMPARISO~' OF PH1UPPI~ES AND

567

U NiTro

STAnS ON PERCENTACES Of

TOTAL GOVERNMENTAL EXI'£.NDITURES FOR PUBUC EDUCATION IN VARIOUS YL\llS

(Soureee : Reporl oD 'Tinancial Statistics o't Public Education In the United State., 1910-01920" Table 6, peat 1'1, and "TabJe 71" Pereenta2"etI of Total Gov-

ernmental (Insular. ProvinelAJ, and Municipal) Expenditure. Cal': Ourrent Expense]

Philippine ISlands

Per 1910 ...... 1913. ... . . 19U ........ 1918 ...... 1920 ...... .. 1923 .... ..

Median state in United States Per cenl 26.8

CDnt

14 .1 28.6 1'1.9 27 .. 23.' ..

COMPA.~I~OM l or KReun-ACE or. mAL GOVtDIW4T OPlJ'DlTlJltS Q[VOTtD TO [OUa.TIOH'IN ll\l:

PHJlIP.f'j)lts ~D U)llTtO )TA1U ~ · I'"

Fig, 30 TABLE

73.-RELATI'IX

RAns OF I~CREASE IN TOTAL EXPENDITURES FOR EDUeATION,

HICHWAY CoN'TRUCTIO~, AND HEALTH. VARIOUS YEWIS,

1913..4923

Omcial reports of the Bureau of Audits. the Bureau of Education, the Bureau of Public War"'. duplications removed. and of Edueat1on~ F-inanee Inqub::-1, -Vol. W~ Financial Status of Public Education]

[SoUl.'ceB :

PHIDIPPINES

P.ercentage

Amo~ts

Year

Education

Highway construction

Health

Highway Edutati.9b i 1~~:UC'-

..

-----------'- -~-·I--~~I ' ·---

1918 ................ . P'I,U6,8f)2 1918.. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 9,659,806 1919.... .. ........ ... 13,196,411 1920 ................. ~8,~06,19B

or 1913 as base 'ot iOO

"6,9~9,696

10,60j,178

~U~:~~ ~~iL : :: ::::::: :::: ~:m:~~ 12 ~:rJ:~z~ ,664 ,288

1923... .............. 23,687,101

Per.unl

1UO

m m

263

Health

-----Per unl 100 168' 196

1120

Per un' 100

164

168

U~

UNI'IlED STATES (State and local expendituree) 1910-01920..... ......

-1- .. ........ ·1 ·· ·.... ···· ·1.. ·.. ·· ·····1

. 239 1

262 1...

1112

282 211 204 23.6 248


568 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES TABLE

73 •.-PERGENTAGES

MUNICIPAL)

OF

TOTAL

GoveRNMENTAL

(INSULAR,

PROVINCIAL,

AND

EXP£'NDl'l'URES FOR eURReNT ExpeNsE AND CAPITAb 0U'I'LAY, DE·

VOTED ",0 EDUCATION\ HICHWA~ CoNSTR!:JGTION, AND HEAL'J\H IN VARlO!:J' YEARS,

1913-1923 [Sources: Derived from 'lIables 70 and 71] Percentages oC total governmental expenditures forYo..

Education

Highway construe-

Health

tiOD

- --- - - - - - - - Perun' 14.1 !l.9 12.8 16.9

19J8 ........ . .. 1918.... . 1919 .... .. 1!120.. 1921 ... .. 192'2: .. . 1923 .. .

2~.8

21. 7 23.4

Per unl 18.6 18.1 13 . 3 10 . 0 10 . 4 11 . 7 12.6

Ref. cent

4.90 6.66 6.60. 4 . 62 4 . 60 6 . 62 6 . 01

The total expenditures shew tile volume of schoel costs for the entire country. Since for purposes of educational administration the Islands are divided into divisions. a prov~ inc e generally \ forming a single pi division. a study of the distribution of the total expend(.,,, . • itures among these divisions will be 'i~ ~-.;.:= fJ';I\O~.~ prefitable. lfhe re.~,' " "Q'L~\~V\ ~ ... lation of school ..... ~- ~ ~ costs to the needs • of the population rof/. HEALTH the supporting 1>-._..... .11-- '- ''1-._ . ... 1>--._ •• ~ ....... schools in each div.ision is a matter of gFeat importance. •~.., ; With the object of 1"6 " 2D t'3 21 I' U presenting the facts Ul.A1',V[ flNANClA.l SUPP021 or E:t>UtATION, necessary fer such HIGHWAy CONSTR,uc.-TION liND H[ALTH 1'!lll·I?23 an analysis. Tables 74 and 7.5 ha.ve Flg._ ~l been constructed. These tables especially during the years 1913 and 1918 show great variations in both per-pupil and per capita costs. In 1923 these ex-

,

,

~

b:::":"

~

'

... -.....

y[~1t

. ...-

"

.


569

FINANCE

penditures show a somewhat more uniform dispersion. During the last ten years per-pupil expenditures have about doubled and per capita costs have more than trebled. While these increases are relatively much higher than the increases in per capita expenditures in the United States (See Table 76), they remain but one-twelfth as great as the corresponding expenditures in the representative American state. TABLE

74.-PER·PUPIL EDUC.\TlONAL

PROVINCES fOR

1913, 1918.

AND

EXPENDITURES

1923

EOR

CURRENT

EXPENSES

BY

BASED ON AVERACE E)AlLY ATTENDANCE

[Sources: Bureal] of Educntion nnd Bureau of, Audits] 1913 Mo·u ntain ............ ~._ ... ,....................... _....

M.anlha. ._._ ........._._...................._...._.~ Aguaon ._.... __.. _..... _........... _.. _...... _.... . pa,)awnn ... __ ............ __ ..._ ........ - .. _......... .

N ueva Vlzeaya .._... _.......... _................. Mindoro .................... _._ ........... - ........._.... . Albll-Y

........•..... _.................. "' ...,................

nntanKali ......._.......... ~ ............................. Buiaun ........... ___ ...._... _._ ..._ ...... -._ .. CaR'llyan .........._....... _.............................. . Nueva Eelia. ....__ .............. _._ .._...._ .... .. Antique ......................... _........................ . Camarinea .......___ ....... _ .. _ ....... _......_ ...... . Jdlo&ml!! ... - .....•••....••..........•.••..•.•.•.......•....

Rir.al ... _.......................... - ..... ,...._.......... .. LOIfUDa

..............._.-............._ ........ _.... .

Pampanp ..........- ....... _........._............... . Cnvit.e ..._ .......... -_ .... - .....................- ....... . Ta,nbaa ...__ ._ ........_ ..._.......... _._ ..._._.

Iloeos Sur ....... -_ .......................... - ....... . Ccbu _..-_.. -_...................... - .... _._. __ ....

Occidental NeitT08 ...._ ...... _.... _...- ...... Capil:

... __ .... _..................... _ ..... _ ...... -_.

Tnl'lac ................... _.................. _.............. . Zambal~ .... _..... _........... _....................... _. So1"l.ogon ....... _................... _............_... Leyte

........... ~ .. - .. - ......................--.... ..

Samar . _............_ ........................ _...... . La Union ._... _............- .... _............-

'48.67 36.29 22.10 2M9 18.80 13.23 12.18

11.02 10.57 10.89 10.30 10.28 10.19 10.06 ,0.01 9.99 9.95 9.g)

9.82 9.80 9.26 9.22 9.12 9.00 8.86 8.16 8.69 8.36 8.86

1918-(Continucd ) SOf'logon ............................... _._ ...... _.._... Ccbu ...... _.~ ............................._...... . fl"nrJac ...........__ ....................................... _

Suril:ao MllHLmls Mindoro .......................... _........................

Cagayan ...._...... _..................................... Dntangas ...... ....................... _. DuJac:an ...... _........... _.. _...... _.................. . Oriental Ncgros ._.................... ..

11.80 n.21 11.16 10.92 10.90

Iloilo ..... _.... _ .... _ ..................................... .

10.62

Capiz ..................................... _........ _...... . 10.20 Tayabas ........... ____ ................................... 10.1" Las;una .................. _.................................. 9.94 9.72 Gavfte ........................................... _... __ ...... Pangasinan .............................. _ .........._. 9.69 Zambalca ._ ....................... _.........~"""'.::;; ...::: .. =.=---.;8::..7:.::9 Leytc! ............................... 8.74 nohol ................ .........................................

8.62

Nueva Ecija .......... _ ... _.... Batanes ................... ,.............................. . SlU1lar ... _ ................................................. . Antique .................................................. .. La Union .............................................. . TIoC09 Sur .................. _ .......................... . Mindanao and Sulu ............................... .

8.6 0

1.98 7.62

Manila Mountain .. _................__ ... _............ _._ .. .. Dnvao ........_...........................

Docos Norte ....~...................- .. - ....--... PlluSOlItna.n ..............._ ...... - ................ _... Dohol ._ .......... - .... _ ................... " ...- ......... . 1918 Nueva Vlt;CD.ya ..._...................... __...... -. Mountain _..... __ ................._.............._.... Manila . __ ........___. __ ....._._................. _.. Pa.l.wan ..... __...... _..... _ ...........__ ........ _._ natnan _ ......... _ ... _._ ............ __ ........_.. . Albny ........ __.. _.......... __ ......................... .

1.39 1.21 6.10

Sulu .............. _... _.................................... .. Zamboanga ................ _.............. _.. . Batnnes .......................................

I.enbcla Pamvanltn ... _..._._.......................... _.-.. .. nocol Norte: .......__ .._.... _............._ ...... . Cnmartnes .._ ... _._ ......- .... - ................ . Occidental N Cln'oli ..........._ ...... ._-....... . RI.. I •••... _...___ ._._ ...__.•. _..••. _.••_. __ .•..

Mindol'o ........_ .._ .......................... .

45.411 32.62 17.H lUI 13.06 13.05

12.H i2.29 12.2 4 12.10 12.0G

8.4'7

8.42 8.17 7.94 MO 1.74

1923

110110 ._ ...•••... _••• _._........ _.....•..••_•...•.... Orient.a1 Negro~ ..........._ ........ _........_..

• 6.69

'11.78 11 . .(7 lL4'7 11.41 111.S7

Abra ... _.................................................... . Cotabato ..... _.......... __ ................... _..._.. _. Pampanga ....................................... _._.... Palawnn ....... _.........._...... _..... _............. _. Camut"ncs Norte ......................._......... Batang3S ..._.. _..... _.. _......................... _... Oriental Negros _................. .. Antique .................................................... Lanno .. _... _............__........... _.................... Bukidnon

81.9< 35.63

32.66 25.22 26.1a

24.67 24.61 22.89 22.66 21.91 21.51

21.49 21.19 20.81 20.60 20.48

...._....._ .............. _ ..... __ ....... .

20.26

Surhrao _................................ _.............. . Somar ................... ___.............................. _.

20.26 20.18


570 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES 1fABLE

74 .-PER-P.U.,L EDUCATIONAL

PROVINeES FOR

1,913, 1918, AND 1923

E X PENDITURES

19l3=-(Contlnued)

Camst'ines Sur .._._...... _......_......_....._ Albay ........•...........••. _.. __ .................._...... Nueva V·izeaya ............................•.... _.. . T arlac ........................ _.. _.................. _ .... . Agusan •.•.... ._......... .._............... .

Caviz ........... _.. _... _.

P20. U a9.18 19.08 18.98 18,72

__..............__ .. _._ ..

R iz.al .......................................................... Oav ite ....................................................... . Romblon ..............._............................. _.. .. Iloilo ......................................._ ..... _......... L a U n ion ...... _....................................... . 'Faya bas ............... _.................................. . b-l asbate .................................................... Laguna ...................................................... Gebu _........................................................

FOR

CURRENT

EXPENSES

BY

BASED ON AVERACE DAILY ATl'ENDAN€Er-Ctd.

18.18 18.06 17.80 17.71 [7. 60 17.65 17.44 17.18 17.10

1923--(Gontinued} Nueva Eci;ia .. _ .__ ..... _.. _...... _._. __ .. __ Is a bela ......._..__ .... _..........._........._......_. Bulaean ... _.... .••... _.............. _.. _...... _••. _

Occidental Negros ............................... . S or aogon ............................. _................._ Doccs SUll ....... _..................................... _ Bohol ................................................_...... LeYtc .............__ ......................................... € ag-ayan •.•... _ .....................•.._................ MarinduClue ... _............. _......................... . Bataan .... _._ ............................__ ...... _...• Misamis ........._...•................................... _ Pangasinan ..................................... _...... . Zambalea _.._ ........_.................... _..._.... . Docos Norte ........................ _...___ ..... _

U6.80 16.69 16.64 16.62 16.88 16.29 16.04 16.16 16. iS 16.01 14.86 13.72 18.26 13.02 12.71

S I:JMMARY

Year 1913 . 1918. 1928.

T ABnE

\\

\

... . .. . ... . ... . .... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . ............... .

One-fourth

01 .....

L owest

'below

Miadle

Oneo-fourlh 01 cases

Highest

- - - ------ - - - - - above 5. 10 1.74 12 .71

8 . 76 8 . 79 16 . 68

9.93 11.185 18.42

10.67 12 . 24 21 . 84

48 . 47 46 . 69 87,. 94

75.-PER CAPITA 1 EDUCATIONAL EXPfiNDITURES FOR GU~RENT E~PENSE' AND CAPITAL @U<rLAY, OOMBINED, BY .PROVINCES FOR

1913,. 1918,

AND

1923

[Sources : Bureau of Education, Bureau of Audits. and Gensus fipres] 1913 Manila Nueva Vizcaya _._..._... _ ................_..Mountain ..._...................................... _..... Zambales _.._ ..__ ......._..............._ .... .. P a lawan ..............__ ..........._................. .. Surigao ........_._._.................. _._... _ Cagayan _. __....................................._ Mindoro ._._... ___.................. _._._ .... Pampan.ga . ___ ._...._._......... __...

r.!.62 1.45 .95 .89 .87 .83 .82 .80 .80

=.=.::.:-..:::.~--.~.79

~'l''!: .a:! ya ~b~a~.--= _.::.: ...:::._::_;:;;;= ...::.: ...::.:..:_:.::: ...::; . ::..

€av ite ......... _._......................................_ Bula can _ ............... _............................... _ Lag'Una _..._.... _._................................... La Union ... _... _ ...................................... Docos Sur •.. _ ... __..___ ._.........._......_._ Tarlac ........_...... __.. _._............................ . Batanes ._.... _......__ ....................... _ ..... . ZOfueV8 Eci:Ja ,......-.....................................

.76 .74 .73 .13 .64 . 62 . 58 .-58

Docos Norte .. ...S orsogon ............._.................................. Rizal ..............._.. _............... _....................

.6J~

.56 .54

1913-(Contlnued) '0.68 Cama rines .. _ ..._....._......................_.... .52 Datan&,as ......._ ...__ ... _._............____ .51 :A.n t ique _...__........................._...... _ ... _. .49 Capiz _..._ ... _._._..................... __._._.... .49 \Pangasinan ...... __ ...................._......._._ .49 Oeeidental Negrce _ ............._ ..__.. .48 Doilo .4'1 !L~·e~yte~=_=.=._::;_;;;._;;;_;:.=_=..::: ...= ...=_:::_:::_=._=._=.=..=...=_:::.....="".::!!47

A1bay __ _ . _ _ _ ._.._.___•_ _

Samar ......_ .........._........... _. __...... _._ lDobol .................. _.............. ____ .. _...._._ OEdenta} N egros ........._ ...................... _. Cebu _ ..__................_....... _........... _._..... Mindanao and Sulu .................._._.._._ Isabela .. __ .......__ .............. _........ _ ..._._ Bataau . __.. __.._... _._..........._._... _._..... Misamis __.. _................. _......._._.__ 1918

.44 .4 lJ .41 .S4 .30 .2i .22 .14

Nueva V iZC8YL_.._ ..........._. __.__ _ Manila ..___ ..__.._ _._ ..._._.... _._.__ Batsnes _. __...... _....................__.___

3.19 2.89 2.67

1 1918 population is estimated; 1918 popillation from the 1918 Bhilippine Census: and 1928 population ·f rom 1928 Statiatiea1 BUlletin. p.a&,e 2.


571

FINANCE T ABL£

75.-PER CAPITA EDUCATIONAL ExPENDITURES FOR CURRENT ExPENSES AND

CAPITAL OUTLAY. CoMBINED. BY PROVINCE. FOR

Docos Norte _ _ _..____.__..... __ Mountain .,,_._._ _.. _ . _____ _ ... _. ..(bra. __. __._.... _._. __ Pnmpall,a __._._.. _. __........_._._ Mindoro .. _.. __...._ .._ ... _ .._...._._.._ ._.~_._

Duman

._... _...... __ ........_.................. _ ..

Rlul _

Iaabeln .................._ ............................... . LoltUna .._.... _ .... _ .. _...... _._ .............._ Zambalett __ ._._........ _..... _ •. _.... _ .. __

Oav ite ...___. ___..._ _ .. _._... __. _...... 'l'arloc .____ ._ ..............__ .__ .. ___ .... . Romblon _..__._ .. _ ....._..... _ ..... _.._._ .... Capyan ..... ___.. _.._ ......_._ ... __....._.._ Nue va Ecija .._ .........._ .. ____ .... __ . Bataan Tayabaa Camarlnce .. _...................... __ ..._ ....._. Capiz _.... _..._.......... _._ .... __ .._._._.. _ DoCOtl Sur .................. __.... _.._ ........ _ La Union ........ _...... _. __._ ........ ____._ Dono ..._ .... ___.... _.......... _...........__ _ Snmar ....__._...__._ ..... _....._............ _ .... . Botanpa ._.._ .. _.. _.... _.........._. __. __.._

Occidental NClrI"os ..._......_....._._. ___.. Bohol __ .. _._._.. _._........ _....,.._._ ....._. __ Alba,. _

Palawan _._ .............._..............._.... _.. __.. Surhrao ...... _.. __ ............_ ...._.. _.. _._._ .. Oriental Nea-r-08 ..............._........! ..___ . Sor8oQ'on ......_... _..._..........__...._.. _........ PnnQ'uinan ............ _............... __.... _ .._. Ilia.mis __ ............. __ ... _ ..._....._.... _ . Leyte .... _ .........._ ........... _ ............... _.... Cebu ___ ... __ ... _ ... _ ... __ ._ ... _ .. _ ... A!'tIQuc __.. _..... _. __ . __ ......... _....._....

Mindanao and Sulu..•..... _..__ ._..... _._ 1923 Manila . __..._ .. _...._ ........ _.. _.. __._._ Batanea .. ___..........................____._ A&UI&n

_"_" _' ___ "'_""_""_'" __ '''_'''

Nueva Viseaya .... _.... _ .......... _....... ___ . Mindoro ....__......... __..._...._........_.. _ .._

1913. 1918.

AND

1923-Cld.

1923-(Continued) LagunA .._ _ . La Union .... _ ...... _ ..._ _ _ .._...._ Riul . ___ .__.. __ ....._....._ . __ .._ Toyabaa ........._..........._ .._ ... _ ...__ ._... Balaan __._._...._.. _._. __._._.__..... Docos Sur .. _ ...... _..._......._....... _.. _.. _ .

1918-(ContlnUed)

Pl.83 1.48 1.06 1.01 1.00 .99 .98 .97 .97 .94 .92 .02 .90 .86 ,88 .82 .80 .79 .74

Nueva Ecija Palawan .. _. ___ ._ .................._._ ....... _ CaJllarines Norte ..... _....__ ......_ ....._.... Abra ............ _._.....__....................___.. BulneaD. ._.._ ....._ ... __......._...... _._ .._...

Pampanga ...__ .. _ ................. _........__ Isabela . __.. _....._............... _.. _._..._..... Cavite .._.. _.._..._............ _ .._.......____ DOC03 Norte .._ .._............. _.._ _ _ Pangaainan ._._......_ .._....._.____

Occidental

NCirros ... _..... _._ ..... _ _

'l'ar)ac ......_....._._._... __ . _ _ _ Mountain Davao . .__ _ .._. ..._ .__ Bukldnon __._...... _..._._ .._ .... _._._.. Ca!i:'ayau ........... _.. _._ .._.. __.. _...._._._ Zamboauga .__._ ....._._._...... _ _....... lttarinduQ.ue ..._.. _.... _.............._. ___ ... ZnmboJes ._.__..... _...._ ...._._._ ...____ Romtilon ...__ ........ _._........._....___..._ Sorsollon ..._....................._..._ ........._._. DoUo .__._ ........._.................. _..___ Surilrao .. _..... _ ..._._... _........._...__..._. Antique _ ...... _ .... _......... __.. _ .. __._... Albay ...... _ .._._ ............._____ ...._.._ Capiz _ .. -l--._.

.7~

.72 .69 .66

.66 .65 .62 .SI .58 .68 .66

.66 .66 .61 .(6

MiBamis _._._... _.._. ____. ___.. __._

Camarines Sur .....__. __..... _. __....__ lIIubate ...._ .. _ _ _ ......_ ...... _ .._ Batansru ____ ...._____.. __.____ Lanao ... _.._ ._ .._ _ ..._ _ _ _ _ _ Bohol ..__ .__...__....._... _______ Oriental Nea-ros .......___._.._ _ Samar ._ ..._... _ .............._ ... __ .._ _ . Buln _ _____ ................. _ _ __ . Cebu •.... _ ...... _ ......................... _._......_ LeY'te .. _ _ _......... _ ...___ . _ _ _ Cotabato ..___._..__. ____. _ _.. __

..s .SS .80 6.84 S.21 2.64 2.61

2.n

'2.30 2.29 2.20 2.17 2.16 2.16 2.12 2.05 2.04 1.99 1.99 1.98 1.97 1.96 1.94 1.98 1.92 1.90 1.88 1.87 1.BS 1.'7.s

1.76 1.73 1.71 1.69 1.66 1.68 1.61 1.67 1.64 1.61 1.61 1.48 1.(8 1.43 1.89 1.88 1.38 1.86 1.29 1.26 1,21 .gO

BU1DlARY Year

Lowest

O:i=:b below

1913 ..... . 1918 . .. . ....... . ...... ... ......... . 1928 ........ . .. .. ................ .

~0 . 14

.30 . 90

rIddle

0:r:b above

Highest'

~ ~o:;-~o~~ .696 1.61

.796 1.87

.976 2 . 085

S.19 6.84


572 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES Z6.-COMRARISON OF MEDIA:N (MIDDLE C:~SE) ~£R CAPITA EDUCA'110NAL EXPENDI'Pt:JRES FOR Cl:IRRENIF E~&NSES AND @APITAL OUThAY, COMDtNED, OF IJ' HE PHIUPPINE PROVINGES AND THE UNITED STATES FOR VARIOUS YEARS

TABLE

[Sources: Table 75 ana Volume VI, Educational Fjnanee Inquiry, Financial Stath,tilUl of Public Education in the United States, 1910-1920]

¥ car

(1,)

~2)

Philippines

~~~~

f3)

Percentage 00(2)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - --- - - -- - - Per Gent 1910 .. . . 1913 .. . ',' . ... . . . . . . .. . , . . .... . .... .. .... . ....... . ....... . . 1316 ... . 1918 . . . 192 0.. . 1923 ..

1'0 . 66

1'11.84 ........ .1. 73 6 . 08 16.64

.796 22.86

8. 18

1.87

DISTRIB'WliION OF EOU€ATIONAL EXPENDITURES A€CORDING 'FO TYPE OF EOUCATIQN

The distribution of expenditures among the different types or levels of These figeducation for tlte years 19'19 and 1923 is given in Table ures are the hlest approximations' possible and include the only classifications that could be made from the available data. ~he totals for. all divisions. except gener.al administration, have increased; but for elementary education only has the pereentage increasee. For secondar.y and higher education the percentages are about a third less. while for general administr.ation the percentage for 1923 is less than one-half of what it was in

n.

1919. The decrease in the relative allowances for general administration is highlY significant. Many cnliclsms "1"""23 o~ the central office ha.ve been brougl1t to the atten"Ie. 32 tion of the Commission. Frequently the assertion is made that the administration 'is less effective than in former years. "¥,hose register-ing sueh complaints should know that the general administration, especiall}l the central office. has been

",.

DISTRIBUTION Of eUlaENT EXPfNS(. DEvotED 10 ELEMB'lT'ARY, SE\!ONDA~'f, H1GH[R roUOTIOH AttD G£~E2At AOHIN1:5TR.}.TIOM


573

FINANCE

literally starved. Furthermore, where little or no money is required this administration is higllly eifeetive. If in the field that req,uires considerable sums for improvement alld expansion it is rendering less effieient service than in earlier years. the responsibility lies in la~ge measure with those who cut off the necessary funds. If the geneFal administration were now provided with even an approximation to the percentage of school funds which it was formerly allotted, it might now be rendering effective services in the very 6elss in whieh because of insufficient funds it can at Ipresent do no.thing. TABLE n .-TOl'AL CURRENT EXPENSES (ApPROXlMATE) OF PUBLIC! EDUeATtON. Cw.sSIFIED BY TnE OF AcnVI'IIY,

1919

AND

(Sources: Butcnu of Audita nnd Bureau of

1923

Eaueatton~

Percentage tot.al

Amounts

_

1919

1919

0('

1923

----Oc----"'=-~I-----I-----, I .__

---

Pcre~t

'Pt r ttifl t

ÂŁ!Jom-untOtY EduentlQh I~ . Sceohdary Educo.tion t . . _ Hlgber Edueation 1.. . . . G~Dorftl

19:13

~6.65S

,998 1.622.786 1.416.041

Adminialtation I..

984.682

1'16 .. 663 ,,998 2.416, 868 1.861.16&

76 12

87j~1l

1----:-:-':-:-c...:....-I~~~:....I----

20.816.227

T O!I\1.. .... .

100

100

I Includce primary and interm,ediote 8ch,ools. : Includes aU education not accounted -f or under the other three item.s ~ ::I Includes the Univenity of the Philippines an,d scbolanbips in the United States and foreig n countries. -4 Includes central office of JJureau of Education and aU tlie (ield force other than cla.esroom leaClhot'l. ond administrative expenses incurrea DF both.

SI!JMMARlY FiROM

1~113

T0

1921

I . Total goveFnmental expenditures for education, in tile Philippines increases far more rapisly than the population. the sehool enrollmlent, OF any comparable expenditures for other purposes. 2. As a eonsequenee the percentage of governmental expenmtures devoted to eduealion increased three-fourtlls. 3. The middle figure fOF per capita expenditures for education. by provinces <trebled. 4. The per capita expenditure for esuc;ation although but one-twelfth the expenditure in the UniteS States, has ineFeases much more I'apisly during the last ten years than in America. 5. The pereentage of total educational expensitures sevoted to elementary education has grown to 75 per eept. while the percentages


574 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES for se!landary and l\igheF es u!latian respectivelY, dedined. and the percenta.ge faF geneFai administration was halved. E.DUCA:1110NAL E X PENDll'URES COMPARED WITH ECONOMIC RESIilURCES

The future of educational support in the Philippines is dosely dependent on the relation of educational expenditures to economic resources. These expenditures have increased mueh more rapidly than expenditures far other .purposes. Less than naif aF the children af school age are in school. Confronted with sueh faets. thoughtful citiiZ:ens and taxpayers naturally wish to know if the Islands possess sufficient resources to !lontinue in!lreasing eC!lucational expenditures and to housing aU children in the publi!l schools. A eamparison of edueational expenditures with Fesourees suggests negative answers to bath of these questions. Unless there is a much greater sacrifiee for education than is being made at present the policy of the last ten ~ears cannot ee Gantinued. The diversian to edu!latian of Fevenues now J evated ta other purposes anGi the raising through voluntary subsGnptions of money now spent upon pr·ivate needs. are always possible. But if. as in the past. the public-school system is to be supported chiefly by taxes its tev,enues cannot easily be largel¥ inGreased. Measured in the only feasible terms. taiXaele wealth. the resources of the Philippines from 1<? 13 to 1923 in!lreased less than did educational expenGiitures. See "if able 78. As taxable wealth in!lreases. so will revenues far edu!lation. but this in!lrease is hardly likely to Gio more than take care of the natural papuiatian in!lrease. But. when eGiuGatianal expenGiitures in!lrease faster than resourees. the tax pressure grows and the resentment against sClhool !losts is certain to in!lrease. T ABllE

78.-ESTiMATED WEAL1!H OF 'JlHE F'HIUPPINES IN€REASES)

(SHOWING SIGNIFIClANT

[ Source : Statist ica:l Bulletin of the Plillippine Islands for 1928] 1913 R eal property taxed . .... . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . ..... . . R eal property exempt . . .. .. .. .. .. .... .. . .. . . . .. . Li vestock . . . . Mineral products .. ... _. . . . ... .. . . ... ~ . . . . ... . . . Agricultura l produets . ...... . . . . ... .. . .. .. . . . . . ManufactW'ed products . . . .. .... . .. . .... ... . . . . . T ramways, power and iCe plant . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . R an, oads and equipment.. .. . .. . .... . . ... ..... .. G old anB s il v., coins.. .... . .... . ..... .. . ... .. ..

1923 •

1'898.279 .000 1'1 .486 . 668 . 000 804.260 . 000 1117 .406 .100 401.046 .000 166.499. 800 8.3 98. 000 8 . 944 .600 367 .278. 600 1.808 .1191.000 198.728 . 600 261. 888. 000 1'4.376 .400' 86 .421. 000 41 .816 . 100 1·12 .196.000 60 . 066. 500 21 , 090 . 000

Percentage of increase

277 . 74 169 . 16 142.62 112 . 711

404 . 87 31. 76 163 . 84 171 .6,6 -57 .88

A ll oth e,. . ... .. ..... . ..... . . . .. ... . .. . . . . .. . . . 1__1:.,.3.::,8.:.. . 6:.,.6_5 :.,..6_00-1_~7 27",0_'",88",0.:..0",0-:-0-1= --:-:-96-:-.-::43 4.706. 482.000 I ~ 217 . 00 'DotaL .. . . . . . . ... ..... . . . . . . ... . . .. , .. . . [.480 . 646 .200 A

The difference in -.., the

total

is due to corrections of f orest wealth.

The Bulletin based

it onpotenUai value of forest stnnds instead of the utilized forest products.


FINANCE

575

Since the proposal to increase the real-estate tax so as to provide more revenue for education has been made. Table 79 is of interest. According to the facts here presented. the assessed value of real estate has increased more rapidly than school expenditures. That is. the tax burden on real estate may be relatively heavier than it was in 1913. Thus its efficacy for inGreasing educational revenues will depend largely upon how much the people wish to sacriJice for schools. TABLE 79.--GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES GOMPARED WITH ASSESSED

VALUES OF

TAXED

REAL ESTATE.

1913

Educational expeDditw;es

1915 ............. . 1918•.•.•. 1919.... . ............. . .. . . . . . . " 192 0 ............ .. ................... . 1921 •.. . .•• .. . . .....•. . ...• . . . ..... . . 1922 ....... . . . .......... . . .. . . . .... I . 1923 ...... . ... _..... ~ ......•........

~ . 146.S02

9. 669.806 18,195 ,4.11 18,10G,193 22 ,872 ,440 23 , 031.868 23 . 687 . 101

AND

1916

TO

Assessed value of wed real

estate

1923 Percentage of 1918 'Expendl-

1'393.279.000 766.028.000 802.962.000 1,349 ,876 ,000 1,482 , 180 , 000

1 . 480 .111.000 1.486.668 ,000

ture

100 186 186 268 820 822 330

Real

estate 100 192 204 846 877 879 378

\ THE REVENUE SYSTEM

Public revenues in the Philippine Islands are of three kinds: (1) revenue from taxation; (2) incidental revenue. such as fines and forfeitures. United States internal revenue. sales and rentals oj public domain. revenue from publie forest and mining claims; (3) earnings and other credits of the Philippine Government in its various activities. sales of fixed property or friar lands. dividends on bank stock. sales of bonds. and the like. The relative importance of these three sources is shown in Table 80. In the revenue system the proceeds of the different taxes are distributed in several ways to the four kinds of political units. the Insular Government. the forty-nine provinces. the lWo chartered cities of Manila and Baguio. and the municipalities or subdivisions within the provinces. Some of the taxes are reserved for certain units; others are distributed among the units. The amounts of the different taxes distributed to the different units. and the proportionate amounts raised by the different taxes and distributed to the several units for 1923 are given in Table 81. The methods of collection and the amounls distributed to, the several governmental units are shown in Figure 10. Details on the nature of the various taxes will be found in the following brief descriptions of the revenues of the four kinds of political units. S

ClalSificalioD in the Insular Auditor's Report. 1923.


576 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES TABbE 80.-

D,STRIBUTION OF PUBUC REVENUES BY THREE MAIN SOURCES,

1923

[An public revenues tor aU political dtvisiona]

Amount fe,ce:,ace Revenue Irom taxation . .. . rncidental revenue 1 â&#x20AC;˘. E~nings and other credit~ . . Totnl. . .

,190,668 8,820 , 872 26,811,193

Per unt 67 R 25 100

Includes proceeds of sale of bonds. surplus from currency reserve tund9. collection Joans. and interest repayments from railway companies.

1

o~

~72

NOTE.-Source: Repor.t of the Insular Auditor forr 1023.


~

~

. ......................... , .... . .......... .. .. . .. .. , . . . . .. . . .

. .... ........ .

Miscellaneous . ....... .. ... . . . . Internal-revenue nUolmlcnt·. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle allotment (Act 30<16) . .... N et revenue ror expc.odlturc . . . .. .

Road tax...... . . ... . .. .. . .

Doeumentnry tax. . . . . . . .................................... . . ... .; . .. . Inberitance tux.. . • • •...•••••. , .•.....•.•.•...••.•• .• . ,-: ••.. •.•. Cusloms: Import duties . . . . Wharfage tnx . . . . lmmigrntion tax .. . T,onnage duos . .. Renl-propcrw I..nx • .•••...•.

Cedulu t.ax.. . . . 'Franch.lse tax. Tn-come tnx . . .

Amount

-

85.00

~.OO ~.OO ~ . OO ~.OO

~.OO

_.00

.21

ft . OO S.W ..10

.00

~.OO

42.00

.W 4.M 2.00

... ..... .. .. . . ... .. .

2'8651 .051 6 . 00 (8"164,088) ................... . (628,918) ....... ... .. ...... . 46,786,548 100.00 64.74

13,559.403 1,742,747 228,864 822.194

2,220,086 1;"058,487 121,924

lOU , 121

100 . 00

Rerum

taxes in allotted. to tJiis unit this unit

PCr'CCDtaKeIPcrceDtaR(I of totol of thil tax

1l1!ula.r Government

-:-: -:-:-: -:-: -:-:-:_-=~:~7~~ #:-::-:~:.~.1--?-:~~-::--:-::-:~;1 P'~f:~:

. .-:-:.-.:-:-::-.-...-.-..-_-...

-In-te-~-~-::-;-:~-~-.:-:-.:-~-~-.~-~-.-~-~-.:-:-: -:-~:-:-:-

Items

Provi,ncial govc.rnmanta

4,200,558 78,148 8,000 1,682 ,762 500,574 9,902 ,3S1

PGS ,453 8,372,484 0,402

I ••••••

Amount

.72 .08 ,1 7.00 5 . 07 100 . 00

I

18.72

31,. 00 100 . 00 6 . 50

.30 71. . 20 3.00

I Pm' Gent

· · ··;~:~~r

.62 8'1.00 .06

Rer Ctlnt

tuCl in allotted to thi, unit this unit

pcrcentaael P(lJ'CCnt.KO 01 total of thr. tax

! -----~~~~~~~~~-

[Sourees : Reports ot the tnaula't' AudItor, and ot the Finanea Commbsion ot ln20]

J92.3, TO THE NEAREST PESO

TABLE St.-D,STR,BunON OF REVENUES, AMOUNT., AND PERCENTACES OF 1lHE DIFFERENT TAXES TO TRE SEVERAL PounC"L UNITS,

~

c:n,

@

~

Z

...,


,0 ' 0

••

•••

46 . 0 0

~ . 80 1

2 .50

Eer cent I Per cent

p age ercent;.IP,:rcen . t;of age of total this tax taxes ,in aijotted this .umt to t his unit

~489 ' 157110 .60 225, 280 6'. 00 2 .40 n '! ' ,10l

A mount

e bartered cities

.

ill 14-. 90

I

26,245 611.269 130 ,148 15 . 1714 , 602,313

42 . 00 1 3 ,569 , U8 30 .50 I,

.58 1. 12 2.80 100 . 00

46 , ~7 5

·205,649 al ,804 72 , 190,568

57,. 00

6 . 37

77 .50 1 27 . 00

I

2 '. 41 . 32

100.00

18.60 .10 .0'6

.4 6

'18 . ~8

228 , 864 822 , 194 13 , 426 , 582 78,148

l,7~,74q

18 .46 28 . 94 6 .56 .33 3. 0'7 1.46 . 17

Pit esnt·

I

total

I age of

13', 569,408

20,889,782 4 ,~,85 ,42 9 ,gS8',44.0 2 ,g20,085 1 , 068 ,487 121 ,924

~13 ,8g5, 05S

'Dotal

Per cent~

• 'lIhc Insular Auditor's repom. for 1923 credited the Iniitilnr. Government with h avin g allotted to the P tiovine c:s~ municipalities, and chartered cities '3..1G.4,083: hut the ,repol' ts on the 'fina n ces of the l)t;ovinciall n:p;d l!lunicip tQ. governmen ts show t hnt the .provinces w e.re- allotted P.l .682.762; t h e munjc~ iJ)ruities, '1,636,601' ; and t he chartered cities, rDl ,269, which totals ' 8,369.632. In tihe case of the , mot~r. vehicle allotment, t he Jns~ GovCll:nment waa oredited with havina diatrlbl:J,ted the sum of: '628,918 to the provinces- a n d the City of Manila. The act ual distr·ibution, however., showl! that the provinces received ' 600 .674; I}nd Manila, '130.148 which totals ' 680,72£ An adjustment of these d ifferences lrives P20'1,253.

10 , 949,381 1 100.00

H,075 L, 685,601,

.. 51·60

• • • • • • • • • • • 1 ••• • •• • • ] • • • • • • • •

:: : ::. . . .::::: : : ::: J .::65~:861,1I

Miscellaneous'.,. • , . , , , . . _. . ....... .....• •.• . .. . . ... . • .• • . . . • . . . . Internal-revenue allotment. . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • . . . . . . . ... . • .•.. .. M'otor vehicle allotment ~Act 80(6) .. ...• • . . . . . .. •• . •• '. Not revenue ror expenditure . • . . . .. . . ... ... . . . . . ........ . ..

~::=~~'~~: : : . :. "' ::: : : : ::: :

'I mmigration tax . ..... . . ,_• . . . . . . ....... . .. • ..... . .•• . •• • • _ ... . . • .• , •. 1 •

;:.:~~::~:. : : :: ::: :: ........... ".::::::::::::::::::::'::::::::::::1: ::::::::::J::::::J:::::: 1::::::::: 1:.:: ... ,.,.

Customs:

20~'8 t6'

1 ,137,.715

!,:\ . 48~ , 81 3

Amount

TO 1lHE NEAREST. P ,Eso-Continued

Inter·naJ ,R evenue: E i cisBt ax. ..... . ..... . .... .. . . . . . !,\.iCSDse nndl business t ax. . . •• .. • . . . . . ..• .. • . • • . • . . . . €edula tax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .•... ....... . . . . Fraucbiae 'tax . ... ' " . . . . . income ItnX •• . • • ••• • .• .•• . 'D ocumentary tax .. . Inhedtance tax . . ... . . .

,it!>DUI

1923,

TABLE 81.-DlsTRIB UnON OF REVENUES, AMOUNTS, AND PERCENn CES. OF TH E DIFFERENT T AXES TO THE SEVERAL POUnCAl,. U NITS,

< -< o 'T]

en

Z tTl

"0

~

r :;a

....;

:r: tTl

tTl

~

g:

~r

E o

c

o

tTl

00

~


579

FINANCE I. INSULAR REVENUES

I. INTERNAL-REVENUE TAXES BUSINESS AND LICENSE TAX, INCLUDING THE FRANCHISE TAX.This tax, at times known as the "privilege" tax in the Philippine Islands, includes the franchise tax and constitutes approximately twenty-eight and one-half per cent of the total governmental revenue from taxation. It is levied in small but varying amounts on occupations. trades and professions, on franchises and banks, at rates fixed in their charters, and on merchants' sales at a permanent rate of one per cent. This rate has been temporarily increased to one and one-half per cent. The business and license taxes have in recent years yielded over one hundred times the revenue obtained from the franchise tax. The amounts yielded by these taxes and the variations due to business conditions in the immediate post-war period are shown in Table 82. The business and license tax became a part of the internal-revenue tax of the Philippine Islands in 1904 and the present permanent rate of one per cent was fixed in ,1914. The particular part of this tax known as the "sales" tax is tIle one per cent of gross sales. For all mercantile transactions this is based on the actual selling price. In 1923 an additjonal fall! of one-Ilalf pe~ cent was imposed on sueh sales for one year (Act 3065 of February 26, 1923) and in 1924 with the approval of the President of the United States, was extended to 1925 (Act 3183, November 24. 1923). This additional tax of one-half per cent nets the Philippine Government about P4,OOO.000, a year. TABLE

82,-

YURS,

TOTAL BUSINESS. LICENSE, AND FRANCHISE TAX CoLLECTIONS. VARIOUS

1913

TO

1923,

WI'I'H PERCENII'ACE INCREASE OVER tHE PREOEDINC YEAR

Ye..

1929 ... , ....... . .... , ... , . •. " ... , • 1921. ..... , .. , ..... , ........ , . , , , • , . 1920 ... , .. ", ....... , ....... . .............. ,

1918., . ................. . . . . 1913 ....... "." .. ".,' .

Amount col· lected. 1'1'1 , 952,930 14.920,n57 21,022,766 15,907,929 9,220,542

Percentage

0(- increase

over pte-

ceding year

20.8 -29 . 0 52,1 999.<1

NOTB.-The (-) aien indicat.es deerease.

The business and license tax, including the sales tax, Ilas attracted the attention of public officials and of students of public finance in other countries, including the United States. The additional rate of one-half per cent was adopted as a temporary measure and extended on the same basis. But since the Finance Commission of 1920 suggested'


580 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE F'HILIPPINES that this increase will receive least abjecitian from the people,' there may be mere lill;elihoed ef an iner-ease to a tdtal 9f 2 per cent in the sales tal!, than ef the discontinuance of. the femperary increase df onehalf per cent. It is estimated that the increase to 2 per cent will yield about PIO,(!)OO,OOO yearly more than the permanent I per cent rate. EXCISE T AXES.- These are levied mainly on tobacco, liquors, and a few other articles manufaGtured in the Philippines and <mnsumed here, ar on similar artides from the United States which are at the same time £ree frem Gustoms d'uties, anciI- en similar artides frem other Geuntries which also pay the Philippine Gustoms duties. 'Receipts haNe risen at the rate of abaut a millian a year from P7,439,532 in 1910 to P13,324,055 in 1923. To this statement eXGeption must be made for recent years. l n 1919 and 1920 the total rose te over PI 4,000,000, and then dropped bad: to thirteen millien odd pesos for the next three years . .D0€iUMEN'FARY 1':Ax.-1Fhis is ~he usual tax indiGated by its name, ranges from two centaves for eaGh bank IlheGk to P5 for a passage ticket of over P2liO, and with femporary reductions in 1914 and 1921 has gradually inllreased from P350,676 at its introduction in 1913 to PI,053,487 in 1923. IN I'IERIl"ANCE TAx.-Introduced in 191€J, this tax has, including 1923, preduced a tetal of P755,420 for the eight years, but has fluGtuated from P5,284 in 1917 to ' 271,(i)34 in 1919. The present tax cannot lJe counted on with any certainty for the amount. INC0ME T AX.~Introduced in 1913 as the application of the United States income tax to the P hllippines, and operating since January I, 1919, under the law passed by the Philippine Legislature, this tax is of recent develepment and as ma~ be seen fFem Table 83 has produGeg markedly vaEY,ing ameunts. "Fne exemptiens on personal incomes ef P6,OOO for the heads of families and P4,OOO for unmarried persens, are relatively high for the Islands. If reduced relatively substantial inGreases in the revenues would probalDly be brought trom this particular tax.

2. CUST0MS RECEIPTS ~rom these the Insular Ge:v:ernment dedves more than one-third ef its tax revenues. They are ef four classes, the import duties which yield more than 90 per cent of the customs receipts, wharfage tax, immigration tax, and tonnage dues. While there have been variations in the different taxes in different years, the total of the four is almost the same in 1923-as in 1910, 1!])'I3. 19'18, or Ino. It w.as P15,709,776 in 191(i) and f'1 5,853,205 in 1'923. 1 If .is" es'l lin ated by the Bureau of Internal Revenue that merchants do. not decl are more than two-thirds of their gross recclPls. If th is est imate is accurate. Ihls method of 5;vasion deprives the Government , laking the revenue receipts for 1923 as basis, of

1!8.000.000 yearly.


581

FINANCE TABLE 83 .-INCOME.TAX RECEIPTS IN THE PHILIPPINES, FOR VARIOUS YEARS, 1914-1923

fSourees: Reports ot the Insular Auditor] Income-tax receipts or the Philippine Government

Income-tax reY eor

cojpls o(

tbe

Philippine Government

1112B ....................... !'2,220,086 . 00 11122. . . ......... . . . ••.•.•.... 1,943,716 . 00 1921. .. ............... ...... . ·1, 880,870.00 11120....... ..•......... 4,212,-291.00 1919.................... . ... 8 ,4U6 , 688 .00

Y ear

1918 ......... . 19n .......... . 19lG. . .... •... 1914. . .... .... .

. ... 1'2,650,149 . 00 1.178,006.00 608 , 545 . 00 285,938 . 00

The import duties aTe practically those of the Underwood Taroiff Act of 1913 which determined specific rates on the basis of the then prevailing market prices of articles. With the great increases in prices since that time in comparison with the ad valorem duties which have of course advanced with prices of articles these specific duties have become relatively low. It might be possible to raise more revenue by an increase in import duties, particularly duties on specific articles. But since the Congress of the United States with its exclusive control of the Philippine tariff relation with the United States in 1913 enac;ted complete free trade between the two countries, this would have to be approved by the President of ilie Un~ted S~ates. 3. INOREASE IN TAX REVENUElS OF 'I1HE INSUI!.AR GOVERNMENT The increases in the tax revenues of tile Insulaf Goye~nmen~ from 1910 to 1923 are shown in Table 84 together with their percentage relation to the figures for 1910. TABLE

84.-TAX

REVENUES OF THE PHILIPPINE INSULAR GOVERNMENT 1910 TO 1923, WITH PERCENTACE RELATION TO FICURES FOR 1910

[SourceS : Reports of the In su1ar Auditor]

Year

1923 .... ..... ........... ..... .. ....... . ..................... , .. 1922 ......... .. . ....... ..... ........ . . .... ......... . . . ..... . 1921 . . , .. ... . . .. .... .. .. ...... , . . . ... .. . . ...... . ..... , ........ . .

1920 . . ... ... . ...... ....... . .... . .. . .... ... . . ... ..... .. . . ...... . . 1919 .............................. . ..... . 1918 .. .... ....... . ..... .................. . ............... . .. . . . 1917 ............ . ... . ... . .. ......... .. ........ . . ........ . . 1916 ............................ . .... . ...... . 1916 ......................... . ....... .. . ... ...... .. .... . ... . . . . 1914 ......... ......... ...... ........ .. . ... ...... . .... . 1913 .... 1912 ...... . ..... .. .......................... . .. . ....... ........ . 1911 .......................... . .. . . . ...... .. .... . .... . ... . . . . . . 1910 ...... . . ........................ . . . ............ . ... . .. . . .

Amount

I

' 1'46.786.641 010,988 , 826 46,446,451 68.146.624 45,229,969 44.,569,229 86,448 , 412 27,967,808 26,'769,492 20,108 , 699 26 , 767,990 27,897,9i9 24.869.985 28,220,047

Percentage relation to 19.10 as a bose

201 176 196 228 194 1-91 162 120 110 88

HO 1117 107 100

1 Th il column g ives only the. amounts diebuncd by the Insular Government. It annually collecta ' 3,164.088.66 which is ollotted to the local governments as shown in Table 81. : In 1928. '628.918 motor-vehicle allotment given to the provinces .


582 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES PRIilVlNCIAL REVENUES The provincial tax revenues are in part levied by the provincial governments within the provinces. and in part consist of allotments from the Insular Government. The kinds of provincial tax revenues. the amount raised by each. and the percentage it forms of the total provincial revenues fram taxatian. for 1CJ)23. a~e shawn in Figure 9. page 82. The exact nature af each of these taxes is indicated in the Eollawing aes(lriptions. OEDUbA 'ifAX.- This is a eapitatian or pall tal{. With the usual exceptions for fareigners and natives it is leviecil en all male inhabitants of the Philippine Islands between eighteen and sixty years of age. Since without the cedula receipt as an identificatian certificate na vating and practically no official or p~ivate business of importance (lan be transacted. it is easily (lolle(lted. The narmal tax is ane peso af which half goes ta the province and half to the municipality wherein it is colfected. In the regularly organized provinces and Manila. a second peso rna:}' be levied. all the praceeds of which ge te the provincial road and bridge fund. These provinces erdinar.iliY leviY the additional ,peso. Ailthaug!\. there m,.ax be a drop of over P20@.00Q fram an individual year ta the next the tMal cedula ta路x returns have,in general risen steadily from P2.5<])@.412.55 ill 1910 to P3.3.?2,434 in 1'<])23. Cibizens and school authorities Have re(lommended to the Cammissian that a peFmissive cedula la-x increase. the proceeds of whi(lh were to go to primary schools. would be easily passed in their regions. This might take the form of either a pravin(lial tax. ar if muni(lipalities were given permissian to increase their cecilula for this purpose. a municipal tax. PROPERTY T AX.-This is a tax levied on the assessed value af real property. including land. buildings. and the impravements thereon. A part of the property tax goes ta the province and a par.t to the municipalities. There are the ,usual exemptions for government. educational. and religious property. ~he assessment is ardinarily at 60 per cent af tlie full valuatian. Althaug!\. a tal{ rate o~ mdre than three-eighths o~ ane per (lent is nat re~uired tile tatal rate of this tax has for years been seven-eignths of one p~r cent. The ~ravin(le can levy one-eighth of one per cent. Of this. the first one-eighth gaes to the provincial Toad and bridge fund and the remaining two-eighths ta the general funds of the province. The municipality must levy one-fourth af ane per cent and may levy as high as two-fourths. Of this. the first ane-fourth of one per cent goes exclusively


FINANCE

583

to the school fund of the municipality and the remaining one-fourth of one per cent to its general fund. In short, the schools automatically receive half of the proceeds of the property tax as levied by municipalities, and two-sevenths of the total proceeds of this tax. But, except as they obtain allotments hom the remaining two-eighths going into the general fund ,of the province or the remaining two-eighths going to the general fund of the municipality, they cannot secure more than this two-sevenths. The provincial revenues hom real property taxes have gradually ,in. creased from Pl,193.564 in 1910 to 1"4,200,558 in 1923. Each year, except 1911 and 1914, the yield has been larger than for the preceding year. The real-property tax occupies an important place in munieipal and provincial finance. In 1923 the income from this tax alone was 42 per cent of the total revenues of the provinces hom taxation; in 1921, 40 per cent of the total revenues; in 1918, 30 per cent; in 1913, 18 per cent; and in 1910, 19 per cent. In the chartered cities of Manila and Baguio, 77 per cent of the total revenues from taxation in 1923 came from the real-property tax; in 1913, 71, and in 1913, 63 per cent. In the municipalities the real-property tax provided 51 per cent of the total revenues from taxation in 1923; in 1921, 46.2 pe~ cent; In 1918,40 per cent; and in, 1'913, 30.3 per cent. The tax is an ad va10rem tax. The 1aw does not state the basis of property valuation, nor is there established a uniform method or practice of valuation. It is the intention of the law that properties for purposes of taxation be assessed at full value; but it is admitted that properties in the Philippine Islands are assessed at only 50 to 60 per cent of their true value for taxation purposes. If the sale price of properties corresponded to their assessed value, the revenues of the provinces and municipalities would be increased to the extent of

f8,500,OOO. To increase the revenues of the provinces and municipalities from this tax, it is not theoretically necessary to raise the rate hom seveneighths of one per cent to one per cent in regular provinces. The Legislature seems unlikely to increase the rate by one-eighth of one per cent, unless it is done upon petition of the provinces. Possibly, provided the additional revenue is set aside as provincial school fund, the rate might be increased by one-eighth of one per cent. There have been resolutions and bills presented in the Philippine Legislature along this


584 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIUPPINES

By taxing prope~ties at their full value the desired end eould be achieved. At the time of its adoption in 190 I, this tax was perhaps unpoflular because the people regarded it as a new tax. But in reality during the Sflanish regime this same tax was collected in the fo~ of tr.ibute, the main souree being land. The eonsensus of opinion is that the tax is difficult to eolleet in regions visited by floods or storms. In such a case the postponement of payments might be neeessary. At flr.esent the provinees eannot afford to set aside a flercentage of the land tax for sehool purposes exclusively. This could pe done by merely increasing the rate. It is possible that certain of the provinees, provided the increases are for the use of the schools, would be willing to incr-ease the Fates of theu real-flrOflerty taxes. INTERNAL RE',(ENUE AND ÂŽTHER SOURCES.-T'hese inelude the internal-revenue aUotments from the Insular Government, franehise tax, road tax, tax from sealing of weights and measures, cart and sled tax, ana sueh minor. items as lieens.es for shell and sflonge fishing. By law all internal-Fevenue proeeeds, not otnerwise distributed by statute, aecrue to the Insular Government but of these 10 per cent are set apart as flrovincial allotment; 20 per cent as munieiflal allotment; aned 10 per cent as road and bridge fund allotment. However, the amount so set aside for these three allotments cannot be greater- than the amounts allotted for the same purpose in 1909. The radical change in the later status of these allotments as compared with their importance JD 1909 is shown in Table 85. Ii lle, but no favorable action has ever been taken.

TAB~E 85 .-l'HE EFFECTS OF KEEPING INToERNAb-REVÂŁoNUE AbLOTMEN,\,S TO PROVINCES AND MUtlICIPAtl'l1ES AT ToHE 1909 AMOUNTS

[Sources: Insu1at: Auditor and Bureau of Internal Revenue]

Item Il'otal internal revenues, subject to allotment . ... Popul ation . .... .. .. ... . .. .. . . . . . A verage daily attendance in primary schools.. _ Average dai.ly attendance in elementary schools . . . . .. . . Total puP:lic-scbool expenditures . ... , .... Percentage oC internal revenues allotted to provinces .. . . Amount of internal revenues allotted to provin'Ces . . ... . Percentage of internsl revenues allotted to municipalities Amoun,t o( internal revenues allotted to municipalities ..

1923

Increase per cent

2'29, 368 .769 11.401 . 861 776.799 906. 481

271 % 32% 164 % 184% 3018% (14,. 61 % ) .66% (14. 61 %) .66%

1---------1--------:I 1909

1'7.916.861 8,611 ,446 3D6 .808

319 . G85 5.662.132 20 . 0 % 1.571.770 20.0 % 1,671,770

23.687.10 ~

6.39 % 1.582. 042 6.39% 1 . 582.0 42

N oTE.-Figures in parentheses incJicate decreases.

Since 1909 the intemal-revenue proceeds subject to provineial and municipal apportionment has continually increased as shown by Table 8e.


FINANCE

585

TABLE 86.-INTERNAL REV£NUES SUBJECT TO ApPORTIONMEN1',

Internal rev· enues subject to apportionment

Yea,

1909

Year

TO

1924

Internal reve nues subjeet t-o apportionment

-------------1'- ------ 11--------------1 1009.. . .. . .... . .. . 1910 .. ......... . ... . ) 9 U .. .

1912 ....... , ..... ..... .. ... . 1913 .................. .. .. 191;1 • • . •• . •••• , • ••• • ••••• •••

1916.. . .... .. .. ... .. ..... ... . 191 6.. . ... .... ... .... .. ... . . .

1'7,916,860.00 9,789,SH. 00 11,806,387 . 00 12.174,772. 00 12,6'7, 478 . 00 12 , 633 ,095 . 00 16.800,414 . 00 19,626,006 . 00

1'26,010,750.00 )917 .. . . . .. .... .. 30,227 ,627.00 1918....... . ..... . 1919.. ... .. .. ..... .. .. .... . . 82,666,013 . 00 1920.. . ... . .... . . ........ . .. 36 ,850,664 . 00 192) .. . .. . .. . .. .. ..... .. 29,000 , 163.00 1922 ... . . .. ... . .. ... .. ... . . . 28.787,868 . 00 1929 .. . ....... .. .... .. .... . 29,863,769 . 00 1924 . . .. • . . • ... . . . . . ...... , . 31,808,960 . 00

Table 87 indicates the amounts by which the schools would have benefited in 1923 had anyone of the bases indicated been adopted as that upon which allotments were to be made. instead of the actual one. TABLE 87.- THE AMOUNTS OF INU:RNAL REVENUE THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN ALLOTTED TO PROVINCES AND MUNICIPALITIES IN 1923 IF THE ALLOTMENTS OF 1909 HAD KEPT PACE WIT H 'THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS

[Sources : Reports, Tnswar A--uditor. 1909, 1923]

I

Amount 1923 Increase over 81lotment would. 1923 actual have been allotment

If it bad in(!leased as did the total internal revenues . , .... . . 1'6 , 831,226. 00 If it bad inc:rensed as did the population .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 2, 074, 736.00 If it bad increa.scd BB did the averago daily @.ttendance in p imarY . chools . .. . • . ..• . .••. . . . . .. .. ....... . . ... . ... ... .. .... . ... 3 , 992 , 296.00 U it bad increased as did tbe average daHl' attendance in elementary schools .. .. . ...•. ....... ...... ... •.. .. . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . 4,468.826.00 rt it; bad inereased as did tbe tfotnl publie-scbool ezpenditures ... . 6 , 669 , 998.90 U the provinces bad receh'ed tbe same perce.Dtage oC intema.l revenues . ... .• ... . ... . ....... • . . ... . . ... . . .. ... . .. .. . . . . .... 1,681. 986.00 MunlclpalitiCl, L909 allotment .. . ........ . . ... . . . .......... . . . 1,671 , 770.00 U it bad incren.scd as did tho totallntcmal revenues ..... .. ... . 6,831,266.00 rr it bad incrt'a.scd as did the population .. ..... .... ...... . 2 , 074,786 .00 If it had lncrcased. as did the average daily attend8.DOO in primary schools .• . .• • • . • • • ...• . .•. . •.••• . •. . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . ..... . 3 , 992 , 296 . 00 U it ho.d increased as d id the avernga daily attendance in elemenwyschools •... ......... . . . . .. ....... ... . . . .. .. .• ..... .... 4,463, 826 . 00 It It bad .increased as did tbe tota1school apenditures . . . 6,669 , 998.00 It the municlpo.Utlcs had rceeived the &ame pl!.I'ceDtage oC internal rcv enue!!I • • . . • ..• ••• .. • •.•. • ....• . •.. . . . • •... . . . •.. • ..•.•. 1,681,986.00

1'4 ,269 , 49 6.00 502,966.00 2,420, 626 . 00 2,892 , 066 . 00 4 , 998,228 . 00 10,216.00

. . .. ... . . . . . . . 4,259, 496 . 00 602,966 . 00 2.420.526.00 2 , 892.066.00 4,99.,228. 00 10,216.00

MISCELLANEOUS REVENUES.-The total revenues for the provincial governments under this heading. excluding the internal-revenue allotment. have been inconsiderable since 1910 when the amount was approximately fl100.000; it has exceeded fl300.000 only twice and was never above fl400.000 until 1923. In this year the motor vehicle allotment under Act 3045 raised it to fl646.577.06.


586 EDUCATIONAL 5lURVEY OF T HE PHILIPPINE5l Witl:\ the exeeption of slight temporary drops in 1914, 1915, and 1920, total provincial revenues from taiKation have steadily increased from '6,159,680 in 191(i) to ''!>,'!>02,331 in 192~ . 3. M1!JNICIPAL REVENUES T he chief sources of municipal ta'x revenues, which must be used for loeal purposes except when providea to the eontFaFY by law, aFe the following: Irl'alf a peso per. cedula. 'The illiernal¡revenue allotment of. the Insular Government. llhe rcal-property tax at the ratc of, two- fourths of one per cent, of. whicll onefourth must go to the munioipal school fund. License fees of. fishing, tnc keeping of dogs. cafes and restaurants, horse races, and the scaling of weights ana measures. Municipal intern al- revenue taxes on theatres , cockpits, concert halls, pawnbroke r'i. circuses, billiard rooms, and retailing of native wines. Cart and sled tax. and cattle registration .

.With the exception of. 191 '!> which was about '250,000 less than 19'18, the total municipal-tail!: revenues have increased steadily from 1'14,188,606 in I'!>IO to '10,949,382 in 1923.

4.

CfH\RTERED CI'I'IES

T he chartered cities are Manila and Baguio. They raise revenues in mueh the same wa\y as the munieipalities. They., however, are allowed higher proper~ taiKes and the allotment of inteFDal Fevenue fFom the Insular Gov:ernment allows them the status of both municipalities in organizea provinees, ana of pro:v;inces. With the exception of an almost negligible mop in 1918', from 1917 the total revenues from taxation of Manila have increasea steadily from '1 ,621,121 in I <]I 1@ to P4,5!)(i),027 in I <])23. Since 1923 the insular aid of , 1,000,000 has been suppressed; insteaa, in each annual appropriation aet a rental of '50,000 for the Ayuntamiento has been provided. $UMMARY

I. In keeping with their general emphasis on centralization in government, the Bhilippines ha,v:e a highly eentralized revenue system. 2. The Insular Government Jev.ies about Iii!) pef cent of. the tiUes, the munieipalibies ana d l.ar.ter.ee cities about 2(i) per cent, ana the provinees about 15 per cent. 9. In 1923, of total taxes in all governmental units, the largest produeers in taxes were: L icense and business taxes yielding 28.46 per cent of total taxes. Import duties yielding 18.78 pt;r cent of total lues. R eal-property lax y ielding 16.60 per cent of lotal taxes . E xcise taxes yielding 18.46 per: cent of total taxes.

Cedula tax yielding 6.56 per cent of tot.1 taxeâ&#x20AC;˘.

4. The system is fortunate in the quite general separation of insular ana local sourees of revenues so that the aifferent political divisions ao not compete severely for the same tax revenues. However, in recent


587

FINANCE

years, the fluctuations in yields of many taxes for all political div.Islons have made the financing of many governmental aetivities, espeeially schools, exceedingly difficult. 5. The most promising sources of additional revenue, always remembering that the governments have other interests beside edueation for which they must provide, appear to the Commission to be the following ; For the Insular Covernment, reduction to a minimum of evasions in business and lieense taxes, including the sales taxes, inerease in the specific duties on a number of imported articles, and lowering the exemptions on the income tax; for the local governments, inereases in allotments of internal revenue from the Insular Government to keep pace with needs, instead of on the antiquated 1~O~ basis, and increases in the taxation on real property, pa~ tieularly in the extension of taxation on exempt real property, and increases in the cedula tax . .sCHOOL R!E.W;NUES PR0POR'!:10N €IF SOH00L EXPENDI'FWRES BORNE B¥ THE .sE"E~L

POLITICAL DIVISION'S.~No adeq!late consideration of schoof revenues is possible without accurate information regarding the I PHIl!IPPI H[~ UHl1£o .:il",l(~ part played by each of the political divisions. In the ,. ",,. Philippines these divisions are the Insu:lar Government, u .• o;:: the provinoial governments, 1!11!1and the municipalities and chartered oities. 'I~ The percentages of total :g1. ",e..\.. educational expenditures '''''/l.U .. c:r; ~~·t made by each of these three "111 ,,'1' political divisions are shown in T able 88. Aecording to these figures, from 1~ 13 ,,to 1923 the percentage ')' 1' .. supplied by the Insular 1')20 Government declined, that EXUNT TO'NHIC:H .sTATE of the provinces remained ,\NO UKM. CINtitVl[Nr.I rlNM<I((; [D(l(!J.lION about the same, and that CO"PARI~ON or nit PIlIL'PPIN£S' ''"' UN.lllDmT(~ l'IO-mJ of the municipalities inoreased. It is also clear Fig. 33 that a much larger share of educational expenditures than of governmental expenditures for other purposes is supplied by the Insular Government. furthermore, the rel-

. @ ~ @ ~ @" (0'' .

1~.~1I; u~,.

!!lIO

E

I .. "

~

:(


5BB EDUCATIONAL

OF THE PHILIPPINES

SURVEY

ative pereeritages supplied h>:r. the different divisians far these other purposes changed h>ut little fmm 1913 to 1923. "ifable 89 shows deaFly that in the Philippines the Insular Government supplies ah>out tl1ree times as large a percentage of edueational revenues as do the American states. The matter is reversed for the local units. In ather wOFds. education in the Philippines is pr.edominantly state supported. while in the United States it is predominantly locally supported. The same facts are gFaphically set farth in Figure 33. TABLE 88.-PARTS PLAYED BY THE POUTleAL DIVlSlONS IN SUPPORTINC EDUCATION AND Q'hiHEiR ~OVERNMEN'I'AL SBRVI€ES

[Percentages of governmental expenditures provided by each division for eduention and tor. all other purposes, 1918, 1918. 1928] Percentage of eBucational expenditures byy'esr

Insular Govern-

ment .~

1918. 1915 . 1923 .

Provincial Municipal govern- , goverDmont ment

Pe~e::::r:x~e:~i~!~: g~~nInsular

Government

Provincial Municipal governgovernment mont

- - -- - - - - - - - - ---- - - - -

Per cent

Per cent

79.0 68.7 73.5

7.4 13.1 S.9

Per cent ~3.6

23 . 2 17.6

Per cent

Per Gcn l

55.2 60.3 56.1

ao.g 29 .2 29.S

Per cent !lS.1 10.5 14 . 1

TABLE 89 .-PER<lENTACES OF EXPENDlT"'RES FOR EDUCATION BY POLITICAL D,V,S,ONS OF THE PHWIPPINES AND 1'HE UNITED STATES. 1910-1923

Insular or state

Year

PhiliPPinesl

------~~--~-

19l0 ..... . 1918 . .... . 1915 . 1915 . 1920. 1923 .... . .. . ........ . .. .

American states I Philippines -American states

- - - - - - - -- - - -

Per unt Per cent Per cent Per cent .. ... . ... ... 27 .8. ... . ....• 72.7 79.0. . 21.0 . 78.6 26.4 36 .3 .. n .7 2"8 .3 26.5 .... 73.5 . .

.. ............ .... .... .. ........

1

Local units

~~:~.

'Dhese percentages 8l'e for revenues ffumished by the political units as no direct

figures for expenditures were availabJe.. The comparison is valid since revenues ordinarily are approximately the same as expenaitures. For comparative purposes, the small percentages from the Federal Government are here included with the percentages for the states. 0n this particu1~r item, the Philippine Insuulll Govellnment does what the combined Federal and state governments do in the United States.

RELA'FIVE EMI?HASIS PL)\€ED l)P@N !SIilU€ATION BY THE VARIOUS POLlTlC~L U NITS.-The relative emphasis pla£ed upon education by


FINANCE

589

a political unit is shown by the relation of expenditures on education to expenditures for other purposes. This relationship may be shown in three ways: first. by relating educational expenditures to total expenditures; second. by relating educational expenditures to tax revenues; and third. by relating educational expenditures to total revenues. Each of these methods has its special advantages. In Tables 90 to 98. these relationships are shown for the political units in the Philippines. T abJe 90 gives for the various units the expenditures for education and for other governmental purposes. According to the facts here presented, educational expenditures have manifestly increased faster in every unit than have the noneducational expenditures. Table 91 shows that all the political units from 1913 to 1923 almost doubled their percentages of expenditures for education. The record of provinces is even slightly better than this. Table 92 shows that on total governmental and on total insular expenditures for education. the Philippines although relatively far below them in 1<j) 10 are now approaching the American states. But it also shows that while in 1910 the local governments in the Philippines (the provinces and municipalities combined) devoted only one-fourth as large a share of their focal expenditures as did the American states. in 1923 they did twice as well. At this date. however. they were doing only half as well as the American local governments. In similar fashion Tables 94 and 95 show the percentages of total tax revenues and Tables 96 and 97 the percentages of total revenues devoted to education by each of the political divisions. The percentages of tax revenues devoted to education are of course much largeF than the percentages of total expenditures for education as given in Table <j) 1. On the other hand, the percentages of total revenues assigned to education are much smaller. For both total tax revenues and total revenues the percentage relationships of the various political units are essentially the same as in the tables on expenditures. However. while the Insular Government is devoting a larger percentage of its tax revenues to education. the local governments are devoting smaller percentage. SOURCES OF SCHOOL REVENUES BY POLITIâ&#x201A;ŹAL DIVISIONS.-The financing of education in the Philippines is based almost wholly upon appropriations for education and not upon the assignment of definite revenues to the schools. Only the municipalities have revenues which must be spent upon education only.


590 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIL.IPPINES The Insular Govemment makes general and special appropriations for education out of whatever revenues it may. have, Each appropriation act shows the specific kind of education to be supported. 'Fhe fact that no definite por-tions o~ any insula~ revenues are available for general or specific educational purposes, might seem to indicate tnat the responsibility of the Insular Government for financing the school system is uncertain and unstable. But a study of the governmental budgets during· recent yea~s points to the contrary. Since 1918 the practice of appropriating f.unds to speeial, provincial, and municipal schools nas been fairly constant As a rule the amounts provided for each aid from yeaD to year have incDeased. These facts indicate clearly the intention to prov'i de sueh appDopfiations for. sehoals as the insular revenues will permit TABLE 9O.-GOVERNMENTAL E XPEt/D111URES FOR EDUCATION AND FOR POSES BY PO~ITICAL DIVISIONS. PHIllIPP INE ISLANDS.

OTHER PUR-

1913. 1918. 1923

[SoUl'ces : "Reports of Insular. Auditoll and oi the Bureau of Educ a.tion '~ 1913

Total governmental expenditures 1. . . • . . ... ~ . _ } Education . ........ . ..... . . , . . . .. . .. . .

,. , • .'

..

All other . . .. . . . .............. ... . . . .. . ..... . Total insular expenditures . . . .... . .. , . . . . . . . Educati on . . .......... . ... . . . .. .. ... .. .. . .....

? 54 ,623 ,023 7, 1'4.6 ,802

19H

1923

1'86, 689,178 1'102,680 ,80 0 9, 669 ,806 28, 687 , 101

1-47~,.~37-6.22~I-I~7----I;----78 , 998 ,199 77', 029,872 I=====I=~~=I=~== 32 .266,348 5 ,644 . 161

62, 602 , 701 6 ,166,162

61, 698 ,363 17 ,828 , 76 6

I-~---II --~--I-=----

g! ,621,182

46,446,649

44,269,697

22 .267. 680 1 ,6 02 ,641

84 , 086 ,477. 8, 608, 164

40,981, 947 6 ,268 ,845

2 0.•766, 089

80 ,688 ,8e8

34 ,723, 602

Ib , 076 ,408 682. 682

28 ,740,068 1 ,260 , 411

25 ,668 ,168 2 , 098 ,320

All other ... .. ...... . .. . .................. . .. .

! 4 .642 , 771

22 , 479 ,642

23, 664,88 3

Total municipal expenditures . . ... . . ... . ... . . . ..... . Education . .

7 , 182 ,277 970 , 00 9

10 , 346 ,4.24 2 ,242,743

16 ,828 ,794 4,160 , 026

6,lH 2 .268

8 , 108,681

11, 168,769

:All other ... .. . . . ......

' 1. ' . . . • • . • . . • . • . • • • • • . .

'Dotal local expenditures. . ... . .. . ... . .. . . . . Education .. . , .. , , ... . . AU other, , . . .. ,. ' ," "

1.....

Total provincial exp enditures~ . . . , . . . . .. . Education . . ..... .. ............. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AII.other .... ..

I~===I=~=== I======

I~~~~I~~--~I--~---­

1 The aggregate of the total governmental exp enditures by political divisions are somewhat larger than the total given on page 664 of the section on The Total eost of Public Education and I ts Growth . for the reason that inter-governmental transactions ana adjuat;... ments c.annot be made on each division separately. 2 1nclude chaJltered cities. the eity of Manila and City of Bapio.


591

FINANCE TABLE

91.-PERCENTACE5

OF

TOTAL ' COVERNMENTAL

ExPENDITURE!

DEVOTED

TO

EDUCATION BY POLlTlaAL DIVISIONS, 1913, 1916, 1923

1.913

1918

1913

---------- ·------------Peru,,1 Perunl Per cent ILL 2B.0 AU l(overnmE'Dtal uol .. combined ... ,........ ... . . . . . . .... 1S . 1 11 . 7 28 .·1 ID.lutar Government . . ...... ......... .... . ..... ....... . ... .. 17.6 10 .8 15 .S Local Kovernments . .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . •. . . . . . . . . . . 6. 8 5.3 8 .2 Provincee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 8.6 21.7 27 .1 MunldpaUtl .... ..... .. .... , ...... , ................... . , . IB .5

TABLE

92.-PaaCENTACE!

OF

TOTAL

COVERNMf)NTAL

EXPENDITURES

DEVOTED

TO

EDUCATION IN THE PHIUPPINES AND THE UNITED STATES, BY, POUnCAL D~SIONS, 1910 TO 1923

[Source.: T.ble 80 and Volume VI, page 13 of Educational Finance Inquiry] Total govern-

mental upendJtut<s

Yea'

IDotal Insular or state governmentnl expendi-

-- --

P~iHp-

"

\

Totalloeal e1J>eDditures

tures

~~ri-

P~lip-

-------~~:...-~'--I~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Por un' Pcr. cent Per cent Per c:ent Per cent Per cent 26.5 87 . 6 . ... .. . . 26.6 191 0 .... .... .. 17.5 .. . .... . 18 .1 6.8 101 3 ••• ..•... • . 1915 . ...•. . ......• . ...... . . , ....... . . . . . ..... 26.1.. 32 .4 .. ...... 27 6 1918. ... . ....... .. ................... 11.1 11 .7 . .... .. . 10.8 . . . . .. :. 1920... . ........ . . ... ........ . ... .. ... . . . . . ... 27.6 30.1 .. . .... • 29.6 28.1 15.8 1923. ... .. ...... .... . ..... .. . •• •..... . 23 . 0

TABLE 93~TOTAL REVENUES FROM TAXATION BY POUTICAL DIVISIONS, PHIUPPINE isLANDS, 1913, 1916, 1923

[Sources: Reports of Insular Auditor] 1913

1918

1"86.880,860 1"62,492,756 22,402.848 44,559"280 lS , 478.01Q, 17,988,525 8.299 , 717 9,768,483 ProviDec! . •..... , . , , , . , , • .•• , . .. , .. , .. , •.. , 6,178 ,800 8,166,042 Municlpa.Utlcs ... . , . , ..•.. . ... . .... , , . .... , ...... .

Total govem.mcntnl. ... . .. .. ... . , .

Insular Government . . .. . .... .... ... . I.ocnl KOV(lJ'DmoDta . .......•. . .• . .• . ...•.......... .

1923 1"72,190 , 567 46.786,541 25 ,464, 026 14,504,644 10.949,882


592 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES "ABU: 94.-PERGENIfACES OF liOllAL TAX REVENUES

EXPENDED

UPON

EDUCATION

BY THE POLITICAL UNITS IN THE PHILIPPINES, 1913, 1918, 1923

1913

A:11 units combined . .. . . .... .. .. . .. ..... . ... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . Insular Govern.xoent . . . ....... . ... . ..•............ . . Local governments . . . . , Provinces . . .. . .. . .... . .. . ... . . .. .... . .. . . . . Municipalities . . . . ..... . ... .. . . ... '. . .. . . . .. . . .... .... .

1923

1918

Perc(!111 19.9 26 . 1 11 . 1 6.4 18.7

Per tenl 16.6 13.8 19 . 6 12.9, 27 . 6

Per u-fit 32.7 37 . 1 24.6 14 . 6 38 . 0

T AIILE 95 .-PERClYNIfACES OF TAX REVENUES DEVOTED TO EDUCA:nON B)I 1'HE iNSULAR OR S TATE GOVERNMENIl' AND BY LOt::AL GOVERNMENTS IN liHE PHIUPPINES

NND IN THE AMERICAN STATES, 19 10 TO 1923 rnsul8~

or state

Local governments

government

Philippines American PhiliPPinesl American states states

~~------,;~:--~-........;~--

Per eenf Per tent . .. . ... ...... . 38.5 25.1 ........ .. 36 . 5

1910 .... •. . ...•. 1913 ... . 1916 .. . 1918 . . ...... . 1920 . .. . ... .... . , . 1923 .... . .

TABLE

%.-TOTAL

---------------Per cent

28. 8 19.5 ......... . 29.9 24.6 .. .. .... ..

13 . 81 .. .... · ....... 81. 4 87 . 1 .. ......

REVENUES

AND

iNCOME

BY

POLITICAL

Per cent 26. 5

n .1 .... ......

DIVISIONS,

PHILIPPINE

isLANDS, 1913, 1918, 1923

rSource: Reports of Insular Auditor]

Total governmental. . .... I nsular Government . ... Local governments . . . . . Provinces . . .. .. ... . ' Municipalities . ... ..

. . . . . .... .... .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

.

.. ..... ... .. ..... ... . ........ ... ... ... ... . .. .... .. .. ..... ......... .

1913

1918

1923

!"48,014,984 25,269,909 lQ,745,075 10, 692,583 7,152,542

1'96,331,6r4 68,166 , 423

1'103 , 664,868 66,649 , 792 87,016,066 20,614,900 16,400 , 166

28,~76,191

16,851,696 12,323 , 695

T AIILE 97 .-PERCENTACES OF TOTAL REVENUES AND iNCOME DEVOTED TO EDUCATION, BY POLliflCAL DIVISIONS,

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, 1913, 1918, 1923

1913

1918

1923

- -- - - -- T otal governmental. .. . .. . .. . I nsular Government . . J:..ocal governments . . . Provinces . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . ... . . ..... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . Municipalities . . ........... . . . ........... .. .. .. .

Per cent 16.6 22.3 8.5 6. 0 18 . 6

Per.cenl 10 . 0 9 .0 12 . 4 8. 0 18. 2

Per.cenC 22.8 26 . 0 16 . 9 10 . 2 25. 4


593

FINANCE

T ABLE 9 8 .-PÂŁ.RCENTACÂŁS OF TOTAL REVENUES AND INCOME DEVOTED TO EDUCA.TlON'

IN THE PHILIPPINES AND IN THE UNITED STATES.

1910

TO

1918

Per t ent 19 10 1913 . 1916.

16 . 6

( DI 8 ...

10 . 0

Per ,e nf 17 . 8

19 .2

-- -

- - - - - - - --

-

- ' - - - --'--

-

The provincial governments, like the Insular Government, have no special revenues or funds for the exclusive use of schools. Nor do they have separate appropriations for school purposes. Whatever funds a province grants to education must come by transfers from its general fund s. On the whole this is a very unsatisfaetoF}' method of financing the schools of the provinces. Definite policies for the control of transfers are laoking, and no procedure has become established by custom. The facility or difficulty with whioh funds are made available for the schools depends almost wholly upon the personal relationship existing between the members of the provincial boards and the cIi~sion superintendents. For the construotion" and main~enance of roads and bridges, the provinces have special revenues and separate appropJiations. A similar arrangement should be adopted for the schools. The munioipalities are the only political units in the Philippine Islands which have definite sources of school revenues. They have tealproperty tax and the internal-revenue allotment. According to law one-half of the total real-property tax receipts accFuing to the municipalities is exclusively allotted to the municipal school fund. In.I 923 this amounted to P2,828,430. The Internal-Revenue Allotment Law provides that of the 20 per cent internal-revenue allotment accruing to the municipalities from the Insular Government, 10 per cent must accrue exclusively to the municipal-school fund. Besides these two definite sources of municipal-school revenues, the municipalities for years have been able to transfer funds f.rom their general to their sehool funds. With the approval of tile Executive Bureau which very rarely disapproves, these transfers are made by resolutions of the municipal eouncil. In 1923 funds so transferred amounted to '758,130. If liberal aid were not given the municipalities by the Insular Government, they would in all probability provide larger support for their own schools. By taking from the general funds, revenues would be made available for the use of municipal schools. 214 06'---418


594 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES TABLE 99.-S0UROES OF S CHOOL REVENUES BY POUTICAL DIVISIONS WITH AMOUNTS FOR

[Sources: Budget

fOli

1923

1928 : Reports of the Bureau of Audits: Rep'ort of the Bureau of Eduention]

INSULAR Items

Amounts

Source

SalaJlies and wages .. .. .

General funds by general appropriations, Act 8060. Sundry expenses ........... ... ...... . .... do . • ............ .. .............. • Aid to special schools. . . Gebel'St funds by special enactments .. Aid to elementary schools on basis of General funds by special enactments. attendance. Act 2876. General funds by special enactments, Aid to schools oC s.Qeeial provinces. Act 8060. Extension of elementary schools in GeDeral funds by special enactments, a ddition .to A:ct 2782. Acta 27·27, 2786. Extension oC elementary schools .... General funds by speeiaI enactments" Act 2782 . General funds by special enactments, For university Education •...... Acta 8060, 2997, 2986. Scholarships .. . .... . .. . General funds by special enactments,

1 ,139.495. 00 &163,600.00 220.224.00 '637 ,240.0 0 1.676.217 .00 7,047,828.00 1,796.890 . 00 280,000.00

4ct2~~6.

Building aia to provinces . . . .

Building aid to municipalities~ . . . . . Building aid to Batanes .... .

Bureau of Public Worlcs appropriations, .A!ct 81i1l8. . .. do • ... Bureau of Public Works a~propriations,

300,000 . 00 200,000.00 36,000.00

Act 8102. 17 .275.689.00

T otal ...... . .

PReVtNCIAL ,2.098,820. 00. (637,828'.00)

Aid to,special schools . .. . . .. . Building aid to provinces . . .. . . . Building aid to Batanes .. . . . . . .

. .... do ....................... . Bureau of· Public Works appropriations, Act 8118. Bureau of P:ublic Works apprOPriationS'1 Act 3102.

(!'ota1. . .. . ... . •

.

... .

. ..

(163.600.00) 1300.000.00) (36.000.00) _ _ _ _ __ '2,098,820.00

II. Consists mainly of aids to !ar~ and settlement schools, schools in friar land estat.es, special classes for teachers (Atit. V, €h. 36. Ad. COde), schol8lShips of Mindanao and Sulu, and establishment of additional normal schools. b Itemized a8 follows: Agusan. P4..6,OOO; Bukidnon, P33.. 9'i3; Cotabato. '68. 34.2; Davao. P65,1352; Lanao, '62,623; Sulu, '86,828; Zamboanga, ' 79,709; Mountain Province, P12-7,960; Nue"a Vizcaya, raO,955; Palawan, '30,000; and Batanes. ' 6,000. e Figure given by Bureau o~ Education for: 1923 is '2,651,265, but elimination of duplication gives "2.098,0320. d Figures in parentheses are not added.


595

FINANCE TABLE. 99.--S0VRCES OF SCHOOL REVENUES BY POLine AL DIVISIONS WITH

AMOUNTS FOR

1923-Conlmucd

~ruN1CIl> AL

Souree

Item"

One--hatl oC municipal reat·property tax recciptB. Ooe-baU o r munlclpal internal-revenue aUotment Crom the Insular Government. For municipal tehooll .. . . . 'DraDJICers (rom the general to tbe school funda. For elementa-ry IChoola . . .. .. . . . .... , From genera1lunds olthelnsulaf Governmcnt by speCIal eno,etment. Acj; 2786. For elementary achoola . .. . . . .. . . . From general funds or the InsuJar Governm cnt by speClaJ enactmcnbs, Acts 2727, 2786. For elomentary scbool!! . . ....... . Fto~ gen.eral fun ds of the Insular Governmant by apeelal enactment, Act 2782 . For elementary IIchoo1 buildings , F rom general apptoprlation of the Bureau of P ublic W orks, Act 3113.

For municipal schc;ola .. ...

For municipal lehOOla .. .. .. .

Total .. .. . .. 0' • . •..•.. •• . •.••.• . •• . • • •.•..•...•.•...•• •. . d

Amount ~Z.828.4S0.00

817.800.00 768.130.00

(1,676,21'1 .00)

(1, 04'1 ,828.00)

(200.000 .00) d4.,40:4.4S0.00

Fig1l.rC.l in parentheses are not added.

Table 99 shows in detail the sources of school revenues as given in the appropriations of all political units all,d in the special school revenues of the municipalities for 1923. VOLUNTAR¥ CONTRIBUTIONS.-No considefation of school revenues in the Philippines could be complete that did not recognize the relativefy large amount of voluntary contributions for schools maae in many places. Although called "voluntary," these are really forms of taxation and tuition charges. W ith assessments which are as widely distributed ana as inescapable as taxes, a community in order to have a school may raise contributions for both site and building by committees. Although any child not volunteering with his tuition cannot attend the school, the tuition charges are classed with valuntary contributions. For the raising of all voluntary contributions for schools, the consent of the Gover-nor-General is required in each instance. He has, however, given his blanket approval for certain of the yearly tuition charges imposed in all high schoofs and intermediate schools. These charges may amount to four pesos in the secondary school and two pesos in the lower school. The statistics of these volUntary contributions are given in the annual reports of the Bureau of Education. These reports, however, contain


596 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES onl짜 those items which are definitely put under the control of the municipal authorities. Superintendents are te report every voluntary contribution amounting te at least PI O@. Consequently. most of the contributions placed under the control of the municipal authorities are so reported. However. ~he Survey Staff came across many: instances where facal committees own sites ana buildings whioh they seem unwilling to turn aver to the municipal authorities. Whil'e there is a considerable amount of, such property ownea in this way. in the time available the Staff was uttedy unable to reach any estimate of its magnitude. llhe voluntary contFibutians repoFtea to the Bureau of, Edueation for 1913. 19 18. and 1923. are listed in Table 100. This shows also the local governmental expenditures for eduea~ion. From this table. it is apparent that the voluntaFY contributions have increased far faster than the local governmental expenaitures for edueation. Table 101 shows that the peFcentage relatiol.1 of this eontribution to loeal governmental expenditures has been steadily incFeasing. The kinds of voluntary eontr,ibutions are shown in Table 102 ; from this tabulation. t1te percentage of money contributions is less in 1923 than in 1913 and far fess than in 1918. The percentage for sites has Femained about the same. while those for mateFials and labor have increased. T he ehanges reflect a cnange of policy from paying teachers' salarie's to a large proviaing oE builaings ana sites. TABDE

100.-AMOUN'fS

OF VOl!.UN'fARY CONfI'RIBU'JllONS AND OF t.o eAL GOVERNMENTAl.:.

EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION,

1913. 1918, 1923 1913

Total local governmental expenffitures lor education .. _. . . 1'1. 502 .6H P rovinciaL ... . 532,632 970,009 MunicipaL ........... . Voluntary contributions .. 198 ,544

TABLE

IOI.-PERCENTAGE fulLAT IO N

1918

1923 1'5,268.3~6

1'8,503, 15' 1,260,411 2 , 242,743 617,400

2,098,320 4,160,025 1,191,059

OF VOLU N'IlARY CONTRlB<lnON. T O LOeAb

ERNMENTAL E XPENDI1'URES FOR EDUCATION,

Gov-

1913, 1918, 1923 1913

1918

1923

-----Per elml Per cent Pt1r G'ent 1~o total local governmental elg)enditures . ... To provincial expendjtures .. To municipaJ expenditu res . ...... .

13.2 37.8 20.5

1~ . 6

49.0 27.6

19.0 56.8 28.6


FINANCE

597

TABLE I02 .-PERCENTACE RELATIONS OF lDIFFEREN<r KINDS OF VOlUNTARY CoNTRIBUTIONS FOR PUBUC EDUCATION REpORTED TO THE BUREAU OF EOUCATIOr'l, TOTAL FOR THE ISLANDS, 1913, 1916, 1923

rSource.: Annual Report. ot the Burenu of Educ.a;ion1 I 1913

1918

1923

---- -----Money .. . . Mate:rlals....

, . . .... . .............. . ....... . ..... . ...... .

ubor ......................... . ...... . ......... , .. . ........ . . Land . ...... . ............................. .. ....... ... .... , . .. . MlAcollaneoU!!l . .. .................. ... . , ............. . .. ... ... . Total .. .. ...... . ,....

. ......... , ........ . . . ... .

Ptrc:mL Percent Pert'e111 74 38 53 30 12 12 10 9 19 9 10 3 15 2 4

- -100- i-

100

100

The purposes for which voluntary contributions are used are shown in Table \03, This shows a shift from paying teachers' sala~ies and supporting athletics to a much gr~ater, investment in buildings and grounds and to an increase in library expenditures. The "miscellaneous" item of 1913 undoubtedly was largely for salaries, The shift is probably due largely to the policies o~ the central offiCle in the Bureau of Education. This office prescribes that the four-peso high-school tuition and the two-peso int~mediate-school tuition items must be expended for athletics, library, and industrial purposes. Additional tuition charges above the amounts covered by the blallket a~proval of the GovernorGeneral will be recommended to him by the Director of Education, The funds accruing woufd be used for the necessary maintenance of work in existing intermediate and high sohools but not for school extension. In the case of primary schools, voluntary contr.ibutions will be recommended only to provide sites and builCiings for existing schools. The Administrative Code forbids the charging of tuition in such schools and the Bureau of Education wisely prohibits further school extension when there is insufficient money for schools now in operation, TABLE l03 . -PURFOSES FOR WHI€H VOLUNTARY CONIfRlBUnONS ARE EXPE N DED

(Percen tagcs of tot.aJ. voluntary contributions in t he islands ,r eported to Bureau of Education . upended for different purp ~es.. 19I5, 1918, 1928] [Source: A nnual Reports of Bureau of Education] 1913

1918

1923

--- - -l?u cenl SaJarics.. .. . . ...

BuildingB aod

_........ .. ..... .. •. .... .. ........... ...... .

~ounds .. ,

Libraries .. " . . . .

......•...•• . •...•... •..•• ..

. . . ........ , ..... , ......... . ....... .

Atblctl.. " . , . ............ . , .... , ................ . ............. . . hflscc.lIaneous .. . . .. .. . ..... , ........ , .................•...

TotaL .......... . ..... . . . ... . .. ........... ..... ......... .

46 3 23 28

P~cent

30 36 13 14

Puc(ml

"I 7' 6 8 8

- -- -100- - - 100 100


59$ EIDUCATI®NAlL $VRVEY OF THE IPHU1.IPIPINES SUMMARY

I. 1Ihe ~hiliJilJiline puplic-educational' system has. ;;IS a gener-al rul~. no definite saurce af sUJil!'!art. The exceJiltions are ~he municipal schoal funds ham tile internal-revenue apl'lorrianment and the real-estate tax . .A!l1 ather schaol sUI'lJilaFt is granted by apJilraJilFiatian aets and by tFansfers Frem the gener.al f,unds of the v:aFious palltical divisions. 2. liIecause af the ladl; af defini~e sources of educational sQPl'larot. the system has twa seriaus t!lifficulties: (a) Since there ,is na way: e£ farecasting what al'lpropriatians or transfers will be made, w:aFK cannat @e planned oveF a numbero of years. (b~ Since most af the revenues must came tfuough approl'lroiations and transfers, the eanttal ef, tihese rev,enues is in the hands of naneducationaJ autharoities. They are likely ta decide schael finance queJitions on naneG\!icatiorial ,greunds. In securing sehool revenues the Jilersonal relatians' af the sehaol exeeuti¥e with these autharoities cal'ry, greater weigiit than da edue'atic;mal cansid'eratiQn. 3. fficdu€ation.is I'lredaminantlw sgl'lparted my the ~nsular Gavemment. Whis is the reverse a1 the policy. in the StAtes. Theroe the lacal d\v,islans lar.geI¥ supJilarot ,the edul>atlanal system, tile state gev,ernment, whieh car.resl'1ands ta the I'nsul'a r Cavernment, conti>iIDutes much tess. How:ever., an t'he masis of peFcenta,g~ af tax revenues devated to edu€ation, tile insplar amI beal gaver.nments a£ tile IPhilippines do ,£,ully as well as the €arolles!,!anding gav;ellIlm~ts in the Wnlted States. 4. 1llle insular and <IDUIlicipal goveronm.cmts c;levate ttWice as large a Jilercentage af thell: total eXl'1enditures ito edueatian as do the proovin€ial gav;ernments. I.f tile Jilrav,in€es' were te, dev:ete the same Jilercentage, the revenues faro eduearian would IDe materoially increased. 5. 1i1he mos,t pramising saurces af increased schaal roevenues are: ~a) Larger allatIii.enls at internal rev,enue from the IlnsulaF Government. (b) A'n increase in the Fe'aI-estate tax and in the cedula tax, the pnaceeds ta ga ta local s€lleal's. €c) The lev,y,ing at. ,tuitIon in interomediate and high schools far certain types: (d'~ Tile cultiv,atian aE veluntary €arttr.imutions. iFhese have increased mu€h faster. than tile aggregate edu€arianal expenditures. UNllI' C@s:ns (}'lER-P't!JPII!. CmSiFS )\N9 hlNIll'·BtlJlL9I'N(,; C@S:Fs)

NEE9 FOR t1'Nlili CmsTs.-Numerous sd'l,oolmen and Jilerosans interested in edu€atian in the Plhilil'lpines have requestec;l the Commission ta secu~e the cast ,figures presented in this cha!'!teF. Such figures are valu-


FINANCE

599

able chiefly for two reasons. First, they make possible and indeed precipitate comparisons between provinces and schools. In making such comparisons, reasons for variations are ceFtain to be sought. A'lso, attempts to justify costs will be made and queries about the possibilities of securing good work for the lower costs will ae raised. All of this is certain to benefit the schools in the end. Second, tile figures are obviously valuable for those who must make eost estimates or plan the eJq>enditures for schools over a series of years. Most of the figures are for the year 1923, but it is hardly like that, unless theFe are very unusual cil\.anges in sehool support or attendance, the average unit eost within a ,group will vary materially for the next few years. Even in municipalities and individual sohools. a eertain stability in educational costs may be expected. It rannot be too emphatically stated that these cost figures a~e not an infallible index of the school work involved.-A sdlool with a high unit cost may give so much greateF value for tile money that it is really faF more economical than a sohool with a路 much lower cost figure. Moreover, if a s芦l\ooll\.as a cost figure more than twice as great as that of anotheF sol\.ool of the same geneFal nature that they are not giving the same kind or quality of work is a p~actical cer-tainty. tn passing judgment \lpon educational costs onE\ must Femem1!>er that the great desideratum is nol the reduction of eliililenditures but .ather a large retu.n in terms of educational resUlts on the investment. METHODS 0F CALCl!JLA:TI0N.-~he figures of this chapter were all derived or calculated. 'That is, they were not secured by taKing data direetly from any exisbing records, or indeed by utilizing anyone figure for eJiipenditure. Hecause of the aasence of such records, this direct method could not be emplo~ed. While the methods of ealcUlation differed in the various 'kinds of schools, these methods were an so carefully planned and the data wer-e secured with such caution by competent persons. that the cost figures are believed to be approliiimately eorreet. If any large error exists the trouale probabl~ lies in the sources of basic figures. The original data all came from official repor-ts furnished by presumably competent pul'>lie officials. If eFrors were made in theiF reports, the figures of this ehapter of, cour-se err in eq.ual measul'e. l'he method employed was that of securing the tdtal current eliipense and dividing ay the monthly enrollment. The latter- was easily obtained. but the for-mer sometimes involved special procedures which are descr.ibed in the following paragraphs. To these descriptions special notes are added where advisable. If any municipality contributed to 'the suppor-t of a school other than its own primary and intermediate schools. neitlier the fact nor the


600 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY <:;)F THE PHILIPPINES qmount of the eontfibution should be determined in Manila.-H sueh a municipality did contFibute to any such scheol. tile per-pupil eost figure for that sehool given here i~ too low by an amount equal to the contribution peF pupil. PRIMARY AND INTERMEDlA1'E SCHOOLS

I. In sepaTa~ing the costs of primary and intermediate sdlools the expenditures for supplies were split between the two types of schools on the Iilasis of relative enrolImenfs. 2. The only possible way to secure separate figures for the remaining current expenses of tllese seheols. was to split this sum on the basis of total primary and total intermediate teachers' salaries. Since teach~ ers' salaries constitute about 130 per cent of the expenses. without serious error the other items may Iile split in the same propoFtion. Since the Bureau of Education did not have the neeessary data on assignment of tea€hers fer 1923 but did have the facts for August. 1924. the salar.ies ef teaehers had to Iile ~aken for tile latter year. It is not likely. hewever. within a whole municipality containing a provincial capital. any mater,ial change in the ratie ef wrimaFY te intermediate teaehers' salaries took plaee between 1~23 and 1924. Aecordingly. the ratio for 1924 eould De used. If it did differ from the ratio of 1923. the probability that it would ehange the per-pupil cost more tnan a few centavos is extremely small. Since the same procedure was followed for all pxevinees. the reJatienship between previnees which after all is the main object of the ealculation. is approximately eorreet. 3. Tne amounts of paragraphs 1 and 2 were added to get the total current expenses for pFimary and intermediate sehools separately. TABLE

104.-

YEARVY PER-PU",L Cos'!' OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS, CURRENT EXPENSES

@N"Y,

1923'

( For aU primary schools combin ed in the municipality containing tbe provincial capital f or ever"iY province for which full data were Bvailable. ) [Figures irom Bureau 01 Education] P rovince

Per:-~~~i1

Bukidnon Davao .: .... ManHa .A!lbay Lanao ....................... . S ulu """'" RizaJ .............. N ueva Vizcaya Pampanga . Zambaan ga ................................ _......... . P al awan ....... Laguna .................. . Tayabas ......... Camarines Nor.te ....................................

NO.82 2'7 .20 23.04 19.96 19.41 18.78 16.39 16.13 16.00 13. 60 12.80 1·2.63 12.62 12.44

P rovin ce

Per-pupiJ

Batan gas Gamnrines Sur _... __.........__ .............. _ Nueva Ecija .._................................... _ 0rjental Neg-ros ................... . €agayan .................................................... Tarlac ... _ ..... _.... __.. _............ _._ ....... _

cost P12,43 ~ . 26

11.49 11.38 11.26 11.18

€ ebu ........ _................ .............................. .

11.06

nollo ......_.._ ......_.................................... . Sorsogon La Union ............._....._............... . Bataan .................._............_.. _............ _

11.02 11.02 10.70 10.60

Masbate .... ......._................ .

10 . 1~

Ramblon ......,..........._._ ............_...... _.__ Bulacan ................. _................... _............

9. 96 9. 64


601

FINANCE

TABLE I04.-YEARLY PER-PUPIL COST OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS, CURRENT EXPENSES ONLY, 1923-Conlinued Per:~pupU

P'rOvinc:e MarJnduQue Abl"8 _

"'tlAm lll .. lIoeo1 Sur .__ .._..._ ............... .•......._...

Capt. ..

_ ... .................._ __ .............

S6m&!' _ .__..... ,_ ..•__............. ~... . .... . .. . ... Leyle ._.. _. __._........ _.•..._..•.... _ ..•.•. _

coat '9.U 8.79 8.7G 8.71 8.69 8.11 8.0"'

Pcr-j)upil Province ce. t Suripo ... _. _ _ ....__............. _...... _......... '7.61 Dohol ............................................_.......... 6.12 Pnnl:uinan ._......................... _.......... _.... 6.24 Covite ...._._ ............._......................__.... 6.03 Zambales _ ...._.................................._.... 0.88 Agulan .........._....._._................. _....._.... 6.60

N on:.-lJIhe per-pupil cost figuT.<.'fJ. execpt in In another munlcipoJity, nrc for the municipality opply to other municipalities in the province only nr o , lmUaf to lhe conditions in the! municipality

Nueva. Eoijn where the high scnool is containing the provinc ial capital. TheY as eonditiODB in the other municipalities containing the capital.

TABLE I05.-YEARLY PER-PUPIL CoST OF I NTERMEDIATE SCHOOL. CURRENT EXPENSES ONLY, 1923

( F or oU intermediate Ichoo15 combine<! in t.he municipality contain'i ng the provincial eapital tor every province for wbich full data were available.)

[Fh:utes ftoni Bl1l'eau of Education] Pcr,.po p il cost Bukldnon ____ ... ___....._.. _...... _ .... __ ... Pl16.82 Orjenlal NetP'Oll ............................ _.__ 50.02 Dn .. o.o •__...._... __._... .... l. .......___ .. _ 49.07 Sulu _ .... _ .. __ .. _......... __..................._. 4'7.60 On.vite ._..._. ___......... _.........................._ 40.64 nouo _ ..... __._. __...... _........\-............. _.. 8lJ·06

Provine6

._ .. _____ ... ______... __ ..... ______ .• __ __.. ____... _.

36.64

Bnln.nliaEI ......... ._............ _•. _.. _... _ .... _ . AltUaan .... _ .._.. _.. _... _......_.......... _. __. Pampanga __. ___ . ____.. _.......... _.... _

36.26 35.48 32.26

ManUa _ .._ ._......... _ .......................... _. SUr1sn.o _ ........ _._ ........ _.............. _......... Capiz; ....._._.......•_............._............_....._ Ta,yabas .• _. _..................._.._............... Miaamia ................ _..................................

82.11 28.'18 28.40 27.98 2'1.68 27.26 26.02 25.77 26.49

Albay

Zamboo.n5l:8 ......................................_.....

Samar ..._.. _ ..................._..... _..•_.._..._ Pnlnwn.n ....... _.....__ ................_............ _ Cebu .. _ .........._. __ .__ ~..........._... _....... Sonogon ..._... ___ . __._................... _.. 1locoe SUt' .._. __ ...... ___ .... ___ ..............

24.89 28.72

Provioce P~~~~Pil Sataao _ _._...._.. ___ .. __ ....._._ .........__ . P23.46 RiLal ................................... _..................... 23.84 Rom bJon ... _. ___.................. _............. _. 23.2'1 Masbate .................._........ _...................... 22.88 21.S8 C4Dlsrines Sur ........................................ BuJncnn ..... ............................ 21.06 Nu(!v'n Ecija ............................. _.. ........... 20.91 Laguna .................................................... 19.81 TlltJac ._............................. _...... .............. 19.80 MadnduQue... ..__ .. _ ... _........_............. 19.40 Bohol ._......... _........................................_ 18.90 La Union .._........ _.. _............... _............. 17.48 Zambrues .... _................................ 16.10 Leyte ....._.......... ...................................... 15.95 10.44 A.bra ........... _........................................... _ Pnngnsinn.n ._..... _........ _.......................... 16.22 Cnmarines Norte ................................ 14 ..(5 08gnynn ....................... _...... ..................... 13.87 Nueva ViEc.a.ya .......................... _............ 12.42 Lanno ..._...._............................................ 8.27

NOTE.-The per-pupU COBta here given probably approximate qwte closely t he costs for mOlt oLher wunicipalities. But tbe proportion or total intum,edio.te school expenses to toW J)rimnry school expense is usually higher in the municipality containing the capit.al llhun in othe.r munlciIatliUcs of the province. TA.B LE 106.-YEARLY PER-PUPIL COST OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS. CURRENT EXPENSES ONLY. 1923

(For c"cry eceondo.ry Icbool located in a provincial capitol. for which fuU dnta were avaflnble. ) [Figures from Bureau ot Educat ion) Per-pupil cost '172.(6 Sulu •___ .. __..... _ ..__ ..________..______ ... __ .... __ .... 154.66 M.ountnin Provine~ ............ __ .. _....._..... 91.78 MiaAmls _._ ....._......... _...... __ ...___....... 81.48

Per-pupil cost

Samar ...._.......... _......................................

66.02 64.88 64.08

.._ ....._ __ ...........___..... __ ....

Bulae.nn .. _.................... _.. _......................

61.4.8

'Brovint(!

Provine.e

Zrunbollngn ....._...................

.. __ .__ .._____ ..........__ .............. Palo.wan .. RombloD ...... _......._._......... .. Oriental N~os ... _ ...._....................... _.

Mn.abAt~

70.91

P68.S~


6@2 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHIUPPINES TABLE

106.-YEARLY PER- PUPIL ([:OST OF SECONDARY SGHOOLS, CURRENIf EXPENSES QN4Y, 1923-Gonlinued

Per-pupil cost Po60. 59 Ta yabas. ............. .,................,................. 68.88 Cagayan ..................................... __ ........... .. 67.1 6 t..yt. .............. ................................. 66.74 Ga piz ...... 66.87 Da vao ..................................................... .. 64.40 Agusan ..... .. 61.94 F a ngasinan 51.67 .A'. bra ...... .............................................. . 61.16 Albay ....... 60.22 Zam bales ......... . 49.99 Bawn ............. .. 49.14 Batangas ....... _.......... _.............. _............ . 48.89 C amarin ~ Sur ...................... _ ............. .. 48.29 Doilo ... _.............. _._.......... _.. _...._ ...... _.. . 47.4-7 Occidental Negros ....................... .. 46.97 U'arlac ............ .......................................... . 46 .67 L aguna ....................... ............................. . 4U6 I locos Sur ............ .. 4UO

Pe~~Pil

P rovince

Brovince

Samar ..... .......................................•.....•....

Cebu ..••......................•..........••............•...• Surigao ..•................................................. Antique ................................................... . Ilocos Norte............................................ .. Mindoro ..........................................._ ...... Bobol .......•.. _..• ..........• ......•.....................

N ueva Vizcayn, ............... _.._.. _......_..... .. Nueva EcUa._ ...................__._...........__ Rizal .........._ ............................................. Cavite .............................. _...................... .. P ampanga ............ _................................ _ La Union_........................._ ................... _ MarinduQ.ue ............... _............................ . Manila ...................................................... S OJ;'Sogon ...... _ ......................................._ Batan es ................................................. .. €amarines Norte ..................................... . ISa6eia ...................................... _..........._

F48.60 "2.98 42 .66 42.41 41.42 89.94 87.79 89.68 89.41 89.28 89.13 89.06 84. 62 88.74 27.88 26.08 20.82 19.97

N Oll'E.-'Dher e was n o way to sep arate tbe cost of. trade" s hop or n ormal Beb ool expe nditures f: rqm t he ex pencfitures f01'l r egular academic -wor k. Since the latter is a relatively less expensive form, ofi eaucat~on ihan tbe fOl'l;D cr- typ es. this is ui1fo.rtunate. But s ucn Sep81'ation could be m ade only by s ecuring detailed repor,m fr om tbe individual schools. a n u tter imposibility in t he time allowed and with t he wor king f or ce a vaila ble. The perp upil cost f or academic stua ents only is certainly somewhat lower. and t ha t for the other types of: studen ts som ewhat fliigh er, tban tHe p er-p.Mpil cost figure given for any s chool. 'T)\. UE

I07 .-~ARVY

PER-P UPIL C OSTS I N MANI LA SCHOOLS, FOR SALARIES O NLY, BY I N DMDUAL S CHOOL S, 1924-25

[Source: 'Dhe Office of the S uperinten den t of, Schools in Manila]

P R IMiA:R I; SCR00LS

R ank

P er-pupil cost teach-

S chool

ers~;:la~

S chool

Meisic P rimary (3)1. . . ... . . 'P23.62 Ma la te Frimary . ... . . . . ... .. . Malate P rimary . . . . . 22. 68 Asuncion P rimary (2) . . . .. . . San N icolas P rim ary . . . . . 22 .27 Zamora Primary (2) .. . . . . .. . . . Zam ora P rimary (2). . . . . . . .. ... 22. '-9 S oler P rimaJlY (2) : . .. . 5 San Migl.!el Prima ry. . . . . 21. 29 .Iil.tramuros Primary (-2) .. . . . . . . 6 Bonifacio Frimary (3) . : 21. 19 L ico P r imary . ... . ......... . . . '1 Soler P rimary (2)........ . .. . ... 21. 1-2 Santa Mesa P rim ary.. . ..... . 8. Santa OllUZ P r imary (2). . . . . . . . . 21 .08 Guipit Prim ary .... . .. . '. ~ Lincoln P ritnally (3). . . . . . . 20 . 69 Sa n Miguel Primary . . . . . 10 Quiapo Prim ary': (2). . • . . . . 20. 54 Santa Cruz PrimarY. . .. _ • . 1l I ntrnmuros P rimary (2)... .. 20.'13 San N i COlas Primar.y. . . . . 12 'Fondo'Primar y (7) . . . 20. 32 l.incoln Primary (3) .. . . . , 13 San Andres Primn"y (2) . . . " 20 .22 Quia po Primary (2) ... . ... . . 1.(J Santa Clara P rim ary (2).. 19.5 5 I Bonifacio Primary (3' .... . . 15 Guipit P rimary (2) .... .. .... . . .. 19 . 27 San Andres P rimarY ( 2)~ . . . ... . -~[~6+-A ''''s=u''' nCl:.:,·.o::n.:;P=n '7·''''"' m ary;=(::2''').. ....-'-.'"' . -'-'-=1=-:' [ ::'9."2'=6 Santa Clara Primary (-2) .. . . '

171 Santa Mesa!Primnry (-2) ..... . . ,

18 19 1

Lico P r imary.... . . . . . '" ... .... H erb osa P rimary (2)... .. . . .....

Figures in

p~renth eses

18.82 18. 30 17.07

HerbosaPrimary (2) .. . . . . . Mei.sic Primary (3). T ondo P rimary ('1) . . •. • • • .

"2 .68 2 .24 2. 24 2. 04 1.98 1.92 1. 7 0 1.66 1. 66 1 , 63 1. 61 1.64 1 .46 1. 87 1 . 26 1. 22 1.21 0 .81 0 .58

in the column denote the number. of buildinp if more t han one.


603

FINANCE

TABLE I07 ~YEARLY PER-PUPIL CoSTS IN M"NILA SOHooLS, FOR SA(,ARIES O NLY, BY INDIVIDUAL SCHOOLS , 1924-25-Con,i.ued

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Per-pupil

coot teachers' aaJa-

Sc::hool

Rank

\ B urgOi Elementary (3) 1.. . . . . .. ,

d es

'1"23 . 80

S ehool

I------------------~------San SebastiRll Elementary. . .

1"1 . 64

Singalong Elementary. . . . . . . . . . . 21 . 62 Burgos E lementary (3) , . . . . . . 1 .54 Zaral OlJa E lementary (~) . . ... . .. , 2<1 . &2 W ashington Elementary. . . . . 1 . 48 Silota Ana Elemontary (2) .•• .• •. _..;2::1:":"=,66~+-=S". ••",t;:;a-,An",:,:a:"E:!le:::m!!:e:!:n~ ta!!ry.!...l(2=:J):":"':'":..: ' '';''I~_-"I~.~47 Magdalena Elem entary (6) . . . . • .

21. 26

Toyah9.9 Element ary. . . . . . 1.cgarda E lementary,.. . ... Z,nrngosa E lemenhuy . . . . 20 . 88 ZurbaNUl Elementa ry (4) . . . 20 . 66 PacoElemontntY (2) .. . . 19. 99 GagaJangin Elementary (4) .. . . 19.44 Singalong Elementary ... 19. 28 [ Jefferson Elementary (2) . . . . . . . 17 . 88 Ma gdnJenaElementary (6) . . . ,. 16 .45 Rizal Elementary (3) . . ... . . . . .

Legardll Elementary... . .. . .. . .. P oco E lementary (2). \

10 11 J 2[ 18 J4

21.19 21 . 14

Zur bara n E lc.mentnry (4) . . . . . . • . Gagohln gi n E lementa ry (4).... . . . l c.f1'crl on E lementary (2). .. . •.. Waabington Elemaotary . .. ...... Riu.1 Elementary (3). . . . . . . . . . . . TaynbaaElemcniory ... . . • .. . ... San S ebll!t,lan Element:ary .. ... ..

1 .4.4 1. 31 .t. 25 1. 25 1 . 08

1. 06 1. 04 0, 97 0. 94 0 .82

INTER;MEDIAT E SCHOOLS

2

a 4

- -66 , '1

S ampaloc Inlermedl&t.e (2) . . . . . . . E nnlta lntermedlo.tc (2). . . .. . ..

31.90 29 .04

Iotramu ros Intermediate. . Soler lote rm edia~... . . . . . . • . ..

4 . 02 1 . 98

T oo"do IntermedIa te (2) . . .. • ... . _ _2::8::"=,82::+-::E::; r"""7. · ta;;..:.ln",t::: e~rm;;:.:;;dl",a~te7 (2:!. ) .:.;.';:'~':..: ' '~'I _ _-,I:..:..~ Q2 San N icolas rntennedint'e (2) .•• .. _-,2::.:6:;,.", 61:-I-.:::S::; an:..:.; N", le:.:o:.:las ::..=. ln::;t::;, e ,,,.m::.:e:.: dl:.:·a:.:;te,,,< ,,,2,,) :..: . '''' I__-,I:..:..~ 71 Ma'binl Intermcdinte (2).... . .. . . 24. 80 SampalocIotermediate (2) . . . . . 1. 66 Intramurol Intermediate... . . . . . . 28 . 86 'Uondo Intermediate (2).. 1 .48 Soler I n termediate . , . . . . . . . . . • . . 20. e3 Mnbini Intermediate (2). , . 1 . 43

HIGH SCHOULS

~iaDlln

40.73/

1 / Sout h ffigh .. . . . .•.. . .. . / 2 trfaniln Nortn High ... . . ...... . . 8 Mnnll B But Rii h .. . .. . . . . . . .

34. 46 30 .49

Manil a Sout h High.... 1 Mani ln North Hi gh . .. . Manila E ast High . . . .. . .. . : : : :

6 . 26 2 .35 1.99

SPECIAL SCHOOLS 1 / D ear and Blind . . ...•... . . . ... . '.1 Cen tral (4) . . .• ... . • . . • . . . .. . • . 3 Commer ce .. . . . . . • . ..... .. . . . 2

2:~::: 1~;~':::;~eB~i~d:: : :: : :: : : : :::::1 67 .27

€ ent rnl (.1) . ..... . .

64 . 41 10 .43 6 . 06

PRIMARY Se HOOLS

R Rnk

School

P er-pupil cost janitors' 8ala~ tics

School

P e~p u pil

cost tota l

---1---------------1- -

..

Santa Olara Primary (2) .. . . . .. . . Ablate Primary .••.. . . . •. • ••• • . San t a Cruz Primary (2) .•. •. .. lJ3onfrncio Primary (3) • .. ... . .... SaD Andrea ,Primary (2) . . . . . . .. • Zamora Primary (2) •. • . . •.•. •. • •

1. Figures

1'1.82 1.67 1.60 1.69 1.49 1.47

Malate Primary . ... . . . . . . ... . . Zamora Primnry (2) .. . .... . .. . Meisic Primary (3) . . .. ... .. . . . SBD Nicolas Primary •. ....... .. San MigJlol Primary . . • .•. . . • . . Soler Primary (2) ... . .. . . . . .. . .

1'26.98 26. 90 25 . 46 26. 15 24. 39 24 . 38

in pal'Clllheses in t he column denote the number of buildings U more t han one.


694 £ DUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES "VABLE IO~.-YEARL" PER·PUPI~ COSTS IN MANILA SeHooLS, FOR SALARIES ONLY, BY I NDIVIDUAL SOHooLS. 1924-25- Conlinued

PRJJIIARY SCHOOL-<lontinued Fcr:-pupil

cost janitors'sala-

Sebool

Rank

9 10 11 12

13 1-1 16 16 17 18 19

School

ries

--1- - - - - -- - -

- - - - - - - -- -- - 1 · - - -

San Miguel Primary . ... .. . . Santa Mesa Primary (2~ I, •. Lincoln IPrimaI"Y (3~ ... . Intramuros Primary (2) . . . ..

1'1.46 Santa Cruz Frimsl'Y (2). } ,43 BoiillacioPrimary (3) .. . 1} . 40 i 'l ntramuros Primary (2) ... . , 1.87 Lincoln Primary (3) • .. . ...... . 1.32 Q uiapo Primary (2) ..... 1.27 San Andres Primary (2), . . 1.25 Asuncion Primary (2) . .. 1 . 22 Santa Clara Primar,y (2) .. 1. 21 Guipit Primary ~2) .. . ... . 1. 14 Tondo Primary (7-) ••.• 1.12 Lico Primary .. . ...... . . . 1.12 Sant.a Mesa Primar·y (2) .. 1:. 02 Hcrbosa Primary (2) • .. . . .

Quiapo Primnry (21 ..... . .... . San Nicolas Primary . .. .. . Lieo Primary .. . .. . Soler Primary (2) . . . Guipit Primary (~) .. Tondo Primary (.7,) .. Herbosa Primary f2) .. , . Asuncion Primary (2), Miesic Primary (3) .. .. .. .

P21 . 31 24.16 .J!3.78 28 . 63 28 .32 22.96 22 . 61 22 .~6

22.14 2"2.04 21.47 21 . 15 19 . 40

BLElMENT.A RY S0 H00LS B¥rgos Elementary (3) .. San Sebastian Elementary ... . J efferson ElementarY (2) . Zaragoza Elementary, . ... .. Legardo. Elementary. . . . .. Gagalangin Elementar~. .J4>" .. Singatong Elementary ... .... . . .. 1=. Magdalena Elementary (5) . . Washington ElementaJl-Y. , . Zurbaran Elementary (4) . Tayabas Elementary; . . , . Santa Ana Elementary (2) .. Paco Elementary (~) ... Rizal Elementary (3) ... 4

~O

11 12 18 14

'

h

1.48 1 .46 1.46 1.46 1.36 1.31 1.80 1.27 1.21 i.14 1.14 1.10 1.08 0 .81

Bur-gos Elemental'Y (3) . . •.... Zaragoza Elementary ... . SJUlta Ana Elementary (2) .... . . Singalong Elementary.... l.egarda Elementary •...... Mag9Qlena Elementa1"Y (5) .. .. ZurbaraD Elem.e ntary (4) Paco E lementary (2) . ...... GagaJangin Elementary (4') . . Jefferson :Elementary (2) .. Wasbington E lementary . Riza! Elementary (S). , .. Tayabas EJementa.r:y. , .... San Sebastian Elementary . ...

26 . 82 24 . 32 24 . 12 23.96 28 . 86 28 . 46 23 . 27 23 .26 23.01 22. 41 22. 13 20 . 86 19 . 91 19 . 56

IN'l1ElRMElD]ATE SGHOOM San Nicolas Intermediate (2) . . .. Er,!Dita Intermediate (2) .. T O)ldo Intermediate (2) .. . . -----!.. Sawp.,aJoc Intenne.d iate (2), . 5' Mabini Intermediate (2) ... Soler Intermediate . . . . 7 Intramuros Intermediate . . .. .

1.72 1. 66 1 . 54 1.46 1.39 0.91 0.83

Sampaloe Intermediate (2) •• , •• Ermita Intermediate (2) .. ...... Tando Intermediate (2) , ....... San ~icolas Intermediate (2) .. , Intramuros rntermediate .. . ... . Mabini Intermediate (2) . .... . .. Soler: Intermediate ..

34 . 91 32.42 31.84 28.94 28.71 27.62 22.92

HIGH S0HOOl>S 1 2 3 1

I

J

Manila South Higb .... . ... Manila North High . . . . . . •.• Manila East High ,.

2 . 21 1.33 1 . 09

I

Manila Soutb High . . . . . . Manila North High .. . ... :: : ::: Manila East Rigb . .. .. .

I

48.20 43 . 14 38.67

,F igures in parentheses in t he column denote the number of, buildings if more than one.


FINANCE

605

TADLE I07.-YEARLY PER-PUPIL CoSTS IN MANILA SCHOOLS, FOR SALARIES ONLY, BY

I NDIVIDUAL SCHOOLS. 1924-25-Conlinu.d SPECIAL SOHOOLS

Rllnk

Per-pupil C05t janitors' enl8-

Sebool

School

nos

Dea t and Blind ..... 2 8 t

Commerce. ••.. . .. , Ccotrol (4) I . • • • • • • • • • •

•••• ••.• .

PM.90 2 . 98 2 .81

Deaf a.nd Blind .. Gentra.1 (4 ) ..... .. . .

Commerce. .. ..... ... . .

Per-pupil

cost total

1'341.69 a 06.S9 70.68

Fh;rures In pllrc.nthctes in the column aenotc the numOOr. of builaings if more thnn one.

""UTCS

NO'J's.-The here are bnaed upon snlories only. J)OfI,lble to ' (!CUN: a .tntcnumt or the other expenditures.

T .BLE 108.-CoST PER PUPIL

FOR

In the time availnble, it was Un-

INSULAR SCHOOLS

I. FOR OURRENT EXPENSES ONLY. 1923. BASED ON SEPTEMBER, 1923 ENROLLMENT [Source: Bureao of Education ]

Cost per pupil

School

Philippine Nautioal School .....·._·······.····· · ···.···l~ School for Ih. D.ar and the Blind .. _..... . Philippin. School of Arl. and T rad... ....... ...... . Central Lu:z.on Agricultura l School Philipp in. Norma l Schoo) .. ,........•.... Philippin. School of Commerce ............. _..... _.......................................................

n.

P4 14.IS 'J4~.28 183.70 148.35 • 136.87 123.30

FOR OURRENT EXPENSES AND EQUWMENT. 1924. BASED ON 192~' AVERAGE MONTHLY ENROLLMENT

[Sautee : Adol.led (rom

0

table pr:.epared by the Bureau ot Edueation for its own use]

School

Philippin. Nautical School ................................ _................ ......... ....................... . School for the D.af ond Ih. Blind. ....._... ... . ... _.... ....... ......................... . Central Luzon Agricuhural School. _.. ........ ...... ..' ...... ,...................... . Philippi•• School of Art. and T rad., ..........................•...................................... Philippin. Normal School ........... _....... _..................... _._............ ....................... . Philippine School of Commerce............... ............. .... .. .................................... .

Cost per pupil

P5S750 37359 23457 178.72 • 124.27 102.69

10 In cqmputing t his figure. the cnl'oUment in the lrnini'ng schoo), 792 pupils, was omitted. POl" 0. teacher t.roinin2" institution, the troinine- school is a laboratory which should be counted as any other necessary e..~pcnsc. Ilnd apportioned nmona- the real s'tude.nts. t.hose in the normsl s chool proper. b 'i 7li pupi ~ in the pracUce classC3 are not included. Sec note l. NOTE.-Unlll HHN. there was only one separate normal s cbool. lhe insulO1'l s chool at Manilo . When the fino.neinl dnta. (or 1924 become nvailable in the Bureau of Audits. the per-pupH ooeta of the eCpBl'nte schools tor 1921' can be calculated. q"lhe data. were not available at the time oC the s urvey . A normal cou.11Ie student in a h igh·s chool coolS more thnn nn acndemic student by about one-lourth to one-third. The e:t.lTQ cost ; s due to normal st.udents taking five subjects. &II neatnat the u.l unl tour (or acadtmic s luden te . and to exlrn practice,-schoo1 costs.


S(i)S EDUCATIG>NAlb SU'RVE¥ @F TME. F'1f'HLlF'F'I'NES ifABbE F0R

1'09.-COST PER

P UPI"

AGRI0UoLl!l·l!I"R~L

SCH00E-S' eUltRENT EXPENSES ONE-Yo 1923. !BA:SED ON SEPTEMBER. 1923. ENRODLM'E N'l' [Sources: Bureau of,

Ec1ucation~

SEC'l'lON I.-SOa-OOLS IN ALL SETTLED A("JUGumuRAL GOMJ,J.U.N1TIES

Selioal

Province

Tr,ini'dad . . . €enttal l!.uzon AgriculturaV School Fampu:l lga. . . . . . €atarmnn . .

2 • • • • •••

Mountain Province . . Nueva Ecija . .... . , ..

~ampanga .....

Sama:r . ..

€amarines .. . ....... .

€amarinea 8m. A'bra .......

il!.aggngiJang . ........ .

Gostpetl pupil

1'292 .27 1'48.36 106.90 90.66 8'6.10 27,.48

SEe:TrON JiI.-==SCROO1:.S iN ISOMTED NON- €BRIS'l'lAN CO:m.nrNJ'lIIES

Mampising... bapak...

. .. . . . .. .. ..... . ... . .. . \

IDavao . . ...... . . .. .......... .

: .. . 'SUI ............ . ........ , .......... .

Lumoata~. _... . . . . . .......•.

A:borlan. 'B unauan ... .

188.40 128.. 76 78.86 60 . 74 13.33

1 IDhese are aU "sub's,isfence schools;" that is, tliey provide lodging and food with allrangements fo~ the students to produce mucli of the foO'd. 2 Receives only, insiilar support.

N OTE.-'Many of these scbo.ols produce food and sell pro_duets OJ! live stack a nd spend the p'roceeds in subsistence or. eQ,.uipm..ent without including the amounts so spent in their: eur.rent e."t'Penaitures. N'o figures on such items 'Yere procUJlaole except for the €entxal Luzon Ag.r.icultural ,Schoo1. From a special report made Iliy this institution, the actual per-student cost was found to pe £rom five to ten pesoa higher ,than given. IDhe exact cost figure assigned to the schooll oepends upon how the aaditional items were considered; and this 1S a matt'ex: involving .so m~h ':1egit~mate aifference of opinion that it seemed best not fa .include such e;x,Jl:enditures. 1i'ABI!£ ~

10.- 00s11

PER P"RIL

F0R FA:RM &CH00J;S' @l!I'RI!.ENm ®)!1PENSES 0iNL.Y. 1923. BASED 0N SEPTEMBER. 1923. ENR0LIIM,E N'l'

School

. iProy-inoo

Bilar ... . . . Batang8£! . . eapiz. ·. . .... . Nuev:a ¥ izcaya . . .. lndang ..... . Batac .. .

Catanduanes . ... 1

T-hese are

~tudents .

· ~nona.ubsistence

pupJ!

!>160.M ~7.0 7

Odiangan . . , .......•. . .. ..... .. . .....

Santa Maria . . . San earles . . , .. . Isabela . .

€ost,p.cr

64.52 64.4L 51.69 49 . 64 41.30 23.6S 22.68 21.4.2 16.87'

schools," that is.. they do not fwmish lodging or fooa to the


FINANCE

607

CAUSES FOR THE DIFFERENCES IN THE PER-PUPIL COSTS IN SOHooLS OF THE SAME GROUP

In proportion to their effort to discover the causes which make their own per-pupil costs vary from such costs in similar schools. schoolmen will lind the facts on unit costs presented in this chapter useful. It is impossible for the Survey Staff. working only in the central office a,nd without an accurate knowledge of the special conditions in each school. to determine why the cost figure of a particular school should be what It IS. In general. however. the following causes will affect per-pupil costs as indicated. ( I) Number of pupiLs per leacher.-A relatively small number of pupils per teacher. the usual condition in small schools. tends to produce a high per-pupil cost. On the other hand. a large number of pupils per teacher obviously lowers the cost per pupil. (2) Teaching load.-fn high schools or schools where a teacher is assigned to classes and not to a particular classroom. the teaching load is an important item in calculating per-pupil costs. If teachers have small classes or a relatively small number of classes. file school will have a higher per-pupil cost than a scHool which has large classes of. a relatively large number of classes per teache~. (3) Teachers' salaries.-High salaJ,ies will naturally produce high per-pupil costs. Higll salaries rna(\' be due to a relatively large number of American teachers witli salaries highe~ than salaries for Filipino teachers. But within the group of Filipino teachers. those with higher salaries due to scholastic attainments. experience or locations in a particular station where the cost of living is high. will produce high per-pupil costs. II cannol be 100 emphalically slaledâ&#x20AC;˘ .however. Ihal high salaried leachers are nol necessarily expensive. If given large classes they will produce a higher result at a lower per-pu\3il cost than will cheap teachers with small classes. Even with small classes the educational product may be so much greater that the higher paid teacher is the more economical. . ( 4) A relatively large number of normal course. fine arls. shop or trade students.-Normal course students take five classes dailiY as compared with the four classes for regular academic students. The vocational students recite for longer periods and in smaller sections than do academic students. Both of these conditions necessitate more teachers for a given number of pupils and so raise the per-pupil costs. (5) Maintenance of provineial school plants.- A school with a large modem building will necessarily require more janitor service and a higher class of janitors than will a small cheap building.


60S EElUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES SUMMARY

1. Since the Insular Government supplies three-fourths of the school revenues, tlle proper distdbutian af insular aid for schools ,is fa~ more important than it would be in the United States. 2. The insular aid for 路educatianal purpases is in two forms: (I) for cmrrenl expe!lses and (2) faF building consttuctian. Although current expenses are largely for salaries, they also cover texts and supplies. 3. Insular aid has incr.eased much faster than the aggregate educatianal expenditures. F' or this increase the proceeds af the Thirty-millionpeso Act are largely ~espansible. 4. The Philippines had in 1~20 a far sounder policy on distributing insular aid than they now have. Moreover, this distribution was then laFgely in the hands of the respansibl'e educatianal officials. 5. The building-aid distribution procedure is particularly bad. Thi~ should be placed direGtiy in the hands of the central office of the Bureau of Education. An adequate staff of Gompetent men ta render the kind of service for.merly rendered, but an a scale suited to present demands, shoul(;! be pravided. 6. The importance of insular aids demands a special study of them and of their effeets an stimulating local endeavor, on equalizing educational oppoFtunity and eduGational tax burdens, should be rnade. Until that can be done, the 1920 rules should be adopted.


CHAPTER IX THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.-Higher education in the Philippines is under the control of one publicly supported institution. the Uni",ersity of the Philippines, and several other institutions which are either administered by religious or private organizations. As the Survey Commission was invited to the Philippines primarily to make a survey of the public educational system, its chief attention in the field of higher education was given to the work of the tJniversity of the Philippines. The work of private institutions in tne field has been briefly considered under the chapter Private Schools. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE

GOVE~NMENT

OF THE PHILIPPINES

HISTORICAL SKETCH.- The Ameriean occupation was followed rapidly by the establishment, firsb. of a lar,ge number of elementary schools and, as soon as resourCles per-mittea, by at least one high sehool' in every province. It was soon felt that the F:ilipino nation-in-the-building ought to have a university as the capstone of this publie-schooI system to provide leaders for the nation and prepare men for semce in professional and technical fields. Moreover. in order to retain the students in the high schools, assurance had to be given that the Government intended to provide advanced and professional COUf.ses in English. Otherwise they preferred to attend the Spanish schools. Accordingly on June 18, 1908. the Philippine Legisfature enaClted a law for the establishment of a university. The preliminary organization of the institution was begun during the latter part of that year. The College of Medicine was, chronologically considered. the first unit of the institutional or,ganization. It was or,iginally known as the Philippine Medical School created by a speClial act on DeClember 1. 1905. and opened to students for purposes of instruCltion on June 10. 1907. It became a university coIIege on the 8th of December. 11!l1O. The Schools of Pharmacy and Dentistry were some time later added to the College of Medicine but as yet have not been made separate colleges. The Sehool of Fine Arts was author,ized by the Legislature when the University was established. 214 064 -

39

609


610 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES The College of Agr.iculture was established at Los Banos in 19GI!). It has since become one of the important features of the University system. The College of Veterinary Science was opened in Manila about the miadle of the year II!) 110 and, in 1920, its location was removed to Los Banos, lLaguna, in pro~imity to the College of Agr.iculture. Also at this location and on lands belonging to the Bureau of Forestry and adjoining the Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science the School of Forestry was established in II!) 16. lfhe College of -Engineering I:>egan operations in J'une, 1'1!)1@. The <C:ollege of Law was founded in 1911. The Conservatory of Musie was established in 1916. A j',unior College of Liberal Arts in II!) 18 was established at Cebu .a nd in Il!I22 it became the Junior. College of the UniveFsity. 'Fhe School of Education wnieh was organized as a separtment of the College of ILiberal Arts in 1913, became the College o~ Esueation in 11!)18. 'iIi1his comple~es the onganization of the Uni:versiry to sate. One fundamental change was mase in 1'9'11!). In one respect the University was originally organizes on the European rather than on the Ameriean model, that is, when the College of Liberal Arts was established it was given a two-year course, gFaduation born which brought with it the bacnelor's degFee. The intentio'n was to make those two year.s the completion of cultural stusies after whicK as in the <lase of the graduates of the French Iycee or the Ger.man gymnasium, the student would unsertake his professional or teclmical work in one of the specialized schools of the Unive~siry. Probably because of tne difficulty of mal\;ing this system articulate with the American universiry to which young graduates were sent for their advanced inslnuetion, the system was changed in 1919, and the Cellege of lLibeFal Arts was ellipanded to four years. The effects of this change will liie diseussed a little later in the report. Since that date the Universiry has conformed in its organization and administration to the American type. The Filipino people show an unusual ambition ans aptituse for esueation ana are devotea to the 'public-sehool system. Probably no institution in the Islands holds their affeetion more loyally than does the University. Unser many trying conaitions and in spite of many serious obstacles it has made a very cresitable record. Since English is not as yet the I'a nguage of the horne its students have !heen taught in what amounts praetically to a foreign language. It has had insufficient resources to keep pace with the numbers who have been adrnittes and it has has to buils up a teaching personnel very rapidly and unser adverse circumstances. Since its establishment several private


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

611

colleges and universities have been founded and the serious responsibility has rested upon it of estabrishing standards to which these other institutions rise. Its program has been keenly watched not only in the Islands but in the Far East generally. To say that it has a mission to neighboring peoples. as well as to the natives of the Islands. is not an overstatement. The University is yet in its institutional youth. but its accomplishment justifies the belief that a happy future lies ahead. In making this statement. the Commission believes that the friends of the University will recognize that the eriticisms of the Commission are made in no fault-finding spirit but with the sincere desire to be of service in suggesting improvements which will enable the University to realize its great function. The Commission cannot refrain from expressing its gratitude for the generous spirit of cooperation shown by all the University authorities. Its task was made easy only by the many days of assistance given by the administrative and teaching staff. LEGAL RELATIONS.-The act of the Legislature founding the University states : "The governm.ent of said University is hereby vested in a board of regents to be known as tne Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines." The Board was composed of the Secreta})' of Public Instruction who was ex-officio chairman o~ the Board. the ,secretary of the Interior. the Chairman of the Committee on Public Instruction of the Senate. the Ohair-man of the Committe"e on Public Instruction of the House of Representatives. the Director of Education. the President of the University. one member of the University Council of the University of the Philippines elected by said Council. an alumnus of tire University elected by the alumni. aqd five additional members to be appointed by the Governor-General by and with the advice and consent of the Philippine Senate. According to the provisions of an amendment to the act which was passed in 1924 the Secretary of the Interior was dropped from the Board and his place given to an additional elected alumnus. To the Board of Regents is committed the general administration of the University; this includes the management of its finances. the establishment of such colleges and schools as are autllor.ized by la,w. the conferring of degrees. tile establishment of deparaoents of instruction. the employment of teachers. the approval of courses of study and rules of discipline. and the determination of the internal organization in all particulars which are g.ot fixed by la,w. Provision is also made in the charter of the University for a Board of Visitors. a body of three members. consisting of the Governor-General. the President of the Senate. and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The duty of this Board is to attend the commencement of the University. to visit at such other times as may be deemed proper.


612 IDDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES to make general examination from time to time of the academic and financial eonaition of the University, ana to make reports to the Philippine Legislature witll such recernmenaations as its members faver. The aaministration of a public supported university may, as in Continental Europe, be maae a function of the Government and placed under the ministry of public instr.uction or on a correspending body unaeF whatever name ; or it may, as in the United States, be made a function of the smte ana entrusted to a board of regents which is not a part of the Gevernment. Eitller. system is practicable, but it is doubtful whether a hybrid will function efficiently. The University of the Philippines has a hybrid system. It will be notea that the Board of Regents, as originally or.ganized, was eompesed of six ex-offieie members ana five appointed members, and that of the six ex-officio members one was the Secretary of the Interior and two others were respectively the Chairmen of the Senate ana the Heuse committees on erilucation. 'They were ~ par.t of the Government and their real raison d' eire was to maintain Government contrdl of the institution. Associated with them were five citizens ef the state selected for tneir eminence in varieus fields of endeavor te represen't the state and the Beay politic on tile Board. The reasons sometimes averrea for the pres~ce of the Government representati;v,es en the Beard were the necessity of hav,ing the interests and the needs of the University expr.essed in the Legislature and the necessity of creating something in the nature of a liaison between the University ana the Government. But it is to lre noted that in the last House of Representatives alone the Speaker ana fifteen member.s were alumni of the University and tIlat as time passes this number is unquestionably aestinea to increase. Hence the needs and the interests of the University can be expressed anc!l safeguarded in the Legislature by its alumni. Moreover, tlie Board of Regen ts is the proper liaison body between the UniveFsity ana the Government Finally, if additional check upon the Univer.sity is neeaeril, the committees on ea~cation of the two Heuses respectively can at any time request ana secure an investigation. That Gover.nment intederence is not an . acaaemic matter, the facts of the past few years rilisclose. ln the interval since 1919 the Legislature has enactea statutes establishing a rigia-salary scale for the instructional staff of the University, requiring the approval o~ the presiding officers of the two Houses ef tile Legislature and ef the Gever.nor-General fer the selection of a president and the empleyment of every teacher whose salary exceeas a certain amount; ana providing in 1923 that none of the moneys expenaed by the Univer.sity for that year should be used to increase any salaries either of the instructional or administrative staff. Gover.nment interference in the administration of the University could hardly go farther. 'The Act of 1923 had a mest demoralizing effect


UNIVERSITY OF THE BHILIPI?INE.S

6J:3

upon the staff. Teachers who had every reason to expect promoUan or increase in salary were denied advancement. 'Tlhe discontent and threats of withdrawal became so pronounced that the act was repealed in 1924. It must not be forgotten that eveJ1Y: one of these acts was in direct contravention of powers placed by the charter of the University in the Board of Regents. Moreover. the bad effect of such a situation does not stop at legislation. It has tended to encoufcage influential administrative and teaching officials to go over the 'head of the Eloard of Regents and apply for assistance to the place where resides the real power in the affairs of the University. Politics in the finer sense has to do with the conduct of the affairs of State; and politicians are those directly and primarily interesteiil in the conduct of the affairs of State. In all political aff路airs and in all activities of politicians. cansiderations of expediency and palicy and even of partisanship and prapaganda are baund to be influential. Higher education. an the other hand. is an activity wll.ich can be canied on effectively only in an env.ironment of detachment and independenee reasonably far remaved from considerations of expediency and poliey. To diseharge its funetions of training youtll and of investigating and extending the realms af knowled~e. the members af its teaching staff and of its administrative and gover-ning !boards should not be in too close contact with those wlio ate directly and immediately coneerned wi.th the admini'stration af the affairs of State and wha must almost inevitably yield ta a considerable extent to temporary consideratians of expediency and policy. Now at just this point is found the most serious defect in the present organizatian of the University of the f>hilippines and in the legislatian affecting it. This defect can be removed only by recognition that th.e immediate administration of the institution should be entrusted to a gover-ning board whose members /lave no direct or active concern with the affairs af State and w/lose pri!nary interests are educational. The Commission recommends. therefore. a reform in the composition of the Eloard of Regents. It believes that the two legislative members shaufd be dropped and that tile only ex-afficio memeers should be the Secretar-y of Public Instruotion and the Director of Education who are in charge of all public educational activities below the college level. and the President of the Uhiversity. 'Ehe Commission is of the belief that the views of the faculty on educational policy and administration can best find expression throug/l the President of the University. Hence it believes that the representative of the Council' should be dropped. The Commission approves of the retention of the two elected alumni regents. It recommends that in addition to the ji~e for whom provision has been made. fOUF. or if the President of the University has no vote. five additianal members receive t/leu tenure by


614 EDucATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES appointment of the Gover-nor-General by and with tile advice and consent of the Philippine Senate. That the Gover-nor-General" and the leaders of the Senate would find little difficulty in agreeing upon five leading citizens o~ the Islands who would represent its intelle(ltual pUT-suits and vocational aetivities is, of course, to be presumed. The ~oard of Regents a~ the lJniveFsity of the Philippines wmild then be(lome a definitel!Y nonpaliticaT bady, witn seeure tenure and a real meaSUFe of certainty of administFative autonomy. This refor.m wauld, of (lourse, b~ futile unless tne Gayer-nment eeases ta ,regulate fuy statute thase a,ffairs af the University whieli. by statute, it has placed underthe control of the ~aard af R.egents.


THE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY GENERAL.-The

University today comprises the following colleges

and schools: 1. College of Liberal Arl •. 2 . Junior College of the Univer~ily at

CCbu.

3. College of Educalion. UniveuilY High Scbool. 4. College of Agricuhure. The Agricuhural Experiment Sta~ lion. S. College of Veterinary Science.

6. School of For.slry. 7. Conege of Medicine. School of Denli.lry. School of Pharmacy. School of Nursing. 6. College of Law. 9, College of Engineering. 10. The Conservalory of Mu.ic. II. The School of Fine Arl •.

The growth of the University is well shown in the two tables which follow: TABLE

I It.-CoMPARATIVE

STUDENT ENROLLMENT OF THE

ACADEMIC YIlUS

OoUeae or school

1910-1911

TO

1924-1925.

1910-11 1911- 121912-13191:J-,14

U NIVERSIToY

FROM THE

[",eLUSIVE

191~15

1915-16 1916-17 19n-IS

---------'......,--1---1-- - - - - - - --~-Junior College of tho Unlvend~y .. . ., ........... . 0011('1[0 of Liberal Arbl ......... 160 216 200 817 391 College or EducatIon . . . . . . . . . .. ....... ....... ... . . .. . .. .

Collogo of Medicine . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... Philipplno MCdieal Sc.booll. . . ...

72 ..

56

78

104

520

3n

lil3

159

172

288 205

54

14

64

8a

22

57 10 444 30 47 212

29 16 431 35 14 234

34 22 564 90 108 261

1.465 60

1.674

1. 972 24

1.574 842 45 . . . ... . 18S . ... . . . 876

1,948

. .............. .

Sebool 01 Pharmn.ey . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . .... . .. ....... ..... . . Grnduato School of Tropical Medicine and Public Hc:alth . .. ....... ..... .. . . . .. .. ....... Sebool of Dentistry . ........... . . . ... . . . . . 294 186 258 College or Acrieu.1turo . . . . . . . . . . 96 14 81 ColIl'le ot Vetcrltuu-y Science . . . . 10 27 11 12 Collt'gc of Engineering . . . . . . . . . . 22 5 164 142 146 College of Law ... . ............ '. .... . .

. .. .......

Total .. , .... , ...... , .... 1-3-59+-~ 686 31 65

Less duplications. . .

429

....... .. ...

104

900

375 2S 40 141 '1.164

..... ..... ..

900 1.164 Net total ..... , ........ ' 804 599 704 602 School oC Finl' Arts. . . . . . . . . . . . . 909 801 694 911 Scbool of 'E'orcstry ............................. . CODSl'rvll tory or Music ..... ..................... . .................. School or Nuralng '" . . . . . . . . . .. ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... Univcrolty High School ......... , ............. ' .. , .. , ' .. .... ' .. ....

1.415 986

699

4. 208 815

7.

. , . .... ,

Grood total ..... J The Pbllipplne MediCAl Sebool W8.5 e!ltablisbed under Acts Nos. 1416 and 1682 and on Decomber 8. 1910. it became the College of .Medicine of the Univenlity ot the Philippines.

615


(;)L6 EDlJCATlIGNAL. SURVli:Y OF THE PHILIPPINES

1918-19 19~9--2Q 1926-21 1921-22 1~22-23 1923-24 1924-25

€ollege or school

- - - - - - - --- --- --- - -

Junior Colle"ge of the Uni:versifjl" .... College of ruBefal :Arts .. ... College of Education . . Goilege o~ Medicine....... . P:hilippine Medical 'Sehool', . Sebool of 'Pbarmacy .. .. Graduate School of !J.'ropieal Medicine and Public Health .. , . . . . .......... . School of DentiStry .. €oUege of, Agri('wt,we .•

College of Veeerinar.y SCience. €ollege of Engineering .. €ollege of Law . . .. .

20 5n 285 152

29 578 810 14~

76 620 318 141

112 679 873 189

!LU5 17 U 863

n

~9

73 290 ~98

184 667 459 181

172 925 56'6 146

221 1,159 795 187

195

19S

20~

~q

6<

674 75' 404 188

6~ 1

47 479 206

8S 573 84 512 207

438 435 4'1 6

S',969 269 59 438 S67 448

Total . Less duplications . ........ ." .. • _.

Net totaL ... . . School of Ffue Arts ..

~:~:~,:!t!:;~;~~~: :\.... :::\: :~ ~ : Scho,ol of Nursing . .... University High SchaaD.. '" .

5,540

The Philippine Meaieal SchooL was establis1iea. under: kcts NOB. 1'415 and U92 anil on December 8. !910. it became the College of Medicine o~ the University of the Philippines. 1

'if'''B~E "2.~RowmH OF '!'HE UNIVERSI'f'i

¥ eara

stuaents

Teaching Staff

Graduates

- - -- - - - - - --1911-1912 .. . ..... .. . •• . ·· · · ········ · r···· · 191-2-1918 ........ . ... . . . 191~1914· .. . 1914-01915 .... . 1,9iIF1916 .. . 191,6.,,1917.. . 19r7~ 918 .. • ............•.• . ........ 1918"1919 .... 1919=1920 .• . . 192Q-1921.. .. . . -1921-1922 ...... . 1:122-1923 .. . 1928-1924 ... .

1,400 1,398 1,502 2,075 2,401 2,975 8,289 3,312 8,409 8,638 4,69S 4,839 5,998

79 105 1.15 H8 156 167 204 245 274 301 800 409 422

48 80 '149 222 aa6 387 S80 532 572 5i7 61'7 679 717

~he gland t0tal 0'J students in attencaance upon all the divisions 0f the University, theref0Te, is .5,C:>C:>3. Of these 2,A(;)/:l ar.e in divisi0ns not requiring graduafion fmm hig!\. sehool f0r admissi0n and hence not really university students. Toe actual number. af the la tter is 3,525.


617

UNIVERSITY OF TP-IE PHILlF'PINf:S

No stronger evidence of the interest of the Filipino people in higher edueation could be given than is fur,rusheed by these tables. Until recently no question has been raised as to the desirability o~ su~h rapied growth which at one time seriously affected uni¥ersity stanedards. Mowever, a slight arithmetical reckoning will show that a the rate of increase of the past decaede were to be continued, at the close a1 another ede~ade there would be 10,000 bona fide students at the University. Unfertunately, when we come ta the s~tion entitleed Inceme of the University, we shall see that the support necessar:y far efficient administration has not by any means kept with, in~rease in numbers. M'oreover., that part of the Commission's Report devoted to finan~e will show that unless new sources of. greatly increased revenue are forth~omin!l', the support for public education generally will nob keep pace witl\ the neds. This ,viII be true of. the University parti~ularl;y. The conclusion to be drawn is obvious. Unless the policy o£ reliaMe upon public support is to be ~hangeGl, the number of students must be rigiedly curtailed. unnecessary COlll'ses, how.ever excellent they may be. must be eliminated. aned the desire for bigness on the part of l0niversity officials must playa smaller part in its aedministration. Tile tJ.niversity must concentrate more thoro~ghly upon ,funedamentals aned live w.ithin its resources and the Legislatur.e must see that tl\.e resources expand annually to meet the real needs of the University. These are genera 1-izations. but the facts upon which they are based will appear more fully in the following pages. One illustration w:ill suffice here. At the final meeting of the University Council this year tl\.iFty-five (!oUrses appearing in the cataleg of the College af Agriculture were Gropped. In ·this connection the following figures are a:lsQ sig!lificant: TABLE 113.-NUMBER OF STUDuNTS IN CoURSES

€ ourses taken bye olleges

Less than· 6

6 to 9

S

9 29 18 80

M ore tban 40

---- -Engineering ... . .... . .... . .. . ... •.... . . ...

3'

Education . . .. ... . LlbnraIArta . . . • Junior Collego .. . .. Agriculture nnd Veterinary Science . .... .• •.. .. .. ... . .. . . . .

28 82

20 78 IL

Dentistry . . .... .... ........ . .... '" ..... .. . . . .. . . .... . Medicine . •....... . ....... . . . . ...•.......•. . . . .. .. . .. • • . Pharmnc.y....... . .. ... . . ...... . .... . , . . . .. .. • .. . . . .. . . • . .. . Law •.... . . . .... , .. . .• . . . . .•... • . • . • .... . . . . , . . . .. .. .. • ...• . .•. T<otnl •• • • • •.••. ,

4 0 8 (.)

8 (.)

96

106

~')

125

.. Not repor-ting.

In other woreds, there were 20e courses given in the University last year with less than ten students eaco:h. This is not only in itseH a large


618 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF H-IE PHILIPPINES number but an ineJCcusably large number. An analysis of the curriculum disdoses tha~ some of these courses which have few elections, even in the same depaf,~ment, are given in the same semesteFs and tllereby mutually exclude each other. Moreover, as will be indicated later, there are many duplicate courses. The candi~ions at the ather end of the ~able is路 equally bad. Unless the courses with more than 40 srudents are lecture courses the instruction can hardly be efficient. The Commission is of the belief that a committee should be appointed to cansider care~ully ~he whale problem a~ the cUFFicmlum looking to its rearganiiZation. With a view to further elimination of courses af doubtful value and of courses which are prac~ically duplicates, and to a better arrangement of the schedules af recitations, this committee should be prepared to recognize the entire program of studies. That in the course of time higli-gr-a de pr.ivate colleges and universities will develop to supplement the wark of the University of the Philippines, is in'evitable. Some exist in embryo at present. As already mentioned, one of the eh路ef duties of the University of the Philippines will be to maintain standards in alII aspects af university life ta which these other institutians must measure up. Mere bigness in size has little to do with the effective workillg af this pr.inciple. l One other questian o~ a general university nature which has been widely discussed' in recent years is whether all univ.ersity activities should be concentrated in Manila. Obviously such schools as medicine, engineer-ing', caljlIllerce, and prabably, law, will of necessity be situated there; and the Colleges af Agriculture and Veterinary $cience and the School of IIarestry, where they now are, at Los Banos. Tnere remain the Colleges of Liberal Arts and of Education. Much might be said for naving originally loeated these Clli楼i'sians in a r.ur.al cammunity like Las Banos. But since they were -established, they have been loeated in Manila, and the cost of their removal would now be great drain upon the present resources of the University. Moreover., the hausing af so large a body of students and teachers at Los Banos would be very difficult. Finally, the questian may be raised whether it is not better to .have 'stucilents coming from relatively. pr.imitive conditions of life pursue their mature studies in an enviranment made up more largely of the essential elements of modern ciVlilization. The Camrnission believes that the p.resent geagraphical distribufian of the colleges af the University ought not to be disturbed.

THE BIVISIClNS 0F 'DHE UNIVERSITY THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS.-"Fhe core of every university organized upan the American model is the College of Liberal Arts which


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

619

olfers courses in the arts. the social sciences. and the natural sciences leading to the bachelor's degree. It IS designed to render the studen~ a more intelligent. useful. and happy citizen and at the same time to prepare him to undertake specialized work in technical and professional fields. In the United States it nas always consisted of a four-year course. In recent years. however. owing to a growing' appreftension concerning the advanced age at which the Merican college graduate begins productive labor. various schemes of articulation between the College of Liberal Arts and the professional stheels of tl1e University have been adopted to remedy this condition. ;Phis has been particularly true of the State universities. Sometimes part of the wer-k of the last two years of the Cellege of Liberal Arts is made up ef profession",) werl~ which counts towards a degree in the professional scheol; sometimes the last one or even two years ef tl're College of Liberat Arts are given over cempletely to professional work and the student at the close of his professional career receives two degrees, his undergraduate bachelor's degree, and his professional degree. He thereby saves either one or two years in his educational career. As has already been mentioned, before the A:w.encan occupation the educational system of the Philippines hac:! been organized l\Ipon the model of the .countries of continental Europe. 'fhe student o£ the Iycee or gymnasium completes a course of study usually considered equivalent to the end of the sophomore year of t1ie American college and, tl10ugh he is younger than the Amencan, he commences at once his professional or technical work in the University. When the l.Iniversity of the ~hil­ ippines was founded in 1908. it was organized up'on the E!ll'opean model. The College of Lroeral Ar'ts consisted of a two-year course, graduation from which entitled the student to the bachelor.'s degree. As time elapsed> an increasing number of tl1e graduates, of the University went to American institutions to s!fudy fOF their advanced degrees. They found difficulty of entrance to, tl1e graduate schools because their previ.eus work quantitatively at least did not cenform to American st·andards. To make the articulation between the Universil¥ of the Philippines and the American universities complete, the additional twe years were added to the College o£ Liberall Arts. 'Fhat this was a wise de0ision is open to question. "Tlhe statistics gathered biY the Commission show that the average high-school .s tudent in the Philippines graduates at t'Wenty-one years of age, three years later than his American fellow-student. Moreover, thougft his span of life has no! been acourateliY determined, it is generally admitted to be ten years less than the American. If there has li>een ~ust cause for apprehension in


626 IWtJ<tAT10NAL. SURVEY m ; THE PHlIh.lPPINES Amer.iea about the advaneea age at whid\. stuaents eommenee ,their praductive labars. there ,fs still greater eause in the Philippines. As a matter of faet, the ehange ta the four-year basis ha.s haa little effect upan the ~eal functions of the College af Liberal Arts. <Df the <.;l2§ stuaents enrolled in the eallege in 19Q4\--25 , 703 OF 76 per eent were in the fi~st two years, <lnQ o£ these 703', 357 or §(j) per eent go no fuiither in the Cdll'ege af Lilheral futs. This indieates tl'ie d\'ief raison, d' eire af the eollege. It is pr-imaFiI¥ Gevoted to preparing stuGents to unaerfa\{e professional war-\{ in law, meaicine, ana cammeree, which requires two years of the liberal-aFts caurse. Comparatively few of its slludents are enrollea in the general-cmltuFe eaUTse. 1'1his eonGition of, things is nat to be GeplaFed. 1t enables the eallege to Fender the people of the Philippines areal serviee, far the great neea of the Islanas is nat fa'!' more persans 'With a genel'al-ebltute education but faF a large number of indiv,j~ual spedfieall}' tra,ineG ,far same definite jal!;. ~he Commissian Gaes 'nat by an}' means suggeSt tnat the eallege diseontinue its general~ eultuFe caurses in the junior and senieF years. Quite the eonttaFY is desiFed. But it ilIaes FeCOmmenG that gFeat eifar-t li>e eoneentFatea en li>etter teaehing o( the funGamental eOUf.ses, of the first two year-so This becomes af greater- signifieance if fue <C:emmissian'·s reeommenc;latian tnat the work af the first twa ~ears of the Callege af J£dueat,ien be turned aver fo the ColIl!ge of Lili>eral AFts. Such a pelieY' will mean nat mer-el;y eoneentFafing 'upan, but deing mor-e intensive work in, the more fundamental courses. In the lJniMersit}' Clatalag under- the Department ef @eogFapn!), we find a eOUf.se named Geography 3. Relal'ians a£ Mistor-y.. and G:eegr.qih},. "It is a general SUFVe}, a£ the influenCle ef physiegraphic featuFes on tl\.e migFatian a£ man, an language, en waF, ana on all other human mavemefits 't hat hawe inftueneeG the histaFy: o£ nations, ete. ,. Ailether COUFse, Geagr.aph}' 6, RFineiples of. Human Cieogl'aphy, r-eads: "The e'aUFse allns to set forth the prineiples of geegr-aph}, in its human as-peets,; that is, the relation of tne physieg)'aphie enWfronment to man's aCltivities, etc." Eaeh of these ClaUFses earnes thFee ereaits. yet, without dm.i!ht there musf !he c.onsiderable dupJ'ie.ation. III eeenamies we find ClOUr-S'eS r-espectively, on Gener-al Eeenamic Develapmefit, Eeanomie I;)evelapment ef ithe Philiwpines, EClanamie Develapment of the Or-ient, E.eonomiCl Develepment of tl\.e United $tates, eaeh eaF~g three ereruts toward a degree. $Uf.e1;y there is unneeessary diffusion nere. And these ar.e net isolated mstanCleS. Sever-al q£ the observ:atians made with Feferenee to the lJ nl¥eFsity gener.ally apply partiClular.l}' to the (;allege of Limeral Us. 'Tbe Comlnission is of the belief that it has allawea itself fa grow tao r-apidl)l'ta autFUn its FesOurCes. The enrallment fat- the schalastie year 19Q~24 was 4@ peF eent greater than that ef 1''1!22-23 whereas the appropr.ia-


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

621

tion was only 12.5 per cent greater. One of the results of the policy of accepting students when there are inadequate funds with which to supply them with equipment and teaching staff has been the employment of a large number of lecturers and assistants--a fault ,oj the University generally. In !:he catalog for 1922-23. at the top of the state)Ilent for the Department of Economics and Sociology. the names of the instructors are given. Of these six are members of the permanent staff and seven are lecturers. The combined salaries paid to these lecturers would probably suffice to employ enough assislant professors or instructors. who. if they were properly seleeted and their work !,>roperly organized. could probably do the entire work of these outside lecturers. OFdinaruy far. better work is obtained from teaehers peFmanently empl'oyed than hom lecturers havin'g little or no interest in tile administration of ,the institution, who come to their dasses deliver their lectures. and depart. The necessity of accepting all gr-aduates of the public and private high schools that present themselves for admission Ilas perhaps j)lstified the employment of lecturers and assistaQts in the past. But if the recommendation of the Commission be accepted that seholastie and intelligence tests be adopted for !,>urposes of selection. tile nU!DbeFs in tile college will De reduced to a point more nearly eonsonant with the funds available for their efficient instr-uction. and consideraJ)le sa짜ing will be made as a result of the reduced numbe)" o~ failUFes. especi~y in the freshman class. The need for the emploY!Dent of so large a nuuiber. of !,>art-time teachers will then cease to exist. . The College of Liberal Arts js the foundation of the whole University. Upon its efficient administration the welfare of, mosf of other colleges is dependent. The conclusion follows that if. as has been suggested. the college revises the eourses in its cU~Ficulum. concentrates its effoFts to a greater degree u!'>on fundllmenta'ls. rigidly reduces numbers to conform to its resources and strengthens its teaching staff. it will improve the condition of the entire University. The Junior College at Cebu.-In 19HI. in obedience to the assignment of 1"50.000 in the a!,>propFiation of the University made by the Legislature for the purpose. the 'VniveFsity established tl\.e Junior College at Cebu. A question of !,>olioy of great importance was involved in this action of the Legislature. viz: Should all the work of higher education that receives !,>ublic support be concentrated at Manila in one univeFsity or should branches of that university be esta\)lished at different places throughout the Islands? The justification of the latter alteFllative is explained by its adherents as follows: The Visayan Islands with Mindanao and Sulu contain half the population of the Philippines. The distance from some of the islands to Manila is very gr-eat and in some instances. since there is no direct communication. the student must


622 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF 1"HE PHILIPF'rNES ma,ke several changes in bransportation. Moreaver. living eXl'lenses at Manila are higher than anywhere else in the Islands. The result is that only students of means can attend the University. and many l'lromising students of excellent attainments are deprived of a higher education because of their poverty. l'he system. therefore. is undemocratic. This analysis of the situation. provided the ~acts lena it support, is very plausible. In conformity with that view. tile Junior College was estab_ lished at Cebu in 1918 and the Legislature ,authoFized the establishment of another branch of the 'University at Vigan in 1921. However. as the Legislature failed to provide funds fOF that branch. nothing has been done concerning its establishment. Such legislation brings us to the crucial question; namely, the question of funds. Aside born the wisdam of the policy adol'lted. was the establishment of the Junior College at Cebu another instance of allowing ambition. however worthy. to outrun resources? The college at Cebu Ilas had a slow growth of, from 20 students and 4 teachers in 1918 to 156 stUaents and I'} teachers in 1925. Naw many af these students came fram autsiCIe th Island of Cebu. the Cammission has not the date to en<ible it ta say. But the University authorities did provide a chart " Geographical distribution of students by attendance" giving the home districts of the students attending tile University at Manila in 1922. According to this chart in that year more Cebuan students attended the 'University at Manila than at Cebu and many times more students came from the Southern Islands to Manila than were enrolled in the branch at Cebu. rt ,is still so. Perhaps enough time has not elapsed to justify an opinian as to the need af 'this soufhem Branch of the University. Perhaps there are other reasons for its slow and castly, grawth. A visit to the college by a member of the Commission disdosed that the coHege Ilad no site nor building af its oWIi but was housed in a rented building af very inadequate proportions. Only four roams are avaitable fOF class work. There are no rooms suitable far the laboratories wINch are. incidentally, very poorly sUl'lplied with apparatus and equipment The inadequate library is crowded in one small raom which cannot accammodate 20 students at once. Until last yeaF. an inferior teaching personnel was provided. These conditions produced disastrous results in the examinations> and the Iiloard of Regents ordered the discontinuance of certain courses in 1924. As o~ganized today and in view of the poar schalastic results obtained so far, with 17 teachers for 156 students or one teacher for every 9 students, maintained at an expenditure for this year of 1i'67.600 or '434 per student. the Junior College at Cebu is a luxury. Whether


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

623

there should be a branch of the University at this place is a matter of public policy which is not within the Commission's province to decide. But it is within the Commission's province to point out that, if the question is decided in the affirmative, the action will be a futile extravagance unless the institution is provided with adequate quarters 'and properly supplied with the right personnel and equipment to cany on efficient instruction. In view of what the Commission has already recommended, with reference to the College of Liberal Arts at Manila, the conclusion follows that the college at Cebu, or any oiller that might be established in the Islands, should confine itself to the work of the first two years. To attempt technicaT or professional work, the most costly of university activities, would so divide the resources of the Univ,ersity as seriously to cripple its effeetiveness. 'Tlhe University should hankly for some years to come concentrate its efforts on doing the one job at Manila, and doing it well. THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATJQN.-The rapid growth in high-sehool population has charaeterized the education of the P-hilippines during the past decade as it has that of the United States. In both countries it has had one unfortunate result, viz: the impossibility of providing properly prepared high-school teachers fast enough to meet the demand, Since this need for trained teacheiis is even greate~ in the F'hilipF'ines than in the United States, the most important specific conu.ibution that the College of Education could make to the Islands would be to remedy this situation. The College does aim to do this as well as to provide preparation for teachers in normal schools, super'lisoFsnip, and superintendeneies. Its purpose is expressed in the following way in the eatalog: The curriculum of the college is based upon the assumption that teachers should have first of all. Ilnd fundamental to all other 'preparation, a broad and liberal education; second, that they should be masters of some special I.u bject or group of subjectl which they expeC!t 10 teach: and Illird, that this training should be .supplemented by profclliona:1 education which shall give a new meaning to the subjecb of instruction~ 0. knowledge of the pupils 10 be laught, and Ihe problems to be mel.

No more accurate'deseription of a teacher's tFaining could be written. The question is, how .muoh and what part of this progFam of wo~k should be undertaken by the College of Education P The eollege officials evidently think the entire program should be attempted and they have organized their curriculum and activities upon that basis. But what is the purpose of the College of Liberal Arts if not to give "first of all, and fundamentaF to all other preparation, a broad and liberal education?" The Commission believes that the College of Liber.al Arts is doing that very thing creditably. h has the teaching staff and the equipment with which to do the work. The College of Education has


624 EDtJCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES not. Yet a careful reading of the c;urriculum e~ the Cellege of Education and that ef the College ef Liberal Arts shows that the work of the fir.st two years of the former. Gluplicates. to a grea~ extent. the work of the same years ef the latter. lobe sure. the efficials of the College of Educatien maintain that a course given in the College of Education similar to one given in the College of Liberal Arts is given from the standpoint of prepar.ation fer. professional teaching and net from that ef general culture. But to the Cemmission this appears a rather attenuated distinction. particularIy as many such courses offered in the first two years of the Cellege of Educ:ation are given by teachers from the Cellege of Liberal futs. 'Phe Cemmissien suggests. therefore. that the courses not purely prefessional' which are offered in the first two years of the College ef J1:ducation be transfer.r.ed te the College of Liber,al Arts and that the few remaining professional courses be given in the last two year.s ef the College of 'lEducatien. In ether. words. by making the 'Wor路k of the first two years of a preparatory nature and the work of the last twe pr.ima'r,ily pr.efessional. the Cemmission would put the College of Education upon the same foeting as the Colleges of Law. Medicine. and EngineeFing. The Commissien is all the more convinc;ed of the wisdom ef this rec:emmendatien bec:ause o~ what it learned concerning the subject as it went albout ameng the Islands. It everywhere made inquiries among high-scheol principals as te tile desirability of secur,ing ,graduates ef tAe University Cellege of Education to fill vacant positions as teachers in the high school. Everywhere the princ;ipals were anxious to ebtain the ser.vices of these gr.aduates. Where criticisms of the graduates were made. Ilowever. they usually were to the effect that the graduates did net have a suffic;ient professional attitude towards their work and that they were net sufficiently well gwunded in the content of the subject w:hich they wished to teach. The first criticism will be obviated. to some extent at least. i~ the College of Education becomes more of a professional school. A study of the major courses in the College of Education seems te justify the second criticism. Time for more attention to c;ontent in the preparation of the high-school teacher can be secured by lessening the undue amoun~ of work demanded in the professienal courses in EGlucation. Whether some of these professional courses de not oveFlap and thereoy enable students to pile up c:redits cheaply. is a question. For example. whether there is so much differ.ence between Educatien 2. Principles of Teaching. and Education 5. Prac:tice Teaching. te justify a student's rec:ei楼ing 9 credits towards his degree for the two courses is extremely deubtful. That the former semester course might be made a part of the latter ceurse given throughout the year seems quite prebable.


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

625

The CoJIege of Education has at present a remarkable opportunity for development and for rendering service to the Islands. It needs, however, to keep in closer touch with the Bureau of Education and to cooperate with it more intimately in order to understand the real needs of the school system. The Commission learned of cases where highschool principals were unable to secure graduates of the College of Education trained to teach mathematics or branches of sClience and were forced to employ as teachers for these subjects graduates who had specialized in history or economics. It would seem that such maladjustment might be avoided. The Commission has elsewhere recommended that supervising teachers in the public schools, in order to receive a permanent lic!!nse, must, after graduation from a normal school and after two years' service in the field, return to a university for a course in supervision of instruCltion. This offers a fine opportunity to the College of Education, for if the recommendations of the Commission with reference to the school system are carried out, it will contain no official more important than the supervising teacher. The Commission recommends also that just as soon as the high schools Clan be supplied with a sufficient number of adequately prepared teachers, college graduates who have had professional training in education, no others be permitted to teaeh in them. Some of the other ~ecommendatians of the Cammission with reference fo the school system will require ~esearch in the various aspeets of schaol administration. A mere enumeration of these opportunities, and there are others, would seem to justify the Commission's recommendation that the College of Education devote itself to professional work and leave the preparatory work to the College of Liberal Arts. The College of Education has shown a fine spirit of initiative in organizing the University High Sdlool for praCltiee-teaching purposes and in placing it upon a self-supporting basis. It has bleen equally successful in organizing the summer ses_sions at Baguio and at Manila. As a smaller, highly developed professional school of fi-ne standards, it ean to a great extent determine the character and direction of education in the Islands during the next decade. In rendering such a sencice to the people of the Philippines it will deserve the generous support of the University offiClials. COLLEGE OF ACRICULTURE.-Agriculture is the mast impoftant occupation in the Philippine Islands, 90 per cent of the people being engaged in it according to the Philippine Census of 1918. Few of them carryon their work according to the modern methods of farming, and in the more remote regions ignarance of the most fundamental pr.inCliples of agriculture results in very wasteful methods of production. Rice is the staple food commodity of the Islands. Yet rice must annually be 214064--40


626 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF l1HE PHILIPPINES imported from Indo-China in order to make up the deficiency of home produCltion. This fact alone is sufficient to show the need of improved methods of riCle cultivation. Nowhere else in tile world will the abaca plant grow from whiClh Manila hemp. so essential to the manufacture of rope. is made. Probably it is becp.use the Philippines have a monopoly of the supply that the produClt is by no means up to high standards. OtheF instances of unsatisfactory Fesults of agricultural pFoduction might lle enumeFated. AnotheF r-easan far special attention being given to the su\)ject is the J.aFge aFea af. unaClcupied publiC! land and fOFest ready for farming. gFazing. and lumber-ing. ":li1hese areas are suited to homesteaders who ought to be prepared to cilevelap it aeClorciling to improved and not wasteful methods of production. In this respect the Filipino peaple are the most fortunately situated af all the people in the Far East. Everywhere else. in China. Japan. India, and Java we find the pressure of population upon land and resources. The Filipinos have in this respect a wonderful heritage and should leam from the unfartunate history OF the United States the wisdam of adopting eaFiy a policy of intelligent eonservation. 1n all probability M,i ndanao alone could supply the United States with all its needs in rubber. The sugar industry is ma~g remaFkable aaivances. 'Fhe vaFiaus products of the COClanut tree and of Bbraus .plants await wellcdireoted development. l?rabably in na area af. like extent in tile whale warld are there greater possrnilities of agr.icultuFal developmenJ in tropical pFoducts than in the Philippine Islands. The Philippine GaveFnment is aware of its duty and opportunity in this respect and the Bureau af Edueation has established a number of -well-organized farm and agricultUFal schools throughout the Islands. Mareover, the College of AgFieulture, beginning its class work in June, 1909, was the first college to be organized as part of the University. Its career- was excellent fram the start for the pioneers who were put in charge at the time "had liteFally ta carve their institution out of the wilderness. " From the little graup of fifty-si!c students in the first year the eollege has steadily grawn and in 19!24-1l'!l25 emolled 550 men in its variaus caurses. 'F.he eallege is located at Los Banos. in the F'Fovinee of Laguna, ane of the richest agr.ieultural pFovinees in the Islands. It occupies and opeFates ~77 Iheetares af land at the foat of Mount Makiling near Lake Bay. Mount Makiling itself is held under the Bureau of Forestry as a reserve and is the scene of operations af the Forest Schoor which adjoins the College of Agriculture. The college is well equipped with herds of animals and with agrieultural apparatus for purposes of instruetion. h is provided with special apparatus for teaching certain subjects, suc;;h as a small-scale sugar mill. In 1918 the Philippine Legislature appropriated money for the establishment


UNIVERSITY OF THE PH1LIPPINES

627

of an Experiment Research Station and in the same year extension dctivity was organized under a separate director. The College of Agriculture is a well-organized and ably directed school and exhibits a splendid esprit de corps. The business depression which fell upon the Islands in 1919 and years immediately following caused a halt in the expansion of appropriations for the University. The College of Agriculture like other divisions of the University was unable to secure the funds necessary to meet its growing needs. It is to be C!ommended fo~ facing the situation frankly and rigidly curtailing numbers to maintain eflieiency of ipstruction. The activities of the college are so essential to the welfare of the people of the Islands that it is to be hoped that the suppo~t necessary to carry them on will be fortheoming. The CoJlege of Agrim.llture has two <!lasses of students: €q.) Grad_ uates of high schools who formed 22 per cent of the ,wllege enrollment of 550 in 1924-25 and who take a four-year course leading to the degree of bachelor of soience in agriculture, and ('b) graduates of intermediate schools who fo~med' 78 per cent of the enrollment in I 'n4025 and who take a six-year cout~e leading to the degree of bachelor of agriculture. Considerable opposition elcists in the lllniversity CounC!il to this two~fold method of admission ana a demand 'has arisen 'in the Council for the placing of the College of Ag~iculture on a flat basis of high-school graduation. Witll this demand the Commission is not in sympathy. It believes in maintaining formal standards but it believes still more in educational institutions makirtg their programs conform to tlle needs of the C!ountry. Certain fads must not be over.lo\>kea: (1) The majority of the youth of the Islands, after the Am.e~ican occupation, were naturally enamored of the "learned pFofessions" as they had for the three hundred years of the 'Spanish regime been more or less effectually excluded from them. They turned from agr-ictilture. (2) The high schools which are almost wholly academiC! tend to wean their students away from the soil, and their C!urriculum is by no means the best preparation for a college of agriculture. (3) The high schools graduate students at an age which, when taken in consonance with the relatively early maturity and high mortality of the Filipino race, makes it unw.ise to postpon.e bread-winning in agricultural pursuits. The <Eommission, therefore, approves of the methods by which the College of Agriculture has in the past facilitated lower-end articulation and adopted str.ict Fales of scholarship which made it cllilkult to remain in and to graduate from the college. The fact that AIDer-ican universities have marked the College of Agriculture "A" is good ev,idence of the satisfactor-y nature of its work. The Commission has been so impressed with the fact that the real needs of the countFy can only be met by an empl\asis upon the vocation


628 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES of farming that it has elsewhere recommended a great ehange in the organization o~ secondary education. This is to the effect that a considerable number 0f academic high schools now found in every pr0vince be transformed as rapidl¥ as pos'sible into Du~al high scllools which will emphasize the life ef the farm in all its aspeets. MeEeover. the reeommendation is also te the effect that in the establishment of additienal high scheol's. preference should be given to those of the rural type. If these recemmendatiens are carried out. it is evident that there will be' neeessity of dose ceoperatien Ihetween the College e~ Ag~iculture and the Bureau of Education to articulate the curriculum and the activities of the rural high schools with those of the College of Agrieulture. Since the transition from the elder te the newer system of sec0ndar.y edueation requiFes not only wise but experienced guidance. the Commissien r.ecommends that one ef the rural high schools should be established at Los Banos under the supervisien of the College of Agriculture. The college would not oQly be a:ble to assist in that way to standardize the wor.k of the new r.uFa:1 high sehoel buJ; te perfer.m the equally, impertant function of training the requisite supervisors and teaehers. TFte College of Agriculture would then be in a position similar to that of the College of Education which Has the University High .school under its direction to enamle it te u.ain teachers and supeFvisers fer the aeademic high s(!heols. Obviously in the u.aining of teaClhers for the rural high sellools the highl¥ scientifi(! cUrFiculum of the Cellege ef Agriculture w0uld require considerable modificatien. One ether aspect of the problem ef waining in the <i:ellege ef Agriculture should be mentioned here. The criticism has often been made that practically all ef its graduates. instead of returning to the farm. go into the service of the ~Ufeau of Agr.icuIture of the Gover.nment or me(!eme teachers of elementary science in the high schools. 1fhe explanation gi;ven of this situatien is plausible. The student mody of the college is economically poor. a greater proportion of them working their way through college than in any other division of the University. Up to the present year. the Bureau of AgFiculture Ilas meen rea~y to absorb all the gr.aduates· ef tile (!oll~ge. and. ,Ilew appealing an immediate job with a sal'ary attached woul€) be to a penniless graduate is patent. Moreever. the average graduate must return to a home which not only carries on its farm work by antiquated methods but in many instan(!es looks upon his suggestions for imprevement with litfile fa,v,er . To realize them en his own initiative requires capital with which he is unprovided. At one time there was hope that assistance in this respect would be forthceming from th!! rUFal credit system which had been establi:shed in the Islands. but as the result ef maladministratien. this hepe has remained unfulfilled. Nevertheless. what the Philippines need more than


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

629

any other one thing is a body of trained men and women scattered over the Islands who would be leaders in rural communities; men and women who would stay upon the soil. who would be an inspirational force to the neighbors in their vocational. recreational. cultural. and spiritual life; men and women who could make intelligent investigation of activities which directly affect farm life such as the administration of the homestead laws and the rural credit system and who would suggest and insist upon their improvement. Generous modification of curriculum and administration would be worth while in the interest of such a reform. It has been done at other places and, in several different countries. The Commission believes th~t the fine sprr.it which animates Los Banos ma~ks it out as the place for the realization o~ such a plan in the Philippines. The Commission regrets that the experiment station at the College established by the Philippine Legislature in 1918 by an appropriation of P125.000 has never since received any support for its oper-ation. It commends the vigorous departmental energy which has enabled the experiment station nevertheless to be developed. but deplores the fact that it has been dqne through savings p~imarily educational. In this connection the Commi~sion expresses its surprise that the Philippine Government has not seen Ilt 1'0 petition the United States Congress to bring the Philippines under tHe provisions of tl'ie Hatch Act of 1887 and the Adams Aot of 1906 whereby federal aid is given for agrieultural experimentation and research. In most states of the Union the funds secured thereby have been used for the establishment and support of an agricultural experiment station. Porto Rico. Alaska. Wawaii. and even Guam are enjoying the benefits of these acts which. if extended to the Philippines, would without expense to the Philippine Government add a very large sum of money to the resources of the College of Agriculture. If the Smith-Lever Aet of 1914 for agricultural and home economics extension and the Smith-Hughes Aet of 1917 providing feder-a1 aid for vocational education and the training of vocational teachers were also extended to the Islands. both of which would require the Islands to match dollar for dolla~ with insular f,unds whatever the f:ederal Government would appropriate, the College of Agr.iculture would have a degree of support whieh it has never enjoyed in the past and which would enable it to realize the fine program which it has put forth for future work. The College of Agriculture. the Bureau of Agriculture. and the Bureau of Science are all Government agencies carrying on agricultural research. There has been some duplication of work and the proposal has been made to centralize the control of all research and extension work in the field in an Agricultural Coordinating Commission. its office


630 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES to be under. the Bmeau of Agrleulture. 1!:ne Cemmissien wishes to peint out that under the statutes creating them. the Bureau of Science and the Bureau of Agriculture must of necessity carry on research as part of their functions. T hat ne eollege of agriculture worthy of the name caID funetion JlltoJllerly witheut intensive Fesearcn and investigatien is equally tFue. In attac\{ing a problem !Tom its point of view. one of these agencies is not necessarily duplicating the work of another which is stud}'ing the Jllroblem from a different angle. There is always the danger. innerent in sueh a preJllosal as tnat of an Agroicultutal CooFdinating Commission that in the inter.ests of economy one ageney will absorb the functions whieh logically belong to another. It may not be feasible. To bring about any change in tile present status of these vari6us agencies is Jllwbably imJllractieable and et. deubtful desirability. T.he Commission believes that the problem should be aJllJllroaehed 'from the point of vieV( of cooperation rather tftan of centralization. This should result. it may be hoped. in an understanding upon the part of all engaged in agricultural research that the pUFJllose of their wer,k is to serve the farmers of the COUQUy and not to enhance tile pr.estige of any Jllarticular agency. There are many ways in which this cooperation may be conducted. Annual conferences to discuss problems in connection with their werk might be held, and the technical men of one bureau. insofar as is censistent witH efficienc}l in the service. might rendeF service in special lines of werk in another. Similarfy. since extension work must exist as a functien of both the Bureau of Agriculture and the College of Agr.icuIture. in additien to an agreement uJllon a general division ef the field. the agents ef the two instittitions snoulC:! agree as to what activities at any particu:iar time and for. any particular purpose each should perform in order to prevent competition and niction. Certainly the opportunity to serve the people in the field of agriculture is so extensive in the RhiriJllPines that all the agencies engaged in the field should hav:e plenty to do without encroaching upon the work of one another. THE COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SCIENâ&#x201A;ŹE.-This college was opened first at Manila in 1(]I 10 but was wansferred to Los Banos in 191 (]I. The -object in founding it was a most desirable ene. The l%iliJllPine Islands had in recent years been sweJllt with r.inderpest in bovines and surra in hOFses which had caused great loss in money and much distress among the population. It was thought necessary to have professionally educated men to cOJlle with the difficulties enclQuntered in fighting these diseases. A highly technical five-year course was organized for the benefit of the graduates of t he academic high schools who came to the college. The founders seemed to have everlooked the fact that ignorance among the peopIe of the Islands conceFning the proper feeding. housing; breeding. care. and management of their animals Was the chief


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

631

dillicuIty to be combated. Highly trained experts of the kind that graduated from the College of Veterinary Science were not the primary requIsite. Moreover. the number of persons who could afford to engage such veterinarians was negligible. Unless they were employed by the Government. they would have to earn their living in some other way. A s a matter of fact. that is exactly what has happened. After the Government had absorbed graduates to the extent of its resources. those graduating entered other vocations or went into high schools as teachers of science. The result has been that the College of Veterinary Science for some years has been gradually dying of inanition. This year. 1924-25. it has an enrollment of 34 students. 14 of whom are pensionados studying at the expense of the Government. To train these 34 students. the college maintains a teaching staff of 8. consisting of 1 professor. 1 associate professor. 3 assistant professors. and 3 instruetors. The college is. therefore. from the standpoint of administration. upon a graduate basis with practically one instructor to every four students. The approp~iation for the college for the year 1924-25 was f'5.3.320. Thus the cost per student was f'1 ,568; whereas the cost per student in the next most expensive college. the College of Medicine including Dentistry and Pharmacy. was only pno. and the cost per student for the whole University was a little less than 1"500. During the year the College of Veterinary Science conducted 22 courses with less than 10 student$ in each and 18 courses with from 10 to 20 students though the great majority of these had but 10 or 11 students. There was no course with more than 16 students. The average ac1ual number of hours of lecture and laboratory instruction per week pe~ instructoJ" was 25 and if the estimated hours of committee and administrative work is added the average per instructor is 30. The figure fOF the College of Medicine is 40 hours. Unless some great national necessity justifies it. the existence of the College of Veterinary Science is the wildest form of extravagance. To the Commission it appears that what needs to be spread among the farmers of the Islands is a knowledge of the principles of animal husbandry. This knowledge is given admirably in the Department of Animal Husbandry of the College of Agriculture. In this and other departments of the College of Agriculture. the students of veterinary science now take a considerable part of tIleir work. The Commission believes they should take all their work there. It recommends. therefore. that the College of Veterinary Science be abolished as a college and be transformed into the Department of Veterinary Science of the College of Agrieulture and be made coordinate with other departments. such as Agronomy and Animal Husbandry. In making this recom-


632 EDUCATIONAl!... SURVEY @F 'J1H1E. PI-,ul!...IPPI.NES mendation, the Commission wishes to point out that the relation suggested is the one that e*ists in a lallge number of the agr-icultunal institutions of the United States which have .greater resources than has the University of the Philililpines. THI!: S0H00L OF F0RESiffiY.-The need of techniGally trained forest rangers to carryon forest work more effectively made an early alilpeal to the Philipliline Legislature and in 1910 statutory provision was made for the establishment of the SGhool of Forestry. At first the school was a division of the College of AgriGulture but in 1(j)-16 was made an in_ delilendent division of the Univefsity. It is situated in the immediate neighborhood of the College of Ag~iculture and some of its courses are given in that divisian. 'ifhe sd\.ool is admiraMy laGated in the Mount Makiling National BotanieaJ Ga~den which serves as a huge laboratory where botany, silviculture, and atlier subjects in forestry Gan be studied under the different canditions faund upan the mountain. h is also adequately provided with all the equililment for its work. The school has an elementary course called the Ranger Course. llhe refjuirement for admissian to this GOUFSe is the completion of the second year of tIle high school. It is of two years duration and is devoted Iil~imarily ta practical work in the elementary branches of farestry. A gr.aduate is at once offered a position as fafest ranger. in the Bureau of Forestry or he may enter the regular tfuee-year. course of the school leading to the aegr.ee of bachelor of scienGe in forestry. This course is devated to intensi..e wor.k in the higher. br.anehes of forestry and mueh praGtieal work in the field. Nearly all the graduates enter the serviee of the Philippine Government aF af neighboring goveFnments of tlile F' ar East, thaugh manlY of them are sought by dumber men and Iillantation owners in the Islands. No other division of the University is so dosely associated with the Gaver.nment. li'he sala~ies af nine af the tw.eI..ve men on the faculty are paid by the Bureau of Forestry and all the students are pensionados of the Gover.nment. In return for his pension a student obligates himself to serve in the BUFeau af F ores~ for a per.iod equal to that in whiGh he received the benefits of the scholarshilil. The whole course is directed to preparation for service to the Government in this important field of its nil-tional eGonom:y. "Fhe Commission believes that the service . rendered is real and efficient. THE COLLEGE OF MEDIGINE.-The Philippine Medieal School was established bi\[ the Philililpine Commission as the first department of the future University of the Phililillilines and was opened for the instruGtion of students June 10, 1907. In 1910 the eontrol and management of the


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

633

school passed to the Board of Regents of the University and its name was changed to the College of Medicine and Sw:gery, since abbreviated to the College of Medicine. The history of the college is closely associated with that of the Philippine General Hospital where the services for the tcaching of clinical medicine and surgery are found. The personnel and departments in the college and hospital are practically identical. All officers and teachers of the College of Medicine who have duties in connection with the hospital hold corresponding appointments in the hospital. All officers and employees of the hospital who have teaching functions hold corresponding appointments in the College of Medicine. The Dean of the School of Medicine is the Direl!tor of the Hospital. Thus the Philippine General Hospital and the College of Medicine are practically one institution. The connection between the two institutions is a most fortunate one and has meant much faF the training of physicians in the Islands. The admission requirement for the college is the completion of two years' work in a pre-medical course of a college of liberal arts. The requirement for graduation is the completion of a live-year course, in the fifth year of which students are required to serve in rotation as internes in the major departments of the Philippine General Hospital. To the layman the equipment seems adeqpate. the instFUction prOJ1leF and the opportunity for observation and c1inica1 practice at the hosJ1lital excellent. Certainly in the annual examinations held by the Board of Medical Examiners, the students of the College of Medicine have made a splendid record. The results as campared with the other institutions of the Philippines which prepare students for the examination are as follows: TABLE 114.-SHowINC THE 1iOTAlJ. PERCENTACE YEARLY OF SUâ&#x201A;ŹCESSFUL CANDIDATES FROM D.FFERLNT CoLLECES OF MEDIClNE

1920

1921

f

N ames of eollegee: of medicine

'll 'S

University of the Phllip-

pinee . . . . ... .. . . .. or Santo

Univ~ ty

Tomo.s.... . ....

.....

'"

0 30

~

!I<

a

-

!I<

87 100 24

44

il ~

'll 'a

8

-

'" 0 37

-

II<

-

'"

23 100

0

67

39

76

-

8 3 II< , ~

-

30 100 44

19211

.. .

.S

.9

~

~

'll

il 'a

a

II<

.. ..

.9

~

-

1923

. ..9

.~

~

11

1922

. .

-

'"

~

-

II<

~

~ 11

."

il 'a

a

-

II<

'il

8

il ~

-'" -'" -

~

II<

3

19

86

0

11

100

53 160

84

18

22

45

67

THE SeHOOL OF DENTISTRY.-In 1915 the Board of Regents authoFized the establishment of a School o~ Dentistry to be a division


634 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES of the College of Medicine. Admission to the school is based upon graduation from an accredited Iligll school or an equi¥alent education. The schoel effers a three-year ceurse leading te the degree of doctor of dental surgery and a four-year ceUFse leading to the degree of doeter ef dental metilicine. Few srudents. however. take the feuryear COUFse. Under the supervision ef dentists from the staff of the Philippine General Hespita'l. dental dinics are Ileld daily. The results of the examinations held my the Beard of Dental Examiners show one remarkable fact. viz .• that students who tool!: the four-year ~oUFse had a 100 per cent Fecerd af passing. whereas students who took the three-year course had a recoFd of enly 56.5 per cent. It is true iliat ten times as many gradiIJates ef the <three-year course teoK the examinations as of the four-year course. and it may be that only the best students continue their studies for the feurth year. But that the at!lclitional year should produce such a remar·k able improvement is altogether astonishing. TABLE 115.-COMPARATIVE DAT A OF PASSING AND FAlbURE OF CANDIDA'!"" IN DF.N'rISTRY

,

=i~~ failed

'Bate of ~amiDation

Per""ntage of passing

Percentage ot failure

Si.year 4-~~ 3 -year 4-Year a-year ( -year a-year. 4-year 3-year -i-year course course course course course course course course coun;e course w

~~~=~~~I-- -- I ~- ~ -

June, 19)!2 ......... . . ;December. 1922 . .... . ... .

}g

6

~

December, 1924 .. . . .

89 26 42 20

1

Totals 1924 . . .

168

16

June, 1923 . . ~ _... . . .. . . . . December. 1923 .. .

June, 1924 ...... .

o

10

6

8

2~ ' " ' , ' 20

8~

101

---- -- - - -0

P.

d~

65 . 6

P. ct. P . ct. P. ct. 100 44 . 6 0

U6 .........o 76.9 ~n " joil' ...... g JP tgg

~

l~

~U

28 . 1

~g.9

."

0

g

16 67' --O+66.SrlOOU - - 0 1

THE SeH001!. 0F PIiIARM\\C¥.-A course in phaFmacy was instituted under the administrative contrel of the College of Liberal Arts in 1911. ))ut was transferred to the College of Met!licine in 1914 as the School of PhaFlflaq!'. Admissien is mased upon a high-school education or its equivalent. There is offered a three-year course leading to the degree of phaFmaceutical chemist and a feur-yeaF ceUFse leading te the degree of bachelor of scienc;e in pharmacy. The School of Pharmacy is the one division of tile tJniversity where women are enrolled in greater numbers than men. The explanation of this situation is that the vocation of phanmacist has la~gel¥ been assumed by wernen throughout the Isl'ands. The comparative results of the examinatiens held by the Philippine Board of Pharmaceutic;al Examiners and Inspectors as given


635

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINE拢

to the Commission by the Dean of the School of Pharmacy are as follows: TABLE 116.-CoMPAAATIYE TABLE OF EXAMINATIONS IN PHARMACY

University or Santo Tomas Faculty o( Pharmacy

U. P. School or 01 ......

Date or e.nmlno.路

Pbnnnaey

tiOD

p""""

1July, 1920 .... Janullty, 1921. .

1920 ...

.. . ..

1921. 1922 .

..

1028 ..... 1924,..

..

j'UIY , 1921. .... .January, 1922 .. (UIY, 1922 .... Jnnuary, 1923 ..

Iuly. 1923 ..... January, 1924 .. lJul y , 19U ..... January, 192 6.

GrAnd total. ....

.... .....

6 1 22 1 26 6 83

Failed

- - - - - - -P"""" -- --P ....ed

Failed

2 2 7 7

1 1

a

63

Failed

..

10

34 16 17

2 3 8 4

17 32 82

3 8 9 6 17 3 2 2 18 9

48

226

71

a

.... 4i' 138

Manila CoUege o[ Pbnrmaey

15

!~

The School of NUTsing.-The School of Nursing is open ,to young women of from eighteen to twenty-eight years of age who have completed the second year of the high schoal. To carry on the wor.k of ,the school they must be physically fit and of good moral character. The course of study is of three yeaTS duration and consists of both theoretical and practical work in the wards of the hospi~al. It appears to be of a thorough character. After graduation the majority of the nurses enter Government service or private institutions. though some engage in private practice. At present there are three hundred students in the school and the cost to the Government per student, including tuition, board and lodging, and cash allowance. is P 1,750 for the entire course. It is money well spent, for in many places throughout the Islands the graduate nurse is the only person with adequate ICnowledge of personal and community hygiene and the evidences of disease. When the College of Medicine was ,founded in 1910. the Philippine Commission appropriated the sum ofP250.!il00 for a ' medical school building. At that tinle this sum was adequate to erect an admirable structure with the necessary laborator.ies, lecture halls, recitation rooms, morgue. and administrative affices to teach 250 students of medicine. In that year there were but 60 students. and it was thought that provision had been made for reasonable growth. But in the meantime the Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established under. the College of Medicine. and. as Table 116 indicates. all three divisions are growing in numbers. Today there are 470 students receiving instrul!:tion in a building which was erected to accommodate 250. In subjects like medicine. sur.gery. dentistry. and pharmacy. wnere so large


636 EBl!.JCA'fIONAL Sl!.JRVEY OF l'HIE PHlH.J PPINES a part of the work is of a laboratory and clinical nature, such a condition makes thorough insttuGtian iml'lossible. The clOHege is badly overcrowded, even passageways being used to acclOmmodate del'larrments of stuay. Opportunities for a labaratory and clinical research have become greably restr~ctea and there is rea'l danger that the instruct ian in tile fundamental branches of medicine will necessar,ily be given in an inefficient manner. The college has requested the University authoribies far the last few years 'ta ask the I!...egislature ta al'll'lral'lriate the sum of 1"250,000 for a new building to house the Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy, such departments o~ the College of Medicine as are necessary and especially to proviae roam for increased labaratory and testing facilities. TIle University a utllarities ~lly apl'lreciate the need and have made the request, but as yet without avail. The Commission joins the VniveFsity authaFiries in emphasizing the urgency of action in this matter. During the past few decades the cost of medical education per student has steadily risen in every country. This increase has been due largely to a steaa짜 rise ,in standard's and to a grawing sl'lecialization. '1'1hese in turn have so pralonged the period of I'lreparatian that the time the stuaen~ has completed his studies and inter.nshil'l' he is so old that an early recauping of his expenses is necessary,. I,n the United States the result has been such a congestion af pllysicians in the cities and such a dearth of them in the rural regians that the situation has became one of the r~al seriousness. ~f tha~ be sa in bile United States, where there is at least one p.hysician ta every 2,000 inhabitants, the seriousness of the situation in the Philil'lpines can readily be perceived. In the Pllilippines there is not one physiGian ta every 10,@00 inhabibants. While the country doctor is fast disal'lpear,ing in the United States, he never existea in the Philippines. What few physicians exist, are concenwated in the big towns. Of the 243 graauates of the College of Medicine 100 are in Manila alone, 46 of them being engaged in the college itself and a considerable number of athers in the Philippine Heabll Sew.ice. The Cam~ssion has na desire ta suggest measures looking to a reductian af the standards maintainea by the College of MediGine. But the time has come ta Gonsider, whether in the interest of u,nneeessarily high standards and unusual specializatian, the peaple of both the United States and Pllilippines have not been made to suffer. ' The population of the Philippines is overwhelmingly rural and what the peal'lle of these small communities need is not a highly trained specialist but .a physiGian wha can treat their ardinary bodily ailments. The Com~ssion wishes to pase the question whether it is not I'lossible


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

637

for the college to train two types of medical Plen: one consisting of graduates of an advanced course of five years as at present and who receive upon graduation the degree of doctor of medicine; and another. made up of men who will have had a less advanced course, possibly of two years, after the completion of whieh they will receive the title of practicante. This title formerly existed in the Islands. In order that those composing the latter dass reside in the rural districts where their services are really needed, legislative provision might be made that only doctors of medicine may practite in the larger communities of a population beyond a specified number. The Commission does not make this as a recommendation but as a suggestion to direet the attention of the proper authoFities to the pressing need of more available medical service for the Filipino people, a people whose mortality is very high and whose span of life is quite low. THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.-l1he College of Engineering began its work in 1910 with a eourse in Civil Engineering and there have been gradually added the usual courses in Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering. In 1922 the Board of Regents authoFized a course in Industrial Engineering for students interested in industrial organization and administration. In this course time is given to modern methods of time.keepi/lg, cost finding, plallning of factories, financing of industries, etc. For admission to any of the eourses in the eolfege, a high-school education or its equivalent is required. The course of study in each case is four years in length and leads to the degree of bachelor of science in the particular braneh of engineering. A fifth year of study is offered whioh leads to the degree of master of science. It aims to prepare the student for more advaneed wor.k and allows him to specialize in any particular branch of his chosen profession. The College of Engineering is adequately equipped in its V;trious bra.nches with machinery and apparatus to give effective instruetion to a relatively small number of students. Its teaching personnel is of high character and its eooperation with the Bureau of Science and other Government agencies whereby their equipment may be used by the college is all that can be desired. But the Commission believes that the college has made the same mistake as other divisions of the University, i. e., of a more rapid growth in numbers than in resources. The enrollment for 1921-22 was 196; for 1922-23, 409; for 1923--,24, 469; and for 1924-25,566; an increase in four years of HI9 per cent. The appropriation for the same time rose from "84.730 to "95,400. The number of the instructing staff last year was 13. It can reaClIily be understood why the Dean in his Annual Report for. the current year


638

EDUCATION~L

SllJRVEY OF l1HE PHJIL..IPPINES

states, "Each member of the faculty is carrying a heavy load, larger. in fact, than I have ever met with in my twenty-five years of experience in teaching in engineering colleges." A visit to the c;;ollege not only justifies this statement but exposes some undesirable conditions under which the wor.k is caRoied on. There are but four classrooms for. the entire college and they are separated from eac;;h other by walls so thin that the recitations in one can clearly be heard in the neighboring rooms. The offices for the professors are sirnFily spac;;es partitioned off in the laboratories which ar.e so hot, noisy, and dusty tllat the professors naturally prefer to take their work homes. Obviously this is not the best condition for the efficient administration of the college. No doubt there are many causes far the' large elimination of students, as shown in the following table furnished the Commission by the Acting Dean, but perhaps the conditions mentioned may contribute a partial explanation: TAJlLE 117.-EUMlNAnoN OF S1\UDENTS IN THE ENTERING CLASS OF "HE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING IN 1920 ~CLASS OF 1924) . AS l'I' w'£'N• •HROUGH THE CobLEGE

JpNE.

Number

Per cent

- - - - - -- - - -----T--:---- -- - - --- ---Students who entered in ]JJ20. . . . . ..... Left without having completed one semestel'. Fell behind the class duringFirst year . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . .... .

~~d~~;.r:: ::: :::: :::~ : ::: : .

...... ...... . ,........ ,... ._.. _...... . Fourth. year . ....... . ... .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... ,

Left auring third year with good records Graduated in March. 1924-: . . .

. ." . •. . . . ..... .. .... .

93 10 '

100 10.8

38 16

40 . 8 17 . 2

1 2 17

1.1 2.1 18 .3

9

9.Q

"Dhat the College of Engineering be previded with additional space in which to c;;ar.r.y on its WOr-K is c;;ertainly necessary. It is equally necessary that before annually adding an undue number to its enrollment, the college give mueh more attention to its pessibilities for efficient .instruction. The opportunity exists for the College of Engineering to render a valuaMe serwice to the country,. Read consuuctian, iFr.igation wor-ks, and ·the erecztion of necessary public buildings now aDsor.b most of its graduates, but the sugar central and ot/ler industrial enter.prises will make increasing demands far practically trained men. The few students who have remained for the fifth year for the degree of master of science have been given work hitherte which, though really undergraduate in character was, nevertheless. most valuable. The great majority of them have become Government district engineers and are often in isolated regions where there is ne chance to consult eJq)erts in other lines of engineering. The sftIdents in civil engineering, therefore, have spent


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

639

their 6fth year in increasing their knowledge of mechanical and eleetrical-engineering subjects. in broadening their knowledge rather than deepening it in one line. Whether this be accomplished in the fifth year or. through reorganization of the curriculum. it be introduced earlier. the Commission heartily approves the practice. In any country the forms of technical training which can best be utilizea either in public works or leading industries should receive first consideration. The Philippiries have only comparatively recently started upon a caFeer o~ industrial expansion and of GoveFnment constructian enterprises. The Islands need. above all. at the present time the all-araund technical expert of sound practical judgment. These remarks are msertea' here because the Commission understands that the University Committee on Graduate Study views with dis~avor the granting o~ the master's degree for the kind of work hitherto done in the fifth year of th.e College of, li:ngmeering. It requires that in the future there lbe specialization in some paFticular branch of the course taken by the student. If to conform to such a regulation more men and maney are needed. ,it wouTd seem that they could better be used ta ease the congestion that alreadiY exists. The Co.mmission is primarily interested in discoveFing /:tow the divisions of, the University ca.n serve to advance the inte~ests of the Filipina peaple. It does not think the question of advanced degrees af very great iml'loFt<!nce. and hopes that the practice described above may be maintained wherever it be placedl in the curriculum. THE C0LLEGE 0F ~w.-1'be Board of Regents provided fOf the establishment of tII,e College of L.aw in 1911 and the stanaards of ad~ mission have been steadily ~aised until today the college is based upon two years of prelegal training. The camse in the Callege is four years and leads ta the degree of bachelor of laws. T'his is. in effect. one year more than the time given in tile average law sellool of the United States. But practically all the students in the UniversitY Law College are engaged in some occupatian during the day and have less time than the American student fOF study. Most of tile caurses are given after five o路 clock in the evening. The college is admirably administered. The question-and-answer method o~ instFuctian is carried out in no formal manner. The praetice eouFts are ealculated to qualify the student. as far as possible. for aetual practice in the profession. The Legal Clinic. whereby members of the seniar class are required to assist attorneys in the candue! af cases to which they are detailed. is an excellent addition ta the instruction in the callege. Mareover. as far as the Commission cauld discover. high standards are maintained by a rigid enforcement of soholarship rules. The numeer of stu1ilents has been kept within the resources necessary fOF efficient administr<!tion.


640 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES AlII these good pra€tiees have had as a result an exeellent record in the Bar examination: 1"ABU; 118. -BAR EXAMI>!ATIO>! RESULTS SHOWI>!G STI,NDING OF DIFFEREN'f LAW SCHOOLS. 192~1924

or

Number cnndidates

Law School

Passed

Percentage

Failed

--------------1--- --- ------1920 College of Law, University o[ the Philippines .. Philippine Law School Escuela de Derecha . . Santo Tomas University. . La Jurisprudencin .

18 16 15 8

20 27 123 40

Academia de LeYl!8 .

2~

11 108 81 21

13

as

Per cent 66.0 69 . 0 12 . 0 7 .0 0

1921

Gallege o~ Law, University of the P·hiJippineS . . Philippine Law School. . Nation,all!.aw College . , ..

26 87 . 11

26 84

100 91.8 72 . 7

1922 CoUege of Law, U niversity oC the Philippines .. Philippine Law School. . ... . . .. . . . .... . Nationall!.aw College . . Santo Tomas University . . .. . . . ~ . .. ~~ . .. . . . Academia de Leyes . Escuela de Derecha .. La JUl'isprudencia.

30 37

88 62 24 49 58 127 18

90.9 71.1 70 . 8 28 . 5 20 . 6 8.6 5.5

16 7 36 46 ).16 L7

rq

1'4 12 11

1923 College of Law. University of the Bliilippines . . Philip-pine Law Scbool . . National Law Gallege .. , .. . . Santo T omas University .. . ... . . . . . .. " .. . Escuela de Derec:ho. . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . .

94 . 7

88

36

U6

59 47 1168

76 81 14 26

4·1 28 33 127

62 . 5 29 . 7 16 . 9

43 220 78 55

82 100 21 10

11 120 61 45 59 123

74-. 0 45 . 0 27.0 18 . 0 11.0 9.0

6~.6

1924

College of Law, University or the Philippines.. Philippine Law School . ... National Law CoHege . ... ... . . . Santo Tomas University .. . . . Academia de Leyes . ... . .. . . .. .. . . ... . Escuela de Derecho .. . . . .. . ... . . . ... . . . .

66

1920 -------~--I--

College of Law, University or the Plillippines . .. . .. . . . ... P hilippine Law School. . . National Law College . . .. Santo Tomas University .. . . . Escuela de Derecbo. Academia de Leyes .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .

12

185

1921

1922

1923

1.924

:Avorage

-- ---- -- -

-

Perunt 65 59

12

100 91.8 72 . 7

90.9 7il . l 70 . 8 28.6 8.6 20.6

94.7 64-. 6 52.5 29.7 16 .9

74 45 27 18 9 tl

84 . 9 66 . 3 65.7 20 . 8 11.6 10.5


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

641

It is obvious from a study of this table to what an extent the College of Law is rendering a service in maintaining standards to which the private law schools must at least attempt to measure up. Some of these private law schools have numerous students who have no intention to try the bar examination and practice the profession, but who want the bachelor of laws degree as an aid in securing preferment in Government posItions. As the Islands are plentifully supplied with lawyers, this is in a way a fortunate circumstance. The Commission would favor a still further increase in time and other standards to reduce the number seeking entrance to the profession. The Commission regrets that the appropriation for the College of Law should be so restricted as to compel the employment of so many professorial lecturers who this year numbered thirteen as against four of the permanent staff. There is all the less reason for this in that the instruction fee charged by the College of Law amounted last year, according to the dean's report, to nearly fl20,OOO, whereas the expenditure of the College was but f'44i.1 ยง 1. Such figures would seem to justify a sufficient appropriation to make possible not only the employment of a larger permanent staff but also a sufficient addition to the library to make it adequate for its purposes. Were this to be accomplished. some of the excellent suggestions of the dean. such as giving advice and technical help to legislators in the drafting of proposea laws, giving extension courses in criminal law for the benefit of justices of the peace. municipal presidents, Constabulary officials. chiefs of police, and others might be realized. With these aims the Commission is in hearty accora. THE CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC AND THE SOHOel. OF FINE ARTS.-

The Conservatory of Music was establishea by act of the Legislature in 1916. The object of the Conservatory is given in the catalog as follows: We propose to encoura.ge. educate. train. and to send out students well grounded in technique. arl, knowledge. and experience. who will carry with them inspiration and culture to all pari.. of the ATchipclago. It is also ahe aim of the C:Onservalor;y to sct up and mo.inla.ln a standard of profi'cicnc:y equal 10 any like institution in America or Europe, and 10 create an atmosphere worthy of the inherent musical nature of' the

Filipino people.

To accomplish this object stuaents are admitted to a preparatory course "who show interest. aptitude, ana sufficient mental and technical developmen~." No other entrance qualifications are aemandea. The length of time required to complete the preparatory course depends entirely upon the ability of the individual pupil. When he does complete it. he may graduate into the regular Conservatory courses in 2lr106 j l - - i l


642 EIDlJCA'fIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIIPPINE£ pianoforte, violin, voice culture, and science and composition. The time required for the aver.age pupil to complete tile Conservatory course is four years, but again much depends upon tile pupil himself. When the work is completed he receives a diploma. Beyond the regular course is aSQloisb's course and a Post-graduate course. The Conservatory cnarges a fee of P2~ per semester. The School of Fine hts was made part of the University when the University was established il} I ~ I I!l. Instrucbion is offer-ed in painting, sculpture, and engraving fer wnich ne tuibion fee is charged. T he aim of the School as given in the catalog is as follows : The S choo l of Fine Arts has as ils chief purpose the teaching and development of tnc graph ic and plastic arts in their various and manifold branches. An, e'Jlort is made also to exert an influence toward IhC advancement and refinement of those industrial trades which are of an artistic nature; such as gold and silver work, ceramics, embroidery. lace making, furniture making, and metal work.

To accomplish this object pupils are admitted who have completed studies equal to these taught in the intermediate grades of the public SGhool. 1.Fhe ~comlilletien o~ the ceurse of stud¥ whien is of five years' durabion entitles the graduate; to a ciliplema e~ proficiency. The number of students wHo attend these schools is very large, 438 in the Censervatory and 1.179 in the Stlhool of F"ine Arts. It is beyond the cern prehension of the Commission how these institutions can \be properly administered with the adminisbrative staff at their disposal. Think of a director. administering an institution hav.ing 1,179 students wifu one assistant who must be secr.etary, registrar, clerk, and all other officials together! And the Conservatory is only a little better off in this respect. £uch an instirutien is simply not administered, it runs ·itseH. 1i'his belief is strengtnened by t'lle fact that the request of the Commission for specified data, statistics, and reports which were met by all the other schools and celleges with complete returns, brought forth . but ~nagmentary answers .!from the <h:onservator.y of Music and no response at all from the Schoel of Fine Arts. The difficulty of grading in either schoel is oThvious. One of the Commission found students ta!~ing a course in harmony, ,some of wl'iom had not been to a high schoel at all, other who had had one, two, three, or four years in a high school. and one had been a yea~ in college. Since the major of the work in each school consists ef irrdi¥idual instFucbion, it is aifficult to understand the simple physical problem of the staff getting around to all the students. Particularly is this true in th~ School of Fine Arts whieh has a teaching s~aff of but II for its 1,.17~ students. Tne Commission does net doubt


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINE£

643

that some students receive adequate attention and one memoer of the Commission saw excellent individual work peFformed. But that does not affect the geneFal situation. These two divisions of the Univer.sity are far removed from the campus of the University and are housed in rented buildings. The Commission has gathered the impression that little intetest is taken by the administrative authorities of the University in the affairs of these two schools and very little supervision exercised over them. If the University is to retain control of these two schools they should Iile completely reorganized and put upon a collegiate Iilasis. But the Commission questions the wisdom of retaining these institutions as divisions of tile University. The great majority of their students are of high-school age and attaintments or less. The public-school system main~ains agricultural and trade high schools. There is no reason why it should not maintain one high school of music and tile fine arts. Moreover, according to Table 127 OJ] geographical distribution of students, three-quarteFs of the students in the 5011001 of ~ine Arts and nearly two-thirds of those in the Conservatory of Music are residents of Manila and the great majority of the remainder in both schools are residents of the provinces in the immediate neighborhood of the capita\. It seems to the Commission to be a reasonable proposi~ion that! if these schools are to he maintained at public expense the Gity of Manila slloUld share directly in it. The Commission believes, however, that just as the pub1ic-scho01 system was established primar-ily to advance the intellectual and material interests of the Filipino people, so a government depaFtment of fine aFts sho.uld be established to advance thew spiritual welfare. In that case these two schools would find their nafural habitat and the UniveFsity might have a small School of Music and. Fine Ar.ts of univeFsil¥ grade in cooperation with the new depar-tment. THE UNIYERSIlY LIBRAR;Y.-No single part of an institution o£ learning is so essential as a libr·aFY. "To proyide advanced ·instruction in literature, philosophy, the sciences and arts, and to give pIofessional training," the aim ,of the University of the Philippines, as given in it& charter, makes an adequate library imperative. But the weakest division of the Universil¥ is unquestionably the library and that the language in the catalog referring to it conceals the fiue condition of tIlings is to be regretted. One has only to compare il with the libFaries of institutions with about the same numliler of students to disc.over its pitiable inadequacy. J


644 EJIDU<l:ATIONAIL ÂŁlbJRV,EY OF THE PHLLIPPINES T ABW: 119.-COMPARATIVE LIBRARY STATISTISS Expcn d~

Institution

Enrol1ment Volumes

iture for books

Sala~yex-

penditure

- -- - - - - - - - -University of Missouri . .. , ..... . . . .. ..... . . ... . . . .

University of Western Reserve .. .. . .. . . University of Kansas .. . ... , . . ... . . Univ ersi ty of Indiana .. . . .. ... . .. . University of Washington . . .. . University of the Pibilippmes . .. .

4, 2M 3 , 688 4 ,2 65 3,669 3,[00 3 , 50 0

177 ,800 160, 780 141,429 141 ,658 IM.'17 6 22 , 870

$12, 000 14, 662 19, 49 6 18 ,886 18 , 600 3, 848

$2 0 ,200 20 ,660 26 ,711 19 ,200 24, 696 6,880

Were one to discount duplicates aml count by individual titles, tne library of the Universi~y would not exceed 12,000 volumes including those in all the colleges and schools. The University authol'ities ha,ve been fairly successful in providing tile necessary buildings, equipment, and apparatus for instruction in me technical and scientific subjects; they have failed utterly in doing so fo~ the humanistic suliljects, for the lililiary is the laboratory for these lil~anches. Not only is there no lililra!'Y building, but the main colleetion of lilooks is housed in a building consuucted for cllemical 1abol'atoIY J'l UFposes and placed upon stacks of poor-class wooden cwnstruction which increases the danger from fire anC!! clesu uctive insects. The capacity of, the ma,in reading room is 1180 in a universitY of 3,5'0(;) stuaeilts! P ages of seFViiceable clata might &e incluclecl in this repo~t to illustrate the inaclequacy of Iibrary facilities ; and it ,must be emphasizecil that, serious as are conditions in the main library: they are much more serious in the separate college libraries. In fact some of the colleges hav.e no libraries worth mentioning. In excuse for the cleplo~alille library facilities, the statement is sometinles macle that the stuclents are permitted ancl encouraged to use the Philippine Library and the lililrary of the Bureau of Science. The latter is quite near the lblniver.sity campus and reaclily accessible; the former is at a clistance within the Walled City and requires a special v.isit in order that a stuclent make use of it. Mor.eover, these libraries have lileen establishecil to ser.ve constitueMies separate and clistinct ftO)II a university constituency ancl are increasing their resources on the basis of the needs of their cons~ituencies. The Univ.er.sity cannot and snotild not cilepend on them for. its principal needs. 11ihe Commission recwmmends that whateve~ plan of liluilding consttuction is adopted fOT< the near future by the University authorities. it should provide for the erection of a library building as a fir-st desideratum. Then the granting to the library of adequate funds to J'lrovide the necessary books, equipment, and personnel to enable it to function efficiently will be ~perative. RESEARCH AND EXTENSION WORK.-The opportunities for procluctive research in the PhilipJ'lines and particular-ly in fields removed


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

645

from the sphere of the average American and European scholar. are most numerous. In the botany. zoology. anthropology. linguisties. and history of the Philippines and neighboring countries. there is an almost inexhaustible mine. The University olfers post-g~ aduate wodt in these a nd other fields leading to the degree of master of science. It has several gifted scholars in its faculty who are peculiar,ly qualified to engage in research themselves and to direct the research of students. By a reduction in their hours of teaching and by supplying them with adequate resources opportunity should be given to such teachers to make their contributions to knowledge and to add to the prestige of the University. The Commission believes that rather than to establish a gr,aduate school of research for which there has been considerable agitation in the University cirdes. this is the sounder policy fOF the Universit;y to adopt. No department of a university is more costly than a graduate school requiring as it does speei/ll laboratory and librar;y facilities and 路 a personnel of unusl.\al attainments-a nother matter of eXipense. The University of the Philippines is a young institution whose foundations need strengthening. Its limited resoll\ces should be concentrated upon improving the wol1k in which it is already engage& The Commission is also of the belief that until the resources of the University, peromit otherwise. the Universit}l is wise in c\'lnfining its graduate work to that which leads to 'the maste~'s degree. The suggestion has been urged to establish an extension division of the University to bring its various departments within reach af all the people of the Islands. This would include ,lec~ures. caFTespandence work. demonstration work. and the multifar,iolls activities in which an energetic extension depar~ment engages. Some of these faFIDs of extension work. because so few of the people live m cities and because of the difficulty of travel. would be more difficult in ' the ~hilippines than in the United States. JJ or some athers the people of the Islands are hardly ready. For tlle reasans mentioned above. the Cammission is of the opinion that the University ought nat for the present to expand its extension work into a regularly oroganized extension department with all the expense that that entails. The Commissian believes it should co~tinue the extension work in which it is already engagea but should restrict expansion in the extension fiel8 to caoperating as far as possible with such governmental agencies as the Bureaus of Agrictilture. Mealth. and Education. INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION

THE PRESIDENT.- There are few positions in life which require a greater variety of abilities than that of the univeFsity president. Especially yersatile must be the president of a public university. He has not


646 EID1lJCATI@1N'AL StJIRVE¥ OF THE l!'i"IIUPPINES ene but man~ eens~ifueneies te satisfY'. He must be tile eaueational adviser ef ilis peart':! ef regents ana yet be' eentent to see seme ef his ac;'\;viee rejeetea on ether 1'l\.an eoilueabanal greunoils. He must be the le-a eer ef his faeullfy ana formulate plans fol' tl\.e advaneement ef the uni:versity enl!y te finoil that man~ members heCiJuently, aeubt ~he wisaem ef l\.is plans and seme e,ppese- tiheir exe0u~ien. He must earry with him in his refer-m a bedy ef alumni wl\.e believe that tl\.e el'd ways are the best wa¥s. He must satisfy a beoil:y ef stuaents whe ate eenstantl;r aemanaing greater partieipatien in univeisity, aaministratien. Finally, aespite tile epposition ef influenees that have little regatd fer higher. eall(;a~ien at publie e;x:pense, l\.e must eonMinee the L.egislature of tne ab.selute necessilfy ef tl\.e reCiJuests he makes. Surel;r a man ef :visieu and e*perienee is neeeecl, a man 'With badH10ne' eneugh to maintain his gral)nG! amI :y;et with .suffieie'nt taet and eeur(esy te win hearty r.ather. than gruaging suppor!. What l\.as been the his(ery e.f .the lU:niversity e£ the IRl\.ili~pines in respeet te tl\.e presii;\ene¥? ~inee tHe insNlIlatien ef its firs~ presiaent, June 1, I (!)IJ 1, until the Cemmeneement ef 11925, a per,i ed ef fourteen ~ears, it ha·s I\.a<il SUf p'tesioilents er aetjng presiaents. Their periads ef serviee were as fell eM'S : . 1. Murray BaFtlel, June 1, 1911, te Commeneement, 1'9.'15. 2. Itgnaeie Villamar, Jiune ":J" 11)11;, te May 19, 192@. 3. lese ffise_aleF (A:eting ,jp,resioilent), ~eeember 28, 11)18, te June

14, JC!HI). 4. Alejandre A:l\beFt (A0ting ~resiaent)" May, 2@, 11)2@, to April

4, 11)21. 5. Cuy Fetter. Benten, Apr.il 5, 1(;}:21 te OetebeF 8., 1<J23. e. Rafael F'ailma ~}.\effilg f!resident), Detsber I Q, 11)23, (e Cemmencement, 1!])25. Fer its presieent, any universiry; needs a man witl1 CiJualitie.s af leaclership and it sheulG! insuFe him a tenUFe sufficiently lang to enable rum te fermulate his plans ana attempt te re.ali!Ze them. IIer a new univ:eFsity beth are abseluteliY essential FequiFemen(s. It is unnecessary to eensiaer wl\.elher any er aU o~ tl\.ese gentlemen were leadeFs. No ene ef them I\emainecl in effiee sufficiently long to accemplisl\. mUl;:h ef whatever plans he may ha,v:e .fenmulateoil. [,n this (wnstant suceessien of e;x:e(mtives the cleans e£ the c_elleges in ar.eer te keep tl\.ings geing had naturally te assume runetien5 that belengei;\ te the presiaent. At times there have been lack ef l\.armony ane unwise inteFferenee hem without, and wer-king at cr.oss pllr.Jj!oses. 'i[il\.a( the Uni:v.ersity shoula ha<ve maintained itself in the manner that it has is astonishing. }li;ertunately, this chael'ic period seems te have d'r.awn to a clese. At the past Commencement, the Acting President, !Rafael Palma', was elected ~resident The Com-


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHIL,IPPINES

647

mISSion has found in him a man of fine charader, rare experience, sound judgment, and excellent vision as to the needs of the University and the line of development it should ~ake. The Commission expresses the hope that the Board of Regents will CODe>entrate in his hands the power nee>essary to realize his plans. With the rapid change in the personnel of the executive, it has been reasonable and ne'"essary for tile Board to supervise details of administration to a greater extent than might be necessary when the University is provided with a permanent president. Unquestionably the most essential tiling for the University of the Philippines today is the r,ight kind of man as chief executive. THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL.-The University Cound consists o~ the teachers of the gFade of professor, associate professor, and assistant professor. The number at present is 141 and a majority constitutes a quorum. Subjec~ to the approval of the Board of Regents the Council has power to prescFibe the courses of study and rules of discipline. It fixes the requirements for admission to and graduation from any ,,01lege, and it alone has the power. to recommend students or others as recipients of degrees. Within the limits prescr.ibed by the rules of discipline approved by the Board o~ Regents, it has disciplinary power over the students. These are important and varied functions, but whether a body of the size of the CoUhcil is not too' unwieldy to jilerform some of them efficiently seems probable. Moreover, su"h "olleges as the Colleges o~ Law, ffingineer,ing, and Veterinal1!' ÂŁ"ience whi"h have small teaching staffs have relatively little influen"e in voting power, whereas the College of Liberal Afts can usually contral the decisions of the Council. The Council shauld meet to discuss broad questions of University policy but the details of legislation and administration c~n be more readily and satisfactorijy settled in a 'smaller group. The Commission believes that the University should be provided with an Administrative Committee to assist th'e President in the administration of the regulations established by the Council, in preparing budget recommendatians, etc. In some American univer~ties su"h a body is made up of the dean and one elected member from the faculties of the smaller. colleges and the dean with twa elected members fram tile lMger college faculties. The Commission makes na recommendatian, however, as to the way in which the work of the Council may be more efficiently organized. ' THE SECRETARY (!IF THE UNlVERSITI.-There has been everywhere a great increase in the duties of the secretar.ies of universities in the last twenty years. With increase in size and complexity, the l?resident has been compelled to delegate many administrative details to the supemsian of subordinates. Partieular.ly in emergencies he must be provided with the necessary assistance. 2y taking on bur,dens as "ire um-


648 EDUCAnONAL. SURVEY OF THE. PHILIPPINES stances dictate the Secretary has become to a great extent an emergency man. Iu the University of the Philippines, the Secretary of the University is also Secretary of the Board of Regents. The office has become, in fact, one of the really important administr.ative pasitions of the University, ana the present mcumbent fills it efficiently. In whose hands is placed the contral of purchasing and stor,mg gaods and makmg inventories is not altogether clear. Apparentl~ the SeGretary is in the last analysis respansible. The t1niversity has wisel~ placed the purehasmg of all supplies m the hands of a purchasing agent who seems to have organized the worl!:. efficiently. The University unfortunately lacks a central reeeiving station for deliveries and a wor.llliouse which would permit purchase m quantity, safe storage, and accurate inventory of supplies on hand. The need of such a place should be considered m the University's buildmg program. The University makes an annual mventory of its property wnich apparently is thoroughly done. THE REGLSTRAR.-Great as has been the 路mcrease in the funetions of the secr.etary, even mare remarkable has been the development of the offiee of registrar. At first, its fundians were purely clerical m nature; today, they are many-sided and important. The registr.ar must make and keep the recards of the stueent m order ta help direct his course m the University. T a al)alyze til'iese receras so that univer.sity aammiskation may be remaved ham a basis of mere general impr.essian ta a basis of ab jective fact is an even greater task and makes the r.egistrar the right hand of the wnole aammistration. The registrar is also the natural official to pass upon the fulfillment of entrance qualifications. In' same mstitutions the registr.ar is secretary to the faculty. He is thus enabled to keep in tauch with the work of the faculty in determmmg standards, curricula, etc. The Commission has been surpr.ised that amang its officials, the Uni:versity af the Philippmes has neither a registrar nor a bursar. Smce the College of Agricultur.e is provided with a registrar wha admmister.s his office in a most efficient manner., the situatian is yet more surpnsmg. The duties of registrar and bursar at the Uni:versity are scattered amang a number of ather affieials, the secretary" accountant, property derk, etc. lIhe Commission found it necessary ,to call with great u,equency for records, statistics, and mformation generally. Despite tile absence of a registr.ar. it is glad to state that its requests were always met promptly and satisfactorily. The matter of tile registrar will agam be considered under the headmg of General Office. FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS CONTROL.-Probably no better way of discovermg the extent of the activities of a university and of the efficiency of its management exists than by a study of its budget. Until, however, certam great educational foundations made mvestigations m the field of


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

649

university financial procedure, university accounting was by no means an exact science. In recent years, accountants trained in academic as well as financial administration have introduced new and better systems. With a State university, the intrduction of such a system is usually more difficult because it must conform to the requirements of an accounting system primarily adapted to other public functions and offices, than with an endowed institution. This difficulty is met in the University of the Philippines. When the Commission requested the Secretary to explain the procedure in the preparation of the University budget, he replied in writing as follows: 1. Upon receipt of notification from the Secretary of, Finance as to the submission of ellimatu for the enluing year. the President of the University requests the Deans and Directors of the various colleges and schools 10 prepare and submit estimates of expenditure. of their rClpeclive units. 2. The data thu. ,ubmiUed are gathered and compiled. 3. The President rcv~1eS the estimates and after revision submits them to the Com .. mince on Finance of the Board of Regents for study. report, and recommendation to

Ih. Board. 4. After the e$llmatci have been considereq and approved by the Board, they are forwarded on the attached forms to the Sec.retary of Finance for inclusion in the general budget wbich gqes 10 the Legislature. S. Jf the roquel' of l1;lc University is not granted in full. the amount allotted by the Legislature il again redisrributed by the Board of Regents to the different c.olleges. in accordaDce with the recommendation of the President made as a result of consuhation with each Dean and Director as to the need~ of his particula1> unit for the currt"nl year.

As far as it goes this procedure is excellent. But it must be notec;l that each college and, as far as the Commission is aware, each department, classifies its expenditures according to a method of its owo. There is no uniform system of classifying proposed eJfpenc;liture in order to secure advance estimates from the various departments and colleges in making up the budget. The organization of some simple scheme of classification of expenditures printed upon identical blanks and distributed to the heads of departments for a statement of estimates w~uld be much better. Similarly after the distribution of the amounts allotted to each unit, department heads shoulc;l be furnishec;l with requisition blanks to be filled out in duplicate. Each department requisition having the approval of the dean should carry a statement of the balance still available in the department funds. This shoulc;l be certified to by the accountant. Only in some such way can adequate comparison of receipts and expenditures by years be kept up and a real knowledge be obtained over a succession of years of the financial affairs o~ the University and of its divisions. Proper financial reporting is second in importance only to proper budgeting. The Bureau of Education at Washington insists that such


650 EDtJCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES a ~eport presents at least three faets: A general balance sheet setting forth all assets and liaoilities; a statement o~ eurrent income and expenditur.es (with careful analysis of moth) for the cmrent year and the preceding year; a comparative statement of operatians for all units praducing ineome. farms. darmitories. dining halls. ete.; and a report on all student aetivity founds administered by tne University. The University af the Philippines measures up well to these standards. A promising start originated at the State University af Washington has been made on the accounting scneme for university easts. Some eost figures on this basis were prepared by the University autharities for the Commission. But the work had ta be dane with inadel;juate pr.eparatian and insufficient time. As a result. the data turned over. to the Survey staff could not be utilized in the short time and with the limited linaneial staff available. Another time the University wlll be amle to earry out sueh cast accounting itself so as to make for. its own use buitfUi cost compar,isons between different depar,tments af the ins~itutian. Far. such internal use this form of cost accounting has its greatest value. The Commission is of the opinion that the aecounts af the University are accurate and that its financial affairs are honestly administered. It must also be r.emembered that all accounts and expenses are audited by the Insular Auditor. and all disbursemen s made in accaraanee with rules and regulations wnich he preseribes. THE GENElAAb OFFIâ&#x201A;ŹEl.-An institution of the size of the University of the Philippines has a multitude af duties to be performed whklh do not belong to any speeilie department. Clerieal and stenographic service. purehasing, the disseminatian af informati<'!n are a few of these miseellaneous functions which for their well doing requ~ the organization of praper maehinery. M'ost well-organized institutions have a general office 'for this purpose. As far as the Commission eould diseaver there is no general office at the l!J niversity of the Philippines. Although same af, the burclen seems to ga to the aeeountant and a portion even to the President's private secretary. most of it falls up an the seeretary's affice. The cier,ical and stenographie Foree is dispersed thraughout the affices af various administrative departments. This is partly a necessity but. if derical assistants thraughout the University were recognized as parts of a eentral affiee organizatian. it cauld me largely overcome. If this general office were supervised my a capable office manager. he could. as the result of canference with administrative heads. organize an equitable distr,ibution of Doth wark and assistance. The Commission recommends that the affice of registrar be created, the incumbent to perform the duties generally attached to that position. He shoulCi III addition have charge of the general office af the University.


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

651

PLANT UTlLlZATlON.-The approach to the campus of the University is a disappointment. The campus itself is of good size and attractively laid out but one sees only two real Duildings upon it, Rizal Hall a nd University Hall. A number of small buildings nearby houses the College of Engineering and some of the other departfnents. Across the' street and in the attractive grounds belonging to the Philippine General Hospital is the sole building of the College of Medicine. At Los Banos things have a more pleasant appearance. The large grounds of the College of Agriculture are admirably laid out, the buildings, barns, sheds, etc., appear properly placed, and though the eollege authorities would like to have some addition to the plant, more adequate prevision is made for it than for the divisions at Manila. The two main buildings house the general administration and the Colleges of Law, Liberal Arts, and Education, the last two being the largest in the University. The result is congestion all around and considerable confusion. Between the hours of 8 :30 and 11 :30 a. m. there are few rooms not in use for recitations. Because of the climate there is a lull in classroom work du~ing the next three hours. Much of the instruction is carried on during the late afternoon and evening. The Commission heard no complaints as to the assignment of rooms for recitation and laboratory work, either as to time or place, and is of the belief that the reom space is ellidently used. But the situation with reference to faeulty members, ollices, and work rooms appeared to be far from satisfactory. If the members of the faculty a)1e to achieve the highest results for the U niversity, they must be provided with good working quarters. BUILDING PROGRAM. -Enough has been stated in this report thus far about the inadequacy of space to indicate the absolute necessity for additional buildings. Since the advent of the business depression after the War, only such minor buildings have been constructed for the University as were absolutely necessary to maintain instruction in certain branches. Buildings essential to the ellicient administration of the institution have not been forthcoming. The special session of the Legislature of 1922 in aciditien te the annual appropriation, appropriated for the University 1"18,000,000. This appropriation was to be distributed in specified sums during a nine-year period and would have taken care of necessary building construction. For the teason that the Legislature failed to provide the revenue necessary to meet these successive appropriations, the Governor-General disapproved the sums subsequent to the amount for the first year. The Commission recommends that the Legislature provide the modest sum of fl300,OOO a year for the next five years for construction purposes for ' the University.


652 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PF4IUF'PINES This would enable the University to meet at least the most pressing needs, sueh as the library building, the building for the College of Medieine already mentioned, and administration building sadJ!y needed to concentrate administrative activities and relieve spaee for instruetional pu~poses, a university auditorium, the lack af which interferes with student assemblies in the long rainy sea,son, and sudl minor building accommodations as are urgently required by several of the eolleges. THE FPleNL. TY

TRAINING AND ExPERIENCE.-The most difficult part of a survey of a university is the determination of facmlty efficieney. The Commission visited many classroams and lis~ened to. the Feeitatians in progress, but this method of judging the entire teacning staff was manifestly impossible. Nor would it have availed, had it been passible. Such intangible fadors as devatian to duty, loyalty to super-iors, independent study, 'ete., eannot l'>e measured. To determine faculty efficieney reliance must therefore be placed upon eertain eommonly aeeepted standards. ~hese a.re aeaaemie tra,ining, teallhing exper-ience, and produlltive schalarship as indicated fiy publications. In interpreting the following table it should be remembered that the master's degree tepresents one year's additional study beyond graduation from college, and the dOlltor of philosophy degree represents not less than three years of graduate work. The North Central Assolliation of Colleges and Secondary Sllhoals in 1<n3 made the follawing pronounllement which may The allcepted a,s a good standard of judgment: The minimum scholastic requirement of all c.ollege tcadiers shall be equivalent to graduation from a coIlcge beloJiging to this association and graduate wor:k equal at least> to that rc_quired for a mas ter's degree. Oraduate study and training in research equivalent to that required for abe doctor of philosophy degree arc urgently recommended, but the teacher's success is to be determined by the efficiency of his teaching as well as

by his research work.

In testing the University af file Philippines by these standards, the professional colleges may ee omitted. A reading of the records of the academill training of the teaehing stafli of these div,isians sqow that the instructors are nearly all prefessionalliV trained men with the appropriate degrees. Attention then Ilan be Ilonfined to the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Edueation. llhe statisties in those div.isions ~e as follows: College Liberal Arts . ..... . .... .. ... .. . Education ... . . .. . .. ... . . . .. 'l1otal.

... .... .. ..

-'p, 23 1

31 9

24

40

Bachelor Engineer

'~p. ~=~

Total

degree

- --51 2

----;;a

1 0 1

8

o

r-----sl

:I 0

116 12

2

128


653

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

The bachelor's degree is of a great variety of kinds : arts, science, law, agriculture, business administration, etc. There were a few ather degrees such as the high-school teacher's certificate. which may be ignored. Just ane-half of the 128 teachers whose recerds were available conform to the standard accepted above. The other half hold no degrees higher than the bachelor's. This is paFtI¥ because of the large number of assistants employed who are usually recent graduates. Both facts are unfortunate and the l1niversity should. as so.on as p·ossible. improve the situation. "l'he matter of salary, which is discussed below, enters largely into the question. The University is to be congratulated on the fact that so many af the instructors wha hold advanced degrees received them from institutions of high standing, widely distributed throughout ,the United States. This is principally due to the admirable system maintained by the University of keeping not Jess than ten members of the instructional staff in the United £tates for graduate work at the UniveFsity's expense. No policy is better adapted to stimulate the intellectual lead'ership of the faculty. The system whereby the sele€tian of these pensionados is left to the discretien af the President, assisted with advi€e from the deans of the colleges, appears, moreover .. to be sound and to wOFk well in practice. The University is fortunate in the tea€hing experience af its faculty. Few teachers of the grade of instructor or aJ!,ove l\.ave t;.iught less than five years and a number have ~aught relatively, lang periods. Hewever, there are very few wha have taught in other institutions. Tl\.e cause is partly histarical. The U ni1i'ersity of the Philippines like the educational system of the Islands generally, w.as organized under American influence and largely with American peFsonnei. With the lapse of fifteen years, the number and influence of Americans in the l1niversity has decreased until naw they number but one-eighth of the teaching staff. Their places have been taken almost inv:arial;ily by Filipinos and by graduates of the University itself. 11'ris is most natur-al and ta be expected. Whether the movement has not proceeded too fast is the only question. The age statistics of the tea€hing sta·fi are very interesting. Of all the teachers of the rank of instructor aF above: Years

1.2 per .. 01 .............................................................................................. 6<h69

6.5 102 56.5 25.5

por por por por

c.nl.. ....................................................................... ...................... ;0...59 .001 ............................................................................................... 40--49 cool. ............................................................................................. 1~~9 cool .............................................................................................. 2()"'29

In other words, 82 per €ent of the teaching st·aff of the Univ:ersity are below 40 years o~ age. Were assistants included, tIl~ percentage waulg!.


e54 EDlJCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES be consideralM\Y higher. Probably in no atl1er university in Europe or AmeriGa Gould the age statistics of the University of the Philipl'lines be duplicated. It is a great advantage to have a strong body of young teaehers in any university but eSl'leeially in a young institution maturity and expe~ience are of primary importance. A secand result of the displacement mentioned above has been the great inbreeding that has acc;omFlanied it. l1hree quarters of the teaching staff of the University af the grade of assistant and above (assistants near-ly all became instr-uctors) are graduates oÂŁ the University. Every university will necessaril\Y have man\y alumni among its teaching staff to maintain continuity of policy and tradition. but a wise administration will incorporate a sufficient numDer of nonalumni ta bring different views upan questions af curriculum, instruetion. and administratian. It is true that the evil effeGts of inbreeding are to a great extent overcome in the University of the Philippines by the excellent practice already discussed, viz: the I'lFaGtice of sending same of the best young instructors to da graduate war.~ in the universities af the United States. Nevertheless. to the Cammissian the wisdam o~ filling a larger number of vacancies and new Flositians with teachers af eXFlerience and maturity fram the United States and fareign couhtri~s. is quite obvious. The administration af such a FloliGY is expensi:ve. I'lU the Commission believes it to be sound. The comparative youth of the teaGhing staff is no doubt also the eXFllanation of its relative sterility in sdl.olarly produetiÂĽity. The answers ta the questiannaire de:vated to discavering the number of artieIes of a research character I'lublished by the instruetors would have been discouraging but for the fact that a faculty which is 82 per cent below 40 years of age has hardly had time to do a great deal in the field of research. Hawe:ver. on~ re<!-sanable Ganclusion is tl\.at the Uni:versity should not Gonsider the establishment of a graduate school until a larger number of the teaching staff manifest greater power of scholarly productivity. The Commission would not be understood as maintaining the pasition that cantinua,l publicatian is an essential in determining the usefulness of a member of the faculty. Many of the best teachers in the universities of the United States have devoted little or no time to researeh. And inspiring teachers are so few in any institution that it wau!d. be a misfartune to turn SUGh a aue inta a possibly poor research scholar merely to add to the prestige of an institutian in the field of research. But the University af tne F'hilil'lpines compares badly in this respect with other universities and the Government owes to its citizens


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

655

the duty of supporting productive research in those fields in which the University can make valuable contributions. One other aspect of the training and experience of the teaehing s~aff must be mentioned. Of the 427 names on the instructional payroll. 121 or 28 per cent are made up of assistants and lecturers. an unusually large percentage. That most of them are found in the professional schools is true. but 30 of the 121 names on the payroll of the College of Liberal Arts are assistants and lecturers. In some eases lecturers must be secured from the outside. but in others no such policy ean be justified. Moreover. employing young assistants is a cheap but not an efficient teaching device. Rather than resort to this practice. numbers should be cut down. But if the University is to do its work efficiently. unquestionably the Legislature must provide the funds necessary to secure a sufficient number of able teachers. REMUNERATION AND SERVICE.-College professo~s cannot hope for the financial rewards Qf other professions. but they have a rignt to expect remuneration sufficient to insure a comfortable living and opportunity for study and research. In the United States in practically all institutions there have heen considerable increases in salaries since the War. The following table is taken from Bulletin. 1920. No. 20. of the Bureau of Educatiqn. dealing with. "Salaries in Universities and Colleges in 1920." It deals only with faculty members in public institutions: TABLE 120.-SAl.ARIE.S IN UNIVERSITIES AND COLLECES

Title 01 position

President. or ehnnecllor . ..... .... Dcnn or dU'4!:ctor . .... . .... .. ProlC:SSor ..... ............ . . . .. _ Aasoclo.to professor. .. . . .. . Asafsto.n t professor . .... .. . , . . ... .. ... ... Instructor ... .

.. .. .. ... . ..

.. ... ..... ...... ...

Aaslat.nDt . . . . .. . . . . _... ...â&#x20AC;˘.. ... .. ... . .

Number 01 persons

--

77 367

2,46U

522 1,706 2,1 88 866

Mini~

mum. salury

~::a~ salar.y

A vernge Median

salary

salary

Most

C:1:re;t

-------- -$2 .600 $12 .600 1,20U lu , 000 300 10,000 4,_ 800 600 4.000 8,100 800 76 2,600

$6.6il7 8,819 8,126 2,614 2 , 068 1,662 801'

$G.OOU

8,600 8,000 2,600 2,000 1,600 760

" $6,000 8,000 3,000 3 ,000 1,800 1 ,600 1 ,20 0

This list contains many institutions situated in rural communities where the cost of living is considerably lower than in large cities. In 1916 the Philippine Legislature passed an act limiting the sala~ies for the various grades of the teaching personnel of the Universitiy of the Philippines as follows:


65G EIDU{;ATIONAIL £tJlRY:E.Y ©F THE PMIUF>F>INES Fresident of. tile tW'niversity ........................................................... . 1'10,000.00 D eans who arc at the same time professors not to e~ceed ....... _. 6,600,00 F ull pro fc:!sors 'not to exceed ......................................................... . 6,000.00 A sso ciate 'P-rofessors not to exceed............................. __................ . 4.500.00 Assistant I?rofessors not to exceedl ..................-............................ . 3.600.00 Inslr:uctors not to exceed~a) l nstructor:s in laboratorics ............................................. . 2,200.00 (II;} Instructors in genera1. .................................................... _ 2,000.00 Assistant Instructors not to exceed~a~ Instructors in laBoratol'ies .............................................. 1,200,00 ~ b~ Instructors in generaL .................................................. . %0,00 Graduate Assi, tanls not to ex(;eed ............................................... . 360.00

T aiRing onl¥ tne a~erage sala~y Nam tne American ta\!>le ana condollars into pesas, compare the salaries in the twa tables:

~erting

United F ositiOD

Pbi li~Qine

State!!

average salar.y

I

~~a:t

® iflerence

- - - - - - - -1'13,267 ~,63 8

:Associate professors ... Assistant pr:ofessors .. .!:nstrlu ctors . . ... ... . Assi§)tants . . .. .

6,202 5,028 4, 106 3, 1 0~ ~ , 602

1'·10 , 000 6 ,60·0 6 ,000 4,500 3 , 600 2, 200 l , 20Q

1'8,257 1 1 038 252 528 606 904 402

In every gFade the hi.ghest saIa~ paitil in the Uni~ersity at the Philippines is belaw the a~er.a.g e salary paid in the United States, A nd the salary wale in tne Unites ~tates has risen since 192(i). 'fhe firsf recammenaatfan t1le ~ammissian makes with reference to sa,laries is that ~e highest sa:laFies faF eacn gFaae at the U niVersity; \ile at least increased ta Gamfarm as n.early, as passilDle fa tile a;verage salal1)' fa)1 the same grade pa.i d in the United ~tates. J.n no ather. way can the University secure the best mater.iaI faF its faculties. Anyane associated with a great institu~ion af learning ICnaws the annual pre.ssure upen the acdministratian for increases in salary. The ea.sy w.ay. to a~ercame the pressure is fa acdopt, as has been done by mah¥ uni;versities. inducding the hlni:v.eFsity of the Pnilipli!ines, a schecdule which fixes tile salaroes a£ teacner.s aecarcding ta the gr.aa es they fill. 'iI'hls per.mits of seIDe variat,ian af sala!'Y/ within the graae; but it alsa means that in al'der ta .gi~e a man mar.e than the maximum salary af the gratile he must be ·aavancea in rank aF in ortiler ta acdvance him in rank. he must. be given mare salaF:\, than the maximum of his gracde, I'n the U niversity at t1le Philippines, any meml'>eF af the edueational staff paicd ane peso more than f.l2, 200 .immecdiately becomes an assistant professor. But teacning rank ana salaFY are net nec·essary accompani-


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

657

ments. Salary is compensation for service rendered. whereas title is a recognition of distinction as teacher. or scholar or administrator. A man may be extremely useful to his institution but not have eamed a rank by distinction. His institution ought to be able to recognize his service by increasing his salary. In the University of the Philippines because of the legislative act referred to above. this cannot be done. The charter of the University provides that the Board of Regents appoint all teachers and fix their compensation. The Commission recommends that the Legislature repeal Act Na. 2672 and restore to the Board its original power in this respect. For the guidance of all eoncerned and for the sake of organization and departmental eJliciency. the number and the corresponding rank of the personnel of all university or college departments and offices should be formulated. To that end the Board Qf Regents on February 7. 1924. ereated a special cammittee and made a request for an early report. Th.e report was made March 29. 1924. and as finally adopted reads as follows: The Board of Regents fecI. Iba~ there should be a definite number of members of the instructiona.l ataff in each department or college of the University, and a definite scale of •• Iaries be adopted. The Board, however. is aware of the fact that the prescot Icale of aalaries appears 100 low. The instructors. assistant professors. and associate profeno,. .bould be given ,uffident compensation so thai they would be sat'isfied even if the incentive held oul to them is limited to a promotion in case of vacancy only. While the following rul« governing appointments and promotions muat be applied at once. ahe Board should therefore renew it. effort to request for more appropriation and for the revision of ahe present scale of aalarie!. A. The above po.ition. are recommended as the standard personnel composing the

te,chiDg .t,1f of

.11 the colloges aDd school. of the UDiversity of the PhilippiDes, aDd,

unlcn the contrary is conclusivdy demon.trated, and by two-;.third vole of all the members of the Board of Regent., no new posilioDs shall be created by the Board of Regents. B. The new positions III scheduled above mu.1 only be filled as far as the appropriation of the Univertity permits it. C. No promotion from Instructor to Assistant Professor ,hall be made unless the candidate has served at leal' two years as Instructor. Promotion from Assistant Professor to AssociAte ProfehOr .hall only be granted aher two ),ears service as Assistant Profe$Sor and from Auociate to full Professor unless the incumbent has served two yean as Auoeiote or five yeara in the University from .he time he held the title of Instructor. D. No promotion in rank must be approved by the Board of Regents unless there is a vacancy according to tbe terms of tliis standardization and unless the promotion is warranted by the research work. important publication, or manuscript evidencing high Icholaflhip, teaching ability, and all conditions being equal, seniority in the service of the incumbent, said circumstances to be set forth in detail in the record of the candidate lor promotion and to be p'reseDled 10 the attention of the Board. E. A. a general policy, the Board. when filting a vacancy snail not award at once to the incumbent the maximum salary assigned to the position, 'but the compensation will be gradually increased until reaching the maximum in accordance with tbe research work, publications. teaching ability, and seniority in the service of the incumbent. 21~06~---42


658 EQl:!JCATIONAL £VRVEY OF THE F'J!HUPPINES F. No appointment Dor promotion in rank or saJar"y shall l>c cqosi<iered by the Board of Regents unless its committee on personnel has suBmitted its report on the qp.alincationa of the candidate giving in details the mcr.its of the candidate.

Censideroing the geneFal eenditiens attending the 'University the Commission believes that the prev.isions ef the repeFt will make foro the best inter.ests ef the institutien. ' 1'lle chief mater.ial cs'empensatiens that the Uni"lersity: proefess.er usually l'ecei:ves for nis small remuneration are seGuriliy of tenure, a pension upon Fetrr.emenb, and ,the pr.iyilege of sabbatieal leave. Of these tIle University: of toe Pllilippines pre:vides only the first. 1fe a body of teaGheFs, 82 per. Gent of whem are belew feny years ef age, a pension may not seem a, pressing matteF: !l3ut it sheuM be FemembeFeM that today a pensien gFanted in eld iige blears some relatien te the eentFibutien made bly the pensioneF in the yeaFs befere FeliiFement. 'HIe Cern. mission believes that ae.tien leeking fe the establishment ef a ,pension system shoaM me taken my tOe preper autherities and reGommends eenfeninGe with the effieia:js of the Carnegie Feundation whieh has had ille faJgest exper-ienee \With pension affaiFs. The Cemmissien also believes tOat a gener-al poliey sHeUld be adepted with referenee te sabl&atical lea::v.e, That ;heulGl ena:blle faGulty member-s at Gertain in. tervals te oa"le eemplete relief hem teadning ebIigatiells and to seeure the stimulus that cernes nem ,Fest er stucly abroai!l. Sueh a poliey might be eomblined with one i!lealing with eXGhange prefessorships whereby members ef the l0ni:ver.siBr ~aeuby ma;y; excnange pi11.ees· with teachers in Aineriean er feFeign in.sb!titien. SUGh a system in these institutions has neaFIy. alw,ays betn attended by, the happiest results. 'fHE "FiE'ACHING IL@~.-'i(iihe Worth, Central .A:sseciatien has agreed upon a teaehifig lead, of' sixteen semester houFs a week as tIle maximum. 'Hie l0niversity ef the PhiliFlPines measures up f~vorabl!l' to that standard and the Cemmissien met fe\W cempiainfs on the scere of excessive hems' of instJ;uetien. As is eustemar;y. in e"lelo/ institutien, the depaFtments whose wOFk is la~.gel¥ with first-year men, lilear heavie~ loads. 'llhis is partieul~rliY true in a rapidl;y grewing yeung in:s.titution wlle~e the ttnde~cy is ~ewatGs evererowding. It is te be O"lereome R>y censtant yearly, aaditiens te the faeulty ana then by admitting only the number o~ students that can Me cared fer prepetly. Toe aGtual burden upen If teacher, heweyer, eannot be measuf.ed b¥ the numbeF of hours peF week that he teaehes. The size of classes and the nature' of the work pla¥ a l-ar.ge part in aeteromining his actual perfOFmance. A teacher ef fiEst-y.ear English with a seerien of 9(i) that reGites three times per week who must read and eorrect weekly ' themes has a much greater burden than a thiFd-yeal' ttaeher e~ mathemariGS whCi! may haye two secti.ons ef 20 eaeh, aJse reciting three times


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHIL.IPPINES

659

per week. Nevertheless, in order to avoid injustice and properly apportion funds among departments, some method of comparison of the teaching load carried by different faculty members must be adopted. The Bureau of Education ab Washington has adopted a unit known as the "student clock hour," which is defined as follows: "One student under instruction in lecture, quiz, or laboratory for at least 50 minutes net represents one student clock hour; for example, therefore, 20 students meeting four hours a week in recitations represent 80 student clock hours. The student clock hour reckons laboratoFY, lecture, and quiz exercises equally hour for hour. For instance, a student spending one hour in lecture, one hour in quiz, and four hours in laboratory in a week can be counted as receiving six student clock hours of instruction." The elective system is an obstacle to obta ining a large degree of uniformity in the teaching load as indicated by the student dock hour, but an agreement upon a theoretica,!ly proper average term load is impol'tant. The numerous investigations of institutions made by the United States Bureau have led it t~ suggest the following: That in Db lnstitut\on where research work is encouraged and expected it is reason~ able to expect also a deparlmental average of 250 student clock hours per instructor per week. Thil, it is believed, might be a fair-working average for the larger modern Siale univcrsiliu. In a i:liatinclivcly undergraduate college. on the other hand, where re.carch i. limited and where little or no graduate work is conducted, a departmental average of 300 lludent clock hours per instruclor is regarded as a reasonable norm. ]n this connection il i, worth while to note that lusually an institution whose program i. made up largely of laboratory work will generally record a larger number of student clock hOUri per instruclor than an institution mosl of whose program consists of non路 labora tory course. '

The Commission requC$ted of each dean that he prepare a statement of the cost of instruction per student, per instruetof, and per department in his institution. In fulfilling this request, the deans made use of the student clock hour as a unit of measurement. Unfortunately, however, not all deans used it in the same way, consequently, the possibility of drawing comparisons between the colleges as to the teaching load is precluded. As the Commission does not believe that the te~ching load is fairly distributed among the colleges, it recommends that ~ committee of the Council be appointed at an early date to investigate the subject and in the fight of the circumstances attending the University make recommendations to the Council. SIZE OF CLASSES.-Without considering the size of classes. only in. correct conclusions could be drawn with reference to teaching load or student cost. To have an unnecessarily large number of small classes means greatly to increase stlldent costs. To have excessively large classes is to increase the teaching load unfairfy and to produce inefficient


660 EDUCA7iONAL SURVEY OF THE RHIUPF'INES teaching. In the "Sunley of the State Higher. Institutians of Iowa" made by the United States Bureau of Education. the matter is summafized as follows: Many small classes indicate in some cases tne lack of adequate study of the curriculum or schedule by the administrative offic::ers, and in others an undue effort by departments to scr.ve the whims or the convenience of students in ardell to build up departmental enrollment. Large classes on the other hand, unless they are lecture claases usually entail inferior educational results. Classes of 30 or over are least open to question. Any considerable Dumber. of. them generally shows a need for: more instructors or a poor distribution of students and instructors.

The fact with reference to the University of the Philippines has already been given. 7he cFiticism of the United States Bureau of Education quoted above applies very specifically and the Commission can only repeat the feeammenaation made. C0NCLUSION.-This chapter has exposed some definite weaknesses in the organization of the faculty of the University. T:he Commission would regret. however. to give the impressian that it is without appreeiation of the many capable members of the teaching staff with whom it e_ame into pefsonal contact and of the 10Ya!lty of all the faculty to the University. The needed reforms will no daubt be made and. with a heightened espr.it de 1l00r-pS that can be IlXpected with the advent of the new pFesident. the University can look forward with eonfidence to making good progress under the direction of its faculty. STUDENTS AND STANDARDS

ADMlssloN.-lllle Univ.efsity of the ~hilippines is the capitone of the public educational system of the Islands. It depends chiefly for its supply of students upon the public high schools. although an inereasing humber has been coming from the private sehools amounting last year. 1923-1924. to 20 per cent of the total enrollment. The growth in the number af students in the 路high sehools of the Philippines has been lafge and steady and an annually increasing percentage go to the University. In the Universify catalog is found this statement of policy. "The University Council has a Committee on EntFanee. Advanced Standing, and Credit and its representatives may visit and inspect * * * high schools and pfepaFatory sehQels. betll public and provate and on the basis of these findings. the UniveFsity Will give credit to all work which is found to be su/lieientiy well done. Students presenting a certifilZate fram any of these schools in the accredited list of the University 'shall be given entrance credit in all those subjects for which the school is espeeiaily IZredited as shown in the eeFtificate issued ta the school by the University." As a matter of falZt this is not done. and students are aeeepted from the public high sehools upon presentation of their grad-


661

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

uation diploma lind similarly from the private high schools that have been accredited by the Government. As all the public high schools of the Philippines maintain the same course of study and that course meets the requirements for college entrance into American colleges. and as the accredited private high schools must maintain standards equally high. the formal requirements for entrance into the University are safeguarded. Provision is also made for entrance by examination. A student defioient in a subject in the entrance examination must make up the deficien(lY within a year. Persons over 20 years of age who eo not have the entrance qualifications. provided they give evidence to the dean of the (lollege which they wish to enter that they possess the ability to profit by their chosen courses. may be admitted as special students. CONTINUANCE IN COLLEGE.-One of the evidences of university standards is found in the eharacter and administration of its rules on scholarship. The University catalog gives the following statement: The fe.uh. o'f examination.. together: with class work, will be ranked and reported in five g.ades I. 2. 3. 4. 5. A grade of I denote. marked excellence. A g.ade of 2 indicates that the .tudent's work has been thoroughly ntisfaelory. A grade of 3 denolea a pa", A grade of -4 denotes a condition. Courses in which students have obtained a grade of 4 will nol be creaitcd to them. except upon passing a second examination. A grade of 5 indicates failure and the necessity of repealing the entire course. The r~port in calc of abscnce from an examination. or of failure to perform any of the allotted work in a given coune, is incomplete. Work so required must be made up wi thin a year.

The administration of tllis standard differ.s with the several colleges. The regulations governing scholarship in the College of Liberal Arts are very minute and cover an entire page of fine pr-int. The record of failures in scholarship dUFing the year. 1923-1924. for such of the colleges- whose data were available and for the heshmen class of each of the colleges. is as follows: TABLE 121.-PERCENTACE OF FAILURES

_~_

_

Percentage Precentage College or (ailures ror of railures ror _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ entire college freshmencl.a ss

Ltbornl Arbs. ..••......• . ... .• .• . .. . ••.•••. .. . . • I

••••••••• •

Junior College, Cebu . .. . .... , ........ , . .. ........... . .. .... . . E ducation ....... . ....... . .. . . . ..... . .................... . Pharmacy ....... , . .. . ....... . . .. ..... . . . . . .. . . . . E ngineering . .... , .. , , .......... . • . Veterinary Science- . . ..... , ......... , ....... . .... . . i\l cdlclnc .............. , . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . .... . ...... . .. . Avc:rage. ... , .. ............ , . ... . . ... . . . ...... . .. .

16 80 14 16

28 80 20 27

21 60

16 12 12

27

16

28

In other words. whereas the percentage of failures in scholarship for the entire college. or the major part of it. was 16. certainly high


662 EDUCA"DIGNAIL StJRVEY OF THE. PHILIPPINES enough, the percentage for the freshmen class was 28. Had the percentage been taken at the end of the seClond semester of the freshmen dass, it wOlild hawe been considerably Iligher. The elimination of students for other oauses, siokness, delinquency, laok of financial support, increases considerably the total of student mortality for the yeaF. But since particular attention must be devoted to the freshmen dass, it will suffice to consider the College of Liberal Arts. The total enrollment of the freshmen class for that division for the year 1923-1924 was 455. At the close o~ the year, 172 or 37.2i per cent had dropped out, 23 per cent being for failure in scholarship. l1he record for the Junior College at Cebu is even worse. To dwell upon the financial waste and administrative disturbance caused by suc;h excessive elimination is quite unnecessary. This record of failure is probably due to a number of causes. -r:he teaching sta,ff of the University is almost unanimously of the opinion that -it is due to poor preparation in the secondar.y sc;hools. "File high. school administrators maintain that the University fails to give the sup~rvision ne_cessar.y for young people who find themselves thrown upon their own resourc;es in a new and strange environment. The elimination may be due to otller causes, to poor instruction, or to the defective adoptation of the courses to the ability ef tile students, or to the admission of students to courses ~or whiClh they' are not pr.~pared. Centainly steps ,must be taken by the University authorities ~t once to put an end to such excessive elimination. The best teac;hers of ever.y institution, includmg those of highest grade, ought to do some teac;hing in the freshmen class. InstruGtion should be modified to meet the needs of young students unused to university methods. Unusu~l Clare should be taken by -f,aculty advi~ers to facili~ate the orientation of the freshmen in tIle U niversity. But after all the_se sugges~ions are taken into Clonsiaeration there still remains the faClt that unquestionabl:y students are admitted to the University who have not the capacity to continue there. In saying this there is no reflection upon the secondary schools. The Commission is in accord with what is practicall:y the unanimous opinion ef the teaclling staff of the l!Jniv:eFsity, that some metliod of selection to exclude the inClapable from entrance should be adapted. Tilis method ef selection should be fau. and efFective. The application of one of the moaern intelligenc;e tests in conjunction with excellenee in highschool record has be~n found satisfac;tory by some institutions in the United States. The problem of. eliminatien Clan also be studied by considering the ceurse ef a dass as it passes threugh the University. 'The following is a summary o~ promotion ana elimination of students in the different schools and colleges ef the University of the Class of 1924.


UNIVERSITY OF TME PHILIPPINES T ABL£

663

1 22.~UMMAAY OF PROMOTION AND EWMJNATION OF STUDENTS IN THE DIFFERBNT SCHOOLS AND CoLLECES OF THE {U NIVERSITY OF THE CbASS OF 1924 o,,~ r UlJIo

Promoted Promoted Promoted Promoted Number of year tu to to to students admltted second y eaT third year £nUTtb year fif th year graduated

Academlc: yelU'

- - - - - - - - -I nl9-1920 ............ . 192')-]921.. .....•....•.... 1921-1922.. . . •. . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 1922-1920 ..•.......•..•.............. 1923-1924 ... . , .. ... . ,

...

- - --

26 805 80

.............. ...... .

Total. .. , . , ........ .

----

852

19 1'16 65

124

14

222

260

138

14

222

U

NOT&.-Tbc 222 arndunl,ett of the Class of 1924 nrc distributed as rollows: Five:'Ye8'r'. 14: 124; Three-yent. 8q ,

Four~)'ear.

Only 25 per cent of those admitted were graduated. Yet, provided the standards of promotion were maintained, this is a record that compares favorably with similar institutions ill the United. States. To read the summary, however, d.oes not tell the whole story, far the· record is very different for the s-everal divisions. In examining sfatements fallawing, it must be remembered that whereas the Colleges of Med:i~in~ and h.aw receive their students from the sopnamore year of the College . o~ Liberal Arts after the poor students ha'Ve been .fawly well eliminated, tile Colleges of Liberal fu:~ and Engineer,ing receive thews directliY from tile high schools. ifABI£ 123.-COh!<E.GE OF M EDICINE

[Ftve-yeal\ course]

Aetldcmie ycnr

First year. Promoted P~mo ted I Fro:moted Promoted

admitted

to ;:::nd

y~~~d

!o;:~th

Num15e.r

t~!!:Ii · ~~~::~

- - - - - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19U- I920 ..........•....... 82 19211-'1921.. .•..•....... ...... 1921- 1922 ........ . 192Z--J.92B................ . ..... ... . . ... . 1928-1924 ....... .............. .

TotaL . .... . .... . ... .

13 .... .

8 .. .... . ....... ... ............ . 8 .

1- - - \ 82

TABLE

124.-<CoLUEGE OF

LAW

[Four-year course] Acadnmic ycllt;

Fir.Jt year. ndn:iittcd

;~o~t:1 P,[:~~d\ ~Ol::~~ olif=db~ts

yenr year year graduated ---~ - - - - - 1920- 1921. ......... . .... . ......... . 60 ........... . ..... . .... .. . . .... .. .. .. ... . 1921- 1922 . ......•..... .. .•. 88 ................... . 1922- 1928...... . . . ..... . . . . .. .. ...... ........ 34 , .. .. . ... . 1923- 1924. ................... ... ..... ... ... . ... . ... ..... . ....... . . . 81 81 - --6-0----3-8-1---94----9-1- ----8-1

- - - - - - - - -- :1 - - -

Totol. .... .•• . .........


664 EDUCATIONAL SURYE.Y OF THE PHILIPP.INES liABLE 125.-€oBLEGE OF ENGINEERING

(Four-y ear- course]

First year Promoted Promoted Promoted admitted to ;:a~nd tOy!~rd to :~u:tb

Academic y ear

-----~---I----

- - - - --

91 . .... 192°:1921 . 192t- 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • • • . . . . . . .. .. . 57 .. . 1922-1923 . ..• . ..... ... • .• . ••... .................. ... ..... 1928-1924 ... ..... . Total .. ........ . ........ .

Number

0.:r:~~:r

57

84 ..... . . . . . . .. ..... . . 23 23 84

28

"Firat year Promoted Promoted admitted to ::~nd toy~~:d

Promoted

l i)\BLE 126.-CoLLEGE OF l.IBERAI!.

28

A1t".

[Four-year course]

Academip y ear ~---------=-192 o-1~21.

... . ... . .... ..... . .

Number

to :~:::tb O~~~~:18

------ --- --- , -858 . . . . . . ... ...... ... . . ... . .... . ..... . .... . 78 ... . ....... . . . . . ... .

. . .. .. .. .. .. . ...

~

~

--8-68----1-55-1=~-7-8-1---66-1---6-6

S"f.l!JDEN"F LOAD.-As far as the st~tistics af the different eolleges will per-mit of an interpxetation. the average student of the University is carrying fifteen crediti hours of work per week. This is not a heavy load and nat as heavy as is c<j.Froied hly the average student in the universities of the Unite€! £ta~es. 1r'Iawever. tllere aFe twa observations af importance to be made here in eonnection with a cansideration of the amount af wor.k taken Il>y stucilents. The first is that maxe students in .the University of the Philippines are partially or wholly self-suPPoFting than is pwbabl£v true af any universiby, in the Unitec;l States. The second is that the students of the University of the Philippines aFe much hanc;licappec;l by the language c;lifficuhy. The results af the tests applied to the freshmen of the Calleges of Lihleral Arts and Education reveal that in the. abili~ ta inteFpret English. thase stuc;lents are about upfln the same level as the graduates of the elementary sehaol in the Unitec;l States. When one cansiders ta what an extent the ability to Fead and undeFstand the technical language of textbOOKS and reference works enters into the lahloFs of an£v stU(ilent. he ean appr.eciate the adc;litianal burden under which the Filipina student must worK. The Commission believes that the dt;paFtment of. English af the T0nilllersity might I'lrofitably introduce eourses i n sight reading and interpretation of scientific and philosophical warks Jjo increase the capacity af the students in so necessary a part of

their w6fK. .


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

665

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTs.-Particulady, should the attention of the Board of Regents be given to T abl'e 127 on the geographical distribution of students. Such a chart should be of the greatest value in assisting the Board to detel'1Iline its policy with reference to the establishment of junior colleges in different parts of the Islands. According to the facts presented in this table students come from every province of the Philippines, 35 coming even from distant Mindanao. In reading the figures, there sheuld be subtracted from the 777 asc~ibed to Manila the 407 in the School ef Fine Arts. the 13,1 in the Conservatory of Music. and the 43 in the University High Selloe\. These students are all below university ~ade and are residents of Manil'a. If this be dene there will remain bu~ 302 students frem Manila, not as many as from Pangasinan. Bulacan. er- Laguna. In other words, the UniveFsity ef the Philippines is not a local institutien but one e~ ~eally island-wide character, and efforts should be made 'to maintain that character. STUDENT GUIDANCE.-To pass from the subjec~ of the place of or-igin of the student to their place of resideJlce in Manila is natural. No aspect of university administration is more imper!ant. Since the 'University exists for the students. their welfare sheuld be a pFime consideration. The students at the University in Manila come in large numoers from distant parts of the Islands and frO)Il homes. which. in a majority of cases, are in .rural districts or smalI tewns. . Many of them are unused to the life of a large city, and need the fmendliest kii!d o~ guidance in their personal affair.s. OÂŁ the 84'6 stucients, enrelIed in the CelIege of Liberal Arts at the clese of the year 1924-1925. but 28Ji or 33t per cent lived at homes, 280 lived in dermitories. and I ~5 in boarding houses. The remainder filed no informatie)l. T,he University maintains no dormitories. not even for gir.ls. and it is so mucn in need of buildings for teaching purposes, that it is net likely. to be able te build dormitories in the immediate future. T,his is alI the more reason why the University author,ities should exereise vigilanC!e as to the dOFmitoFies and boarding places where !he students live. There are a number, of dormitories about the campus main~ained either. by Ghurch organizations or private parties. An inspeetion of them by (l number of the Commission disclesed that none was ef the first class equivalent to tha~ of the Philippine Nermal SC!hoel or to these ifi the States. The 'dermitories under church erganization and some of the private dor-mitor-ies were good, the remainder ef the private dOFmiteries were :vellY unattractive. The visitor receiÂĽed a fair.ly definite impressien ilia~ the University autherities exercised little supervision over these dormitories. He could not discover that any list ef accredited bearding heuses had b~en drawn up in which- students wauld be permitted to live. Nar. tnough one-third of the students of the ColIege of LieeraJ, Arts are eitneF


666 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF l'HE PHIUPPINES TABLE 127.-GEOCRAPHICAL DISl'RlBU"'ION OF S l'UDEN'fS BY ATFENDANCE

.=

~

~

.c I><

Cl

"0

"0

'0

Province.

United States, and foreign

"0

i

:9

~

0

~

Antique.

Bataan ...

Batanes .. .

:Hr 19 88

1 2

Bobol. ...... BUkidnoD .......

6 221 40 1 308

Cagayan .... " .. Gamarines Norte. Camarines Sur ! .• Gapiz ..... . Catanduanes .....

67 10 83 92 2

1-

189 13!

~~

Batangas .... Bulacan .....

-3en

Cavite ....... Cebu . . ...

Cotabato ..

Davao ....... Foreigners ...

2 53 2Q4 110 166 22 SQ.7

Lanao .. . . .. La Union .....

"9'

1'4

.... 2

2'

":i'

'1~L

62 777 36

Masbate ... Mindanao. Mindoro ... Misamis ......... Mt. Province.. .. .

10. 10 20 26 16

Nueva Ecija .... Nueva VlZcaya ... Occidental Negros @riental Negroa . . PalawaD .....

141 12 III 12 9

iPampanga ... Pangasman .. Rizal . . ...... . ... Romblon ..... Samar .• : ..

178 346 261 14 27

11 12

11

30 3 6 100 114

2

~ . ...

2

. '~,

SoraogoD . . .. Sulu . .... ... Surigao ... . Tarlac ..... Tayabas .. . . United. States ... Zambales .... .. . Zamboanga ..... Various ...

13 76 12 128

8 I

"0

g Q)

=

I>l

"0

iJ

< .§ .,=o "O.e...~ "0

1

6

14

2

8

6

1

....

1 1

. . .. 1

~~~6~ 7 ....

1

7' ~,

~

::~~

8 6

1 6

2

.j ..,

3 ~

"0

r.l

"0

7

4

11 4 6 22 1

4

. 'S' . .. " 3' 16 6

12 13 2

.. .. .... . i'

1

3~

7 6 U

U 21 2 10

10 18 2 6

1~ 6 4 28 6

'l 12 1

"8

10 2 24

67

2 69 10 1 29

.... · .~6

9 8 2 6

1

...

9 20 8 1 6

.... .. i' .i4: .

.. .. .... .... ....

17 28 17 3 1

'" 2 2 4

.. i'

13 2 1 6

1~ 2

1 2, 4

2 1 6

26 19 11

1

.... · is' 6

33 50 45 4 4

. ...

26

H

4 8 44 401

78

"0

1

1

.... . . ..

i

~ -3en eII

34 312 2 ....

6 5

1

. 'i: 1

9 47 14 1 1

... .

'22'

..

10

1

~

5

..

~.

1 5

1

.. 48 42

1 1 8

1 2 27 1 2

2 4 7 2 18

2

8 I 1

'1

1 131 1

....

11 4 6

'72

. ... 2 43 7

. .. .. . '''9 "S' ....

3

42 38 62

19 92 22

4

6 4 70

;:i 436

80

1

!,

62

30 2 16 8 1

7

.

Pi

....

2 ~

5 1 4

26

6 8 22 1

9 23 43

8

. ... ... . ... . . ... 4

.. ..

. i' .... 1 . ... '''2

2 .... .... ....... .

....

~

en

"" ill

9 3

~.

..

· ii>' . i4' '7' .. 4: 9

1

3

~

12 2 9

...

i:-

S

2

28 13 32

1 8 6 11 2

"0

' r .. i . '3'

...... s· ......S· II 1 4

17 22 3 13 3 10

Ii

.... 6 .... .... .... 4

17 1 14 1 2

4 2 1 7 4

3i

2

3 2

'"

!

:/

0

16 2 .. i' 7 l7..

64 10

46 16 16 3 22

10

"8

»~ 'O~

.~ b

1 11 3

16

7g' 8

1l

6

1 12 1

....

'"~

=

'0

~ ~ 'a 'a o .,

.. s· .. S 'ii>

26 21 35 3 88

~

8 18 4 1 12 , 7 1 1 3 1

en

"0

4

i~ .59 .... , ... . ...

17 10 10

"0

<l

6 2

3 [6

:::i:

~

~,

] 's,

3 10

3 62

<

i 1 o

6 ~9

iJ

1m2 a7S 946 622

3

l2

11 6

24

8 7

;,

2

"0

j'E

o.~ 0",

-----

7

.. .. . .. . .... ~

~

~ ~ ~ 'a 'a 'a 0 0 ~

.5' .... .... 1

]

1

... 7 7 6 1 20

~

6 2

"2

1 ~Il

23

1 I...

Manila .. . ....... Mnrinduque .....

Leyte ........

en

1

4

1J.1ocos Norte . ..

Ilocos Sur. Iloilo ......... Isabela ... ·~Lagunn . . ... .

16

.S

1 -3 -

3 1 1

16 1

1 1

g

"0

Total'.•... 4,718 139 189

Abra . .. .. Agusan .. ... , ... Alb.y ... . ......

t:1'J

. ·r...=

12

2

.is'

1

2

. ... 2

. . ..

3 ":i ' .... ....

8 2

3 1 11 26

·"s

... . ":i ....


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

667

partially or wholly working their way through aollege, does any employment bureau exist to assist them in their efforts. Finally, while student advisers are appointed from the faculty to counsel the students on schoJastic matters, the Commission received the impression that the system works in a very formal manner and extending little beyond help. ing the students to matriculate and arrange their schedWes. The extent to which the physical welfare of the students is provided for appears to consist in: (1) the medical examination given to an students at the beginning of the year, (2) the one hour per week of physical work required of every student throughout his course, and (3) the three hours per week of military drill required throughout the first two years. The extent to which his moral welfare and personal neeGis are supenvised does not appear. In the professional schools, the Jilroportion of students living in boarding houses and wholly or partially suppo~ting themselves is even greater than in the College of Liberal Arts. In most cases, since they have to study more intensely than do the undergraduate students; unfavorable living conditions must have a corresJilondingly more unhappy effect. In the report of the dean of the College of Medieine for the year 1C!l23='1924, the following statement apJilear.s: "It is common to obseFVe among the students enrolled for the first time in his college a gradual weakening of their physical conditions and of their. alertness in mental perception. This condition and its causes have ¡to be proper.ly studied both in reference to th,e extent of their wor.k duFing their Jilremedical years, that is, their degree of preparation; the actual conditions in their boarding houses; and also in rejerence to the. extent of the present medical' aurriculum for the first two years of the College o£ Medicine." ISvidently others, besides the dean of the College of Medicine, had be(wme aware of the need of investigating the living aad moral conditions o£ the students, for during the year 1923-1924 the University Council apJilointed a special committee to study and report uJilon the subject. A most elaborate questionaire :was drawn up and distributed among the students for answer. Upon the basis of the reJillies received the committee composed its report and the Council approved July 21. 1923, the following points recommended by the committee: (a) In order to do away with the discrepancy in the diet o ~ .students liVing in the dor~ mitorici and the diel of tbose living in poor class of boarding liouses, where the majprity of the sludenta live. the establishment of a University Commons on the University Campus, to be run by University organizations, such as the "Student's Cooperative Associa.tion5' 011 by private concerns under Univer~ity supervision (through die I;)epaTt!ile~1 of Home Economics). (b) The creation of a commiuee on Student's Housing or Student', l!..iving Condi .. tio nl , yhose dUI:Y shall be : (I) to visit Ihe sludent~s dormitories and boarding houses ~t


668 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES least once during a semester; (2) to advise students to move out of a boarding or rooming place when said place does Dot provi de the DeceMBry minimum facilities fo~ healthful living ; and (3~ to submit from time. to time to the author,ilies concerned a list of ap,proved boarding houses in Manila for the student's information. This committee was also requested to study the feasioility of drafting an ordinance of licensiDg boarding houses to be presented in the Municipal Board. (e) The opening of an Employmeu"t Exchange in the University under the man· agement of the students il\ the Commerce Course. The function of said Exchange shall be to secure employment for the University students who may be completely or partly self· supporting. T he opening of such an Exchange will enabJe the students concerned to choo:se from different employments available for him, and at the same time it will eliminate the unnece:ssary worry and loss of time incident to an unsystematic search for: work.

Nearly two years have elapsed, howeveF, since the approval contained in this resolution was g.ivl!n and so far as the Commission could discover, nothing has happened. Yet the evil is a crying one and action requires no funds. The Commission FecomJIlends that either a par.ticular efliGial or a faculty cemmittee be alilpointea at once and be required actually to func~ion in this mest imlilor~ant part of university life. Tne Commission is so much impressed with the need of action in the matter of supervising the personal affairs ana, moral life o£ the students tnat it has apparently slighted the equally important subject of vocational guidance. This has not been the intention. Man¥ students at the Uni:veFsity come from homes wher.e the Iilar.ents knew Httle of the req)liFements fOF success in dif~ ferent vocations. In seme eases, on the basis of an erroneeus belief in the aliltitudes of their sons for particular vocations, parents advise unwisely. Students themselves sometimes make choices of "allings which are superficially attracti:ve to them but for which they have no r.eal capacity. How important it is that student be diFected inte a field ef work for which his previous study, his persen:.a I preference, and his natural al!ltitude, best fit him is ebvious. A ,fer-meF president once recommended that a professor ef individual attention who had training in applied psychology and eXlilerience in vocational guidance be appointed to supervise this work. The Commissien approves the recommendation most heartily. Were such an appointment made the incumbent might have supervision of the ·whole field of stuaent welfare. If it is not made, tbe 'faculty cemmittee recemmended above must organize ,proper. measures for vocatienal guidance. CONFERRING DE6REES.- The requir~ments for degrees vary with the degrees. The following are the total number of credits demanded for the bacheloF's degree in the Cdllege of I...iberal Arts. They include three for comlilulsoFY military training: Credits

Bachelor of S cience .................. __.... __ ............................... -_ ........................ .

132 140

Bachelor of Philosophy.... _.................................................. _................. .

136

Bachelor of A rls............. _........................................................................ .


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

669

The freshman year is (lommon to all the courses in the college. At the beginning of the second year the student must choose his "major department" which then except for a small number of "free elections" in the senior year controls his curriculum for the next three years. In the professional schools the work is an presr.l'ibed and wholl;y technical. The Commission believes that one change at least should be made in the curriculum of the College of Engineering. There is not now a single course in history or any of the secial sciences. As the students of that college enter directly from the high schools, in the interest of good citizenship, they ought to have at least one course in a social science. CONCLUSloN.-The facts presented in this Clhapter ma.ke it evident that as a result of the great increase in the number of secendary students in the Islands, the University has increased very rapidly in attendance and must take steps in the interesf of standards to adapt some selective process for admission. That the Insular Government must look forward to providing increased appropriations for the support of the University is also obvious. The standards of the University are reputable as te admission, continuance on the rolls of the Univel'sity, and ro;aduation from it. The Commission has no reason to doubt that the standards were conscientiously administeres. ALUMNI AssOOlAllION.- The University ef the Philippines has graduated up to date 3,185 bona '/ide alumni. The statistics of the alumni are very interesting and show that many of tile graduates of the University OCClUpy high places in civic, professional, and ~usiness fife. As the years pass by the University willl\ave an increasing body of loyal adherents ready to support its interests when support is needed. There seems, however, to be no organization of the alumni sUClh as exists in connection with evel1Y univeliSity in the United States. With a small membership fee of two 01' three pesos a year such an organization coUld support a permanent secretary and issue an alumni bulletin which might render great semCle in keeping the alumni info=ed of tile activities of their Alma Mater and in strellgthening the spirit ef devotien to her. INCOME, EKPENDI'FURES, AND COS-TS INCOME.-The University of the Philippine.s will never realize its opportunities until it has more adequate support. The University receives the chief share of its support from legislative appropriatiens. Censidering the demands made upon it fOF public education the Legis\'ature has not been ungenerous, but the appropl'iatien has by no means kept pace with the increase in the number of students. For tile past three years it has remained stationary at about P1,500,000. F el' an institution dependent chieB;y upon legislative appropriations to plan ahead for necessary educational or building expansion will always be d.iflicult. In prosperous times the Legislature is generous; in per.iods of economic


670 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES depression, it ,is necessarily parsimonious. If a university is to plan properly for the future. it must be assmed of the major part of its annual' income and of an annual incFease of income. In some of the Amer-ican states. this has been accomplished by the imposition of a mill tax for the benefit of the state university. The Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines recommended in August, 1922, ' that a mill,tax levy of three and one-half tenths o~ one per cent be laid annually on the real prolJerty of the IsIands fOF the SUF!pOFt of the U niveFsity, and that public lands be allocated to form the basis of an ultimate univeFsity endowment. The Governor-General recommended the adoption of the proposal in his annual message to the Legislature, but the bill drawn in accordance with the recommendation did not eome to a vote. The Commission expFesses its hearty approval of the principle contained in the recommendation as the best plan for a dependable and permanent method of 10ni:v.eFsity support. lit believes, however., that the mill"tax levy for University support should be placed upon the general insular revenues rather than real proper.ty. The University receives about 15 per cent of its inclOme from sources other than legislativ'e appropr.iation, chiefly ~rGm fees charged from students, rentals, and the sale of produce. All students are charged labor.atory fees and the students in' all the colleges and' schools 0f the University except agriculture, veterinary science, and engineer-ing, pay tuition fees. The students of those colleges are exempted from fees on the theory that the Islands are particularly in need of their graduates. These fees are velW moder-ate but probably as high as the average student can pay and the tot<rl amount f0r the year I C!J23-1 C!J24 was P228,g~5 disboibuted as follows: T ABLE 128.-STATEMENT SHOWING 'FHE IN~OME OF THE UNIVERSITI FROM THE DIFFERE NT SOURCES FOR l'HE SCHOOL YEAR FROM JUNE I. 1923. TO MAY 31 . 1924 i tem

Amount

Service income=m iscellaneous .................... .......................................................... . ~a l e s of fixed assets ............................................................................................. . Income from the legal clinic ............................................................................... . Sales of charcoal .................................................................................................. . M iscellaneous receipts..................... :::...."" ........ _.... ................................................... . Credit adjustment of prior year expenses...................................................;......... .

1'1 .902.11 1.786.02 7.116.84 4.318.54 182>60031 12.75437 4.173.49 350.00 245.71 7.801.96 4.985.83

Tolal .........................................................................................................

228.035.18

F ines and forfeitures................................ _....................... _................................... . Sales of produce ......................... ~.... __._._.._. ___ ...â&#x20AC;˘....................................... _.......... __ . Sales of. textbooks......................... ____ ............................................. _............. . Income from r entals._ .......................................................'.â&#x20AC;˘................................... S~rvice inc om~fe ~s............................................................................................. .

Legislative app ropriat ion ...................................................................... _............... . 1.500.000.00

Grand lolal... ........................................................................................ <...... 1.728.035.18


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

671

The following statement shows the total expenses of the University of the Philippines under the different items of expenditures for the academic year 1923-1924. It is the sum total of the expenses of the different colleges a nd schools. The largest item is that of salaries and wages. In an educational institution where technical men, contract professors, and other highly educated teachers are employed this is to be expected. TABLE 129....-c-S'rATEMENT SHOWINC 'JIHE TOTAL EXPENSES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF T'HE PHILIPPINES INCURRED UNDER THE DIFFERENT ITEMS OF EXPENDITlJRES FOR THE:

SCHOOL

YEAR JUNE 1. 1923.

TO

MAY 31. 1924

Items Salariea and wage•. ..................................._ ....... . Contingent e:xpenael:

Amount

.................................. PI.214.845.16

T raveling .""en... of perl()nneL............... ................................. Freight. esprclI, and delivery acrvicc ..• r.................................................... Po.,al. ,elegr.ph. Ielephone. and ca~le .. rvice.......................................... Illumination and power &ervice...•.... __................•................................. _....... Mucellaneou. . .rvice...................................................................................... Renl.l. of ground. and buildings................................................................ Conlumption of supplies and mllterial......................................................... Prinling and binding .................................................................... ,................. Ca.b contributions and graluilies ..........................4....................................... T ravol exponJes of Don~Government employees......................................... M Ainlenance and repair. ............................ .................................................... EXlraordinary 10.... T ............................ _....................................................

33.702.25 6,280.55 10.497.57 10,070.57 24.91632 10.090.00 205.980.32 5.186.68 68,665.84 246.61 8,463.50 185,44

--,-"-~

Tol.1 ................................................................................................. .

384.285.63

Fixed apel, : Land .......................................... .................................................................... Building. ........................... .....................................:.................................. " ... Motor vehicles and tlccessories ..................................................................... . Land transportation equipment. .................................................................. . Industrial machinery and implements .......................................................... .. Hand lools .......~ .................................. _......................................................... . Furniture, office equipment, and books.. .................................. . Technic.al and scienti6c cquipmenL ............................................................ .. Telephone apparatu' ...................................................................................... Misc.ellaneous equipmcnl........................... .. ............................... . Breeding animal. ....... ................................................................................... .

9.95135 78.&34.65 5.592.50 30.00 435.00 1,33.333 27.092.96 57.538.82 73.50 3,845.28 2.249,00

Tol.1 ........... .

187.02639

Grand 101.1.......................................................................................... 1.786.155.18

In the following table a comparison is made with the various states of. the United States as to the peF capita expenditure upon higher edu.. cation. As is to be expected the sparsely populated states of the West are at the top of the list. Since New York and Pennsylvania ha.ve populations more nearly approaching that of the Philippines, it is unfortunate that the Commission did not have figures at hand for those


672 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PHILIPPINES states. It is nevertheless obvious that the Government of the Philippines must give more suppoFb to its university and with inerease in, resources a considerably increased propontionate share. TABLE 130.-RELATION BETWEllN EXPENDITURES FOR H,GHER EDUCATION AND POPULATION IN VARIOUS STATES

State or tel"ritor:y

'I!otal amount spent (or State higher educational institutions, excluding normal schools.

Rank

1919-20 ------------------~~-I------I'=-----I------77,407 $8.12 Nevada . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . 449,396 2.51 Utah. . ..... . . .... ... . .... . ...... . 2.33 783,389 Oregon ..... . .... . ..... ..... .. .. . . 384,162 ~ .46 Arizona .. ....... . ... . . B48,889 1.44 Montana ... . ...... . ' . . . . 1,356, 621 1.85 Washington . .............. .. .. . .. . 2,887,125 1.24 1.18 1,296 ,872 1.18 636,547 South Dakota . .......... , . .. . 1.17 Iowa ..... .. . 2,404,021 10 989 ,629 1.12 Colorado........ ... . 11 1.12 Idaho . ... . 481,806 11 1.06 1,769,267 lZ 194,202 12 1.06 56~,680 .88 646 ,872 13 .87 3,668,4-12 Michigan ......... . 8,209,144 14 15 2,028,208 . 80 Oklahoma ... . 1.681,788 2,682,597 .78 16 California . . 3,426,861 1'7 263,860 860,360 .73 New Mexico .. . .. .... .. . . . . . . .. . . .. ... . . ... . 17 1 ,926,160 .7.3 Wisconsin .... . .............. .. ... . . . .. ... . .... . 2,632,01 7 .49 18 Indiana ....... .......... . 1 ,488 ,660 2,980,890 19 South Carolina . .... .. . . .. . . . .. . . ... ........ ... . . 80:6,686 . 48 1.688,724 19 T exas ... . .. . 2,288,121 .48 4,663.228 20 Illinois .... . . . .44 2,871,600 6, 486 .280 Mississippi .. . 20 787,. 707 1 . 790 ,618 .44 21· West Virginia . .... .. .. .. . ... ....... . . ... . ...... . .38 662.661 1,463 . 701 22 Florida . .. 968,470 .36 360,7'10 23 .8Z Vermont . ......... ... ............ .. . ... ... . .... . 1>13.173 852.428 28 Virginia.; . . .. .. . .82 783 , 008 2.309,187 24 Maine . . ....... . . . .29 768,014 220 . 983 2~ .29 North Carol.ina . . .. .............. . . .. ... ... . 2.669,128 748 . 843 25 Missouri. .... ....... . .27 918,297 8.404.065 26 .2~ Massachusetts . ... . 8.862.366 918,739 27 Hawaii .......... . ... . ...... .. ........ . .21 63.487 266.912 28 .18 Kentucky . . . ..... . . .. . ... ... . .. ... ... . . . . ...... . 426 . 040 2.416,680 29 Georgia .. . ...... . . . 1'1 479.918 2.895.632 29 . 17 1,,449.661 Maryland . . ... ' ,' " .. . .. . .. . ... . ....•............. 247.626 30 2 , 348,174 .16 Alabama ..... . ........... . ........... ..... .... . . 376.716 31 . 14 Arkansas ....... . . ... . .. . . ... . . ... . 260,0.00 1.752,204 82 .12 Louisiana .. . . . .... . . .... . ........ . ............ . . 1.798.609 210.042 82 .12 Tennessee .. . .... . . . . .... . . 2,887 .885 278.000 33 Philippines . . . . . .OS 878.968 11.000,000


INDEX (Figul'CS refer t.o poges]

Boord of Educationa l Survey:

Admini'l,alion, 62, 517. Appoinlment

10

administrative

poai-

lion., 524.

I

C reation of, 3. Members, vii.

B~alr~. of Rege nl. 01 Ihe University, 106, Cluuac:.terillici of. 530. Humon "d. of, 552. Book" lexl, 41, 223,374. Local, 66. Seleelion of, 526. Rclo.lion 10 geneml government. 66, , Bureau of Educalion: 521. 524. Acad emic DivisionSecondary .<hool. of, 391. Proposed aclivilies of. 110. 192. Seleclion of officers of. 538. 544. Unive"i ly of Ih Philippine., 106, 6 12, Difficuhies under which Bureau works , 645. 127. Adu"., 1.,1 of abililY 10 u.. Engli.h, 136. Financi al suppo rt ot., 65, 527. Age of pupils: Functioning of. 532. Agc.grade di.lribulion, 206. Help givon by, 8. Elemenlory .ahool., 206. In' peelion by, 542. In seco.dory .chool. , 6 16. 0rgonization of, 52~ . Agricu"u.ol educolion, 56, 29 1. Po licy in regard 10 ex:pansion. 77. College of Agricu" ure, 625. Recommendations la, 110. F . rm .chool. , 292. Supervisionary and promot ionary slaif, Rural high .chool, 349. 65. 126, 167, 192, 531. 544. Americnn personne l. 70. 553. Citizenship-Education for, 98. D eeTeo.ing inOucnee of. 16. Course of study in. 235. Mor.le, 72. Education for. in seco ndary schools, Seleclion of, 74. 360. Training, 70. Inslruction in, 273 . Tr. n. fer of, 71, 542. College 01 Agricuhure, 55, 625. T e nure or appoin tment of. 68. 539. Commission-Survey: 542. Members, vii , 5.

I

Arithme.tk: Cour.. of . Iudy in, 233. M ... uremenl 01 . bilily in, 44, 233. Teaching of, 268. Alhlelicâ&#x20AC;˘. 9 1, 489. AUolnmenl:

01 pupil., 4 1, 129, 134. 01 le.cho .. , 403, 410. Of . upervi.ors, 302. Propolcd Itandords of. 186.

Allend.nce, 14, 132, 199. 21 \1064---43

Melhod of work, 6. Curriculum-E lemenlary school, 48, 224. Need for revision, 225.

Normal school. 30, 420, 432. Not 611ed 10 age. of pupils, 217. Secondary ,.hool, 356, 372. Dialed. (S .. LANCUACE.) Abilily of children to read and write. 174. Distribution of dialect groups, 25. Use in tcaching good manners, 28.

673


INDEX Failure:

Director of Education: Sal~ry

of. 109. 525. 529. Work of, 533. Discipline. ($ee MORAL EDUCNflON.) School. 246. Division super.intendents. 5-45. Domestic arts, 283. Drawing: F«e-hand. 237. Instruction in. 275. Mechanical. 236. Economic resources, 574. Education: Academic V:i. Social,

34.

Bureau of. (Sec BUREAU.) College of. 623. Cost of. 34. 78. 336. Distribution of. ';,72. 589. Future. 79. 338. Unit. 598. 10niversity. 669. Elementary. 45. 1$9. Program of. 519. Secondary. 313. ElIementar~ schools. 45. 199. Curriculum of. 48. 212. 22'4. Teaching personnel of. 401. English: A&iBty of pupils in. 43. 129. 130, 163.

178. 375. Qifliculties of teaching in. 39. 152, 1';,6. Er·rors in, 44. 151. 160. Highwschool curriculum in. 273. Oral, 157, 167, 375. Pronunciation, 163. UndeT!tanding of, 178. Enrollment, 14. 32. 201. By ages. 45. 206. In high schools. 318. In pr.ivate schools. 506. In University. 615. Examinations, 194, 388. Abolition of, 196. Civil Service. 170. 441. Nature of. 217. Expansion of schoo l system. (Sec GR0W'DH.)

for education. (See allo EDUCATION. COST OF. 13. 20. 2 1. 336.)

Expenditures

Pupil •• 215. Farm ,chools; 292. Finance. 78. 561. Revenue system, 575. Gardens-School. 57. 282. Geography: Course of study in, 241. Teaching of, 270. Tests of, 1&1. Government: Bureau of Education, a division of,

522. Control of education. 66, 524. Cooperation. 544. University and. 609. Graduates: Increase from elemen tary and high schools. 15. <Dccupation of. 281. ~32. University, 663. Growth of school system. 13. 22, 31. Of expenditures for. public education.

561. Of University of the Philippines, 615. Health and physical education, 90, 449. A thletics, 489. Calisthenics, 483. 487. Health examination, 468_ Health supervision, 90. In second.,y schools, 359. 383. Instruction in, 475. Physical education, 479. Suggested program for, 494. Wigh schools. (Sec SECONDARY EDUCATtON .~

Indu, trial education. ESee DOMESTIC ARTS, 59. 275; sec AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.) Ba,ketry, 61. Purposes of. 277. Suggested modi6cations, 285. In intermediate grades.. 289. In primary grades, 287. In ,econdary schools, 299. 384. Teaching of. 274. Industrial ,chool" 60. 28 I.


INDEX I n.truction:

In he,loh .duco.ion. 475. In DOnnAl achool •• 423 . In ... ding. 141. 252. In .... ndary .chool•. 365. 'n.ul.r aid. 67. 525. 567. Longu.ge probl.m. 24. 127. ENCU.II. O lAI..£CTS.) Common 10Dguage. 26. Cour.. of ••udy in. 239. Te.ching of. 262. ugialnlure. 1. R ecommend ation.. 10. 108.

(S..

01.0

Me:.o.lurtmcnl of results of in.lrudion. 37.

(S •• olro TESTS.) Ari.hm •• ie, 161. English composilion . 170.

Ceography. 164. R.ading. 130. Science. 184~

Spelling. 181. Moral educalion, 91. (Sec al30 DISCI PUNE.) Good monner. and l:i8~1 conducl, 242. Moro•. 97. 101. Music:

Cou". of ••udy in. 243. In,truclion in. 275. Na.ur•••udy. 164. 244. 381. Non~Chrill ion peoples. 100. Normal Ichools:

Curriculum. 30. 420. 432. Dislribulion of. 440. Enrollment in, 426. H igh .chools 10 become, 30.

Limilationa of. 420. Numb.r of. 53. Phy.ical .duen.ion in. 496. Quality of instruction in, 423. Summer tenion. 444. Teaching personnel of. 422. Occupu.lions:

01 high-.chool graduates, a32. Of paren •• of high-.chool pupils, 323. Of tr.d.-.chool gradu.t ••, 281. Proreuionnl claues. 36. Phonic., 259. Cou"" of .tudy in. 241.

675

Phy.ical .duca.ion. (S.. HEALTH.) Prac.ic •••• ching. 426. 436. Primary .chool. 247. (S.. ol, o ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.) Principal of e lemenl-a ry schools, 219. High school. a92. Privale ,choola, 92. 505. Enrollment in, 506.

which lesls are given, 116. Numb. r of. 505. Sup.rvi.ion of. 506. 514. P,ogrCSJ. (S.. ACE; PROMOT.ON.) Of pupil.. 46. 212. Promolion. 213. 370. Pronuncia.ion. 42. 156. 163. Pupils: Age of. 206. Allendance of. 199. Enrollmen' of. 14. 20 1. 426. Private schoo ls. 506. Failu r. of. 2 15. P.r-pupil co ••• 568. 598. Progress of. 212. Promo. ion of. 21 3. 370. Selection of. in normal s~hoo ls. 424, 431. Lisl of. in

Selection

of. in

secondary schools,

Reading: Books. 142. Course of study in. 239. C eneral abil i.y. 136. Instruction in primary grades . 252. Paragraph. 134. Silen. r.ading. 42. 145. 253. 378. Successful instruc.tion in. 143. T ex.bonks in. 256. Recommendations : Summary of, 108. Repeating of grades. 46. Repo, ••• 63. Report-Survey: Critical nature of, 23. Religious edu, atioD, 99. Research:

By supervisors. 307. H •• loh . 479. Universi.y. 105. 645. R esearch associates, vii, 5.

368.


INDEX Revenue: Insular. 579. Municipal. 586. Provincial. 582. School. 82. 83. 587. System. 81. 575. Salaries: AdminislTators, 553. Teachers. 403. 414. University. 655. Schools: Allendance 01 children. 199. Buildin gs. 19. 20, 74. Insular aid for, 525. Sanitation, 471. Costs, 77, 437, 561. 572. Elementary, 199. Enrollment, 13, 14, 201. Holding power of, 132. 201, 330, Number of, 18. Primary, 247. M ethods In , 249. Science : Natural. 244, 38 1. Secondary edu ca tion, 52, ~ 13. A cademic high sc~oo l , 367. Careers of graduates, 3~2. Cost of, 336. Curriculum, 54, 356, 372. Enrollment in, 318. Growth of, 3 15. Hi gh-school population, 3 16. 322. In dustri al work in, 299. Principals, 55. Proposed reorganization of, 344, 397. Rural high schools, 54. Teachers in . 55. Type of schools recommendea. 53. Under Spanish regime, 313. Secretary of Public Instruction. I. Ser.vice M anual. 63. Silent reading. (See READINC.) Social sc ience: Course of study in, 245. In high school, 379. Spelling : Course of study in . 241. Teaching of. 267. Tests of, 181.

Stajf-Survey, 5. Standardization of school pro ce dure. 22. 64. Supervision, 51, 64, 65,300, 412, By central office, 542. Defects of, 305. Difficulties of, 303. H ealth, 452, 456, Supervisors: Ability to speak and write English, 11,3, Distr,icl supeJlvising teacher, 949. H ealth and physical education, 499. Researched I;y, 307. Support of sohools. (See COSTS; TAX~足 II'ION.) T ax ation, 82, 85, 579. T eachers: Abi lity to speak and wri te English,

173. Amer.ican, 16, 30, 70, 553. Allainment of, 402. 410. H ealth of, 470. Increase in number of, 408. I:-ack 01 training of, 128, 406. Primary, 247, Retiremenl and pension of. 103. Salar ies o'~, 403, 414. Secondary school, 388. Training of, 28, 401. (See 0/'. NORMAL SCHOOLS.) Cost of, 437. H ealth, physical eduoa tion, 496. Industrial cou rses, 294. In service, 30, 443. Neglected, 406. Policy of requiring, 419. Present facilities, 419. Proposed program 0>, 430. Tests. (S ee also M EiASUREMENT O.F RESULTS OF INSTRUCTION.) By wRom given, 123. Modification of, 124. Number given, 7, 39, 11.5, 117. Scoring of. 126. W here given, I 18. Textbook" 256, 526. Time al lotment to subjecls, 226. 230. Trade schools, 37, 281. Tui tion, 89, 384.


677

INDEX Uni •• "ily .f the Philippine.. 104. 609. Admini.'r.,ion .f. 612. 645. B.ord .f Rege., •. 106. 611. Coli •• 669. Growth of. 104.615. Juni.r C.llege .f. 105.

University of the Philippines-Ctd.

.,.J!.

Teaching 652. Unil co.' •• 598. Univeraities.-Private. 508. Voluntary contribution!, 86 , 595. Wr iting:

Pupil .kill in, 246. T e.ching of, 268.

Student. Bnd .toodard.. 660.

Sup pori .f, 107.

o


A Survey of the educational system of the Philippine Islands (Part 4 of 4)  
A Survey of the educational system of the Philippine Islands (Part 4 of 4)