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The EU Raw Materials Initiative – seen from Norway Arkitekturhøgskolen, Oslo, 15.03.12 Ron Boyd, NGU

• ”High-tech” metals • Metal-/mineral supply • The Raw Materials Initiative • Production and potential in Norway


Special metals in your daily lives (REE in bold font) SECTOR

METALS

Electrical wires, cables

Cu, Be

Wind mills

150-300kg Nd/MW

Catalysis

Ce. La

Jet motors

Nb, Pr

Circuit boards

Cu, Sn, Au

Batteries, normal

Co, Ni, Mn

Prius battery

Ni, Li, 10-15 kg La

Prius motor

1 kg Nd ,Te, Dy

LCD screen

In, Y, Eu

Hard drive

Co, Ni, B, Nd

Cell phone – wires, circuit board

Cu, Mg, Pb, Au, As, Be, Pt, Ag

Cell phone –battery, etc.

Co, Li, C, Hg, Cd, Nd, Nb, Ta


About Rare Earth Elements: • REE are not so rare (ave. 0,3 – 64 g/t in the Earth’s

crust), except promethium

• REE do not occur individually in minerals • Several REE have properties which are uniquely important in certain applications, e.g. Ytterby, a small village on the coast S of Stockholm

neodymium and samarium in ”super

Yttrium (1794) , erbium (1842), terbium (1842) and ytterbyium (1878) all have their names from Ytterby and a further three REE (holmium (1878), thulium (1879) and gadolinium (1880) were also discovered first in minerals from Ytterby.

europium as red ”phosphor” in display

magnets”, cerium in glass polish and screens. • Many REE deposits also contain uranium and/or thorium • Processing of REE concentrates is challenging


REE in the Periodic Table (from Study on Rare Earths and their Recycling, http://www.oeko.de/oekodoc/1112/2011-003-en.pdf )


Main applications of REE in the period 2006-2008 (from Study on Rare Earths and their Recycling, http://www.oeko.de/oekodoc/1112/2011-003-en.pdf )


Details of applications of REE (from Study on Rare Earths and their Recycling, http://www.oeko.de/oekodoc/1112/2011-003-en.pdf )


Development of production of REE


Leading producer countries for selected metals/metal ores (2010) (BGS, 2011) First

%

Second

%

Third

%

∑%

EU

Norway

Antimony

China

88

Bolivia

3

Tajikistan

2

93

-

-

Bauxite

Brazil

15

China

14

India

8

37

1.0

-

Beryl

USA

85

China

14

Mozambique

1

100

-

-

Chromium

S. Africa

36

Kazakhstan

28

India

14

78

2.9

-

Cobalt

DR Congo

67

Canada

6

Australia

5

78

-

-

Copper

Chile

33

Peru

8

China

7

48

4.8

-

Gold

China

13

Australia

10

USA

9

32

0.7

-

Iron ore

China

41

Australia

17

Brazil

14

72

1.2

-

Lead

China

44

Australia

17

USA

9

70

4.3

-

Manganese

China

33

S. Africa

17

Australia

15

65

0.4

-

Molybdenum China

40

USA

22

Chile

15

77

-

-

Nickel

Russia

17

Indonesia

14

Philippines

11

46

2

-

Nb-Ta conc.

Brazil

97

Canada

2

99

-

-

PGM

S. Africa

60

Russia

30

94

-

-

REE

China

98

Russia

2

100

-

-

Ti minerals

Canada

22

Australia

18

S. Africa

12

52

-

7.8

Tungsten

China

84

Russia

5

Bolivia

2

91

3.3

-

Vanadium

S. Africa

34

China

33

Russia

31

98

-

-

Zinc

China

30

Australia

12

Peru

12

54

7.6

-

Zimbabwe

4

China is one of the top-3 producers of 13 of the 19 resources in the table. Green: Resources in Norway may be important for the European market Lys grønn: Resources in Norway may be important if new technology becomes economic


Leading producer countries for selected industrial minerals (2010) (BGS, 2011) First

%

Second

%

Third

%

∑%

Norway%

Barytes

China

46

India

24

USA

8

78

Diamond

Botswana

20

DR Congo

15

Canada

9

44

Feldspar

EU

33

Turkey

23

China

11

67

Fluorspar

China

56

Mexico

18

Mongolia

7

81

Graphite

China

86

India

5

Brazil

4

95

Gypsum

China

26

EU

15

Iran

10

51

Kaolin

EU

30

USA

22

China

11

63

Magnesite

China

64

Russia

12

EU

12

88

Nepheline syenite

Russia

84

Canada

10

Norway

6

100

6

Olivine (2008)

Norge

30

Japan

24

EU

14

68

30

Phosphate

China

37

Morocco

15

USA

14

66

Potash

Canada

29

Russia

18

Belarus

15

62

Salt

China

23

EU

18

USA

17

58

Talc

China

27

EU

17

India

14

55

0,3

0,3

0,3

Norway is an important producer of quartz and carbonates, but good statistics for these commodities, especiall the high-value segments, are not available. Green, without a % of world production signifies a potentail resource. Data for olivin are from Roberts (Industrial Minerals 494, 2008), but Norway’s share of world production is now thought to be >40% (due to closure of an operation on Greenland).


EU Raw Materials Initiative: Resource types assessed for criticality

Blue: produced (itallic font) or potential in Norway.


Critical resources Aluminium

Copper

Indium

Niobium

Tellurium

Antimony

Chromium

Iron

Perlite

Titanium

Barytes

Diatomite

Limestobe

Platinum metals

Vanadium

Bauxite

Feldspar

Lithium

Rhenium

Tungsten

Bentonite

Fluorspar

Magnesite

Silica sand

Zinc

Beryllium

Gallium

Magnesium

Rare earth elements (REE)

Borates

Gypsum

Manganese

Silver

Kaolin

Germanium

Molybdenum

Talc

Cobolt

Graphite

Nickel

Tantalum

Red: critical. Underlined: important but not critical as of 2010 (DG Enterprise, 2010).


Challenges •Europe is a major producer of industrial minerals, and meets its own demand for many of these. Norway is an important supplier and has potential for increasing its sales and for supplying new minerals. •Europe is totally dependent on import of metals (production 3%, consumption >20% of worlds production) incl. Most of the strategic metals. Norway has a potential for several of these (incl. REE, Be, Mg, Nb) • Single countries dominate world production for certain metals/groups of metals. China has developed a dominant position in metal supply, directly and through its links to suppliers in Australia and S America. • China has imposed restrictions on export of several metals and a 2- /3price system for several of these. It has also secured control of metal supplies from several countries in Africa(e.g. DRCongo, Zimbabwe and Guinea). • Inadequate knowledge of resources in Europe, incl. Norden: inadequate capacity: inadequate research


Raw Materials Initiative 3 Main goals: 1.

Secure free trade in mineral resources on the global market

2.

Support sustainable access to mineral resources from sources in Europe

3.

Reduce Europe’s consumption of primary mineral resources


Raw Materials Initiative – project aims • European standard for documentation of resources

• Models of trends in supply/demand incl. recycling • Up to 10 pilot plants/projects in prioritized fields (e.g. exploration, processing, recycling) • Development of substitutes within 3 applications of critical materials • Development of knowledge-/innovation networks for all topics in the mineralresource value chain • Improved efficiency in all elements in the mineral-resource value chain, incl. tailings and environmental factors • Development of new resources (substitution) and producst • International cooperation


Mineral sector in Norway 2010


Mineral sector in Norway 2010 (data from SSB):

• Production: NOK 12,000 million • Export: NOK 7,300 million • Import (ore, matte, etc.): NOK 24,600 million • Export: metals, alloys, processed minerals: NOK 57,000 million


Value chain for the mineral-based industry in Norway (incl. coal) ( 2008) (data from SSB) Mineral production 2008 Value: NOK 11,400 mill. Employees: 4 800

Trade in mineral resources 2008 Import: NOK 31,100 mill. Export: NOK 7,200 mill.

Production of processed mineral /metallic products 2008 -Metals -Non-metallic mineral products -Others Value: NOK 100,000 mill. Employees: 22 800 Import: NOK 31,100 mill. Export: NOK 66,100 mill.

Industries which use processed mineral /metallic products 2008 --Paper --Rubber/plastic --Chemical products (inorganic) -- Metal goods --Machines --Oil rigs --Construction industry Value: NOK 488,000 mill. Employees: 180 250


Metal production in Norway (based on imported ore and primary production) • Aluminium (1st in Europe, 4th in the World) • Ferroalloys (1st in Europe, 7th in the World) • Cobolt (2nd in Europe, 8th in the World) • Manganese alloys (1st in Europe, 5th in the World) • Nickel (1st in Europe, 5th in the World) • Silicon metal (2nd in Europe, 5th in the World).


Nordli molybdenum Nordli porphyry-Mo deposit, N of Oslo (largest in Europe) 1975-80: Norsk Hydro, mapping and drilling 2005- Crew Minerals/Intex Resources – followup studies Estimated reserves/resources: 210 Mt @ 0,13% MoS2 (cut-off 0.07% MoS2)

Foto: Intex Resources


Titania AS (Tellenes) World’s next largest ilmenite deposit of its kind, yielded ca. 8% of world production in 2010. 2/3 of production is used for pigment and 1/3 for Ti slag and pig iron production. Employment in the three plants is ca. 570. Reserves: 575 Mt @ 18% TiO2.


Bjerkreim-Sokndal intrusion Large ilmenite-apatite-magnetite deposits. Tonnage down to -100m: 282 Mt.


Engebø titanium deposit As well as ilmenite (FeTiO3) Norway has major resources of rutile (TiO2) Engebø is a 2.5 km long rutile-bearing eclogite body in Naustda in Sogn og Fjordane. Reserve: 382 Mt @ 3.96% TiO2. Førdefjord

Rutilebearing eclogite


Norsk Stein AS, Suldal kommune, Rogaland Europe’s leading aggregate producer •1988: opened production • 2009: production: 5.6 Mt • 95% export • 105 employees • 2012 planned production10 Mt


Mapping of variations in larvikite using aeromagnetic measurements

Larvikite:

Export value in 2010: NOK 440 million


Akselberg calcite marble, Brønnøy, Nordland

Produces marble for Hustadmarmor at Elnesvågen, Fræna, Møre og Romsdal

Brønøy kalk AS 86 employees 2.2 Mt/a

Hustadmarmor AS, Elnesvågen 212 employees Prod. value: NOK 1,700 mill. in 2008


Ă…heim olivine

Unique deposit with high MgO content (53%) and low LOI (< 2%). Used in iron-ore pllets and other refractory applications. Reserve: >500 Mt Ann. production: 2.6 Mt (increased from 30% of world production (see table) to 40% from 2011)


Opportunities and challenges: • Norden is one of the most prospective areas in Europe • Norden has a high technological level • Several forms of cooperation are in place • Several products are in place (Nordic databases) But, • Capacity is a problem • Some types of basic data are not available in Norway • There are uncertainties in relation to operations in Norway.


Developments in Norway Talk, Linnajavri

• Mineral strategy from NHD • NFR mineral strategy • Participation in EU projects • Focus in both strategies on whole value chain • Use of natural gas in mineral processing • Nordic cooperation

Produkter til Europa


Mining Journal supplement • Issued 5.02.2010 • 19 000 subscribers • Sent to all who subscribe to GEO • Profiled at PDAC March 2010 (20 000 participants) THANKS to support from – • NHD • Norsk Bergindustri • Direktoratet for Mineralforvaltning • Gexco AB • Leonhard Nilsen og Sønner • Norwegian Crystallites • Nussir • Intex Resources • Nordic Mining • Store Norske • Titania


Thank you for your attention!

Høgtuva Be-Y-Nb-U-Zr deposit, Nordland

The EU Raw Materials Initiative – seen from Norway  

The EU Raw Materials Initiative – seen from Norway Ron Boyd, NGU

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