Issuu on Google+

Capit al Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

October 2004

3925 West Braker Lane (R4500) Austin, TX 78759 www.fiatech.org ď›™2004 FIATECH


Capit al Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

ABSTRACT FIATECH is a non-profit consortium that focuses on the fast-track development and deployment of technologies to improve substantially how capital projects and facilities are designed, engineered, constructed, and maintained. FIATECH develops new technologies and adapts existing technologies from our industry, as well as others, while working with the standards community to accelerate the development of industry-wide standards and guidelines for capital projects. This publication, Capital Projects Technology Roadmap, was developed through a cooperative effort, with input and support from many contributing individuals and organizations, as referenced below. This report is freely available to the public; however, no copies may be made or distributed and no modifications made without prior written permission from FIATECH. To obtain permission for this or other FIATECH publications, contact FIATECH at www.fiatech.org or 512-232-9600.

Copyright Š 2004 by FIATECH. All Rights Reserved.

ď›™2004 FIATECH

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms


Capit al Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Table of Contents ACRONYMS AND KEY TERMS ............................................................................................................................................5 A CRONYMS................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 KEY TERMS.................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

2004 FIATECH

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Table of Contents


Capit al Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

ď›™2004 FIATECH

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Table of Contents


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Acronyms and Key Terms for the Capital Projects Technology Roadmap ACRONYMS Acronym Expanded Name ACI American Concrete Institute AEX AIA AICPA

Automating Equipment Information Exchange (a FIATECH project) American Institute of Architects American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

AISD ALIS ASA ASME

Absolute Integrated Systems Developers Inc. Asset Lifecycle Information System (see Key Terms) American Subcontractors Association American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASQ ASQC ASTM BPM

American Society for Quality See ASQ American Society for Testing and Materials Business Process Model (or Modeling)

CABA CAD CAPEX CII CMAA CONOPS CPTR

Continental Automated Buildings Association Computer Aided Design Capital Expense Construction Industry Institute Construction Management Association of America Concept of Operations Capital Projects Technology Roadmap

CURT D&D DBIA DDC

Construction Users Roundtable Decommissioning and Demolition Design-Build Institute of America Direct Digital Control

DIKW EPA EPC ETO

Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom hierarchy (see Key Terms) Environmental Protection Agency (USA) Engineering / Procurement / Construction Engineered to Order

FEL FIATECH FMECA GAAP

Front End Loading Fully Integrated and Automated Technology for the capital projects industry Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

HSE Health, Safety and Environment IACJS Intelligent and Automated Construction Job Site (Element 4 of the Roadmap) IAI International Alliance for Interoperability ICC IFC

ď›™2004 FIATECH

International Code Council Industry Foundation Classes (at the IAI)

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 5


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Acronym IGES ISO IT KPI LCI LEED M&S MEMS MIMOSA MSDS NCSBCS NECA NFPA

Expanded Name International Graphics Exchange Specifications International Organization for Standardization Information Technology Key Performance Indicator Lean Construction Institute Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Modeling and Simulation Microelectromechanical Systems (as used in Element 4) Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance Material Safety Data Sheet National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards National Electrical Contractors Association National Fire Prevention Association

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NQA National Quality Assurance, USA NSF National Science Foundation O&M OFAC OPEX OSCRE PDA PDRI PDRI-I PIP

Operations and Maintenance U.S. Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control Operating Expense (also see CAPEX) Open Standards Consortium for Real Estate Personal Digital Assistant (handheld electronic organizer) Project Definition Rating Index for Building Projects Project Definition Rating Index for Industrial Projects Process Industry Practices

PM PMI QA R&D

Project Management Project Management Institute Quality Assurance Research and Development

RFI RFID SDN

Request For Information (an early part of the contracting process) Radio Frequency Identification Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (list of, see OFAC)

SbPP SOX STEP UL

Scenario-based Project Planning Sarbanes-Oxley Act - Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act (US) Standards for Exchange of Product data (ISO 10303) Underwriter’s Laboratory Inc. (UL standards)

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

2004 FIATECH

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 6


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

KEY TERMS Key Term Description 3-D or 3D 3 components to the object’s physical dimensions (e.g. height, width, depth). 4-D or 4D 4 dimensional - adds a time -dimension to a 3-D object. Artificially intelligent facility Asset Lifecycle Information System

Capability to capture pertinent data Capital Expense Capital Project

Capital Project Lifecycle

2004 FIATECH

Highly automated project and facility management environment The intent of this term is to a) Represent the RESULT of implementing the Technical Framework (as described in the Element 9 tactical plan). b) Be the "thing" that all Elements of the Roadmap refer to when indicating their needs for data and information integration. The following were taken into consideration in choosing the name: a) "Asset" (rather than Facility) encompasses facilities, capital projects, and large objects such as bridges and ships that may not be normally be referred to as facilities, b) Information is also an Asset, c) The name refers to the whole "system" as used in a traditional mathematical or scientific sense, to mean "that which acts upon the information asset", including creating, controlling, validating, and otherwise managing the information asset throughout the lifecycle of the physical asset, d) To NOT represent a static database or repository, but rather to represent the integration of data held in multiple repositories or applications in a way that satisfies business requirements for persistence, consolidation and exchange of data, e) To NOT represent a single software application, but to imply the aggregation of tools and processes to enable the management of information about assets. f) A term that is not too much of a mouthful, g) The name did not bring up any search results using the Google Web search engine (and those brought up by its acronym "ALIS" did not seem to be in conflict or otherwise used within our domain). Example: sensors with real time data recording where pertinent data is required in real-time. A financial categorization of costs for accounting and taxation purposes (also Operating Expense – OPEX) The planning, engineering, procurement, construction and operation of predominantly large-scale buildings, plants, facilities and infrastructure including, for example, vessels and bridges. Note 1: ‘Capital’ is not defined in strictly accounting terms. Note 2: The end-user of a capital project may be from any industry, government or non-profit organization. Examples include: pulp and paper, utilities, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, semi -conductor, shipbuilding, bridgebuilding, universities, libraries, museums. Note 3: A capital project may be conducted by the end-user owner/operator or by contractors or by a mix of owner/operator and contractors. The lifecycle of the plant or facility, consisting of the phases "feasibility design - construct - startup - operate - renew".

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 7


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Key Term Capital Projects Technology Roadmap (CPTR or the Roadmap)

Charrette

Data, Information, and Knowledge

Data representation

Data representation model

2004 FIATECH

Description A cooperative effort of associations, consortia, government agencies, and industry, working together to accelerate the deployment of emerging and new technologies that will revolutionize the capabilities of the capital projects industry. The Roadmap presents a vision for the capital projects industry and a strategy and plan for achieving that vision. “The French word, "Charrette" means "cart" and is often used to describe the final, intense work effort expended by art and architecture students to meet a project deadline.” “Charrette is a collaborative planning process that harnesses the talents and energies of all interested parties to create and support a feasible plan that represents transformative community change.” Excerpt from www.charretteinstitute.org/charrette.html This trilogy has been in common use for decades, with multiple definitions. This one draws from a paper at http://www.systems thinking.org/dikw/dikw.htm . Another paper on the origins of the Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom Hierarchy (DIKW) by Nikhil Sharma was found at http://www-personal.si.umich.edu/~nsharma/dikw_origin.htm • Data - data are raw symbols (the display of a digital thermometer reads 98.6 deg-F, which can be directly encoded in ASCII, Unicode, etc.). • Information - information is data processed to be useful (my body temperature is 98.6 deg-F, which can be represented, for example, in XML using the previous data encoding but with special tags defined to convey the notion of temperature and measure). • Knowledge - knowledge is information processed to be useful (if my body temperature is greater than 98.6 deg-F, then I may be ill, which can be represented, for example, in XML, using the previous data encoding but with special tags defined to convey its rule-based nature.) The representation of data, information or knowledge in different forms, e.g. graphical, textual, digital. A data representation model (DRM) is a description used to provide identification of all data elements within a system, including their attributes and the logical relationships between data elements. In object-oriented terminology, this is viewed as a class hierarchy, and described through a graphics-based design tool. Each major type of data with important or explicit relationships is captured to show its logical relationship to other types of data. A DRM is not an implementation of a database, but a depiction of the types of data within the system. A data representation model (DRM) is a description used to provide identification of all data elements within a system, including their attributes and the logical relationships between data elements. In object-oriented terminology, this is viewed as a class hierarchy, and described through a graphics-based design tool. Each major type of data with important or explicit relationships is captured to show its logical relationship to other types of data. A DRM is not an implementation of a database, but a depiction of the types of data within the system.

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 8


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Key Term Engineering /Procurement / Construction (EPC) Enterprise knowl edge system Equipment, processes and system function

Extended enterprise Extensible Markup Language Front End Loading

Description Often used to refer to companies that provide all three services. Front end applications that provide access to backend data The relationships between equipment, processes and system function in a plant or facility. Example: plant processes are maintained by protecting system function, and system functions are protected by maintaining equipment. Industry organization and its supply chain. (XML) An internet language standard that enables seamless flow of text based information via the web. Work done at the beginning of a capital project to develop the business plan, establish the business objectives and review processes, gain buy-in from sponsors, and identify hazards prior to any detailed work starting on the project. Intended to maximize efficiencies in capital projects.

Industry The capital projects industry. The industry that executes capital projects. (Not only in the U.S., also international.) Industry Foundation Classes

Industry knowledge base

International Graphics Exchange Specifications

Interoperable systems Interoperability in the construction and buildings industry Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Green Building Rating System® Legacy data

Lifecycle data management Model-based information management

2004 FIATECH

A classification developed by the IAI ("International Alliance for Interoperability") The IAI is a division of the ISO ("International Standards Organization") – the body that controls the IGES and STEP data standards. A shared information asset developed to organize and disseminate relevant knowledge in the form of comprehensive practice guidelines for one specific industry. Products may be designed as either a two-dimensional, three-view drawing layout, or as a full three-dimensional model with associated drawing views and dimensions using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system. The IGES format serves as a neutral data format to transfer the design to a dissimilar system. Translators, developed to the IGES Standard, are used to export a design into an IGES file for exchange and for importing the IGES file into the destination system. Applications that support open standards and are tied together via exchange standards and messaging/transport protocols The dynamic and seamless exchange of accurate, useful information on the built environment among all members of the building community throughout the lifecycle of facilities A voluntary, consensus-based national (U.S.) standard for developing highperformance, sustainable buildings. Offline or archived data. A legacy data source is any file, database, or software asset (such as a web service or business application) that supplies or produces data and that has already been deployed. The management of data throughout the capital project or plant lifecycle Use of a model for software development and information management. The model covers the entire process (e.g. for building services implementation it would include design, manufacturing, contracting, facilities management).

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 9


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Key Term Description Ontology An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization. It is an explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them.

Performance goals

Plug-and-play Radio frequency identification Roadmap, the Seamless

See Tom Gruber's definition at http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-anontology.html , or refer to http://www.si.umich.edu/UMDL/glossary.html Performance goals examples include: Return On Investment is x%; No outage of data availability from knowledge bases; Costs of operation are covered by user fees. Requires system abstraction and encapsulation A generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. The Capital Projects Technology Roadmap. Transparent, global, location transparent … the user has no perception that technical boundaries have been crossed

Smart Container for Information

High fidelity container of Knowledge, Information, Data. A Smart Container is a container that could contain other Smart Container. The goal of a Smart Container would be to provide a container rich in meta data and history without any loss of information during any transactions or transformation.

Seamless integration of long-term supply and support networks

Information communication between organizations in a supply chain or support network via widely accepted exchange standards and protocols .

STandards for Exchange of Product data (STEP)

State Structured vs. unstructured data

2004 FIATECH

STEP is an unofficial name. The actual designation of the STEP standard is ISO10303 Industrial Automation Systems - Product Data Representation and Exchange. The STEP project was initiated in 1984 by the ISO (International Standards Organization). The objectives were: • Create a single international standard • Implement this standard in Industry • Standardize a mechanism for describing data throughout enterprise life cycle. • Separate data description from implementation to facilitate; o Neutral file exchange o Shared product databases o Long term archiving Measured values , or other indicator of the position of the object within its lifecycle (example: planned, active, complete). Structured data is anything that has an enforced composition to the atomic data types. Structured data is managed by technology that allows for querying and reporting against predetermined data types and understood relationships. Unstructured data is the "stuff" that makes up 80 to 90 percent of the information in an organization: the Word and PowerPoint files, the emails, and the intranet newsletters -- the files that store the words that run the companies.

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 10


Capital Projects Technology Roadmap Acronyms and Key Terms

Key Term Description Supply chain “a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished products to customers”. (Ganeshan and Harrison, 1995) Understanding, and Wisdom Two other levels of the Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy are Understanding (or Expertise) and Wisdom: • Understanding / Expertise - expertise is knowledge applied to a bounded subject. It is the process by which I can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge. • Wisdom - wisdom is knowing how and when to apply knowledge. Wisdom is a uniquely human state, and wisdom requires one to have a soul, for it resides as much in the heart as in the mind.

2004 FIATECH

October 2004, Acronyms and Key Terms, Page 11


http://fiatech.org/images/stories/techroadmap/deliverables/oct2004/CPTR_AcronymsKeyTerms_Download_Oc