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Florida Grand Opera gratefully recognizes the following donors who have provided support of its education programs.

Study Guide 2012 / 2013


Batchelor Foundation Inc.


Dear Friends, Welcome to our exciting 2012-2013 season! Florida Grand Opera is pleased to present the magical world of opera to the diverse audience of South Florida. We begin our season with a classic Italian production of Giacomo Puccini’s La bohème. We continue with a supernatural singspiel, Mozart’s The Magic Flute and Vincenzo Bellini’s famous opera La sonnambula, with music from the bel canto tradition. The main stage season is completed with a timeless opera with Giuseppe Verdi’s La traviata. As our RHWIEWSRà REPI[ILEZIEHHIHERI\XVESTIVEXSSYVWGLIHYPIMRSYV continuing efforts to be able to reach out to a newer and broader range of people in the community; a tango opera María de Buenoa Aires by à stor Piazzolla. As a part of Florida Grand Opera’s Education Program and Student Dress Rehearsals, these informative and comprehensive study guides can help students better understand the opera through context and plot. )EGLSJXLIWIWXYH]KYMHIWEVIà PPIH[MXLLMWXSVMGEPFEGOKVSYRHWWXSV]PMRI structures, a synopsis of the opera as well as a general history of Florida Grand Opera. Through this information, students can assess the plotline of each opera as well as gain an understanding of the why the librettos were written in their fashion.

A message from

Kevin Mynatt

Florida Grand Opera believes that education for the arts is a vital enrichQIRXXLEXQEOIWWXYHIRXW[IPPVSYRHIHERHLIPTWQEOIXLIMVPMZIWQSVI GYPXYVEPP]JYPĂ PPMRK3RFILEPJSJXLI*PSVMHE+VERH3TIVE[ILSTIXLEX these study guides will help students delve further into the opera. We hope you enjoy the show! -PSSOJSV[EVHXSWIIMRK]SYEXXLI3TIVE

Kevin G. Mynatt Managing Director Florida Grand Opera


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Kev i n M y n a t t

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



6-9 10-13 14-17 18-21 22-29 30-35 36-37 38-39 40-51 52-55 56-59

Attending an Opera Florida Grand Opera Roots and Development On Broadway! Close up with Jeanette Vecchione The Operatic Voice The Magic Flute Cast & Characters Synopsis The Composer Librettists

So what is Singspiel ? Freemasonry Mozart’s Music The Age of Enlightenment Pamina Gender in The Magic Flute Class in The Magic Flute Race in The Magic Flute What else happened in that year? References Credits


Florida Grand Opera // Content

60-65 66-71 72-75 76-81 82-85 86-89 90-91 92-93 94-97 98-101 102-103

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Attending an


FGO dress rehearsal


Florida Grand Opera // Attending an Opera

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


WHAT WILL YOU SEE IN AN OPERA? Opera combines colorful sets and costumes, dynamic staging, passionate stories, and poetic words with beautiful music. Richard Wagner referred to it as +IWEQOYRWX[IVO SV EµXSXEP EVX [SVO¶ =SY QMKLX [EXGLHERGMRKW[SVHÁKLXMRKGLEVEGXIVWHVIWWMRKMR disguises, the tenor wooing the soprano, or unfurling schemes against another character. Operas can be romantic, comedic, tragic, dramatic, or all of the above. Primarily, opera is entertaining!

WHAT WILL YOU HEAR IN AN OPERA? Operas are sung in many different languages, the most common of which are Italian, French, German, and English. The Magic Flute, however, is sung in German. Florida Grand Opera provides supertitles (translations of the text projected on a screen above the stage) in English and Spanish. Singers are accompanied by the orchestra which can consist of string instruments PMOI ZMSPMRW ZMSPEW GIPPSW ERH HSYFPI FEWWIW [SSH[MRHWPMOIÂYXIWGPEVMRIXWSFSIWERHFEWWSSRWERH FVEWWMRWXVYQIRXWPMOIXVYQTIXWJVIRGLLSVRWXVSQbones, and tubas.

OPERA ETIQUETTE: _Attending an opera is an exciting occasion! You should dress comfortably, but presentably. Many audience members use an opera as an opportunity to dress in formal attire. _Arrive early. Audience members who arrive after the start of the performance are prevented from entering until there is a change of scene. _It is customary to show your appreciation at various times in the performance with applause. The audience will applaud at the beginning of each act as the conductor enters the orchestra pit, at the ends of particularly well-sung arias or choruses, at the close of each WGIRI SV EGX ERH HYVMRK XLI ÁREP GYVXEMR GEPP EW XLI performers bow. _If you want to show your admiration even more, you can call out “Bravo!” for a male singer, “Brava!” for a female singer, or “Bravi!” for an ensemble. If you enjoyed the entire production, stand and clap during the curtain call to join in a standing ovation. _Audience members are expected to turn off all cell phones and refrain from using cameras with or withSYXÂEWLHYVMRKXLITIVJSVQERGI _While concessions are sold in the lobby before the performance and during intermissions, no food or HVMROMWEPPS[IHMRWMHISJXLIXLIEXVI _Be respectful of the musicians and your fellow audience QIQFIVWERHHSRSXXEPOHYVMRKXLITIVJSVQERGI Most importantly, enjoy the opera!


Florida Grand Opera // Attending an Opera

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e




Grand Opera Dr. Arturo di Filippi

Florida Grand Opera stands as one of the oldest performing arts organizations in Florida and in the nation. Florida Grand Opera is one of the resident companies of The Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts of Miami-Dade County where it presents its Miami performances in the Ziff Ballet Opera House. Fort Lauderdale performances are given at the Broward Center for the Performing Arts. Florida Grand Opera was formed in June 1994 by the merger of Greater Miami Opera, founded in 1941, and The Opera Guild Inc. of Fort Lauderdale, founded in 1945.


Florida Grand Opera // Florida Grand Opera

The Greater Miami Opera was founded by Dr. Arturo di Filippi, a voice teacher at the University of 1MEQM8LIÁVWXTVSHYGXMSRLIPHEX1MEQM7IRMSV High School in 1942, was a single performance of Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci, performed in English, with Dr. di Filippi singing the role of Canio. In 1945, Dr. di Filippi appeared in a production of Il trovatore at Ft. Lauderdale Central High School, representing XLI ÁVWX TVSHYGXMSR SJ XLI8LI 3TIVE +YMPH -RG Florida Grand Opera has a rich history of presenting internationally acclaimed artists such as Robert 1IVVMPP (SVSXL] /MVWXIR 6MGLEVH 8YGOIV 6IREXE Tebaldi, Roberta Peters, Franco Corelli, Renata

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


7GSXXS 1SRXWIVVEX 'EFEPPI .SR :MGOIVW 7LIVVMPP Milnes, Nicolai Gedda, Birgit Nilsson, Anna Moffo, Plácido Domingo, Beverly Sills, Joan Sutherland, Evelyn Lear, James Morris, Thomas Stewart, Diana Soviero, Justino Diaz, Simon Estes, Elizabeth Futral, Helen Donath, Deborah Voigt, and Fernando de la Mora. Luciano Pavarotti made his American debut in 1965 with the company’s production of Lucia di Lammermoor. In April, 2007, Florida Grand Opera presented the critically acclaimed world premiere of David Carlson’s Anna Karenina with libretto by Colin Graham. Anna Karenina was commissioned as a co-production by Florida Grand Opera, Michigan Opera Theatre, and Opera Theatre of Saint Louis. In May 1997, the Company presented the world premiere of Balseros, an opera by Robert Ashley with libretto by world renowned Cuban writer María Irene Fornés. Balseros was commissioned as a co-production by Florida Grand Opera, Miami-Dade Community College and the South Florida Composers Alliance. Another world premiere was Robert Ward’s Minutes Till Midnight in 1982. American premieres include Gioachino Rossini’s Bianca e Falliero and the ÁREPVIZMWIHZIVWMSRSJ%PFIVXS*VERGLIXXM¸W'VMWXSforo Colombo.


Florida Grand Opera // Florida Grand Opera

At the core of Florida Grand Opera’s mission is a commitment to training emerging opera professionals and educating young people about opera while embracing the diverse cultural heritage of the South Florida community. Each year, established education programs, including the School Dress Rehearsal Program and the company’s education festivals expose thousands of children and students to opera’s many facets. Florida Grand Opera’s renowned artist training program, the Young Artist Studio, nurtures gifted young singers and provides XLIQ [MXL XLI WOMPPW ERH I\TIVMIRGIW RIGIWWEV] to move beyond their training at universities and music conservatories into successful careers in the professional opera world.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Opera’s Roots &

Development Mozart.

Where did opera come from? What prompted composers to create it? Poets, musicians, architects, artists, philosophers, mathematicians, and many other XLMROIVWLEHFIGSQISFWIWWIH[MXLEVIGVIEXMSRSJ XLI +VIIO GYPXYVI HYVMRK XLI -XEPMER 6IREMWWERGI In the 1500’s, a certain group of composers from the Camerata Fiorentina, or Florentine Academy, FIKERXSJSGYWSRXLIVITVSHYGXMSRSJ+VIIO(VEma. The Camerata believed that several factors were extremely important in recreating these dramas: the sung text must be understood, the music WLSYPH VIÂIGX XLI GEHIRGIW SJ WTIIGL VEXLIV XLER dance, and most importantly, the music should explore and enhance the emotions being expressed. The Camerata developed Western music’s earliest STIVEWXLIQSWX[IPPORS[RFIMRK1SRXIZIVHM¸W


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / O p e r a ’s R o o t s & D e v e l o p m e n t



L’Orfeo. Following L’Orfeo’s success, the art form spread rapidly amongst composers, artists, and poets. The Baroque form consisted of sung recitatives by soloists which would move the plot or story line, arias in which the soloist would explore an emotion, and choruses where the rest of the characters commented on the action. Composers began to create duets, trios, and other ensemble numbers with multiple soloists, allowing for more character interaction and more dynamic plot lines. As the Classical period began, the chorus of an opera became more integral to the story, rather than merely providing commentary. Arias began to express multiple emotions and more complex ideas and QEMR GLEVEGXIVW XSSO SR QSVI LYQER EXXVMFYXIW %PPSJXLIWIHIZIPSTQIRXWEVITVIWIRXMRXLI[SVOW of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


9RXMP XLI PEXI ¸W STIVEW à X MRXS ZIV] WTIGMà G GPEWWMà GEXMSRWSTIVEWIVMEXLIRSFPIERH¾WIVMSYWœ genre, and opera buffa, the comic and low brow genre. Mozart revolutionized opera as he began to FPIRHXLIWIKIRVIWMRLMWPEXIV[SVOW-R8LI1EVriage of Figaro, buffo, or comic, servant characters PMOI *MKEVS [IVI TSVXVE]IH EPSRKWMHI WIVME RSFPIQIRPMOI'SYRX%PQEZMZE*YVXLIVQSVIXLIFYJJS characters often displayed more admirable qualities than the nobles. Mozart’s Don Giovanni is clasWMà IHEWEHVEQQEKMSGSWSSVGSQMGHVEQE-XJIEtures lighthearted moments and comic scenes such as Giovanni’s servant displaying the catalogue of his master’s conquests to a jilted lover, but ends quite dramatically with the womanizer being dragged to Hell for his terrible debauchery. Giuseppe Verdi composed operas during the Romantic period as harmonic language became more varied and effective. Due to the concurrent developments in literary style, plots explored a greater depth of emotion and action, and provided commentary on current events with more frequency. As more regions chaffed under the oppressive rule of foreign empires, composers sought to express nationalistic themes with their art. Verdi endured many struggles with government and church censors over his operas, because of their political overtones or, in Rigoletto’s case, portrayal of an abusive and degenerate nobleman. As opera developed even futher, national styles diZIVWMà IHERHHIZIPSTIHXLIMVS[RGERSRW:IVHM


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / O p e r a ’s R o o t s & D e v e l o p m e n t

Mozart, and Rossini, among others, are considered by scholars to be members of the Italian School of operatic composition. Italian School composers created highly melodic music which displays the singers to the best of their abilities. The orchestra accompaniment is usually secondary to the vocal line, and as such, these operas are termed “Singer’s Opera.â€? Conversely, the German School of Opera, [LMGLGV]WXEPPM^IHMXWIPJXLVSYKLXLI[SVOWSJ'EVP Maria von Weber, Beethoven, and Wagner, emphasizes the power of the music as a whole instead of displays by the vocalist. Weber’s opera Der FreischĂźtz (The Marksman) MW GSRWMHIVIH XLI Ă VWX MQportant German Romantic opera, and is particularP][IPPORS[RJSVMXWYRIEVXLP];SPJ¸W+PIRWGIRI Weber’s opera Euryanthe followed Der FreischĂźtz and was through-composed, blurring the distinctions between recitative and aria. This melding of recitative and aria was enhanced and expanded by 6MGLEVH;EKRIV[LS[VSXIMRĂ‚S[MRKERHIRHPIWW QIPSHMIW;EKRIV¸WSTIVEWPMOITristan und Isolde, Parsifal, and The Ring Cycle best exemplify the German focus on the effectiveness of the orchestra, vocalists, and poetry as a total production to create the drama. The French School, founded by Lully and developed by composers such as Meyerbeer, Bizet, Gounod, and Massenet, is a balancing point between the Italian and German ideologies. Instrumental support for the vocal line was more complex ERH VMGL [LMPI XLI ZSGEP PMRI [EW PIWW Ă‚SVMH8LI voice was always well displayed while still doing its TEVXXSIZSOIERHTVSKVIWWXLIHVEQEXMGTPSX S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



On Broadway! The modern American


2EQIWPMOI7SYXL4EGMÁG3OPELSQE4LERXSQSJXLI Opera, Wicked, and RENT are often more familiar to us than the vast majority of the operatic repertory. These musical dramas are heavily integrated into pop culture and are usually synonymous with &VSEH[E]ERH2I[=SVO'MX],EZI]SYIZIV[SRdered what inspired the creation of this unique art form full of drama, music, and dance? Though the modern musical’s inspiration comes from a variety SJWSYVGIWXLISTIVEQSVIWTIGMÁGEPP]STIVEFYJJE lies at its heart. Opera buffa, or ‘comic opera,’ was a response to opera seria, or ‘serious opera,’ during the 18th century. During this time, audiences wanted a plot that they could relate to and have fun watching.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / O n B r o a d way ! T h e m o d e r n A m e r i c a n “ O p e r a ”

In response to this demand, composers began creEXMRK[SVOWXLEXMRGSVTSVEXIHHSQIWXMGGLEVEGXIVW in funny situations. The music was lighthearted and characters relatable, leaving audiences happy and upbeat by the end of the performance. Some of the QSWX [IPP ORS[R STIVE FYJJE EVI The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart and The Barber of Seville by Rossini. In the late 19th century, British and American GSQTSWIVW WSYKLX XS GVIEXI RI[ GSQIHMG [SVOW that mixed many genres of music, dance, and drama. These composers drew musical ideas from the opera buffa idiom, but also included dance numbers and parody elements that were typical of burlesque shows. “Musical comedies” such as Cohan’s Little Johnny Jones (1904) and Kern’s Nobody Home

  X]TMÁIH XLMW KIRVI%W MR STIVE FYJJE SVHMnary, average characters were emphasized and S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


brought to life. The plots were simple and easy to YRHIVWXERH 9RPMOI STIVE LS[IZIV HERGMRK ERH acting played a major role in these productions in order to bring the variety show to life. In 1927, Oscar Hammerstein II and Jerome Kern delivered a musical dealing with prejudice, and tragic, undying love: Showboat. This musical was revolutionary for a number of reasons. Showboat was clearly distinguishable from the “musical GSQIH]Âś PMOISTIVEFYJJE ERHIWXEFPMWLIHMXWIPJEWE ÂśQYWMGEPTPE]Âś PMOISTIVEWIVME %PPSJXLIIPIQIRXW were subservient to the play; the story was cohesive and the integrated songs that contributed to the action by establishing moods, unveiling characters, or advancing the plot. Showboat dealt with heavy IQSXMSRWERH[EWPMOIRSXLMRKXLEXLEHGSQIFIJSVI it. It paved the way for musicals by allowing them to deal with new subject matter. A few years later, Strike Up the Band (1930) included social commentary on war, capitalism, and North American politics.Since XLI¸WGSQTSWIVWLEZIXEOIRXLIQSHIVRQYWMGEP in many different directions. Because the music from a “musicalâ€? is no longer popular music, composers LEZISJXIRFVSYKLXÂľTSTÂśQYWMGFEGOXSXLIWXEKI Andrew Lloyd Weber has done so numerous times in Jesus Christ Superstar (1971), Cats (1982), and Phantom of the Opera   F] MRGSVTSVEXMRK VSGO beats and electric instruments in the orchestra. Some composers, such as Jonathan Larson, have even created entire musicals Rent (1994)


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / O n B r o a d way ! T h e m o d e r n A m e r i c a n “ O p e r a �

YWMRK VSGO FERH MRWXVYQIRXEXMSR 8LIVI MW RS longera “typicalâ€? sound for a musical, as the repertory is as diverse as the composers who have created it. New musicals explore all facets of the human experience, social injustice, and worldly TVSFPIQW EW [IPP EW WGMIRGI Ă GXMSR ERH JERXEW] Though there is dancing, over the top acting, and VSGO ERH VSPP QYWMG MR SYV QSHIVR QYWMGEP XLI XLIQIWSJPSZIPSWWERHPSRKMRKEVIRSXYRPMOIMXW operatic ancestor. Many call the Broadway musical “American Opera.â€? The musical, though primarily drawing from operatic arts, was created through a conglomeration SJQER]HMJJIVIRXIPIQIRXWQYGLPMOISYV%QIVMGER culture. Opera made use of drama, music, costumes, and art to tell timeless stories that resound deep within our souls, as many musicals aim to do today. Many parallels can also be drawn between subject matter of opera buffa and the musical comedy, as well as opera seria and the musical play. Songs are used to create drama, move the story forward, and hopefully teach us something about our own lives. The orchestra is used in both art forms to support the singers and add depth to their words. And though the acting and dancing used to be quite different between and an opera and a musical, current trends on Broadway and in opera houses are showing that they are learning from each other’s successes. And though they are learning and growing from each other today, we must not forget the musical’s roots. Without opera, the modern musical would never have come to be. S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Close up with

Jeanette Vecchione Jeanette Vecchione


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / C l o s e u p w i t h Je a n e t t e Ve c c h i o n e

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Starring as the Queen of the Night in the upcoming production of Wolfgang Mozart’s The Magic Flute, Jeanette Vecchione gives us a close up on her journey as an opera singer. Although Vecchione was initially committed to becoming a basketball player in high school (even keeping the record in the state of New York for the most three-pointers), her former high school chorus teacher discovered her singing an opera aria. After that, Vecchione XVEMRIH JSV ÁZI QSRXLW ERH EYHMXMSRIH JSV8LI Juilliard School, where Vecchione attended on a full scholarship. See how her story unfolds. As a high school student, you were an amazing FEWOIXFEPP TPE]IV  ;LEX QEHI ]SY W[MXGL JVSQ TPE]MRKFEWOIXFEPPXSWMRKMRKSTIVE# When my chorus teacher, Ellen Levine, encouraged QIXSXV]WMRKMRK-[EWHIÁRMXIP]IEKIVXSKMZIMXE shot. She said, “You are an opera singer! You need XS KS XS .YMPPMEVH¶  ,S[IZIV - HIÁRMXIP] [EWR¸X TPERRMRKSRKMZMRKYTFEWOIXFEPPWSUYMGOP]8SFI honest, opera was so foreign to me. I remember the day I said a simple prayer: “God, if this is what you want me to do, give me the desire for it; because right now, I don’t see myself as an opera singer!” But I decided to open my mind up to something new and I started to really enjoy singing and learning about the different stories and great singers. My teacher gave me different types of music to study. She gave me a CD of Maria Callas as well as the arietta of Gilbert and Sullivan’s Pirates of Penzance song Poor Wandering One. When I listened to the '(SJ1EVME'EPPEWMX[EWFVIEXLXEOMRK7LIWERK


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / C l o s e u p Je a n e t t e Ve c c h i o n e

with so much feeling and emotion, I wanted to be PMOIXLEX-QMQMGOIH[LEX-LIEVHERHMXQEHIQI so excited that my voice was able to reach the same notes that she reached. Hence, we found out that I was a coloratura soprano, the highest type of voice. 3RGI FEWOIXFEPP WIEWSR [EW SZIV Q] LIEVX VIEPP] started to change. I realized that I didn’t want to play FEWOIXFEPPER]QSVI-[ERXIHXSFIETVSJIWWMSREP opera singer. ;LEX [IVI ]SYV ÁVWX VSPIW EW ER YTGSQMRK STIVE star? How did you ready yourself for your debut? While I was at The Juilliard School, I had a strong desire to sing in Italy. So I found a vocal competition and music festival in Riva del Garda, Italy. I was extremely nervous to go there because I was only 21. However, I won 3rd place in the competition and was invited to sing in their music festival. This music festival was vital to the start of my career. Once I graduated The Juilliard School in 2008, I HMHR¸XVIEPP]ORS[[LEX-[EWWYTTSWIHXSHS-R the beginning of 2009, I received a message from an agent who met me during that festival in Italy. She told me that I needed to come to Europe for an audition. I travelled all over Europe auditioning EXZEVMSYWSTIVELSYWIW3RISJQ]ÁVWXEYHMXMSRW there was for the Vienna State Opera in Austria. This was a very big deal. After singing for them three times, they offered me the role of the Queen of the Night for the following season. That was especially amazing because I had started out singing the role of Queen of the Night at Juilliard and was now WMRKMRKMX[LIVI1S^EVXÁVWXGVIEXIHMX-[EW S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


so honored to be there and sing at a place with so much respect and history for the opera, especially the operas of Mozart. Since I didn’t have much TVMSVI\TIVMIRGI-[SVOIHMRXIRWMZIP][MXLTMERMWXW vocal coaches as well as with my present teacher

-¸ZI [SVOIH [MXL LIV WMRGI - WXEVXIH .YMPPMEVH MR  1EVPIRE1EPEW-EPWS[SVOIHMRXIRWMZIP]SR XLI +IVQER XI\X WMRGI - [EW E JSVIMKRIV WTIEOMRK +IVQER XI\X MR E +IVQER WTIEOMRK GSYRXV]8LMW was a bit intimidating, so I prepared and studied pronunciation as much as possible. After singing at Vienna State Opera, I have sung the Queen of the Night in many other theatres. How do you prepare for a role now? I prepare for a role in 3 ways: mentally, physically and emotionally. I try to imagine myself doing the role on stage with orchestra in front of people and MQEKMRII\EGXP][LEXXLEX[SYPHJIIPPMOI4VEGXMGI ERH ZSGEPM^MRK MW SFZMSYW FYX - EPWS PMOI XS FI TL]WMGEPP] ÁX IWTIGMEPP] HYVMRK VILIEVWEP TIVMSHW and performances. I do a lot of running and jump rope, and use outdoor benches as my exercise equipment. Emotionally preparing for a role is EPWS ZIV] MQTSVXERX - PMOI XS VIWIEVGL XLI STIVE WXYH] XLI FEGOKVSYRH XVERWPEXI IZIV]XLMRK ERH understand the characters of the opera. I can try to understand the characters better, and put 100% of my dedication into that role that way. Do you have a particular character, role, opera or musical production that is your favorite and also SRIXLEX]SY[SYPHSRIHE]PMOIXSTIVJSVQMR#


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / C l o s e u p Je a n e t t e Ve c ch i o n e

I love Italian opera. My favorite opera is La traviata. I hope one day I have the opportunity to sing it. The story and the music are so in sync it’s incredible. You can really understand the story if you truly listen to the music, even if you don’t understand the words. The emotions lie in the music and it’s a celestial experience when you can open your ears and listen directly to each instrumental and vocal part and how they complement the storyline. What other upcoming projects do you have? -XMWMQTSVXERXJSVQIXSKMZIFEGOXSXLIGSQQYRMX] and also venture out and explore other areas of life. Other than opera engagements, I sing a lot in churches, as well as in Italian-American SVKERM^EXMSRWMRXLI2I[=SVOXVMWXEXIEVIE-EPWS have sung at various schools for children. Some OMHWEVIRSXI\TSWIHXSGPEWWMGEPQYWMGERHMX¸WRMGI to share my experience with them and hopefully inspire them to pursue their dreams. I am also involved with planning musical events for adult homes, nursing homes, Gideons International and JSV GLMPHVIR [MXL HMWEFMPMXMIW QSVI WTIGMÁGEPP] EYXMWQ-¸QLIEHMRKFEGOXS)YVSTIMR7ITXIQFIV to participate in a competition in Toulouse, France, as well as audition in opera houses nearby. In 3GXSFIV - [MPP FI WMRKMRK EX E FIRIÁX GSRGIVX JSV children with autism in Brazil and give a masterclass at the music school of Florianopolis. ;LIVIHS]SYWII]SYVWIPJMRÁZI]IEVW#

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


;LIVIHS]SYWII]SYVWIPJMRÁZI]IEVW# This is a good question. I have many goals for XLI RI\X  ]IEVW  - [SYPH PMOI XS FI ÂYIRX MR  languages: English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French and German. I am on my way to this goal. Everywhere I sing, I go to a language school in that country. I want a recording contract with a major recording company, as well. I would love to sing the Queen of the Night in all the major opera houses in the world. My other goals include completing a triathlon, and my ultimate goal would be to build a type of “boys and girls” club incorporating the performing arts and sports. It would be a GSQQYRMX]FYMPHMRKJSVOMHWSJEPPEKIWEW[IPPEW young adults. There would be rooms for practicing instruments, a theatre and rooms for visual artists. There would also be a large gymnasium for indoor WTSVXWEXVEGOERHSYXHSSVÁIPHW-[ERXXSKMZI young people the opportunity to explore what they EVI TEWWMSREXI EFSYX ERH XS HIZIPST E LEVH [SVO ethic, build healthy relationships and be around an encouraging, positive environment.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / C l o s e u p Je a n e t t e Ve c ch i o n e

;LEXEHZMGI[SYPH]SYPMOIXSKMZIXSSXLIVJYXYVI opera singers? 1] EHZMGI XS JYXYVI STIVE WMRKIVW MW ÁVWX ERH JSVIQSWX HS [LEX QEOIW ]SY LETT]8LMW MW QSWX important. If you are happy, then you are successful. Number two; be yourself and believe in yourself. Be encouraged even when you do 50 auditions and don’t receive anything, because all you need is that SRIPMXXPIGVEGOMRXLIHSSV[LMGLGSYPHSTIRQER] other doors. %RH RYQFIV XLVII OIIT ]SYV QMRH STIR8LIVI are many wonderful things in life, not just opera. Remember to enjoy life and not forget about the MQTSVXERXXLMRKWPMOIPSZIJEQMP]ERHJVMIRHW

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



The operatic

Voice Professional singer


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / T h e O p e r a t i c Vo i c e

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


3TIVE WMRKIVW EVI GPEWWMÁIH MR X[S HMJJIVIRX [E]W *MVWXXLI]EVIMHIRXMÁIHEWWSTVERSQI^^SWSTVEno, tenor, etc., based upon their singing range. Secondly, they are categorized based on characteristics of their sound. Type of voice is often referred to with the German word Fach (plural Fächer), which means “subject” or “speciality.” A singer’s fach deXIVQMRIW[LEXVSPIWXLI]EVIQSWXPMOIP]XSTIVJSVQ Women’s voices are grouped (from high to low) into soprano and mezzo-soprano ranges. Men’s voices are grouped into tenor, baritone, and bass by range. Common additional descriptive words include coloratura, lyric, and dramatic. Soprano Fächer Soubrette Soprano: This soprano has a voice with the lightest weight and enough agility to handle coloratura passages (vocal runs of many fast notes). She will not typically sing above a high C. A soubrette is also referred to in German as a “Character Soprano.” Her roles are frequently the maid or comic relief of the opera.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / T h e O p e r a t i c Vo i c e

Coloratura Soprano: %GSPSVEXYVEWSTVERSMWQEVOIH[MXLKVIEXEKMPMX]ERH a much higher range than a soubrette. Depending on the weight of her voice, the soprano may be additionally described as a lyric coloratura with medium weight and depth, or a dramatic coloratura with the fullest sound and a brassy, ringing quality. Lyric Soprano: 0]VMGWSTVERSWEVIX]TMÁIHF]EREFMPMX]XSWMRKPIKEto (in a smooth and connected line) with a pure and beautiful sound. Many of a lyric soprano’s roles are the love interests of their opera, so a soprano of this voice type must encompass the innocence and vulnerability written into their music. Lyric sopranos QE]EPWSKVS[MRXSEGPEWWMÁGEXMSRORS[REWWTMRto, which in Italian means “pushed.” This sound is larger than a standard lyric soprano and can cut across a larger orchestra. Dramatic Soprano: A dramatic soprano has a full and rich sound with power that can carry across the largest opera orGLIWXVEW8LIMVXSRIMWSJXIRHEVOIVXLERSXLIVWSTVERSW  (VEQEXMG WSTVERSW EVI EPWS QEVOIH [MXL great stamina and endurance.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Mezzo-Soprano Fächer Coloratura, Lyric, and dramatic mezzo-sopranos have similar vocal characteristics to their soprano counterparts, but spend more of their time singing in a lower tessitura or range of their voice. Mezzo-soprano voices are typically more mellow and rich in their sound than soprano voices. Contralto: 8LI GSRXVEPXS JEGL JIEXYVIW E WMKRMÁGERXP] PS[IV VERKIERHEZIV]HEVOVMGLXSRI%GSRXVEPXSMWSRI of the rarer female voice types due to its range. Tenor Fächer Comic Tenor: The comic tenor sings roles that require acting rather than exquisitely beautiful singing. His arias QE]FI[VMXXIRMRETEXXIVSVWTIIGLPMOIWX]PIERH do not feature the demands of a full lyric melody. Lyric Tenor: Similar to the other lyric voices, a lyric tenor must WMRK [MXL FIEYX] ERH GSQQERH FSXL ÂI\MFMPMX] of coloratura passages and musical phrasing of a legato line.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / T h e O p e r a t i c Vo i c e

Heldentenor: Meaning “heroic tenor” in German, a Heldentenor features a richer and more robust sound than the lyric tenor. In his middle range, a heldentenor may sound very similar to a baritone in color and weight. Baritone Fächer Lyric baritones and dramatic bass-baritones feature the same characteristics of lyric and dramatic voices. A lyric baritone has a sweeter, mellower sound, while a dramatic bass-baritone has more comfort and strength in his lower range as well as enough power to sing over a large orchestra. Cavalier Baritone: The cavalier baritone has a brassy quality to his voice and is capable of singing both lyric and dramatic passages. This voice is very similar to the Verdi Baritone, discussed more in-depth in the next section, but the Verdi Baritone usually sings a much higher tessitura than the cavalier baritone. Bass Fächer &EWWIW EVI EPWS GPEWWMÁIH EW P]VMG SV HVEQEXMG EW well as comic, based upon weight and beauty of the ZSMGI8LMWFEWWZSMGIMWQEVOIHF]ERI\XVIQIPS[ range. The basso profundo (Italian for “Profound” or “Low Bass”) has an enormously resonant and full-bodied sound.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


The Magic Flute


(MI >EYFIVÂ}XI 8LI 1EKMG *PYXI  / 620 An opera (Singspiel) in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756- December 5, 1791) premiered in Vienna, at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden, September 30th, 1791. The liFVIXXSMWF])QERYIP7GLMOERIHIV 7ITtember 1, 1751- September 21, 1812) [VMXXIR EJXIV E FSSO SJ SVMIRXEP JEMV]tales. The source story was called Lulu, or The Magic Flute.

Magic Flute’s premiere Playbill


Florida Grand Opera // The Magic Flute

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Cast &

Characters Qeen of the Night Jeanette Vecchionee

coloratura soprano A beautiful evil queen and Pamina’s mother.

Tamino Andrew Bidlacke



Jonathan G. Michie

Jordan Bisch

in love with pamina.

The Queen’s clumsy bird catcher.

Highest priest of Isis and Osiris.

A handsome prince





Three Ladies



two sopranos, mezzo soprano

Sarasreo’s prisoner.

Sarastro. He is in love with Pamina.

Two Armed Man tenor, bass

Florida Grand Opera // Cast & Characters



A moor and chief servant of



Girl who is disguised as an old woman and transforms into a beautiful female bird catcher.

Servant to the queen of the night.

Three Priests

Three Boys


tenor, two basses



S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Act 1 Scenes from The Magic Flute

8LIÁVWXWGIRIGYVXEMPWXS8EQMRS¸WGVMIWJSVLIPTEW he is pursued by a serpent. As he falls unconscious, the three ladies for the Queen of the Night arrive ERHOMPPXLIWREOI8LI]EVIUYMXIXEOIR[MXLXLI handsome young man, and each vies to stay with LMQERHXV]XSGSRZMRGIXLISXLIVWXSVITSVXFEGO to the Queen. Eventually, they all unwillingly leave together. 8EQMRS E[EOIW HMWSVMIRXIH ERH Q]WXMÁIH F] XLI WMKLX SJ XLI HIEH WREOI  ,I WIIW WSQISRI approaching and hides. The stranger sings of his job as a bird catcher (Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja) and longs for a net to entangle girls with so that he can marry the one he chooses When Tamino inquires who the stranger is, Papageno explains XLEXLIQEOIWLMWPMZMRKFEVXIVMRKFMVHWXSPEHMIW





Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis

SJ XLI 2MKLX MR I\GLERKIH JSV JSSH ERH HVMRO 8EQMRSEWWYQIW4ETEKIRSMWLMWVIWGYIVERHEWOW LS[LIGSYPHLEZIOMPPIHXLIWIVTIRX[MXLSYXER] weapons. Papageno boasts that he needs none: a strong squeeze of his hand is more effective than any weapon. The three ladies return and scold Papageno for XIPPMRKPMIW8LI]XIPP8EQMRSXLEXXLI]LEZIOMPPIH XLI WREOI RSX 4ETKIRS 8LI XLVII [SQIR WGSPH Papageno and tell him the Queen is sending him water instead of wine, a stone instead of bread and TEHPSGOJSVLMWQSYXLMRWXIEHSJW[IIXÁKW8LI three ladies then show Tamino a portrait of the Queen’s daughter, Pamina. Tamino falls instantly MRPSZI (MIW&MPHRMWMWXFI^EYFIVRHWGL}R 

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Suddenly, the Queen appears and informs Tamino XLEX4EQMRELEWFIIROMHRETTIHF]ERIZMPHIQSR Sarastro. The Queen urges Tamino to rescue her beloved daughter and promises that if he succeeds, Pamina will be his forever (O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn!). After this, the Queen leaves. Papageno still has LMWQSYXLTEHPSGOIHWLYXERH8EQMRSMWYREFPI to help him (Quintet: Hm hm hm hm). The three PEHMIWVIQSZIXLIPSGOQEOMRK4ETEKIRSTVSQMWI to never tell lies again. They then give Tamino E QEKMG ÂYXI [SVXL QSVI XLER KSPH SV GVS[RW which will protect him on his quest and bring love and happiness to humans.


Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis

Papageno is reluctant of going anywhere near 7EVEWXVS [LS MW WYVI XS LEZI LMQ TPYGOIH ERH roasted and fed to the dogs. However, the ladies insist that Papageno accompany Tamino, and they give him a set of magical bells to protect him, then send the young men off, guided by three mysterious spirits. At Sarastro’s palace, Pamina is dragged in after her latest attempt to escape. She was left alone with the brutal Monostatosas when Papageno, who has been sent on ahead as a scout, arrives Papageno and Monostatos see one another, and each is convinced that the other is the devil, and 1SRSWXEXSWÂIIW

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


The spirits leave, advising him to be constant, patient and discreet. Tamino tries to enter the ÁVWX X[S XIQTPIW FYX MW VIJYWIH EHQMXXERGI  ,I ÁREPP] XVMIW XLI HSSV SJ XLI 8IQTPI SJ ;MWHSQ A priest appears and tells him that he has been duped; Sarastro is not an evil villain as depicted by XLI5YIIR8EQMRSEWOWMJ4EQMREMWEPMZIFYXXLI priest says he is sworn not to tell him. An invisible chorus assures him that she is EPMZI  3ZIVGSQI [MXL KVEXMXYHI 8EQMRS XEOIW LMWÂYXISYXERHTPE]WMX ;MIWXEVOMWXRMGLXHIMR Zauberton). He hears the sound of Papageno’s TMTIW ERH VYWLIW SJJ XS ÁRH LMQ 4ETEKIRS ERH 4EQMRE JSPPS[ XLI WSYRH SJ 8EQMRS¸W ÂYXI ERH EVI WYHHIRP] SZIVXEOIR F] 1SRSWXEXSW ERH LMW servants. Papageno desperately plays his magical FIPPW8LIQYWMG[SVOWMXWIRGLERXQIRXERHXLIMV captors are set dancing, allowing the pair to elude XLIMVGETXSVW (EWOPMRKIXWSLIVVPMGLHEWOPMRKIX WS WGL}R  %W WSSR EW 4EQMRE ERH 4ETEKIRS escaped the grasp of Monostatos and his servants, they hear the chorus of the priests announcing Sarastro’s arrival.


Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis


When she learns that Papageno has no wife she assures him that Heaven will soon send him a girl, and they sing an ode to love (Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen). The two then leave Sarastro’s palace. Meanwhile, the three spirits lead Tamino to a grove where the temples of Reason, Natre and Wisdom are standing.


8LIJVMKLXIRIHTEMVMWXEOIRMRXSGYWXSH]4EQMRE I\TPEMRW XS 7EVEWXVS XLEX WLI ÂIH LMW TEPEGI MR order to escape the attentions of Monostatos. Sarastro reassures her, but insists that she must stay with him and be guided by a man rather than have her happiness entrusted to her proud mother. Monostatos arrives with another prisoner, Tamino. 8EQMRSERH4EQMREQIIXIEGLSXLIVJSVXLIÁVWX time and embrace. Monostatos expects Sarastro to punish the young man, but instead Sarastro has Monostatos punished. The chorus praises Sarastro’s wisdom as he orders Tamino and Papageno brought into the temple to FIKMRXLIMVXVMEPWSJTYVMÁGEXMSR

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Addressing the Brotherhood, Sarastro states that Tamino must undergo a series of trials. If he succeeds, he will be able to attain light and wisdom and win the hand of Pamina. Sarastro continues by claiming that this has been been destined by the gods for Tamino, and it was for this reason that Sarastro seized Pamina from her mother. Sarastro then prays, (O Isis und Osiris), that the gods bestow the spirit of wisdom on the young couple, strengthen them with patience in danger and receive them if they should die during the trial. In response to questions from the priests, 8EQMRSTVSGPEMQWXLEXLIMW[MPPMRKXSVMWOLMWPMJI in his quest for friendship and love. 4ETEKIRSÁVWXHIGPMRIWERHGPEMQWXLEXLIHSIWR¸X care much for enlightenment, and would be GSRXIRX[MXLWPIITJSSHERHHVMROERHMJTSWWMFPI a pretty little wife. The priests tell him he’ll never get a wife unless he completes the trials . They MRJSVQLMQXLEXMJLIÁRMWLIHXLIXVMEPXLI][MPPWIX him off the perfect girl, a woman named Papagena. Papageno then hesitantly agrees to complete the trials with Tamino.

Act 2


Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis


&I[ELVIXIYGLZSV;IMFIVX‚GOIR 8LVIIFIEYXMJYP ladies appear and try to persuade them to abandon their quest, but the young men persevere, despite

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


some lapses on Papageno’s part. Meanwhile, the escaped Monostatos creeps in and gazes upon the sleeping Pamina (Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden). When the Queen of the Night appears, he hides himself and watches in the shadows as Pamina tells her mother that Tamino is now with Sarastro. The Queen gives Pamina a dagger, saying she [MPP HMWS[R LIV YRPIWW WLI OMPPW 7EVEWXVS (IV ,}PPI6EGLIOSGLXMRQIMRIQ,IV^IR 4EQMREMW ETTEPPIHERHGSRÂMGXIH After the Queen vanishes, Monostatos tries to FPEGOQEMP 4EQMRE F] XLVIEXIRMRK XS VIZIEP XLI murder plot unless Pamina becomes his lover. She refuses and is saved by Sarastro’s arrival. When Pamina begs Sarastro not to punish her mother, Sarastro reassures her that he is not vengeful (In HMIWIRLIMP¸KIR,EPPIROIRRXQERHMI6EGLIRMGLX  Meanwhile, the trials of Tamino and Papageno move forward. For their next trial, they are again told that they must once again remain silent. However, the inveterate chatterbox Papageno falls into conversation with an old woman – actually the lovely young Papagena – who brings him water. After she disappears, the three spirits appear, bringing food, Papageno’s magical bells and 8EQMRS¸W ÂYXI 4EQMRE LIEVW 8EQMRS¸W ÂYXI ERH WIIOW LMQ SYX  7LI EXXIQTXW XS XEPO XS LMQ FYX since he is still undergoing the trial of silence, he sadly refuses to answer her. Pamina leaves LIEVXFVSOIR %GLMGLJ‚LPWIWMWXZIVWGL[YRHIR³ )[MKLMRHIV0MIFI+P‚GO 


Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis

With two trials behind him, Tamino still has to YRHIVXEOI X[S QSVI HERKIVSYW XVMEPW  7EVEWXVS then bring Pamina and Tamino together to say a ÁREP JEVI[IPP 7EVEWXVS WYKKIWXW XLEX MJ8EQMRS MW worthy, the gods will protect him and they will meet again. Left behind, Papageno has started to feel lost, EFERHSRIH ERH JVMKLXIRIH 8LI 7TIEOIV SJ XLI Brotherhood (priests) tells him that although he has failed his test he won’t be punished, though he will never be among the “Initiated”. Papageno PSSOW YRGSRGIVRIH ERH WE]W XLEX EPP LI HIWMVIW at the moment is a glass of wine – a wish that is instantly granted. Papageno realizes of his other desire, a wife, and starts to play his magic bells and sings of his longing for a wife (Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen wünscht Papageno sich!). Almost MRWXERXP]XLISPH[SQERVIETTIEVWEWOMRKLMQXS promise to be faithful to her, the alternative being to remain alone for the rest of his life. Papageno agrees, that he will love the old woman faithfully, and the old woman is transformed into the enchanting young Papagena. As Papageno rushes towards her, Papagena is XEOIRE[E]F]XLITVMIWXW8LIWGIRIRS[GLERKIW and the three spirits are seen welcoming the ETTVSEGLSJHE[RERHSJ[MWHSQEQSRKQEROMRH

&EPH TVERKX HIR 1SVKIR ^Y ZIVO‚RHIR  8LI three spirits then notice Pamina, out of her mind [MXLKVMIJERHVIEH]XSOMPPLIVWIPJ8LI]WXSTLIV assuring her that Tamino loves her. The spirits XLIRXEOILIVXSLMQ S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



8EQMRS EFSYX XS FIKMR XLI ÁREP XVMEPW MW RS[ EPPS[IHXSWTIEOXS4EQMRE8LIVIYRMXIHPSZIVW express their joy (Tamino mein! O Welch ein +P‚GO ERH4EQMRETVSQMWIWXSWXE]F]8EQMRS¸W side and to lead him through the trials. The lovers EVIXLIRF]XLIQEKMGÂYXI[LMGLLEHFIIRGEVZIH F] 4EQMRE¸W JEXLIV JVSQ E XLSYWERH ]IEV SPH SEO (Wir wandeln durch des Tones Macht). The couple now endure the Trials of Fire and Water together, and with the music of the magic ÂYXIEVIWEJIP]EFPIXSTEWWXLVSYKL


Florida Grand Opera // Synopsis

Meanwhile, Papageno pines for his lost Papagena

;IMFGLIR 8mYFGLIR QIMRI 7GL}RI  ERH threatens to hang himself. The three spirits persuade him to play his magic bells. Papagena appears, and the delighted pair, stammer with happiness (Pa-pa-pa, pa-pa-pa, Papagena!) The Queen of the Night, Monostatos, and the three ladies try to storm Sarastro’s temple and free Pamina so Monostatos can have her for his wife, but they are destroyed by Sarastro’s forces of light. Sarastro welcomes the young lovers at the chief temple, and all rejoice and sing praises of Tamino and Pamina.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e




The Composer Wolfgang Amadeus


(1756-1791) Mozart

Florida Grand Opera // The Composer

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Mozart was born January 27, 1756 in Salzburg, Austria. At an early age, Wolfgang displayed great genius. At the age of three, young Wolfgang began OI]FSEVHPIWWSRW

&]ÁZI]IEVWSPH he composed the ÁVWXSJ[LEX[SYPH become over 600 compositions.

&] ÁZI ]IEVW SPH LI GSQTSWIH XLI ÁVWX SJ [LEX would become over 600 compositions. Not wanting XLMWWTEVOPMRKXEPIRXXSKSXS[EWXI1S^EVX¸WJEXLIV and his sibling set off on a series of long European tours. Young Mozart and his sister, Maria Anna

RMGOREQIH2ERRIVP TPE]IHMRGSYVXWJSVTVMRGIW OMRKWERHEVGLFMWLSTW³IZIR1EVMI%RXSMRIXXIXLI future Queen of France. Gifted with an amazing ear and a sharp mind, Mozart astounded listeners by repeating long pieces of music he heard only once.

Gifted with an amazing ear and a sharp mind, Mozart astounded listeners by repeating long pieces of music he heard only once.

,I[VSXILMWÁVWXW]QTLSR]F]XLIEKISJERH LMW ÁVWX STIVE F]  ;LMPI 1S^EVX ERH 2ERRIVP were on tour in Paris, their mother died. Mozart, now a young man, returned to Salzburg where he FIGEQI GSYVX SVKERMWX ,I PEXIV PIJX XS WIIO LMW musical fortune in Vienna and there met his future wife, Constanze Weber, a singer. Mozart dared to leave the security of composing for wealthy patrons, preferring the freedom and creativity that selfemployment provided.


Florida Grand Opera // The Composer

He built a highly successful career as a composer, performer and teacher, and even went through bouts of poverty. In 1791, (the year of his untimely death at the age of 35) Mozart wrote The Magic Flute and even conducted it on opening night. This fanciful opera, ringing with universal truths, was an instant hit with the middle class crowd in Salzburg. It remains one of Mozart’s most popular operas. There are many myths, misconceptions and ruQSVW EFSYX 1S^EVX¸W PMJI  2SX QER] ORI[ EFSYX the private inclinations of the composer. It was often thought that composition came effortlessly to him, yet Mozart indicated otherwise. “It is EQMWXEOIXSXLMROXLEXXLITVEGXMGISJQ]EVXLEW However, Mozart will become easy to me. I assure you, dear friend, no be commemorated one has given so much care to the study of comas one of the most position as I. There is scarcely a famous master profound and impressionable marks on MR QYWMG [LSWI [SVOW - LEZI RSX JVIUYIRXP] ERH Western music. diligently studied.” ,I[EWETVSPMÁG[VMXIVERHQER]SJLMWGSRXIQporaries, including Josef Haydn and the young Ludwig van Beethoven, held him in the highest regard. His letters also reveal a complex personality ³ STMRMSREXIH WSQI[LEX GSRGIMXIH ERH HMJÁGYPX at times, but also very loving, with a strong sense of humor and a zest for life. However, Mozart will be commemorated as one of the most profound ERHMQTVIWWMSREFPIQEVOWSR;IWXIVRQYWMG

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e









Florida Grand Opera // Librettists

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


)QERYIP.SLERR.SWITL7GLMOERIHIV[EWFSVRSR September 1, 1751 in Straubing, Germany and was an impresario, dramatist, actor singer and comTSWIV8LSYKL PMXXPI MW ORS[R SJ LMW PMJI MR +IVQER]7GLMOERIHIV[EWZIV][IPPORS[RMR:MIRRE (especially among the middle class audiences that he endeavored to attract to the theatre). 2SXSRP][EW7GLMOERIHIVJEQSYWJSVLMW7LEOIWTIEVMER VSPIW ORS[R JSV LMW I\GIPPIRX TSVXVE]EP of Hamlet) he was also adept at performing the lowest of comedy – and often did. He did not hesMXEXI XS QEOI YWI SJ WTIGXEGYPEV WTIGMEP IJJIGXW XS TYPP MR GVS[HW8LI XIVQ¾7GLMOERIHIVIMœ [EW coined to describe those impressive productions. -R  7GLMOERIHIV HMVIGXIH E XVEZIPing theatre troupe (the troupe visited Salzburg in 1780), for which he also wrote plays and librettos. %JXIVHMVIGXMRKWIZIVEPSXLIVGSQTERMIWLIà REPly settled at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden where he assembled one of the most talented groups of singers in Vienna. At this theatre he produced his own plays and commissioned settings of his operas and Singspiel librettos (such as The Magic Flute).


Florida Grand Opera // Librettists


ORS[RJSVLMWI\cellent portrayal of Hamlet) he was also adept at performing the lowest of comedy – and often did.

)QERYIP 7GLMOERIHIV TIVLETW SRI SJ 1S^EVX¸W best friends, made several entrances and exits during the composer’s life. One such entrance led to the composition of The Magic Flute in late 1791. The opera’s exotic subject and the timing of its premiere – only months before Mozart’s death – could not have been more dramatic. It was an immediate hit and success, and went on to become SRISJ1S^EVX¸WQSWXIRHYVMRK[SVOW 7GLMOERIHIVHMHR¸XKEMRLMKLEQSYRXWSJWYGGIWW as he did with The Magic Flute (he gave 223 repeat performances in the production as Papageno). 4IVLETW XLI WXEXYI SJ 4ETEKIRS XLEX 7GLMOERIHer had installed over an entrance to the Theater EYJHIV;MIR[EWEREGORS[PIHKQIRXSJEHIFXSJ 7GLMOERIHIV¸WVMWI gratitude to Mozart. from itinerant entertainer to Vienna’s QSWXLMKLVEROMRK MQTVIWEVMSQEOIW quite a story. Certainly, he was one of the most talented and MRÂYIRXMEPXLIEXVI men of his age. In his lifetime, he wrote 50 librettos and built the Theater an der Wien MR QEOMRKYWISJ an Imperial license he had obtained 15 years earlier), which still stands today.

7GLMOERIHIV¸WVMWIJVSQMXMRIVERXIRXIVXEMRIVXS:MIRRE¸WQSWXLMKLVEROMRKMQTVIWEVMSQEOIWUYMXI a story. Certainly, he was one of the most talented ERHMRĂ‚YIRXMEPXLIEXVIQIRSJLMWEKI-RLMWPMJItime, he wrote 50 librettos and built the Theater ER HIV;MIR MR  QEOMRK YWI SJ ER -QTIVMEP license he had obtained 15 years earlier), which still stands today. According to the New Grove Dictionary, the Theater an der Wien was “the most lavishly equipped and one of the largest theatres SJMXWEKIÂś-XMWGPIEVXLEX7GLMOERIHIV¸WJEQIERH JSVXYRIGEQIXLVSYKLLEVH[SVOERHEXLSVSYKL understanding of his audience.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e





So what is

Singspiel? The Magic Flute, Liverpool Empire

Florida Grand Opera // So what is Singspeil?

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


When the curtain goes up on The Magic Flute, one SJ XLI ÁVWX XLMRKW [I RSXMGI SRGI XLI SZIVXYVI MW ÁRMWLIH MW XLI HMEPSKYI=SY [SR¸X LIEV XLI WIGco or “dry” recitative (the music that connects the opera’s arias, ensembles and choruses) that we are used to hearing in many of Mozart’s other operas (Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, Così fan tutte), where the recitative is accompanied by a harpsichord. Here, the musical numbers are conRIGXIHF]TPEMRWTSOIRHMEPSKYI

Literally translated, Singspiel means “song-play.” It loosely translates to “musical comedy,” WTIGMÁGEPP]EFVERH of German comic opera that had its heyday in the late 18th century.

In the latter part of the 18th century, the Singspiel underwent a transformation. Essentially, the Singspiel split into two branches. In northern Germany, the Singspiels of C.F. Weisse and Johann Adam ,MPPIVLIPHW[E]WXVSRKP]MRÂYIRGIHF]XLI*VIRGL opéra comique, from which Weisse mined most of his libretti.

The Magic Flute really transcended the Singspiel genre. Mozart himself did not call it a Singspiel, rather a “Grosse Oper,” or “grand opera.”

%FHYGXMSR[EWRIMXLIV1S^EVX¸WÁVWX7MRKWTMIPRSV LMWPEWX,MWÁVWX[EW&EWXMIRYRH&EWXMIRRI[LMGL Mozart composed in the French opéra comique style at the ripe age of 12. A short one-act SingWTMIPGEPPIH8LI-QTVIWEVMSTVIGIHIH1S^EVX¸WÁREP [SVO JSV XLI XLIEXIV ERH WSQI WE] XLI GVS[RMRK achievement of his career. The Magic Flute really transcended the Singspiel genre. Mozart himself did not call it a Singspiel, rather a “Grosse Oper,” or “grand opera.” Although it retains Singspiel’s comedic origins with the character of Papageno, it adds some unprecedented sociological and philosophical weight in Tamino and Pamina’s journey toward enlightenment. tained musical numbers and EVIGSRRIGXIHF]WTSOIRHMEPSKYI

That’s because The Magic Flute is a Singspiel. Literally translated, Singspiel means “song-play.” It PSSWIP]XVERWPEXIWXSµQYWMGEPGSQIH]¶WTIGMÁGEPP] a brand of German comic opera that had its heyday in the late 18th century. )EVP]SR7MRKWTMIPPMOIMXWGSRXIQTSVEVMIW *VIRGL opéra comique, Italian opera buffa, English ballad opera and German Singspiel) was a decidedly lower-brow entertainment. It featured light, farcical topics. The texts borrowed heavily from popular entertainment or from the common vernacular and the music was very simple that anyone could sing (because the actors who were to sing it typically had little or no musical training). Scores were used MRREXMSREPMWXMGJSPOWSRKERHSJGSYVWIMRXLIHMElogue between the musical numbers.


Florida Grand Opera // So what is Singspeil?

In Southern Germany, however, the predominant MRÂYIRGI GEQI JVSQ -XEP]¸W QSVI ZMZEGMSYW ERH virtuosic opera buffa. In 1778, a new National Theater built by Austrian Emperor Josef II opened in Vienna specializing in this sort of Singspiel. Four years later, Josef II’s theater saw the world premiere of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Abduction from the Seraglio.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


The Magic Flute and Beethoven’s Fidelio are considered the crowning glories of Singspiel, which then led the way forward to the operas of Carl Maria von Weber, Heinrich Marschner, Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. Singspiel, once considered the”lowbrow” 18th century musical entertainment, eventually gave birth to German opera.

Singspiel Timeline Singspiel, once considered the”lowbrow” 18th century musical entertainment, eventually gave birth to German opera.

_Bastien und Bastienne Wolfgang Mozart

_Die Jagd (The Huntsman) Johann Adam Hiller Zaïde – Wolfgang Mozart

_Die Entführung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

_Der Schauspieldirektor (The Impresario) Wolfgang Mozart

_(MI>EYFIVÂ}XI (The Magic Flute) Wolfgang Mozart

_Fidelio Ludwig van Beethoven

_Abu Hassan Carl Maria vonWeber

_Die Verschworenen (The Conspirators) Franz Schubert

_Die Hochzeit des Camacho (Camacho’s Wedding) Felix Mendelssohn


Florida Grand Opera // So what is Singspeil?

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


© GNOMELOOK Excerpt from


The Founding Fathers and,

The Magic Flute Freemason’s symbol


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Fr e e m a s o r y

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Freemasonry is an ancient secret order devoted to the moral development of individuals. Its roots are in the Judeo-Christian tradition and its symbols dervie from the building, destruction and reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. However, even today there is still debate over the actual date and location of the origins of modern FreemasonV]7SQILMWXSVMERWHEXIMXFEGOXSXLIJSVQEXMSRSJ fraternal organizations as an outgrowth of medieval stonemason guilds in the 1200s and others see XLIÁVWXWMKRMÁGERXIZIRXMRQSHIVR*VIIQEWSRV] EWXLIJSVQEXMSRSJXLIÁVWX+VERH0SHKIMR0SRdon in 1717. Freemasons insist they are not a religion but a LERHQEMHIRXSVIPMKMSR[LMGL[MPPQEOITMSYWSV serious persons better members of their churches. Nevertheless, at various times in the past, Freemasons have been persecuted by established religions. By the 18th century, particularly in Catholic countries such as Italy and Austria, Freemasonry and the church were on a collision course. During the course of the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions, certain concepts of *VIIQEWSRV][IVIXEOIRYTF]XLITSPMXMGEPPIEHIVW “Liberty , Equality, Fraternity,” was the rallying cry of the French Revolution and came from a triad of Masonic principles. Freemasonry played an interestring role in the founding of the United States of America. The great majority of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were Freemasons, as were most of the generals in the Revolution.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Fr e e m a s o r y

Freemasonry is an ancient secret order devoted to the moral development of individuals.

Almost every president from George Washington XS %RHVI[ .EGOWSR [EW E *VIIQEWSR I\GITX JSV John Adams and John Quincy Adams). Some of XLIQ TEVXMGYPEVP] HIMWXW PMOI 8LSQEW .IJJIVWSR QE] LEZI LEH TLMPSWSTLMGEP GSRÂMGXW WMRGI *VIImasons profess absolute allegiance to a supernatYVEPHIMX][LIVIEW.IJJIVWSRPMOIQSWXSJXLITLMlosophers of his time, was interested in natural law, the natural sciences and the rule of reason. &SXL;SPJKERK1S^EVXERH)QERYIP7GLMOERIHIV were Freemasons, and used Freemasonry princiTPIW[LMPI[VMXMRK8LI1EKMG*PYXI%QSRKXLIOI] principles to be considered was: Tamino to meet “on level” with other men, the men who gathered in the “Lodge”(as Freemasons are all equal and on the same level, regardless of social status or occuTEXMSR 1S^EVXERH7GLMOERIHIVHVI[JVSQSXLIV WSYVGIWEW[IPPZEVMSYWI\SXMGXEPIWXLEX[IVIÂSEXing around at the time, and used in other, less distinguished extravaganzas. It was probably Mozart’s MHIEPMWQEWQYGLEW*VIIQEWSRV]MXWIPJXLEXXSSO over as the moral principle of the opera. Nevertheless, most productions of The Magic Flute beBoth Wolfgang Mozart and Emanuel tween 1800 and 1950 had an overwhelmingly large 7GLMOERIHIV[IVI amount of Freemasonry in their décor, costumes, Freemasons, and and symbolism. Mozart despised the patronage used Freemasonry principles while writ- system (a system of servitude) under which he laing The Magic Flute. bored for most of his career.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



As a musician, he felt as though he was treated as a servant. If the aristocratic rulers (the Archbishop of Salzburg, Emperor Joseph II, various counts and HYOIW WEMHµ.YQT¶1S^EVXGSYPHYWYEPP]SRP]EWO “How high?” Prior to the early 19th century, the age of Ludwig van Beethoven and Giaochino Rossini, musicians were craftsmen, just as a servant might have been. The Magic Flute[EW1S^EVX¸WÁVWXERH only opera to be written for a popular theatre and not under the patronage of the royalty or nobility. Sadly, he died a few months after its completion. -XMWÁXXMRKXLIVIJSVIXLEXXLIXLIQIWMRThe Magic FluteVIÂIGX1S^EVX¸WZMWMSRWJSVEWSGMIX]MR[LMGL all persons are created equal, and truth and goodness always triumph over deception and evil.

-XMWÁXXMRKXLIVIJSVI that the themes in The Magic FluteVIÂIGX Mozart’s visions for a society in which all persons are created equal, and truth and goodness always triumph over deception and evil.

George Washington


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Fr e e m a s o r y

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Excerpt from




Score from The Magic Flute


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / M o z a r t ’s M u s i c

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Mozart is the greatest composer of all. Beethoven created his music, but the music of Mozart is of such purity and beauty that one feels he merely found it – that it has always existed as part of the inner beauty of the universe waiting to be revealed. –Albert Einstein Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s music is an example of true classical style, as is the music of Christoph ;MPPMFEPH +PYGO .SWITL ,E]HR ERH 0YH[MK ZER Beethoven. The classical period lasted from 17501820 and was noted for clarity, balance and expressive qualities achieved through tension and release with the prominence of melody. And yet Mozart’s legacies as a composer also include the creation of complex and sophisticated textures XLEX PSSO JSV[EVH XS XLI XYVFYPIRGI ERH TEWWMSR of romanticism. Besides operas he also wrote piano concertos, piano sonatas, dances, symphonies, string quartets and religious music such as masses 1S^EVX LEH XS QEVOIX LMW GVEJX ERH PMOI LMW GSRtemporaries, he wrote music that would appeal to its intended audience. He also challenged the public to move beyond its comfort zone. He was sometimes criticized for writing music that was too complicated for his listeners. Le Nozze di Figaro is perhaps the most popular of all the Mozart operas and it has never dropped out of the stanHEVHVITIVXSMVIWMRGIMXWÁVWXTIVJSVQERGI


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / M o z a r t ’s M u s i c

More than 200 years after his death we are still fascinated by this musical genius, and we hear his music in movies, advertisements and on television. Mozart’s legacies as a composer also include the creation of complex and sophisticated texXYVIWXLEXPSSOJSV[EVH to the turbulence and passion of romanticism.

.YWX EW 1S^EVX¸W QYWMG VIEGLIH FEGO XS +ISVKI Handel, Johann Bach and the high Baroque, it also reached forward to Beethoven and the age of romanticism. In this opera we can hear that full spectrum of musical achievement. More than 200 years after his death we are still fascinated by this musical genius, and we hear his music in movies, advertisements and on television. The 250th anniversary of his birth in 2006 brought about much publicity for Mozart, even giving way JSV NMKWE[ TY^^PIW TIVJYQI QMPOWLEOIW ERH E chocolate named after him.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



© ILEANA COTRUBAS Excerpt from


The age of

Enlightenment Wright of Derby, The Orrery, 1765

Florida Grand Opera // The age of Enlightenment

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in the midHPISJEGIRXYV]ÁPPIH[MXLGLERKI8LI%KISJ)Rlightenment, also called The Age of Reason, was a turbulent time of revolutionary religious, social ERHWGMIRXMÁGXLSYKLX2I[MRZIRXMSRWERHXVERWformations changed how families made their living. In the 17th century Galileo Galile’s observaXMSRW SJ XLI QSSR ERH .YTMXIV XLVSYKL XLI ÁVWX telescope determined that the universe was guided by mathematical principles. Sir Isaac Newton explained universal gravitation and developed XLVIIPE[WSJQSXMSR;VMXIVWXLMROIVWERHTLMPSWophers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, David Hume, Jonathon Swift and Mary Wolstonecraft questioned the nature of social justice and human identity. The idea that humans were born sinful in a god-centered universe, was giving way to a view that people are born with “inalienable rights,” naturally good, in a universe governed by reason, rather than simple faith. The notion of Utopia seemed SFXEMREFPI :SPXEMVI¸W [SVO 'ERHMHI HITMGXIH E scenario in “the best of all possible worlds.” The struggle to reconcile these visions of the world SJXIR XSSO TPEGI [MXLMR SRI MRHMZMHYEP EW [IPP EW in society at large. Newton, devoutly religious, believed that although the planets followed a mathematically determined route, it was God who set XLITPERIXWMRQSXMSRMRXLIÁVWXTPEGI


Florida Grand Opera // The age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment, also called The Age of Reason, was a turbulent time of revolutionary religious, social and WGMIRXMÁGXLSYKLX

New inventions revolutionized the way people lived. Traditionally a rural agricultural society, Europe gradually became more industrius and urban during the 18th century. Although the Industrial Revolution had not yet begun, there were signs that change was afoot. Times were also changing for women. Although they did not yet have property rights, women were becoming educated in the arts. Upper-class women learned to paint, draw, sing and play music. Women of lower classes began lives of never-ending toil in factories as family structures changed to accommodate an industry-based economy. There is no stronger statement from the Age of Reason than the resulting American Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution (1775-1783). The French Revolution (1789-1799) was springboarded through monumental changes XEOMRK TPEGI MR )YVSTI ³ XLI RI[ FIPMIJ NYWXMÁIH XLEXXLIFVIEOHS[RSJGPEWWWXVYGXYVIERHVIWTIGX for the monarchy in both countries. Canada experienced its own upheaval at the time, with the end of the Seven Years’ War resulting in Canada becoming exclusively British (1763). Some of this WSGMEP XYVQSMP MW VIÂIGXIH MR XLI WXSV]PMRI SJ The Magic Flute.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Many interpreters have suggested the the Queen of the Night is is supposedly representing the older tyrannical rulers of Europe- most immediately ORS[R XS 1S^EVX MR XLI JSVQ SJ XLI )QTVIWW Maria Theresa of Austria. She ruled ruthlessly and exerted power through lies, manipulation and bullying, most dramatically when she required her own daughter to commit murder. By contrast, Sarastro represents the Enlightened Monarch – a middle way which lies in between absolute monarchy and democracy in political terms. Maria Theresa’s son, the Emperor Joseph II may have been the model for Sarastro. He was Mozart’s patron and a was a progressive monarch. He ruled absolutely, but only in reference to reason, justice and truth. Using the opera as a vehicle of thought, Mozart discussed some of the most contentious and topical issues of his time.

Using the opera as a vehicle of thought, Mozart discussed some of the most contentious and topical issues of his time.

Writing of the Declaration of Indepence


Florida Grand Opera // The age of Enlightenment

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Excerpt from


Unconventional Heroine


Liseth Orepesa as Pamina


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Pa m i n a

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


What made Pamina different from Wolfgang Mozart’s other heroines? Pamina is not the heroine in the sense of Mozart’s S[R*MSVHMPMKMSV'SRWXER^I8LIIPIZEXIHHIÁERGI [LMGL ÁRHW XLI GSPSVEXYVE YXXIVERGI MR µ'SQI scoglio” and “Martern aller Arten” would be quite atypical of Pamina. That particular aspect SJ HIÁERGI MR The Magic Flute transferred to the antagonist, the Queen of the Night, whose extreme coloratura arias are the real parallel of those compared to Fiordiligi and Constanze. However, Pamina is far from helpless. It is she who ÁREPP] XEOIW GSQQERH I\TPEMRW XS 8EQMRS XLI SVMKMR SJ XLI QEKMG ÂYXI ERH SJJIVW XS PIEH LMQ She is the hero’s comrade and she is not the usual feminine role that is dangled in front of the hero urging him onwards. The play between the two characters shows two opposite situations. Tamino is shown trying to be a conventional romantic hero while Pamina tries to overcome the usual heroine stereotype. The opera shows growth of Pamina’s character. The idea of a woman to be able to share her life equal to a man is a contribution from the early German Romantics. It is, in fact, a new facet which helped the rise of the feminism in the late 19th century. In The Magic Flute, the concept of the waiting heroine captured and in RIIH SJ VIWGYI MW ÁVWX TVIWIRXIH ,S[IZIV PEXIV on, Pamina transforms from a silly girl to a woman during the course of the opera.


F l o r i d a G r a n d O p e r a / / Pa m i n a

Pamina is the hero’s comrade and she is not the usual feminine role.

The idea that Pamina is not just content to be chained to her situation is thought of to be a novelty in The Magic Flute. The hero doesn’t just gain the simple maiden that he assumes her to be. Mozart presents this through Act 1, when he portrays Tamino off to search for her, but Papageno arrives in the middle of Monostatos’s seduction and accidently rescues her, instead of Tamino. 0EXIVMRXLIWSRKµ%GLMGLJ‚LPW¶³LIVÁVWXWSPSMR XLISTIVE³4EQMREWXVMOIWETVSJSYRHERHTPERKIRX note of almost unbearable grief and Mozart gives LIVXLEX+QMRSVQYWMG[LMGLWIIQWXSFVIEOSYX of every 18th convention into the musical idiom. When Pamina exits, having sung solo in the opera ³4EQMREWXVMOIWETVSJSYRHERHTPERKIRXRSXISJ almost unbearable grief and Mozart gives her that +QMRSVQYWMG[LMGLWIIQWXSFVIEOSYXSJIZIV] 18th convention into the musical idiom. When 4EQMRE I\MXW LEZMRK WYRK XLI ÁREP VITIXMXMSR SJ “im Tode sein,” she is about to commit suicide. 8LIVI MW RS HIÁERGI MR LIV EVME RS GSPSVEXYVE simply despair and the longing to be at rest. Her despair is as deep as her love. Mozart has given LIVXLIFPIEOIWXQYWMGERHWSQISJXLIKVIEXIWXLI ever wrote, outside the “Requiem.” Nothing better demonstrates the originality of The Magic Flute than through Pamina’s character, which MW IUYEP XS 8EQMRS YRPMOI XLI HIZSXIH [SQIR of Romantic opera whose love usually becomes either an embarrassment or an excuse for suicide. The passive heroine has become active, holding a special place with Mozart’s heroines. S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


)\GIVTXJVSQ7XYGOI]4VMWGMPPEµ0MKLX(MWTIPW(EVORIWW+IRHIV6MXYEPERH7SGMIX]MR1S^EVX¸Wµ8LI Magic Flute.””Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. Vol. 11, No. 1. Spring 1995, pp. 5-39.

86 Florida Grand Opera // Gender in The Magic Flute © AUSTRALIA OPERA

Gender in

“The Magic Flute” The Magic Flute, one of Mozart’s most popular operas

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


The issue of gender and the idea of women is brought up multiple times in this classic opera. At one point, Sarastro, upon hearing that Tamino learned from the Queen of the Night that the temple was evil, exclaims, “A woman does little, chatters a lot, and you, a boy, believed the wagging tongue!” The Queen of the Night is called arrogant for challenging male power. Her particular offense consists of trying to win FEGO E VIPMKMSYW W]QFSP XLI 7YR'MVGPI XLEX RS[ belongs to Sarastro. We learn in Act 2 that the SunCircle originally belonged to Pamina’s father. When he died he bequeathed all he had to the Queen and Pamina, but gave the Sun-Circle to Sarastro and the temple initiates. “Sarastro will use it as manfully EW - LEZI HSRI¶ XLI H]MRK QER XSPH LMW [ÁIµ(S not try to understand things beyond the grasp of woman’s mind. It is your duty to place yourself and your daughter under the leadership of wise men.” (Act 2, Scene 8).


Florida Grand Opera // Gender in The Magic Flute

In this one religious symbol, the Sun-Circle are joined by the twin values of wisdom and masculine power. The Sun-Circle, property of men, symbolizes the masculine half of the sunmoon duality. To own it one must be wise, which, was only considered to be in the power of men. In the view of the temple, a woman’s mind could RSX KVEWT XLI WYFXPIXMIW SJ VIPMKMSYW ORS[PIHKI and trying to do so would mean threatening the patriarchical structures of power. The Queen of the Night and indeed all women belonging to her realm embody an inferior, if not downright evil, morality. Sarastro, possessor of the Sun-Circle, embodies all the enlightened divine traits that secular and mystical traditions EPMOI EXXVMFYXIH XS QEWGYPMRI EGXMZMX] ERH TS[IV Therefore, in Sarastro’s temple, light is preferred SZIV HEVORIWW WYR MW WYTIVMSV XS QSSR ERH HE] is welcomed after night. Women, associated with QSSRERHHEVORIWWEVIGSRWMHIVIHMRJIVMSVFSXL FIGEYWIXLI]PEGOVIEWSR¸WPMKLXERHFIGEYWIXLI] IQFSH] E HIKIRIVEXI QSVEPMX] PEGOMRK GSRXVSP SJ their senses and passions.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Class in the

“The Magic Flute” The Magic Flute Australia

“It is really a shame that I cannot stop chattering.” – Papageno (Act 2, Scene 5) Papageno reveals XLVSYKLLMW[SVHWXLEXLIMWPMOI[SQIRSVQSVI TVIGMWIP] PMOI XLI XIQTPI¸W GSRWXVYGXMSR SJ XLI feminine. He too is unable to control his tongue. The temple’s religion sets a parallel between all women and men of lower classes: the inability XS OIIT WIGVIXW 4PE][VMKLXW SJ:MIRRIWI TSTYPEV dramas during the 18th century represented this class difference by contrasting the noble hero with his comic servant. In the dramatic era of tradition in which The Magic Flute stands, the hero of the play went on his adventures accompanied always by a peasant man who provided entertainment as E HYRGI SV JSMP8LMW WXSGO GLEVEGXIV SJXIR WTSOI with ribald humor and was adept with obscene gestures. Papageno plays this bawdy simpleton in relation to Tamino.


Florida Grand Opera // Class in The Magic Flute

As capitalism developed during the 18th century, class distinctions became more pronounced. *SV XLI ÁVWX XMQI WMRGI ERXMUYMX] XLI IPMXI GPEWW HIÁRIH MXWIPJ MR STTSWMXMSR XS TSTYPEV GYPXYVI Elites assigned lower classes the vices of sensuality, ignorance, superstition and credulity. Papageno’s inability to control his impulses, his gullibility and his sensuality dramatize the differences that elite classes of the 18th century that were perceived. 7IGVIG] LEH QEVOIH XLI HMJJIVIRGI FIX[IIR initiated and profane in mysterious religions since antiquity. As the mysterious traditions were rediscovered by Europeans during the 6IREMWWERGIWIGVIG]GEQIQSVIERHQSVIXSQEVO the difference between privileged and pauper; until the 18th century, Freemasonry consisted of men primarily from the ruling classes.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



Race in the

“The Magic Flute” Monostatos, in The Magic Flute If Papageno is the lower-class male version of a “feminine” chatterbox, then Monostatos, 7EVEWXVS¸WFPEGOWPEZIIQFSHMIWXVIEGLIV]ERSXLIV “feminine” vice. In the character of Monostatos we see that the gendered cosmos of light and HEVORIWW MR 7EVEWXVS¸W XIQTPI EPWS HMZMHIW EPSRK PMRIWSJVEGI8LIGEXIKSV]SJQIRMWFVSOIRHS[R according to men who are faithful and men who are treacherous, with deception and betrayal assigned to Monostatos and to the metaphorical IUYMZEPIRXWSJFPEGOWOMRERH JIQMRMRI HEVORIWW Monostatos, throughout the opera, portrayed himself unworthy of the masculine sun religion by FIGSQMRKEXVEMXSV,MWFPEGOWOMRMWEQIXETLSVMGEP VITVIWIRXEXMSRJSVLEZMRKEµFPEGO¶WSYP8LIJEGXLI commits treason by leaving the temple and joining the Queen’s forces should surprise no one.


Florida Grand Opera // Race in The Magic Flute

In the character of Monostatos we see that the gendered cosmos of light and HEVORIWWMR7EVEstro’s temple also divides along lines of race.

µ8LIEZIRKMRKQSXLIVERHXLIXVEMXSVSYWFPEGOWPEZI are not human,” says Sarastro, “they are both evil.” &SXLFIPSRKXSHEVORIWWXLI5YIIRSJXLI2MKLX since she rules the night, and the slave because LI MW µFPEGO¶ MR WSYP &SXL EVI QIVIP] VIZIEPMRK through their outward choices the true nature that VIWMHIW[MXLMR0MOI1SRSWXEXSWXLIFPEGOQIRSJ Renaissance literature was considered lecherous as well as treasonous. By the time Monostatos appeared on the stage, therefore, the practice of IUYEXMRKXLIµ1SSV¶[MXLFPEGORIWWXVIEGLIV]ERH lust was well entrenched in European minds. His ZIV] REQI 1SRSWXEXSW IZSOIW YRMXEV] WXEXMW ER inability to progress toward enlightenment. Pamina by contrast, is white both bodily and symbolically. She changes over the course of the opera, leaving her original loyalty (to her mother, the Queen) and moves toward the masculine temple. S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


The Magic Flute was composed in 1791


What else happened in

that year? History_Politics


C%YWXVMEERH8YVOI]WMKR4IEGISJ7MWXSZE _French Constitution passed by French National Assembly C(YXGLTVMRGI;MPPIQ*VIHIVMOQEVVMIWLMWRMIGI TVMRGIWW*VIHIVMOE0SYMWI;MPLIPQMRESJ4VYWWME _King Louis XVI caught trying to escape the French Revolution C&MPPSJ6MKLXWVEXMĂ IH[LIR:MVKMRMEKEZI its approval _Congress establishes U.S. Mint _Danish navigator Vitus Jonas Bering HMWGSZIVW%PEWOE _Battle at Wabash: Native Americans assault GenIVEP7X'PEMVERHOMPPWSPHMIVW

Florida Grand Opera // What else happened that year?

Literature_Theater _Ann Radcliffe – The Romance of the Forest _Elizabeth Inchbald – A Simple Story _Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen _Thomas Paine – The Rights of Man

Religion_Philosoph_ C,IMRVMGLZSR8VIMXWGLOI+IVQER Learning historian, dies (1834) _Five annual Nobel prizes established for those who during the preceding year WLEPPLEZIGSRJIVVIHXLIKVIEXIWXFIRIĂ XWSRQEROMRHMRXLIĂ IPHWSJTL]WMGWTL]WMSPSK]ERHQIHMcine, chemistry, literature, and peace

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Visual Arts _James Barry: The Tames (or Triumph of Navigation) _Théodore Géricault, French painter, born, pioneer of the Romantic movement (dies 1824) _Jean-Baptiste Descamps, French painter of village scenes, dies (born 1714)

Music _Carl Czerny, composer, born (dies 1857) _Joseph Haydn: Symphony No. 95 in C minor _Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer, born, (dies 1861) _Wolfgang Mozart: La Clemenza di Tito, K. 621 _ Wolfgang Mozart: Clarinet Concerto in A Major, K. 622 _Wolfgang Mozart: Requiem, K. 626


Florida Grand Opera // What else happened that year?

Science_Technology_ _Luigi Galvani, publishes his discoveries in “aniGrowth mal electricity” (Galvanism) _Titanium is discovered in ilmenite in Cornwall, England, by local amateur geologist Rev. William Gregor. _Pierre Prévost shows that all bodies radiate heat, no matter how hot or cold they are. C.SLR *MXGL KVERXW 97 TEXIRX JSV LMW [SVOMRK steamboat _Johann Franz Encke, German chemist and physicist, born (dies 1865)

Daily Life C*MVWX&EROSJ9RMXIH7XEXIWGLEVXIVIH C:IVQSRXEHQMXXIHEWXLWXEXI ÁVWXEHHMXMSRXS the 13 colonies) _First Catholic college in the United States, Georgetown University , opens C2I[ =SVO 'MX] XVEJÁG VIKYPEXMSR GVIEXIW ÁVWX 1-way street

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e



&IVO1*1ZERHIR8LIQEKMGÂYXI!(MI >EYFIVÂ}XIEREPGLIQMGEPEPPIKSV]0IMHIR&VMPP &YGL(EZMH.SWITL1EKMGÂYXIW IRGLERXed forests: the supernatural in eighteenth-century musical theater. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cherlin, Michael, Filipowicz, Halina, and Rudolph, Richard. The Great Tradition and Its Legacy: The Evolution of Dramatic and Musical Theatre in Austria and Central Europe. Volume 4: Austrian and Habsburg Studies. Canada: &IVKLELR&SSOW )GOIPQI]IV.YHMXL%ERH;SPJKERK%QEHIYW1Szart. 1991. The cultural context of Mozart’s Magic ÂYXIWSGMEPEIWXLIXMGTLMPSWSTLMGEP0I[MWXSR


Florida Grand Opera // References

Evenden, Michael. 1999. Silence and selfhood: the HIWMVISJSVHIVMR1S^EVX¸W1EKMG*PYXI2I[=SVO P. Lang. Grun, Bernard, and Werner Stein. The Timetables SJ ,MWXSV] % ,SVM^SRXEP 0MROEKI SJ 4ISTPI ERH )ZIRXW2I[=SVO7MQSR 7GLYWXIV ,IRV] .EGUYIW .EGO 'EMR ERH &VMKMXXI 1EWWMR  1S^EVX XLI JVIIQEWSR XLI QEWSRMG MRÂYence on his musical genius. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions. ,SRSPOE /YVX ERH 6IMRLEVH + 4EYP]  4ETEKIRS)QERYIP7GLMOERIHIVQERSJXLIXLIEXIV in Mozart’s time. Portland, Or: Amadeus Press.

S t u dy G u i d e s / / M a g i c F l u t e


Hunter, Mary Kathleen. 2008. Mozart’s operas: a companion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Keefe, Simon P. 2003. The Cambridge companion to Mozart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Landon, H. C. Robbins. 1988. 1791, Mozart’s last ]IEV2I[=SVO7GLMVQIV&SSOW


Florida Grand Opera // References

Levey, Michael. “Aspects of Mozart’s Heroines.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Vol. 22, No 1/2 (January-June, 1959), pp. 132-156. 1S^EVX ;SPJKERK %QEHIYW )QERYIP 7GLMOERIHIVERH'EVP0YH[MK+MIWIGOI8LI1EKMG ÂYXI0SRHSR.'EPHIV 7XYGOI] 4VMWGMPPEµ0MKLX (MWTIPW (EVORIWW +IRder, Ritual, and Society in Mozart’s “The Magic Flute.””Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. Vol. 11, No. 1. Spring 1995, pp. 5-39.

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THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS WRITTEN AND PRODUCED BY: Written and produced by: Florida Grand Opera Education Department 8390 NW 25th Street Miami, FL, U.S.A. 33122 Tel: (305) 854-1643 Fax: (305) 854-1644 Copyright Š2012 by Florida Grand Opera (FGO) All rights reserved by FGO. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior permission from FGO.

Kevin Mynatt Managing Director Florida Grand Opera Ramon Tebar Music Director Florida Grand Opera Cerise Sutton Director of Education Florida Grand Opera Jeffrey Williams Consultant/Writer Michael Arbulu Contributing Writer and Editor Bijal Mehta Contributing Writer and Editor Education Intern Florida Grand Opera Fernando Loverri Graphic Design Artist Education Intern Florida Grand Opera

Special thanks to: Jeanette Vecchione Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute


Florida Grand Opera // Credits

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Florida Grand Opera gratefully recognizes the following donors who have provided support of its education programs.

Study Guide 2012 / 2013


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The Magic Flute Study Guide