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6 de Octubre de 1887 – 27 de Agosto de 1965

Charles- Édouard Jeanneret , who chose to be known as Le Corbusier , was born on October 6, 1887 and died on August 27, 1965 , was a Swiss architect, designer, urbanist , writer and painter , famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called modern architecture or the International Style . His career spanned five decades , with his buildings constructed throughout central Europe , India , Russia, and one in North and South America . He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1961.

Le Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts and studied at the Chaux -de Fonds Art School Carlos L ' Eplattenier , who had studied in Budapest and Paris. His architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect RenĂŠ Chapallaz , who had a great influence on the early houses of Le Corbusier. In 1908 , he studied architecture in Vienna with Josef Hoffmann. Between October 1910 and March 1911 , he worked near Berlin for the renowned architect Peter Behrens, where he might have met Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. He became fluent in German. Both experiences proved influential in his later career.

His project for the " Dom- ino" House (1914-1915) , proposed a flat open process plant consisting of concrete blocks supported by a minimal number of thin, reinforced concrete columns around the edges, with a stairway that provides access to each level on one side of the plant.

" Dom- ino" House (1914-1915)

Ozenfant and Le Corbusier established the journal L' Esprit nouveau purist . He was a good friend of the cubist artist Fernand LĂŠger .

Some architectural historians claim that this pseudonym translates as " the crow -like" . Adopting a single name to identify oneself was in vogue by artists in many fields during that era , especially among those in Paris .

Le Corbusier (Cuervo Negro)

His theoretical studies soon advanced into several different single-family house models . Among these was the Maison " Citrohan " a pun on the name of the French CitroÍn car manufacturer , by modern industrial methods and materials Le Corbusier advocated using for the house. Here , Le Corbusier proposed a three-story structure , with a double height living room, bedrooms on the second floor, and a kitchen on the third floor . The roof would be occupied by a terrace. Outside of Le Corbusier installed a stairway to provide access from the second floor of the ground level. Here, as in other projects from this period , he also designed the façades to include large expanses of uninterrupted banks of windows. The house used a rectangular plan , with exterior walls that were not covered by windows , left as white stucco spaces .

Maison " Citrohan "

He believed that his new, modern architectural forms would provide a new organizational solution that improve the quality of life of the lower classes. Your Immeubles Villas (1922) was a project so that called for large blocks of similar stacked on top of each other, with plans that include a living room, bedroom, kitchen and a garden terrace apartments individual cells.

Immeubles Villas

Le Corbusier contributed to a new journal called L' Esprit Nouveau that advocated the use of techniques and strategies to transform society into a more efficient environment with a higher standard of living modern industry at all socioeconomic levels.

In the book "Architecture and Revolution" , which comprised selected articles contributed to L' Esprit Nouveau between 1920 and 1923. Le Corbusier followed the influence of Walter Gropius and reprinted several photographs of North American factories and grain elevators .

Theoretical urban schemes continued to occupy Le Corbusier. He exhibited his " Plan Voisin ," sponsored by another famous automobile manufacturer , in 1925. It is proposed to demolish most of central Paris north of the Seine , and replace it with his sixty -story cruciform towers from the Contemporary City , placed in an orthogonal street grid and park-like green space. His scheme was met with criticism and scorn from French politicians and industrialists, although they were favorable to the ideas of Taylorism and Fordism underlying Le Corbusier designs .

In the 1930s , Le Corbusier expanded and reformulated his ideas on urbanism , eventually publishing radieuse La Ville (The Radiant City) of 1935. After World War II , Le Corbusier attempted to realize his urban planning schemes on a small scale by constructing a series of "une " ( the housing block unit of the Radiant City ) around France. The most famous of these was the UnitĂŠ d' Habitation of Marseilles ( 19461952 ) .

The housing block unit of the Radiant City

Against the orders of his doctor, August 27, 1965 , Le Corbusier went for a swim in the Mediterranean Sea at Roquebrune -Cap Martin , France. His body was found by bathers and he was pronounced dead at 11 am was assumed that he may have suffered a heart attack . Le Corbusier 's death had a strong impact on the cultural and political world. Tributes were paid worldwide and even some of the worst artistic enemies of Le Corbusier.

6 de Octubre de 1887 – 27 de Agosto de 1965

Five points of architecture

First, Le Corbusier lifted the bulk of the soil structure , supporting by piles - reinforced concrete piles . A free facade , ie , the walls do not support that could be designed as the architect wished , and open floor plan , meaning that the floor space was free to be configured into rooms without concern for supporting walls. The second floor of the Villa Savoye includes long strips of ribbon windows that allow unencumbered views of the large surrounding yard, and which constitute the fourth point of his system. The fifth point is the roof garden to compensate the green area consumed by the building and replacing it on the roof.

Le Corbusier explicitly used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion . He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci's " Vitruvian Man " , the work of Leon Battista Alberti, and others who used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. In addition to the golden ratio , Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements , Fibonacci numbers , and the double unit.

Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion

Le Corbusier began experimenting with furniture design in 1928 after inviting the architect , Charlotte Perriand , to join his studio. His cousin, Pierre Jeanneret , also collaborated on many designs . The first results of the collaboration were three chrome tubular steel chairs designed for two of his projects, The Maison La Roche in Paris and a pavilion for Barbara and Henry Church.

Tubular steel chairs

Since his death, Le Corbusier 's contribution has been hotly contested , as the architecture values ​and its accompanying aspects of modern architecture vary , both between different schools of thought and among practicing architects . In the field of building, his later works expressed a complex understanding of modernity impact , yet his urban designs have drawn scorn from critics.

Le Corbusier was at his most influential in the field of urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM ) .

The Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM )

Throughout the years, many architects worked for Le Corbusier in his studio, and some of them became notable in their own right, including painter architect Nadir Afonso , who absorbed. He was a leader of the modernist movement to create better living conditions and a better society through housing concepts . Ebenezer Howard Garden Cities of Tomorrow heavily influenced Le Corbusier and his contemporaries.

Le Corbusier also harmonized and lent credence to the idea of ​space as a set of destinations which mankind moved between , more or less continuously . Therefore, he was able to give credence and credibility to the automobile ( as a transporter ) , and most importantly to freeways in urban spaces . His philosophies were useful to urban real estate development interests in the American Post World War II period , as justified and lent architectural and intellectual support to the desire to destroy traditional urban space urban concentration of high density high profit , both commercial as residential . Le Corbusier 's ideas also sanctioned further destruction of traditional urban spaces to build freeways that connected this new urbanism to low density , low cost ( and highly profitable ) , suburban and rural localities were free to be developed as middle class single-family ( bedroom) housing.

New urbanism

The Foundation Le Corbusier is a private foundation and archive honoring the work of architect Le Corbusier ( 19871965 ) . Operates Maison La Roche , a museum located in the 16th arrondissement at 8-10 , square du Dr Blanche , Paris, France.

The Foundation Le Corbusier

Maison La Roche and Maison Jeanneret (19231924) , also known as the home of La RocheJeanneret , is a pair of semi-detached houses that was Corbusier's third commission in Paris Le . They are arranged at right angles to each other , with iron , concrete, and blank, white facades setting off a two-story gallery space curve . Maison La Roche is now a museum containing about 8,000 original drawings, studies and plans by Le Corbusier (in collaboration with Pierre Jeanneret from 1922-1940 ) , as well as about 450 of his paintings , enamels, about 30 to about 200 other works on paper , and a considerable collection of written and photographic archives. It describes itself as the world's largest collection of Le Corbusier drawings , studies and plans.

Le Corbusier