The Year Ahead
D E C . 2 6 , 2 0 1 6 / J A N . 2 , 2 0 17
2017 > Politics. Health. Science. Tech. Culture. Sports. Food & More
Finding Home. > The crisis in Syria has sent millions fleeing. This year, follow the lives of four babies whose families escaped Heln, born Sept. 13 into a Greek refugee camp
The Year Ahead
D E C . 2 6 , 2 0 1 6 / J A N . 2 , 2 0 17
2017 > Politics. Health. Science. Tech. Culture. Sports. Food & More
Finding Home. > The crisis in Syria has sent millions fleeing. This year, follow the lives of four babies whose families escaped Hamida, born Sept. 30 into a Greek refugee camp
The Year Ahead
D E C . 2 6 , 2 0 1 6 / J A N . 2 , 2 0 17
2017 > Politics. Health. Science. Tech. Culture. Sports. Food & More
> The crisis in Syria has sent millions fleeing. This year, follow the lives of four babies whose families escaped Faraj, born Oct. 2 into a Greek refugee camp
The first school to train disaster search dogs is nearly finished. But we need your help to complete our National Training Center. Right now, every single dollar you donate will be doubled thanks to a generous grant. Help us train rescued dogs to be rescuers, so when disaster strikes no one is left behind. The Search Starts With You.SM www.SearchDogFoundation.org (888) 4K9-HERO
VOL. 188, NO. 27–28 | 2016
6 | From the Editor 8 | Conversation 10 | For the Record
21 | Ian Bremmer on
News from the U.S. and around the world
11 | Aleppo, the
epicenter of the Syrian crisis, falls 12 | Cities that ban
14 | How Trump’s
Cabinet nominees are connected 17 | Remembering
astronaut John Glenn and Growing Pains actor Alan Thicke 18 | ISIS bombs
a Cairo cathedral
Ideas, opinion, innovations
Trump’s “America first” approach to diplomacy 24 | Viewpoints:
Michael Bloomberg on the most innovative cities; Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen on cyberwarfare; former NATO commander James Stavridis on China 34 | Joe Klein
analyzes Trump’s media strategy
The Year Ahead
Follow four mothers and their infants from delivery rooms to refugee camps in Greece. Our latest multimedia project explores too-often overlooked aspects of Europe’s migrant crisis By ARYN BAKER, photographs by LYNSEY ADDARIO 38
△ British Formula One driver Lewis Hamilton aims to make Americans love his sport Photograph by Thomas Prior for TIME
Why Mike Pence may be the perfect governing partner for Donald Trump 52 Betsy DeVos wants to reshape American education 64 How America is losing Asia 66
How Lewis Hamilton became the world’s fastest man 74 Food innovations for 2017 86 The private space industry’s next frontier 90
Culture 121 | Joel Stein’s
2017 predictions 122 | News quiz
Wonder Woman breaks the superhero equivalent of the glass ceiling 98 Fox brings back 24 for the ISIS era 108 Bette Midler on reviving Hello, Dolly! 117
ON THE COVER:
Photograph by Lynsey Addario— Verbatim for TIME
TIME (ISSN 0040-781X) is published weekly, except for two combined issues in January and one combined issue in February, April, July, August, September and November by Time Inc. PRINCIPAL OFFICE: 225 Liberty Street, New York, NY 10281-1008. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send all UAA to CFS (See DMM 507.1.5.2); Non-Postal and Military Facilities: send address corrections to TIME Magazine, P.O. Box 62120, Tampa, FL 33662-2120. Canada Post Publications Mail Agreement No. 40110178. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Postal Station A, P.O. Box 4322, Toronto, Ontario M5W 3G9. GST No. 888381621RT0001. © 2016 Time Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. TIME and the Red Border Design are protected through trademark registration in the United States and in the foreign countries where TIME magazine circulates. U.S. Subscriptions: $49 for one year. SUBSCRIBERS: If the Postal Service alerts us that your magazine is undeliverable, we have no further obligation unless we receive a corrected address within two years. Your bank may provide updates to the card information we have on file. You may opt out of this service at any time. CUSTOMER SERVICE AND SUBSCRIPTIONS: For 24/7 service, visit time.com/customerservice. You can also call 1-800-843-TIME; write to TIME, P.O. Box 62120, Tampa, FL, 33662-2120; or email firstname.lastname@example.org. MAILING LIST: We make a portion of our mailing list available to reputable firms. If you would prefer that we not include your name, please call or write us. PRINTED IN THE U.S. uuuuuuu
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
From the Editor
Our journey begins There are few more wondrously Terrifying moments in a woman’s life than when she gives birth, delivering unto the world the passenger she has been carrying for nine months and then meeting directly for the first time. Tissue skin. Lumpy feet. Deep-pool eyes and those first howling breaths, all real and raw and eternal and so fragile. So I cannot conceive what it is like for the refugee women who have fled their country by land or sea or both to give birth to their babies in a foreign hospital, far from family and home, surrounded by doctors and nurses whose language they can’t understand, wrapping their newborns in borrowed blankets and returning to the tents they now call home. TIME’s Africa bureau chief, Aryn Baker, renowned photographer Lynsey Addario and videographer Francesca Trianni have been telling the story of the great migration throughout the past year; for 2017, they are undertaking a special multimedia project that we are launching with this issue, called Finding Home. Over the past few months they have been reporting from inside the refugee camps in Thessaloniki, Greece, where very few reporters have been able to go. Dozens of babies are being born in Greece each week; maternal and newborn health is an often overlooked aspect of Europe’s refugee crisis, which itself is a topic that is increasingly afflicted by, in the words of Pope Francis, a “globalization of indifference.” Our goal is to understand the intense and intimate challenges faced by these families. Our reporting team will follow four of these babies for the next year, being present with the mothers from the delivery room to returning to their tents and managing a newborn in a setting with no hot water or flush toilets, no toys, no place to play. We will follow them through the labyrinthine asylum process and the next journey, wherever it takes them, telling their stories in the magazine, on TIME.com and on Facebook, Instagram (@FindingHome) and more. “Normally when we close a story for the magazine, it means that I’m closing my notebooks as well,” says Aryn. “This time I get to finally answer the question, in real time, of what happens next. And then what happens after that.” This project has been made possible with support from the Pulitzer Center.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Finding Home is supported by a grant from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting
Rahaf, born Nov. 1, 2016
Heln, born Sept. 13, 2016
Hamida, born Sept. 30, 2016
Faraj, born Oct. 2, 2016
N O U R E L H U D A A LTA L L A A
Nancy Gibbs, ediTor
BEHIND THE SCENES In support of Finding Home, photojournalist Lynsey Addario (above) has received support from the Pulitzer Center, Aidan Sullivan—CEO and founder of Verbatim, a recently launched commercial agency representing photojournalists—and the U.N. Population Fund, which has a unique mandate on reproductive and maternal health to ensure that every childbirth is safe. For the past 20 years, Addario has devoted her career to documenting the toll of war and other humanitarian crises on civilians, with a particular focus on women’s issues. With her coverage of maternal mortality, rape as a weapon of war, and self-immolation in Afghanistan, she has turned an unflinching lens on women who might otherwise be forgotten. Over the past four years, Addario has built a significant body of work as a witness to the exodus from Syria, photographing in Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Greece.
The future belongs to those who change it.
STREAM NEW SEASON DEC 16
A meeting of minds
What you said about ...
At the Fortune+TIME Global Forum 2016, held this December in Rome, Time Inc. gathered an unprecedented group of Fortune 500 executives, philanthropists and policy experts. Their mission: brainstorm ways to address the world’s biggest challenges. Inspired by Pope Francis’ plea to lift up the poor, delegates presented the Pontiff—seen with TIME editor Nancy Gibbs and Time Inc. chief content officer Alan Murray—with ideas about how the private sector can help end poverty, reduce environmental damage and improve access to education and health.
PERSON OF THE YEAR TIME’s choice
‘Amid the challenges of our day, see the human face of those you earnestly seek to help.’ POPE FRANCIS, addressing delegates at the forum in Vatican City on Dec. 3. His words, in the original
Italian: “Tra le sfide di oggi, guardate il volto umano di coloro che sinceramente cercate di aiutare.” ▶ To read his full address and find out more about the Global Forum, visit time.com/vatican
SETTING THE RECORD STRAIGHT ▶ In “The Person of the Year” (Dec. 19), we incorrectly described Mike Pence as the former Indiana governor. His term ends Jan. 9. In “It’s a Mean, Sometimes Sad World” (Dec. 12), we incorrectly described Chana Stiefel. She co-wrote the book Why Can’t Grandma Remember My Name?
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L’O S S E R VAT O R E R O M A N O — A P
of President-elect Donald Trump was hailed as “the right call, journalistically” by the Wall Street Journal, but readers had mixed feelings. Bob Simmons of Granby, Conn., wrote that editor Nancy Gibbs “took the words right out of my mouth” in explaining why Trump was 2016’s most influential person, for good or ill. But a “deeply disappointed” Karen Herzenberg of Albuquerque, N.M., was one of many who wished TIME had made a different choice. Even if the title isn’t an honor, she said, it “legitimizes” the person picked. Others, like Anthony J. Tsakalos of Sandwich, Mass., questioned the cover line that declared him “President of the Divided States of America” and whether the U.S. is any more divided now than in the past. Trump himself responded to the idea on NBC’s Today show: “They’re divided now ... We’re going to put it back together.”
Ingenuity keeps her cityâ€™s power on and conquers his fear of the dark. Everyone wants the lights to stay on during a storm. A city ofďŹ cial needs to keep an entire city safe and happy. A 5-year-old needs his nightlight to keep the monsters away. For them and millions of other people, Siemens Digital Grid technology manages and reroutes power. Ingenuity helps keep the power on, no matter what nature is doing.
For the Record
‘The Russians are not our friends.’
MITCH MCCONNELL, Republican Senate majority leader, announcing a joint congressional investigation of potential Russian interference in the U.S. election but rejecting calls for a special select committee; his statement came after the CIA reported to lawmakers it believed the Kremlin worked with the aim of electing Donald Trump, who called the CIA findings “ridiculous”
78.8 years The 2015 average American life expectancy—down a tenth of a year from 2014, the first decline since 1993, during the AIDS epidemic
‘So-called fake news can have real-world consequences.’ HILLARY CLINTON, former Democratic nominee for President, in her first public appearance since the presidential election, cautioning against the spread of untrue information online
Age of Lamar Jackson, Louisville quarterback, who became the youngest ever Heisman Trophy recipient on Dec. 10
‘I’M DEEPLY SORRY TO THE PEOPLE.’
Wahoo The Cleveland Indians mascot will stay on team hats, despite reports of the chief’s removal
PARK GEUN-HYE, President
of South Korea, after lawmakers voted to impeach her for allegedly colluding with a friend to extort money and abuse political power; Park denies any wrongdoing
GOOD WEEK BAD WEEK
Yahoo The tech company revealed hackers stole data from over 1 billion users in 2013
‘DEATH HUNG ABOVE US; THE WORLD TURNED THEIR BACKS.’ Length of a dinosaur’s tail feather preserved in amber, discovered by paleontologists at the China University of Geosciences, considered further proof that dinosaurs were birdlike
‘I think the most controversial thing I have ever done is to stick around.’ MADONNA, calling out sexism and ageism in the music industry while
accepting Billboard’s 2016 Woman of the Year award on Dec. 9
S O U R C E S : C D C ; C U R R E N T B I O L O GY; N E W YO R K T I M E S; W A S H I N G T O N P O S T
I L L U S T R AT I O N S B Y B R O W N B I R D D E S I G N F O R T I M E
MOHAMED AL-HALABI, one of the thousands of civilians trapped in Aleppo, criticizing world powers for not doing more to stop the Syrian government (aided by Russian forces) from repeatedly bombing the rebel-held city in an attempt to retake control after almost six years of civil war; more than 1,000 people have died in Aleppo since November’s failed cease-fire, including many children
‘IT SHOWS THAT TRUMP IS GOING TO GOVERN LIKE A NORMAL REPUBLICAN.’ —PAGE 14
Progovernment forces in the courtyard of Aleppo’s Umayyad mosque on Dec. 13
With Aleppo’s fall, Syria’s civil war reaches a grim turning point
A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S
By Jared Malsin/Istanbul
PHOTOGR APH BY GEORGE OURFALIAN
When SyrianS poured into the streets in March 2011 to demand an end to President Bashar Assad’s repressive regime, in the country’s largest city, the first protests were small. It was not until 2012, after peaceful demonstrations had turned to armed resistance, that rebel fighters captured a section of Aleppo and the city took its place as the epicenter of the Syrian crisis. Against overwhelming odds, the rebels managed to hold on to their portion of the divided city for more than four years, even as Assad’s tanks and artillery pounded the oppositionheld neighborhoods and Russia’s air force began pummeling the city in the fall of 2015. They continued to fight as the shelling shattered much of Aleppo and forced hundreds of thousands to
flee. As Assad’s forces and allied militias surrounded the rebel stronghold this year, they hunkered down. Now the moment of Assad’s triumph has arrived. The forces supporting him seized the majority of the opposition sector of Aleppo in a furious assault launched shortly after the U.S. election, trapping the rebels in a tiny corner of the city. As they advanced, the government forces and their militia allies killed at least 82 civilians, including some in civilian homes, according to the U.N. humanrights office. Facing death or capture and torture at the hands of proregime forces, the rebel gunmen accepted a deal to leave the city. Finally, on Dec. 15, green government buses began ferrying thousands of civilians from the enclave. 11
“It’s so painful for people here to leave this land where they lived all their life,” says Abdulkafi al-Hamdo, a teacher and activist who had been living in the rebel-held section, in a voice message recorded early on Dec. 14, after the evacuations were agreed upon. “A lot of people are crying now. They were crying yesterday because they thought they might die at any moment. Now they are crying because they are leaving their homeland.” The fall of Aleppo is Assad’s most important victory in over five years of war. By retaking the city, he ensures his regime’s survival in socalled essential Syria: the Mediterranean coast and a spine of cities running down the country’s west side, home to the majority of the remaining population. (Much of the land remaining in the opposition’s hands has been depopulated by years of Assad’s shelling and airstrikes.) By surrendering in Aleppo, the rebels lose a city that was the icon of their struggle and a symbol of Syria’s trauma. “I think we’re headed into a very dark place for Syria,” says Lina Sergie Attar, a Syrian-American architect and writer from Aleppo now based in Chicago. “I can see how we would revert back into the old past that we had of people living under complete silence and fear.” But the recapture of Aleppo will not end Syria’s war. The various rebel groups will continue to fight for the regions where they still operate, including a zone in the north where the Turkish military is deployed. Kurdish-led militias still hold a section of the country. And the jihadists of the Islamic State are still an active force—on Dec. 11, ISIS retook the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, demonstrating that they are far from defeated. Assad’s own side is fractured, with Russian, Iranian, Iraqi and Lebanese Hizballah forces all fighting with differing goals and ideologies. But the fall of Aleppo does suggest a shift in the global balance of power. Whatever Donald Trump decides to do once in office, Russia can claim a victory on the world stage in Syria. Its campaign seized the initiative on a strategic level, forcing the U.S. to choose among bad policy options and finding the Obama Administration powerless to change the reality on the ground. It now appears America’s only tool is denunciation. Speaking at the U.N. Security Council on Dec. 14, U.S. envoy Samantha Power condemned the Assad regime, Russia and Iran over reports of atrocities in Aleppo, saying, “Are you truly incapable of shame? Is there literally nothing that can shame you?” The battle for Aleppo is over, but Syria’s agony and the regional chaos the conflict created will continue. In a video circulated on Dec. 15 by opposition media, a resident preparing to evacuate the city spray-painted a message on what appeared to be the door of a shop: “Aleppo, we’re coming back.” • 12
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
TICKER Charleston church shooter convicted Dylann Roof, an avowed white supremacist, was found guilty of killing nine black worshippers at a historic South Carolina church in 2015. He is due to be sentenced early in 2017 and faces either the death penalty or life imprisonment.
Ohio abortion law comes into force Ohio Governor John Kasich signed a bill banning abortions after 20 weeks, raising fears among abortionrights advocates of a legal challenge to Roe v. Wade—the Supreme Court decision that guarantees the right to an abortion.
Facebook fights spread of fake news Facebook said it would work with fact-checking groups and news outlets to help readers identify phony stories, in a bid to target the “worst of the worst” publishers of fake news. The social-media giant will publicly flag as “disputed” posts that can’t be verified.
Where catcalling is criminalized Verbal sexual harassment is now a punishable offense in Buenos Aires. The Argentine city legislated against various forms of sexual harassment on Dec. 7, becoming just the latest locale to call out calling out. —Tara John
Demonstrators in Buenos Aires take part in a national protest on June 3 over violence against women PORTUGAL The country made verbal sexual harassment illegal in August 2015. Offenders who make a sexual proposal on the street can be fined around $120, ordered to do community service or—if the victim is under the age of 14—jailed for up to three years. BELGIUM In 2014 it became a crime to insult a person based on gender or make intimidating sexual remarks in public. The government reportedly acted after a viral film by student Sofie Peeters showed her being sexually harassed as she walked through Brussels. PERU Nearly 90% of women in the capital city of Lima have reported street harassment, and in 2015 a law against the behavior was strengthened to allow jail sentences of up to 12 years for men who target women in public.
Italy gets a new leader, for now Italy’s new Prime Minister, Paolo Gentiloni, won approval by Parliament on Dec. 14, after Matteo Renzi resigned following the defeat of a constitutional referendum he had staked his career on. Italy is expected to hold a general election in 2017.
$15.8 million DIGITS
Value of a previously unknown Leonardo da Vinci sketch of the martyred St. Sebastian that was unearthed by auction house Tajan
The Brief Politics
THE MANY TIES OF TRUMP’S NEW CABINET
How Trump is restocking the Washington swamp By Zeke J. Miller
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
The former chairman of the right-wing media group Breitbart is also a Goldman Sachs veteran who later formed his own boutique investment firm
Steve Mnuchin Treasury Secretary
The former options trader eventually became the second in command at Goldman Sachs
WORKED ON WALL STREET
Trump’s top campaign fundraiser was a Goldman Sachs executive who later ran a bank, OneWest, which hired a former aide to Senator Chris Dodd to lobby on financial regulations
Wilbur Ross Secretary of Commerce
The veteran financier, whose net worth is estimated to exceed $2 billion, helped bail out Trump’s Taj Mahal casino in Atlantic City
Todd Ricketts Deputy Secretary of Commerce
The Chicago Cubs co-owner supported a super PAC and 501(c)(4) that spent millions boosting Trump during the general election
CONNECTED TO LOBBYISTS
Andrew Puzder Secretary of Labor
MAJOR DONOR TO REPUBLICANS
The CEO of the parent company of fast-food chains Carl’s Jr. and Hardee’s hired D.C. lobbyists and was a top Trump campaign donor
Elaine Chao Secretary of Transportation
The former Labor Secretary and wife of the Senate majority leader serves on multiple corporate boards, including Wells Fargo, with a significant lobbying presence in D.C.
Rex Tillerson Secretary of State
Oil giant ExxonMobil has spent more than $170 million on lobbying since Tillerson became its CEO in 2006
Linda McMahon Small Business Administrator
The World Wrestling Entertainment co-founder shelled out $6 million to a Trump super PAC in August and September alone
Betsy DeVos Secretary of Education
The billionaire philanthropist and her husband, the former president of Amway, forked over nearly $2.9 million to GOP candidates and causes in 2016
AP; GET TY IMAGE S (9 )
AT neArly every rAlly in The wAning days of his presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to purge the wealthy special interests that wield power in D.C. “I don’t need them. I don’t want them,” he told a roaring crowd in Akron, Ohio, in August, denouncing the lobbyists and career politicians who help run the nation’s capital. “I’m going to do what’s good for you.” This pledge to “drain the swamp” was slapped on bumper stickers and hashtagged on tweets. It helped lift the swaggering outsider to his upset victory. But as he turns to the task of governing, the President-elect is stocking his Cabinet and senior staff with the same sort of connected insiders that he railed against on the campaign trail. He’s tapped four billionaires for his Administration, not to mention three current and former financiers from Goldman Sachs, the investment bank he pilloried rivals like Hillary Clinton and Ted Cruz for cozying up to. His intended nominees donated millions to back Trump’s candidacy and helped finance the super PACs that boosted his upstart campaign down the stretch. Several others have earned fortunes working for companies with large lobbying presences in Washington. From the start, it will be one of the wealthiest Administrations in modern history. Meanwhile, the Washington influence machine has kicked into overdrive. Scores of lobbyists and political consultants are brokering meetings between their clients and members of the Trump transition team. The President-elect and his allies are hosting fundraisers where they will collect checks of up to $1 million—including from corporations—to fund his Inauguration ceremonies. While some supporters may balk, Trump’s decision to embrace those who have wallowed in the Washington muck has spread a sense of relief among the capital’s political class. “It shows,” says one GOP consultant close to the President-elect’s transition, that “he’s going to govern like a normal Republican.” •
Gary Cohn Director of the National Economic Council
Steve Bannon Chief Strategist
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TICKER Feds say fracking can taint tap water Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, can contaminate drinking water under some circumstances, the Environmental Protection Agency said in a study, a reversal from its previous stance on the side effects of the oil- and gas-extraction technique.
Congolese leader clings to power President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo has refused to relinquish power when his term ends on Dec. 19. The opposition has pledged to protest daily until he steps down, raising fears of bloodshed.
Saudi woman without veil seized Police in Saudi Arabia arrested a woman for posting a picture of herself on Twitter in Western clothes. The country has some of the strictest restrictions on women, expecting them to be fully covered in public.
Venezuela yanks bill from circulation The Venezuelan government is withdrawing its largest banknote, the 100-bolívar bill, from circulation. It’s the country’s latest attempt to tackle a spiraling inflation crisis. Locals were given five days from Dec. 15 to exchange their notes.
Russia’s election meddling hampers Trump transition By Massimo Calabresi The effecTs of Russia’s hacking of Democratic emails before the U.S. presidential election didn’t end on Nov. 8. In the weeks since, the fallout on American democracy has continued, revealing splits in Congress and tainting Donald Trump’s transition effort. President Barack Obama has ordered the intelligence community to produce a full review of Russia’s malicious cyberactivity for declassification and publication before Inauguration Day. The point, says one source familiar with the review, is not just to lay out what happened but to establish a record before Trump takes over command of the national-security agencies. Trump has so far refused to accept evidence that Russia was behind the attacks, and has suggested the U.S. intelligence community’s conclusions are politically motivated. Trump faces trouble from his own party on Capitol Hill, as well, where Republicans have long been the most aggressive opponents of the regime of Russian President Vladimir Putin. South Carolina Republican Senator Lindsey Graham said he would vote against Trump’s choice to head the State Department, ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson, unless he supports sanctions against Russia in retaliation for the hacks. Republican Senator John McCain intends to hold hearings on Russian cyberactivity in 2017.
The fallout extends beyond Russia. Some U.S. intelligence officials have concluded North Korean dictator Kim Jong Un is on his way to being able mount a nuclear weapon atop a missile that can reach the U.S. Trump may need to rally support at home and abroad for action against Pyongyang, and will need to cite the work of the intelligence ‘We simply community to do don’t so. His attacks on know what the credibility of economic America’s spies only interests he make that harder. has in Russia And then or Russia’s there is China. neighbors.’ Trump says he may impose trade ADAM SCHIFF, California Congressman tariffs on China for its cybertheft of trade secrets. But he will find that the doubts he has raised about U.S. intelligence could make it harder to argue that Chinese hacks have robbed American industry. Conclusive fingerprints are rarely left in cybercrime. Trump may even find himself vulnerable. Russia may have hacked him and his campaign. If he breaks with Putin on one of the many potential policy disagreements between the two leaders he may find himself the victim of leaks he can’t credibly blame on Russia, thanks to his current attacks on the CIA. And the top Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee, California’s Adam Schiff, says he is worried Trump could be vulnerable to coercion, given the mystery surrounding Trump’s foreign business. “We simply don’t know what economic interests he has in Russia or Russia’s neighbors,” he says. •
The climatechange diet A new study suggests Britain’s classic dish of fish and chips might not survive in its current form because of climate change (see right). But warmer temperatures and morefrequent extreme weather events are threatening beloved food staples around the globe. —Justin Worland
FISH AND CHIPS Warming waters surrounding the United Kingdom may force fish traditionally used in the dish, like cod and haddock, to migrate north, leaving chefs to serve up squid, sardines and anchovies.
COFFEE The Bean Belt region surrounding the equator, where coffee is grown, also happens to be one of the most sensitive to climate change, with abundant pests, devastating plant diseases and frequent droughts.
GUACAMOLE Persistent drought in California has taken its toll on the U.S. avocado supply, leaving restaurants like Chipotle to question whether they can afford to offer guacamole in the future.
RAISED The Federal Reserve’s benchmark interest rate, for only the second time since the 2008 financial crisis. The decision, which hikes the rate to a range from 0.5% to 0.75%, signals the Fed’s confidence that the U.S. economy will continue to grow. The Federal Reserve said it expects to raise rates three more times in 2017.
GUACAMOLE: CHIPOTLE; F ISH AND CHIPS, COF F EE, GLENN, THICKE: GE T T Y IMAGES
IMPLEMENTED A law legalizing recreational marijuana in Massachusetts, the first state on the Eastern seaboard to do it. A ballot initiative passed on Nov. 8 came into effect on Dec. 15, allowing people age 21 and over to possess, grow and use limited amounts of recreational pot. DIED Craig Sager, Emmy Award– winning broadcaster for Turner Sports, at age 65. He stood out on the sidelines with his eccentric, brightly colored suits while covering games for more than 40 years. ▷ John Cloud, an award-winning former senior writer at TIME who specialized in health and social issues, at age 46.
Alan Thicke Iconic TV dad
Glenn alongside his capsule in Cape Canaveral DIED
John Glenn National hero If you were around In 1959, odds are that the first time you saw John Glenn, you felt better. Glenn, who died on Dec. 8 at 95, was one of seven astronauts selected by NASA to both calm and thrill a frightened country at nuclear dagger points with the Soviet Union and seemingly losing on the ground and in the race for space. So the seven Americans with crisp Yankee names like Deke and Gus and Al, with military crew cuts that telegraphed seriousness and mischievous smiles that telegraphed fast cars and hard drinking, were brought in to buck the nation up. And yet it was Glenn—the teetotaling Marine who flew 149 combat missions in two wars— who became the greatest of the ostensible equals. It was Glenn who got the nod to become the first American to orbit Earth, a feat he achieved on Feb. 20, 1962, when he circled the planet three times and splashed down smiling. It
was Glenn who would leave the planet that morning as a pilot and come back as an icon. But icons are a rare thing for a nation, and so Glenn, for his pains, was grounded, lest he lose his life on a later flight. Instead, the man who had served his nation in war and in space would serve it again, for 24 years, as a Senator for Ohio. And for that lifetime of work on behalf of his nation, his wings would be returned to him in 1998 when, at age 77, he would fly again as part of a seven-man crew aboard the space shuttle Discovery. Glenn, despite his global fame, never asked a lot from life, just a good job at government pay that would let him do worthy work. That and Annie, his wife of 73 years, who survives him. The two first met as babies, and he liked to say he never knew a world that didn’t include her. So many Americans have never known a world that didn’t include him. And now all of us will have to adjust to a world that is different, and poorer for his loss. —Jeffrey Kluger
amerIca has a long tradition of sitcom dads, from The Brady Bunch to Modern Family, stoically solving crises within 30 minutes. But Alan Thicke, the Canadian actor who died Dec. 13 at 69, brought new energy to a familiar genre. As Dr. Jason Seaver, psychiatrist pop on ABC’s Growing Pains (1985– 1992), he bore vanities unrelated to his kids— he was supportive but still at times pedantic, full of hot air and thus easily punctured. Later in life, Thicke’s ability to play with the dad archetype served him well on How I Met Your Mother (he had a recurring role as himself) and Unusually Thicke, a reality show about his family (featuring son Robin, the singer). Both roles introduced Thicke to new generations of viewers, who seemed to love “America’s dad” just as much as their parents did. —danIel d’addarIo
Cairo’s bloody Sunday A nun surveys damage inside St. Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Cairo on Dec. 11. A bomb ripped through the sanctuary during Sunday Mass, killing 25. ISIS claimed responsibility for the attack, the worst against Egyptian civilians in years and one that risked inflaming sectarian tensions. Photograph by David Degner—Getty Images ▶ For more of our best photography,
‘TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS HAVE REACHED THEIR LOWEST POINT SINCE THE 1930S.’ —NEXT PAGE
NEW WORLD ORDER
The era of American global leadership is over. Here’s what comes next
GE T T Y IMAGES
By Ian Bremmer As in the pAst, the dAy will be cold. Melania will hold the Bible. The kids will stand by proudly. The new President will recite his lines carefully, smile broadly and change history. And American international leadership, a constant since 1945, will end with the presidential inauguration of Donald J. Trump on Jan. 20, 2017. That’s not because Trump is bound to fail where his predecessors have succeeded. Given the rise of other countries with enough power to shrug off U.S. pressure—and other factors, like the ability of smaller powers to punch above their weight in cyberspace— this moment was inevitable. America will remain the sole superpower for the foreseeable future—only the U.S. can project military muscle, economic clout and cultural influence PHOTOGR APH BY ALEX WONG
into every region of the world. But Trump’s election marks an irreversible break with the past, one with global implications. For at least the next four years, America’s interactions with other nations will be guided not by the conviction that U.S. leadership is good for America and the world but by Trump’s transactional approach. This will force friends and foes alike to question every assumption they’ve made about what Washington will and will not do. Add a more assertive China and Russia to the greater willingness of traditional U.S. allies to hedge their bets on American plans and it’s clear that we’ve reached a turning point. Trump is not an isolationist, but he’s certainly a unilateralist, and a proudly selfish one. Even if he wanted to engage the G-7 or G-8 or G-20 to get things done—and he doesn’t—it
has become unavoidably obvious that the transition toward a leaderless world is now complete. The G-zero era I first predicted nearly six years ago is now fully upon us. No matter how long Trump remains in the White House, a crucial line has been crossed. The fallout will outlive his presidency, because Trump has proved that tens of millions of Americans like this idea.
China’s Xi will strengthen his grip on power, but economic woes could complicate a leadership transition
BuT The elecTion of Donald Trump is just the latest source of G-zero uncertainty and turmoil. Few leaders in today’s world, particularly in Europe, have enough popularity to get anything done, and the current wave of populism sweeping through many E.U. countries calls into question the legitimacy of institutions and governing principles in the world’s most advanced industrial democracies. France will head to the polls in 2017, led by a President too weak to stand in an election in which a leading contender wants to pull the country out of the E.U. In Britain, with European negotiators and members of her own party intent on driving exceptionally hard bargains, it’s far from clear that Prime Minister Theresa May can navigate her divided country through (at least) two years of Brexit negotiations. In Germany, the lack of any appealing alternative will probably keep Angela Merkel as Chancellor, but domestic backlash against her open-door policy for Middle East migrants will leave her much weakened. In Italy, the failure of Matteo Renzi’s political-reform referendum has upended politics, dooming the country’s 64th government in 70 years. Greece’s financial problems are far from finished. The E.U. is in for a rough ride in 2017, even if its deal with Turkey to sharply limit the surge of Syrian refugees into Europe holds, helping avoid a repeat of the tidal wave of desperate people that roiled E.U. politics. While there are places where the risk is overblown, the outlook isn’t much brighter in the developing world. The latest round of tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir has made headlines, but both governments want to avoid an escalation of violence that might hurt them at home. In Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim country, the capital city’s Christian governor has aroused Muslim fury, but President Joko Widodo continues to promote economic reform and much-needed investment in the country’s infrastructure.
X I : N I C O L A S A S O U R I — G E T T Y I M A G E S; T R U M P : D R E W A N G E R E R — G E T T Y I M A G E S
Trump’s “AmericA FirsT” approach fundamentally changes the U.S. role in the world. Trump agrees with leaders of both political parties that the U.S. is an exceptional nation, but he insists that the country can’t remain exceptional if it keeps stumbling down the path that former Presidents, including Republicans and Democrats, have followed since the end of World War II. Washington’s ambition to play the role of indispensable power allows both allies and rivals to treat U.S. taxpayers like chumps, he argues. Better to build a “What’s in it for us?” approach to the rest of the world. This is a complete break with a foreign policy establishment that Trump has worked hard to delegitimize—and which he continues to ostracize by waving off charges of Russian interference in the election and by refusing the daily intelligence briefings offered to all Presidentselect. American power, once a trump card, is now a wild card. Instead of a superpower that wants to impose stability and values on a fractious and valueless global order, the U.S. has become the single biggest source of international uncertainty. And don’t expect lawmakers to provide the traditional set of checks and balances. It’s not just that the Constitution gives the President great power to conduct foreign policy. It’s also that Trump has succeeded politically where his party’s establishment has continually failed, and as long as he remains popular with the party’s voters, many junior Republican lawmakers will answer to their President rather than to their leaders on Capitol Hill. Expect Trump to use the bully pulpit with a vengeance, often at 140 characters or less, to try to set new rules and rally the faithful to follow his lead. As for special interests, Trump isn’t much beholden to Wall Street, Silicon Valley or Big Business, since most didn’t support him. Those in the tech class, in particular, are the most liberal of the U.S. business elite, and Trump’s intense criticism of Apple for resisting FBI efforts to hack into the cell phones used by the attackers in San Bernardino, Calif., previews plenty of fights to come between the Trump White House and Silicon Valley. Trump has essentially charged Big Business with treason and threatens to punish—individually— those companies that ship jobs overseas. He hasn’t yet taken the oath of office, but Trump (and Trumpism) have already begun to create
turmoil abroad. In Europe, the new President’s full embrace of Brexit sets teeth on edge in many capitals, and his friendly approach to Russia leaves European governments scrambling for security alternatives to NATO. Transatlantic relations have reached their lowest point since the 1930s. In Asia, his confrontational attitude toward China will bolster U.S. ties with allies like Japan and India that have long-term reasons to resist China’s rise, but it has already made it that much harder to manage Washington’s relations with Beijing, the most important relationship for the future of the global economy. It will also complicate any bid by the U.S. and China to work together, or at least in parallel, when North Korea finally becomes a red-alert-level emergency—which it almost certainly will.
China’s top leaders have become increasingly confident in their ability to maintain their monopoly on domestic political power and to develop stronger international relationships with willing partners. But a scheduled leadership transition next fall might create much higher levels of stress in Beijing and a more belligerent attitude from its leaders—particularly if China’s economy begins to show unexpected vulnerability. With that backdrop, Trump’s hostile approach, including treating U.S. policy on Taiwan as a card to play, will generate anxiety. Vladimir Putin remains firmly in charge in Moscow, and Trump’s win provides an unexpected bonus in better relations with the White House. We might even see an easing, if not an end, of Western sanctions in 2017. But oil prices won’t reach the heights that boosted the Russian economy a decade ago, which exposes a longerterm vulnerability for which Putin has no credible answer. He has more than enough political and financial capital to avoid serious trouble in 2017, but the long-term erosion of Russia’s power and financial reserves will eventually give Putin good reasons to create international distractions. In Mexico, hostility toward (and from) Trump is already stirring up trouble. And economic crisis and political confrontation are headed toward a potentially violent climax in Venezuela. Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdogan, a would-be Putin bent on expanding his authority, has expressed growing hostility toward E.U. leaders who depend on his goodwill to limit migrant flows. South Africa’s scandal-plagued President continues to ignite partisan passions. Protests, a staple of the country’s political culture, have again turned violent. No region feels the G-zero pressure more acutely than the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, low oil prices, Iran’s release from sanctions, a lack of reliable friends and rivalries within the royal family are creating ever higher levels of stress. The killing continues in Yemen and in Syria, where Bashar Assad has all but conquered Aleppo. Finally, the military defeat of ISIS will scatter surviving fighters across the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, Russia and elsewhere in search of opportunities to wage jihad on new battlefields. While AmericA’s WithdrAWAl will create uncertainty, no one is rushing in to fill the vacuum. China’s investments in Asia, Africa and Latin America boost Beijing’s influence in dozens of countries, and Trump’s renunciation of the TransPacific Partnership, an enormous trade deal, gives China an excellent opportunity to expand its web of regional trade ties. But Beijing can’t match
Trump’s foreign policy will focus less on values and more on transactions— and that will have a profound global effect
Washington’s military reach or cultural appeal. It’s not a major producer of energy, food or the latest advanced technology. And China’s leaders have their hands full at home. They must ensure that the nation’s economy continues to develop and modernize to maintain their monopoly of domestic political power. The reality is that there is no emerging power ready, willing and able to take the leadership role the U.S. will no longer play. Around the world, populism will decentralize power away from central state actors toward local officials, at the expense of international cooperation. This anger undermines the authority of supranational organizations—the E.U., NATO, the U.N. The pace of technological change threatens the ability of governments to govern. An ever growing number of major decisions are taken by nonstate actors—data-hungry companies, hackers, political interest groups and terrorists. The international order itself is unraveling. In the past eight years alone, the world has seen the worst financial crisis in decades, a global recession, a historic debt crisis in the euro zone, a wave of unrest across North Africa and the Middle East, civil war in Syria, a migrant crisis that calls into question the future of Europe’s open borders, war between Russia and Ukraine, Brexit, an explosion of cyber aggression and the election as U.S. President of one Donald Trump. Call it geopolitical creative destruction or just the sound of things falling apart, but the grinding of G-zero gears has become too loud to ignore. In the short term, 2017 will have more than its share of decisive political moments. France will stage the most anticipated presidential election in years this spring, with the country’s future as a European pillar at stake. Marine Le Pen of the far-right National Front hopes to ride Europe’s populist wave toward victory—and sound the death knell for the entire E.U. project. In the fall, Merkel, the last-standing champion of Western liberal values, seeks re-election as Germany’s Chancellor. Both countries fear that Russian hackers will try to disrupt their elections, just as Moscow is suspected of having done in the U.S. There will also be a presidential election in Iran that might well bring tensions between reformers and hard-liners in that country to a head. Russia, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and others will continue to seek solutions to the existential threat posed to their economies by persistently low oil prices. Angry words between Europe and Turkey will threaten a new surge of migrants across E.U. borders. China’s leadership transition will make Beijing a more unpredictable player in regional and international politics. And President Donald Trump will lead the United States of America into uncharted waters. •
Europe: The E.U. can emerge from 2017 stronger, if it survives By Wolfgang Ischinger
Percentage of Europeans who want the E.U. to take a more active role globally, according to a 2016 Pew poll
nor in France. Eventually, one of these parties will have to demonstrate its ability to govern—and most likely will not deliver. A disappointing Trump presidency might show that closetheborder populists do not have the answers. There is also a new seriousness in Europe about strengthening our joint foreign and security policies. Progress is possible: even Euroskeptics know that they are better served if the E.U. defends their interests internationally. An overwhelming majority of some 74% of the population favors a stronger European role in the world, according to a 2016 Pew poll. Here, the E.U. could find renewed purpose and prove to its citizens that it is part of the solution, not of the problem. And finally, a renewed FrancoGerman leadership tandem— between Chancellor Angela Merkel, who is likely to win a fourth term in September, and François Fillon, who polls suggest will defeat Le Pen in May—could help revive the European spirit. It is certain that Europe faces major obstacles on the road ahead in 2017. But there are plenty of opportunities to avoid hitting a wall. Ischinger is the chairman of the Munich Security Conference and teaches at the Hertie School of Governance
S T O C K T R E K I M A G E S/G E T T Y I M A G E S
next year could be the most consequential for Europe since the Berlin Wall fell, or maybe even since the end of World War II. It is no exaggeration to say that the E.U.’s future lies in the balance. First, the election of Donald Trump has created unprecedented uncertainties regarding the transatlantic relationship, including the reliability of the NATO alliance. A less predictable global context will also make economic growth in Europe, often elusive to begin with, less likely. Moreover, depending on how the Trump Administration intends to approach Russia, we may see growing trans atlantic and intraEuropean rifts, not least over sanctions and what to do about Ukraine. Most important, there is a real risk that the U.S. might seek to deal with European allies on a bilateral basis rather than through established channels like the E.U. and NATO—maybe even trying to pit individual states against one another, with potentially devastating consequences. Second, European politics are at a critical juncture. Key moments come on April 23 and May 7, when France votes in two rounds of presidential elections. If farright National Front’s Marine There is a new the Le Pen defies expectations to win, seriousness the E.U. could start to disintegrate. A in Europe on poorly organized Brexit, which is due foreign and to be triggered before April, would security policy. hurt not only Britain but the E.U. as well. Elections in the Netherlands in Progress is March and perhaps in Italy next year possible could strengthen extremists and make governing in Brussels more difficult. The financial/euro crisis could return with force, in Greece or in Italy. Unresolved disagreements over how to handle mass migration will continue. If relations between Turkey and the E.U. break down, the flow of migrants will resume, even stronger than before. Even in Germany, the most stable of major European countries so far, the politics of migration is likely to get uglier and more divisive, especially ahead of elections in the fall. And we are all vulnerable to cyberattacks. Disinformation, including leaks affecting the credibility of political leaders, may erode the public’s trust in established leadership. Current political trends do not favor moderate Europeans: the center is shrinking. Mainstream parties of the centerleft and centerright have to form coalitions, but their inability to deliver substantial economic growth strengthens the radical right. The politics of Europe will continue to move rightward, especially in the event of a major terrorist attack with links to migrants. Advocates of meaningful cooperation, free trade and open societies will have an even harder time making their case. But Europe is not in an unstoppable downward spiral. The radical right may grow stronger here and there, but there will likely be no rightwing landslide in the Netherlands,
Cyberwars: We must prepare ourselves for the wars of the future By Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen All future wArs will begin As cyberwArs. cyber attacks and online disinformation campaigns will define the next generation of conflict, and they will unfold silently, invisibly and relatively inexpensively. The threat is real, but we are equipped with the means to keep the cyberpeace. It’s now incumbent on policymakers and tech companies to help keep our information secure and our infrastructure safe. In many ways, the tools of cyberwarfare are irresistible to governments. Cyberattacks have already been used to weaken infrastructure, disrupt communications and spread disinformation. It’s much cheaper and less risky to design malware that, for example, destroys Iranian nuclear centrifuges than it would be to bomb a nuclear facility. Cyber attacks are often hard to detect and even harder to attribute, making these weapons appealing for covert operations, when governments want the ability to deny their involvement. Cyberwars will be supplied by cyberarms dealers. Today you can buy “zeroday exploits” (tools to take advantage of previously unknown vulnerabilities in software) on the dark web for just tens of thousands of dollars. A shadowy set of businesses offer spyware, usually billed as tools for law enforcement, to authoritarian governments. Not all actors in the cyberwars of the future will be governments, though. As the cost of these tools of cyber conflict comes down, the reach will expand, increasing the ease for nonstate actors to mount cyberattacks. A DDoS attack, a type of cyberattack that overwhelms servers with
$400 billion Estimated amount companies lose to hackers each year, according to the insurance group Lloyd’s of London
traffic, can be purchased online for as little as $10. It’s easy to imagine a scenario where nonstate actors—terrorists, militias, political factions—launch a cyberattack that is designed to seem as if it originated from a particular country’s government. These are tools and tactics that policy makers don’t understand well. We lack the policies to inform consistent behavior among states. Take the doctrine of proportionality, the principle that responses to attacks should be proportionate to the impact of the attack itself. No such doctrine exists for cyberspace—or if it does, it’s been considered in secret and therefore doesn’t help to establish international norms. But cyberwar is here to stay. That means that we need to find ways to harden critical infrastructure and protect crucial data. It means that our policymakers need to develop new rules and norms for warfare. And it means that we need the brightest minds working to build new tools that will help ensure peace in the digital age. Machine learning, or computers able to learn from data, will be essential to decoding the battlefields of the 21st century. The more attacks we endure, the more training data we will have. This means for every attempted hack of an electrical grid or intrusion on a banking system, we will better understand how these attacks work and improve our defenses. Smaller countries with less data will be able to rely on their larger allies and partners to protect them. The good news is that many of the tools to protect individuals from contemporary digital threats are freely available today. Seemingly simple steps like updating soft ware regularly and using strong encryption provide an effective defense against many threats online. Where we need to make progress is in applying these tools and defenses at scale and incentivizing people to use them. It’s easy to get caught up in the latest news cycle about a scandalous data leak or cyber crime, but amid the sensationalism we often lose sight of the longerterm technology trends and how they shape geopolitics. Technology companies and the private sector should confront these issues proactively. If all future wars will begin as cyberwars, surely technology should be part of the solution. Schmidt is the executive chairman of Alphabet, and Cohen is the president of Jigsaw, formerly Google Ideas
Asia: Trump’s shock doctrine will make China even stronger
J U N G Y E O N -J E — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S
By Yoichi Funabashi In the year ahead, the greatest challenge to the Asia-Pacific region will come early and it won’t be from within. Jan. 20, 2017, President Donald Trump’s Inauguration Day, will be a key turning point that initiates a major strategic realignment in the Asia-Pacific. This may be remembered as the year that the U.S. went from regional security provider to destabilizing force. If Obama’s Asia “rebalancing” strategy was premised on the region’s becoming the political and economic center of gravity in the 21st century, then the unintended consequence of America’s retreat could be the premature end of the “Asian century” before it even gets going. A Trump presidency promises to collapse the Obama Administration’s “pivot” to Asia on three fundamental levels. The first is economic: by pulling out of multilateral free-trade agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the U.S. will become further disengaged from the region. Second, Trump wants America’s allies to take the lead in security matters and the U.S. to reduce its role. Finally, his empowerment of right-wing populism threatens to alter the perception of the U.S. as a model to be followed. The greater risk of these nationalist policies, however, is that America will no longer be viewed in the region as a benign hegemon. If America steps back by choice, by consequence it will also be less welcome. Indeed, Trump is ushering in a “Nixonian moment” in U.S. foreign policy. In the context of the Vietnam War, a trade deficit and domestic pressures to limit imports, Nixon initiated a series of “shock” policies to revitalize the U.S. economy and re-evaluate America’s global role. Shifting to a transactional approach toward regional security partners, he began an “Asianization” of the war—a surprise rapprochement with China, and the unilateral cancelation of the convertibility of the dollar to gold. The destabilizing effect of any “Trump shocks” today, however—whether withdrawing from commitments to the region or redefining U.S.-China ties without the involvement of America’s allies in Asia—would be monumental. Asia is nearing an inflection point where the unfinished business of the 20th century, namely the North/South Korea divide, territorial disputes and the matter of Taiwan, will once again emerge as the focal points of geopolitical risk in the region. In North Korea, the U.N. sanctions regime is failing to bring a halt to Pyongyang’s nuclear program. Undeterred by both sanctions and the changing strategic landscape in Asia, North Korea has conducted five nuclear tests since 2006—two of them in 2016. The South, wracked by internal political turmoil, now faces the dilemma of choosing between China, its neighbor and largest trading partner, and the U.S., its ally. President-elect Trump has signaled a disengagement from the Korean Peninsula at precisely
$336.2 billion Size of the U.S. goods and services trade deficit with China in 2015, according to the U.S. Trade Representative
the time it needs a deep commitment from America. The importance of Taiwan, meanwhile, is shifting from primarily a political battleground to a geostrategic one. Its geographical position between the disputed East and South China Seas has redefined its significance. It’s unclear whether the Trump Administration will try to break from the past and use Taiwan as a pawn— as the President-elect’s controversial phone call with President Tsai Ing-wen might suggest—or conversely if it will decide to cede ground to Beijing and thus embolden China to escalate its assertiveness in the disputed territory. Either way, the U.S. will further destabilize an already tense dispute. Doubts over America’s commitment have encouraged traditional allies and partners in the region, such as the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia, to start hedging against an American retreat by “separating” from Washington and courting Beijing. China can use its economic pull to draw Asian nations into its geopolitical orbit, creating a zero-sum “with us or against us” dynamic to edge America aside. In a region that hitherto has been secured by a strong U.S. presence and is in need of a quiet and incremental rebalance as China continues to rise, the “disruption” factor of U.S. policy toward Asia will be the biggest risk to watch out for in the year ahead. Funabashi is the chairman of Tokyobased think tank the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation
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U.S. Where Washington fails to drive progress, cities will act By Michael Bloomberg
Percentage of the world’s greenhousegas emissions that cities are responsible for, even though they cover only 2% of the world’s land mass
on climate change. But I am confident that no matter how the EPA is run, and no matter what laws the next Congress passes, we will meet the pledges that the U.S. made as part of the international agreement signed in Paris last year. The reason is simple: cities, businesses and citizens will continue to reduce emissions, and they will not let Washington stand in their way. Fighting climate change has never been primarily dependent on Washington. Over the past decade, Congress has not passed a single bill that takes direct aim at climate change. Yet at the same time, the U.S. has led the world in reducing carbon-dioxide emissions. That progress has been driven by cities, businesses and citizens, and each group is determined to keep pushing ahead. In fact, if the new Administration withdraws from the Paris Agreement, as the chair of the Global Covenant of Mayors, I will recommend that the 128 U.S. mayors who are part of the group seek to join in its place. Cities would benefit from stronger leadership and support from Washington, but they aren’t waiting on it. To find out where the country is heading, don’t follow the national headlines. Get involved locally. That’s where the action is. Bloomberg, the founder and CEO of Bloomberg LLP, was the mayor of New York City from 2002 to 2013
GEORGE ROSE— GE T T Y IM AGES
The new Trump adminisTraTion will dominaTe headlines in 2017, but the biggest changes in the way we live will be driven not by Washington but by cities. Even with one party in control of both Congress and the White House, special interests will continue to reign supreme. I wish our new President luck in fixing Washington’s dysfunctional politics, but doing so starts with building trust among members of the other party, which— given the tenor of the 2016 election—may prove impossible. More likely is that an ongoing trend will accelerate: power will continue to shift away from Washington, where partisan warfare kills off good ideas and honest debate, and toward cities. In cities across the U.S., problem-solving mayors in both parties are experimenting with innovative policies, often in partnership with businesses and citizens. And when innovative ideas work in cities, they often spread to states. Take education. In New Orleans, Mayor Mitch Landrieu is helping to lead an overhaul of the city’s vocational education, to connect students from low-income families with opportunities to learn In 2017, the skills that can translate into jobs in biggest growing industries. It wouldn’t be changes in happening without strong support the way we from the business community. In live will be Providence, R.I., parents are learning how to expose their preschool children driven not by to a greater number of words, which Washington could mean the difference between but by cities falling behind in school and staying ahead. On infrastructure, cities from Seattle to Houston and Phoenix to Detroit have all been building extensions to their transit systems. In 2017, a private company in Texas will seek permission to build a high-speed railway from Dallas to Houston. Cities are also leading the way on obesity, one of the most serious public-health issues facing the country. Sugary drinks are the largest driver of obesity, and in 2016, five cities and Cook County (which encompasses Chicago) adopted taxes that have been proven to reduce consumption. More will undoubtedly follow. No issue better highlights the difference between Washington and cities than climate change. Those in Washington see climate change as a partisan issue. Mayors, of both small towns and big cities, see it as a reason to clean the air, save money on energy, build modern infrastructure, protect themselves from extreme weather and attract new businesses. They recognize that reducing greenhouse-gas emissions can make their communities healthier places to live and work. I don’t know what the Trump Administration will do
Geopolitics: Trump’s top priority must be a strong China strategy By Admiral James Stavridis
As President-elect donAld trumP PrePAres to tAke office in January, one challenge looms large: China and its expanding role in the vital Asia-Pacific region. The incoming Administration will need to develop a long-term Pacific strategy—which ultimately eluded President Obama’s team. Creating a long-term policy toward China will be difficult: Trump’s recent questioning of the venerable “one China” policy and China’s vigorous reaction illustrates the hypersensitivity in Beijing. There is certainly leeway to change and clarify policy, but rocking the boat without a strategic plan—as Trump did by taking a call from Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen—has already resulted in ominous pronouncements by China. What are the key elements of such a strategy? A durable China policy would have to reconcile two key elements: security and trade. Security is foundational to protecting our interests, reassuring our allies and maintaining the open commons and international norms upon which global commerce depends. Trade is the engine of global prosperity and stability. Both are challenged by China’s desire to dominate the region and effectively construct a “Great Wall of Sand” around its territorial claims in the region—especially in the flash point of the South China Sea, through which 30% of the world’s maritime The incoming trade passes annually. Administration We must start by recognizing will need to that building security is a team develop a longsport. It is crucial for the U.S. term Pacific to maintain and strengthen its strategy—which alliances and security partnerships ultimately in the region. Japan, South Korea, eluded President Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines are treaty Obama’s team allies. India, Malaysia, Vietnam and others are friends. Our Pacific allies are watching China’s rise and increased assertiveness with uncertainty, just as we are. Our engagement—whether by military exercises, arms sales or mere presence—is critical to reassuring them. A second crucial element of our strategy should be in the cyberworld. We have seen many instances of alleged aggressive Chinese cyber behavior, including stealing commercial and military technology, breaking into vital U.S. databases and manipulating financial information. We need to work with China to establish mutually acceptable behavior in the cyber realm as part of our strategy. Third, we need a robust trade component. Trade and diplomacy—not force—are the best ways to encourage other countries to comply with international norms. Well over half of all U.S. exports, including close to three-quarters of our agricultural exports, go to the region—most by freely transiting the ocean. Trump may be determined to keep the U.S. out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, but economic engagement with
Percentage of the world’s maritime trade that passes through the South China Sea
Pacific economies—including China— is crucial. We should consider whether to renegotiate the TPP or begin the process of finding a substitute. Robust trade with China may be the key to encouraging open and peaceful activity in the cyber and space domains, and restraint of rogue actors, from North Korea to pirates in the Malacca Strait. Fourth, we should support international treaties and organizations. The U.S. must continue to calmly but firmly reinforce international rules of innocent passage, freedom of navigation and the lawful extent of national waters in the South China Sea and other Pacificarea choke points. The U.S. should also ratify the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: we already abide by it, and we rely on it to encourage China (already a signatory) to do the same. Setting U.S. policy in the Pacific on a sustainable course will require immediate action. Trump and his team will have to start with the basics— reassuring allies, maintaining open global commons, improving trade relationships and calming the cyber sphere—and build from there. Most important, the U.S.-China relationship must be prevented from becoming a “Thucydides trap” in which a rising power and an established one view each other with such suspicion that conflict appears inevitable. Inflammatory or chaotic language and actions will not help. U.S. presence across the Pacific is not new or threatening, and the new Administration should not retreat or deviate from long-standing and clearly stated goals of maintaining open sea lanes and upholding global standards of conduct. A thoughtfully constructed and methodically executed strategy in the face of a rising China must be a first order of business for the new Administration. Stavridis is dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and a former Supreme Allied Commander at NATO. He is a regular contributor to TIME.
Business: Localization can help America win around the world By Jeffrey Immelt
$2.23 trillion Value of U.S. exports in goods and services in 2015, according to the Commerce Department
code. Our regulations have hampered competitiveness, and we are the only country in the world without a functioning export bank. By and large, GE has won globally as a business by its own efforts. Looking forward, I have a sense of optimism. Every multinational wants to make a positive impact in the world. There is serious talk in Washington of tax reform on a scale not seen in 30 years, and regulatory relief to go with it. This will kick-start U.S. investment in manufacturing and jobs as companies become able to bring back earnings won overseas. Across the private sector, more capital will find more opportunities, speeding up innovations in science, digital technology and other fields. In the end, businesses can help drive American job growth by winning around the world. At GE, we value our global teams, customers and supply-chain partners. We at GE are providing the goods and services needed to grow economies and improve the lives of people— from reliable, cost-effective power to health care and transportation innovations. We will continue to do this in the U.S. as we do so elsewhere. Global engagement is an economic opportunity for the U.S. and the world. Our country has strengths to deploy, and there are signs that we are ready to compete. With the right policies, most of the advantages in global competition can belong to the U.S. Immelt is the chairman and CEO of GE
YA S U YO S H I C H I B A — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S
Is globalIzatIon bad? Would you belIeve It If I told you that 85% of GE’s jet engines and gas turbines have been sold outside the U.S. over the past 15 years? I understand that in the experience of some American workers, globalization is not exactly a synonym for progress; they can point to jobs lost rather than gained, companies leaving instead of moving in. It’s true that while all the changes and trends that describe the global economy have been a net plus for Americans, the downside can be easily forgotten. And if you’re living it, you can feel forgotten yourself. Here’s what I know: outsourcing is different from globalization—and it’s yesterday’s game. During the 1980s and ’90s, business looked to emerging markets as a cheap labor source. American jobs transferred to countries that welcomed U.S. companies with open arms. American workers lost in the game of wage arbitrage. But the days of outsourcing are declining. Chasing the lowest labor costs is yesterday’s model; digital and advanced manufacturing technologies make the factories of today more productive. Global Now we need to go where the engagement growth is. That is what globalization is an economic means today. opportunity Global markets are vibrant, and emerging economies are still growing for the U.S. and the world more than twice as fast as developed countries like the U.S.—and this means there’s more demand. At GE, 70% of our orders are outside the U.S. We’re a $20 billion-a-year exporter, and that has only strengthened our position as one of the biggest employers in the country. The reality is, this is not easy, and competing for these deals requires flexibility and creativity. Countries are demanding investment in local presence and operations in exchange for market access. These investments in manufacturing and innovation are critical to our ability to win orders. Without them, global competitors would sweep up. U.S. teams would lose too. At GE Aviation, for example, building an engine-services shop in the United Arab Emirates made us eligible to compete for jet engine and parts orders in that country. Tens of thousands of GE Aviation employees in the U.S. now work to fulfill the orders we’ve won. By building capabilities around the world, we are positioned to deliver for customers, wherever they are—while creating and sustaining jobs at home. Every now and then I hear politicians make the claim that our government has helped multinationals globalize and that businesses that globalize are somehow “crony capitalists.” This is hogwash. We have a globally uncompetitive tax
The View In the Arena
Beware the tricks and traps of Donald Trump, news manipulator in chief By Joe Klein On OcT. 7, aT The heighT Of The presidenTial campaign, a tape appeared of Donald Trump saying vile things about women to Access Hollywood host Billy Bush. We, the media, went berserk. For the next two weeks, as various women came forward accusing Trump of sexual assault, the coverage was wall to wall. Hillary Clinton’s campaign snapped at the bait and made Trump’s misogyny the centerpiece of its strategy. Also on Oct. 7 came the mind-blowing news that the U.S. intelligence community, including all 17 agencies, believed the Russians were behind the hacking of internal Clinton and Democratic Party email accounts. This news was accompanied by candidate Trump’s strange affinity for Vladimir Putin. It was also accompanied by Trump’s unwillingness to release his tax returns, which made it impossible to find out whether the developer was in financial cahoots with Russian oligarchs, how much he might owe them, how much they could have invested in him. Any one of these stories would have been an outrage. Taken together, they pointed to an unthinkable conclusion that the CIA had privately reached: the Russians were trying to tilt the election to Trump.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Boeing After Trump tweeted on Dec. 6 that he wanted to cancel an order for a new Air Force One jet from Boeing, shares of the aerospace giant dropped by 1% initially, a $1.4 billion hit to its market value
Lockheed Martin The maker of the F-35 fighter jet saw shares drop as much as 4%, for a $4 billion hit to the company’s market cap, when Trump tweeted on Dec. 12 that the “program and cost is out of control” and that he would rein it in
Trump hasn’T actually done anything yet, and his opponents are acting as if the sky has fallen. They are playing into his hands: if you begin with constant outrage, there’s no place to go when something truly outrageous happens. And what if this turns out to be a popular presidency? It is entirely possible that a rapprochement with the Russians, based on common commercial interests, will be good for the peace of the world. It is possible that Trump’s ideological appointees will clean out the cobwebs in departments and agencies like Health and Human Services, Labor, Education and the EPA. It is possible that Trump’s public shaming of manufacturers like Carrier will make American corporations think twice before going elsewhere. It is even possible that Trump’s massive and continuing conflicts of interest will be a good thing—the more hotels and golf courses and oil deals he and his cronies have around the world, the less likely they’ll be to blow it up. Nothing is unthinkable anymore. •
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The unprecedenTed meddling was the most important scandal of the 2016 election, but it seemed to get lost in the Trumpian clutter. It just seemed too crazy—too Manchurian Candidate, too Hollywood—to be real. It wasn’t as, well, sexy as Trump’s trash talk and groping, which shouldn’t have come as a surprise to anyone, given his crude track record. In the end, it’s possible that the Access Hollywood fiasco might have even helped Trump, confirming his machismo for a certain puerile sector of the male electorate (and confirming that boys will be boys for the women who voted for him). And speaking of “locker room” talk, Trump has now gone on to pick a Cabinet that looks like the locker room at Trump National Golf Course. I am not saying the Access Hollywood story wasn’t newsworthy; it surely was. Nor am I saying the Russian hacks caused Clinton to lose the election; she did that all on her own. But the Russian interference in the ceremony that stands at the center of our democracy was nothing less than a foreign act of cyberwarfare, or as former CIA executive Mike Morell put it, “the political equivalent of 9/11.” And it wasn’t treated with sufficient heft by the media, especially cable television. But now it must be. The President-elect must release his tax returns. The Russian connection must be fully explored. The relationship between Secretary of State–designate Rex Tillerson and the Russians must be vetted. The media pressure to make this happen must be focused and relentless.
TRUMP TWEETS, MARKETS REACT
There is a larger lesson here for the media, going forward: there is a method to Trump’s mouthiness. He is, without question, the most expert news manipulator in American history. He can even exploit embarrassments like Access Hollywood. He throws chum into the water—a tweet here about election fraud, a tweet there about flag burning—and cable news goes crazy for a news cycle, which only reinforces Trump’s credibility with his constituency. In the meantime, more serious stuff is being ignored. There needs to be a very strict and sober sense of priorities, especially on the cable-news channels where a horse race and showbiz usually prevail. This is a sensitive and perhaps dangerous moment for the media. Journalists will have contradictory functions: the relentless pursuit of the truth in serious matters like the Russian affair will have to be matched with an openminded willingness to give credit where it is due.
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Professional prognosticators had a fraught 2016. And yet, questions about what will happen in the coming year persist. To name a few: How will a new U.S. Administration wield its power? WhatÂ will be the fate for millions of Syrian exiles, including newborns and their families? Can a female superhero and the worldâ€™s fastest driver conquer American audiences? In the pages that follow, TIME looks for answers
THE YEAR AHEAD
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Children of no nation
How do you keep a family together when youâ€™ve lost everything? TIME begins a year with refugee mothers and infants entering an uncertain future
By ARYN BAKER/THESSALONIKI, GREECE Photographs by LYNSEY ADDARIO FOR TIME
Syrian refugee Sanaa Razzouk with her second baby, a boy, just minutes after giving birth in Greece
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Top, from left: Suad awaits her cesarean section; husband Thaer watches her go into surgery; her operation begins
A few moments after checking into the maternity ward of Ippokrateio General Hospital in northern Greece, Suad Iessa hoists herself onto an examination table. She’s nine months pregnant and is about to get her first ultrasound. Back in Syria, Suad would have had many more by this point, but the 25-year-old refugee spent the first six months of her pregnancy on the run from war and the past three in a refugee camp with limited access to prenatal care. 40
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Suad turns her face away in embarrassment as the male ultrasound technician pulls aside her gown to run the wand across her exposed belly. He glances at the computer screen, then pauses. He calls in a colleague. They speak in rapid-fire Greek, gesturing at the screen and then at Suad. “There’s a problem,” one of the technicians says. He steps out of the room to summon the ward’s senior doctor, and Suad’s eyes fill with tears. She doesn’t speak the language, but she understands enough to know that something is very wrong. When Dr. Efstratios Assimakopoulos, director of the hospital’s second university obstetrics-gynecology clinic, moves the wand
LY N S E Y A D D A R I O — V E R B AT I M F O R T I M E
Bottom, from left: Suad in an apartment with her three children; her son photographs his new sister; baby Hamida
over her abdomen, he mutters an expletive in Greek and summons Suad’s husband, Thaer Sannaa, into the cramped exam room. “It’s a very bad situation,” he says in English. The baby is O.K., he continues, but Suad’s placenta is in the wrong place—it has penetrated the uterine wall and attached itself to her bladder. She will have to have a cesarean section, followed by another surgery. The doctors could try to save her uterus, but there would be a chance that she would hemorrhage to death in the process. Would Thaer give the surgeon permission to perform a hysterectomy? Thaer, who was a prosperous olive-oil trader back in Idlib, speaks some English but has a
hard time understanding some of the more technical medical terminology. After a few attempts at clarifying what’s going on, Thaer gives up in frustration. “Do what you have to do to save my wife and my baby,” he says. “I am already broken from this refugee life. Don’t break me anymore.” No one explains to Suad what is going on. As she’s wheeled into surgery, she understands only two things: that she might die, and that this is the last baby she will ever have. At 4:01 p.m. on Sept. 30, the tiny wail of Suad’s newborn daughter breaks through the beeps and hisses of the surgical suite. The baby is whisked out of the room so that the doctors
Suad THE SURVIVOR
The 25-year-old from the Syrian city of Idlib nearly died giving birth to her daughter Hamida, but fast action by Greek doctors in Thessaloniki saved her life.
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Illham THE VETERAN
The 23-year-old knew it was time to flee Syria the day government fighter jets strafed her home village. She had her fifth son while living in a Greek refugee camp.
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and nurses—12 in all—can continue with the bladder surgery for another four hours. Out in the corridor, a pediatrician congratulates Thaer on the birth of his daughter. Thaer names her Hamida, after his mother. As he waits for news of his wife’s surgery, Thaer rails against Syrian President Bashar Assad, against the war that has caused nearly 5 million Syrians to flee their country, against the U.N. refugee system, against everything that had transpired to bring him to where he is today: a once successful businessman living on handouts in a Greek refugee camp. He’s the father of a stateless child, a parent who doesn’t know where his three children will grow up or what languages they will speak. He doesn’t even know if his newborn daughter will ever see her mother alive. More than 1,000 Syrian refugeeS like Suad have given birth in Greece this year, and since September, TIME has followed four of them. These are mothers to children of no nation, conceived in war and gestated in flight.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Through video, social media, photography and the written word, TIME will spend the next year documenting the babies’ first year of life. Wrapped in donated blankets and secondhand onesies, they will likely spend at least the first months of their new lives in hastily built refugee camps that offer little protection from winter’s freezing temperatures and summer’s swarms of mosquitoes. They are between worlds. In a world teeming with unknowns, about the only thing certain in their lives is that they probably won’t see their parents’ home country until they are adults, if ever. The fall of Aleppo—Syria’s largest city— to Assad’s forces heralds not a conclusion of the civil war, but rather a new phase in what sizes up as a chronic insurgency. In the U.S., a man who campaigned on an anti-immigrant platform has become President-elect. For most Syrian refugees, that narrows the choice to Europe as the great hope for a new home. But for the four new mothers, that hope is complicated.
From left: Illham gets a checkup at the hospital; Illham and her children in their tent
Suad may end up back in Turkey, so unsettled is her husband by the growing antiimmigrant rhetoric heard in parts of Europe. Even Germany’s Angela Merkel, who has taken in more than 1 million asylum seekers over the past two years, has seen fit to close the door in a bid for her fourth term as Chancellor. Nourelhuda Altallaa, a first-time mother who goes by Nour, remains determined to join family in Germany so that her daughter can grow up among her cousins. But it’s not that simple. Asylum applicants have no choice when it comes to their relocation. Nour’s family could be sent to a country like Romania, where jobs are scarce and resources for refugees scant. Illham Alarabi, who just gave birth to her fifth son, is torn. On the one hand, she’s desperate to move her family out of their 100-sq.-ft. tent in a Greek refugee camp. But she also fears leaving the tight community of neighbors that have made the camp feel like home for the past seven months. For her part, Taimaa Abazli, a former
music teacher, is so defeated by what appears to be postpartum depression that she says she doesn’t even care where she goes, as long as “it’s not here.” Greece, already one of Europe’s poorest countries, has some 60,000 refugees now awaiting settlement. Many, like Nour and Illham, are still living in primitive camps, with no water for washing, sporadic electricity and no heat, despite freezing temperatures. “When I was young, I expected to have a happy life, with a nice house, and to get an education,” says Taimaa, who worries that her 2-year-old son is starting to think that a tent is his real home. “I didn’t expect any of the things that are happening to me. It’s an ugly life.” Think of a refugee, and you might picture someone destitute, living on the fringes of an already disorganized society, perhaps someone who was homeless or even stateless to begin with. But the Syrian refugees in Greece are by and large middle-class and well educated.
‘I EXPECTED TO HAVE A HAPPY LIFE, WITH A NICE HOUSE ... IT’S AN U G L Y L I F E .’ TAIMAA ABAZLI,
refugee and mother of two
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Nour THE NEW MOTHER
The 22-year-old always thought that she would have her mother beside her when she had her first child. But she and her husband Yousef have managed on their own.
Timeâ€‚December 26, 2016â€“January 2, 2017
Suad’s journey BLA
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Suad and her husband fled their Syrian hometown of Idlib. Their trip—on foot, by car and by boat—took 4½ months and cost $5,600 in smugglers’ fees. It left them in Greece, on the doorstep of mainland Europe.
They’re accustomed to first-world medical care. Many had good jobs and nice homes before war tore their country apart, sending them fleeing. Before Suad and Thaer left Syria, they had a spacious apartment, two cars and a washing machine. Doctors monitored Suad’s first two pregnancies closely. She took prenatal vitamins and went to birthing classes. In Greece, where she and Thaer arrived by rubber dinghy from Turkey on Feb. 20, she waited out the last days of her pregnancy subsisting on packets of food provided by the Greek military. She didn’t even have easy access to a bathroom, which, as any pregnant woman knows, is essential. To ensure a safe birth, the World Health Organization recommends that all women have at least eight visits with a health worker or midwife during a pregnancy. Refugees on the move rarely have that opportunity and, like Suad, often get to see a doctor only on the day of their delivery. Suad survived the four-hour surgery that followed her cesarean-section birth, but had she gone into labor naturally, she likely would have bled to death, says Assimakopoulos. “People think refugees only need food, water and basic health care, but reproductive health is a lifesaving intervention,” says Felicia Jones, the sexual- and reproductive-health specialist for the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) project in Greece. “If you don’t make sure that women have access to basic emergency obstetric and newborn care—including prenatal care— women and babies can die.” 45
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Prenatal care has now arrived at the camps, thanks to humanitarian organizations such as UNFPA, Doctors of the World and the Red Cross, and many expectant mothers are making the most of the resources on offer. For her part, Nour, a first-time mother at 22, visits the clinic every time the midwife comes to her camp. Nour has been dreaming of having children ever since she was a child. When she met her husband, Yousef Alarsan, in college, she knew they were meant to be together when they realized they had the same favorite name for a future daughter: Rahaf. War put their plans for marriage and family on hold, however. In 2014, Yousef left their school in Deir ez-Zor and fled to a small nearby town so he wouldn’t have to join Assad’s army. No sooner did he get there than ISIS took over. “One morning, we woke up to black flags and long beards,” he says of the ISIS soldiers who had moved into the area. “They said, ‘This is the Islamic State,’ even though everybody knows they have nothing to do with Muslims.” Yousef was arrested and flogged for smoking cigarettes. Then ISIS started beheading dissenters. Fearing for his life, Yousef fled in late 2015. He and Nour had a quick wedding in Deir ez-Zor, then started their journey to Europe, via Turkey. Nour realized she was pregnant the day they arrived in Greece, on the 29th of February. “When I found out, I was very happy at first, because I wanted a baby,” she says. “But I didn’t have my mom by my side, so my happiness was incomplete.” She never imagined that her life as a young mother would start in the gloom of an old tobacco warehouse converted into an ad hoc shelter. In the Syrian tradition, says Nour, the maternal grandmother provides the baby’s clothes. “Now I have to prepare them myself,” she says. So she unraveled donated blankets to recover the yarn, then taught herself how to crochet charming hats and booties by watching instructional YouTube videos. As is the case for most refugees, her smartphone, brought over from Syria, is a lifeline. The camps offer free wi-fi, and residents, who don’t even have heat, spend precious euros buying battery packs to keep their devices going when the power is out. A few days before she gives birth, Nour holds up a tiny ruffled dress she crafted out of red wool from a pattern she saw on the Internet. “I make things because I don’t want my baby to lack for anything. Later I can show her the pictures and say, ‘I made this for you.’” The closer she gets to giving birth, the more anxious Nour becomes. She obsessively watches 46
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Nour’s daughter Rahaf is bathed in their tent in Oreokastro camp
birth videos on YouTube and looks to Facebook groups for guidance. What she really wants is to speak to her mother. “In Syria, you have your mother to look after you,” she says. “She shows you how to take care of your baby.” But her parents are trapped in ISIS-held Deir ez-Zor, where cell phones and the Internet are forbidden. Once a week, her father rides a motorcycle for two hours to reach a town with Internet cafés. There, he downloads his WhatsApp messages and sends out the voice memos he records secretly with his wife. Nour replays the recordings constantly.
Instead, midwives make do with pantomime. When Nour’s labor becomes so intense that she starts to panic, doctors present her with pain-management options by miming a spinal injection or a gas mask. It isn’t until TIME’s translator intervenes that Nour is able to understand the choices. She picks the epidural. Seven hours later, when the drugs’ effects have worn off, Nour’s screeching is replaced by the cries of a newborn. A nurse wipes baby Rahaf clean and places the child on her mother’s chest. Nour beams. “Oh my God,” she says in English. “Baby. Baby.” Three days later, Nour and Yousef wrap their daughter in layers of blankets and prepare to leave the hospital for the camp. “I am afraid,” Nour says. “I don’t know what is normal, but I will look on the Internet. I learned from YouTube how to crochet dresses. I learned about childbirth. And now I will look up how to take care of a new baby.” At the camp, visitors crowd into the tent to coo over the new arrival. Nour, nursing Rahaf, stares at her phone. She has sent news of the birth to her parents, along with photos she took with her phone, but she can tell by the lack of blue check marks next to her messages that they haven’t been received. There’s no telling when her parents will get them.
When Nour is five days past her due date, doctors at Thessaloniki’s Papageorgiou Hospital decide to induce labor rather than risk a midnight birth in a camp with no reliable ambulance access. The biggest challenge with refugees is language, says Elizabeth Gkery, the midwife on duty during Nour’s labor on Nov. 1. “As a midwife during a delivery, you have to build a relationship of trust in the first hour, so they know to listen to what you say when the pain gets bad. We can’t do that. If I were in her position, giving birth in a foreign language, I would be scared too.”
‘ONE MORNING, WE WOKE UP TO BLACK FLAGS AND LONG B E A R D S .’ YOUSEF ALARSAN,
on the arrival of ISIS
Like new parents anywhere, Nour and Yousef had tried their best to make a welcoming home for the new arrival, but the Oreokastro camp, where they have lived since June, makes that all but impossible. The camp consists of a vast warehouse approximately the size of two football fields. Inside are regimented rows of army tents, 250 in all. Children race down the long corridors on donated bicycles and fight in narrow alleys. There is no playground and no formal school— only a tent where volunteers offer classes on an ad hoc basis. In the winter, residents must brave sleet, snow and icy winds to reach the toilet. In the summer, the smell of excrement washes over the camp. The permanently illuminated overhead lights aren’t strong enough to defeat the daytime gloom of the near windowless structure—but they are bright enough to prevent sleep at night. Home to about 800 people who have nowhere else to go, Oreokastro is never, ever quiet. When the camp opened, each family was allotted one tent. Now that several families have moved out, residents are able to spread out a little, taking over empty tents to make 47
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Top, from left: Taimaa bathes her newborn; Taimaa returns to the camp; she takes Heln for a walk
Taimaa THE DREAMER
The 24-year-old has struggled with postpartum depression, fearing for her daughter Heln’s future. “I dream a lot, but I don’t know if these dreams will come true,” she says.
ersatz kitchens and dining rooms. Nour’s neighbor Illham Alarabi leads the charge, mostly so her four young sons have a safe place to play in the winter. Her fifth son, Faraj, was born on Oct. 2. For Illham, childbirth was a welcome break from camp life. “At the hospital someone else does the cleaning, you only have one kid to take care of, and there is a bathroom in your room. It’s like a spa,” she says as she lays out the evening meal. The Greek military provides a daily juice box and a pre-packaged croissant to each resident, along with a hot meal that usually consists of potatoes, pasta and vegetables. Complaints about the food are common. “When
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
a baby is born in Syria, we slaughter a lamb and eat meat,” says Illham on the day of her son’s birth. “Here we will slaughter a croissant.” The camps were never meant to serve as long-term housing, and the refugees were never meant to stay in Greece for so long. When they first started arriving, in 2014, they were widely welcomed and ushered onward to mainland Europe. European attitudes began to sour when 2,000 migrants a day started flooding in from Turkey. The Balkan countries next to Greece— the gateway to the destination countries—shut their borders, cutting off the asylum seekers from the rest of Europe. Now, the flow has all but stopped. In March,
Bottom, from left: Taimaa’s husband Mohannad; Taimaa with her son Wael and baby Heln; Taimaa with her children in Thessaloniki
the E.U. negotiated a deal with Turkey that brought the number of migrants down to less than 100 a day in exchange for $6.4 billion in refugee assistance through 2018. But that left tens of thousands of refugees bottlenecked in Greece. E.U. member states pledged to resettle up to 66,400 of Greece’s refugees elsewhere in the bloc, but under pressure from antimigrant movements at home, they are dragging their feet. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees’ (UNHCR) original plan for winter was to cycle the asylum seekers through hotels and short-term rentals while they waited for relocation elsewhere in Europe. But “the revolving door is moving much slower than
we had hoped and had been promised, so now we don’t have enough housing to go around,” says Roland Schönbauer, UNHCR’s Athensbased spokesperson. So far, only some 6,500 migrants have been relocated from Greece. At current rates, it could take more than a decade to resettle the rest. For YouseF, like most of the refugees, it is the uncertainty that has been the hardest to take. “I am going crazy,” he says. “Just be honest with us. Tell me that I will have to stay in Greece for two years; I will accept that and will manage. But I can’t just keep waiting not knowing. I would rather face ISIS, the Syrian army and the
‘KIDS NEED SCHOOL ... BUT WHAT LANGUAGE WILL THEY LEARN?’ THAER SANNAA,
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Taimaa with baby Heln in a peaceful moment
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Russian bombs than this kind of life.” For Suad and Thaer, the more immediate problem is what to do with their school-age sons. Do they immerse them in the Greek school system and risk confusing them with a language that won’t be of much use down the line, or do they wait, indefinitely, until they know where they will be settled? “We are lost,” says Thaer. “Kids need school, they need something to do to keep them out of trouble. But what language will they learn? Maybe we will leave in two months, we don’t know. So do they need to learn Greek? What if we move to Germany?” These dilemmas are still far in the future for the newborns. Not long after Nour returns from the hospital with her baby, she invites other camp mothers over for tea and advice. The conversation soon turns to Rahaf’s ears. In Syria, tradition dictates that baby girls get their ears pierced with gold studs at three days old. Nour knows she doesn’t have money for gold, but even if she scrapes together enough for cheaper studs, she’s not sure if Greeks will pierce the ears of a baby who is so young. Illham bounces her baby Faraj on her lap. “Where can I get him circumcised?” she asks. Unlike Syria, where circumcision is a religious obligation for Muslim boys, the Greek public health system doesn’t provide the procedure. Private clinics charge $1,700—the same amount smugglers charge for passage to northern Europe. “So he will grow bigger and bigger, and then get cut?” Illham winces in sympathy. “There will be a big pain in his future.” Despite the challenges of raising her children as refugees, despite the uncertainty over their future and the loss of their past, Illham doesn’t regret leaving a country at war. She wants for Faraj what any mother wants for her child: that her son is given every chance to become the best version of himself. Babies adapt no matter what, she says. They don’t know, unless they are told, that life should be any different. She and her husband may be suffering now, but by the time Faraj is old enough to know better, she hopes the family will be in a better place, wherever it is. “It’s too late for my husband and me,” she says. “But the kids still have their whole lives ahead of them.” —With reporting by Abeer AlbAdAwi, MohAMMed Freej, irene liouMi and FrAncescA TriAnni/ThessAloniki • Continued reporting for this project is supported by a grant from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting 51
PHOTOGR APH BY NADAV K ANDER FOR TIME
P O W E R
Mike Pence is no ordinary wingman In picking him as his vice-presidential partner, Donald J. Trump brought onÂ board someone who knows his way around Washington and cares about details. Why the former altarÂ boy might make this work
By PHILIP ELLIOTT
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ouse DemocraTic LeaDer Nancy Pelosi kept her fingers interlocked on the polished table, a smile fixed to her face. This was not how she had hoped to spend the weeks after the 2016 election, sitting next to Vice President–elect Mike Pence. But the voters had called the shot. If there was any consolation to the awkward scene, it was that the two power brokers had known each other for years, well enough that when Pelosi dropped protocol to call him “Mike,” he laughed and welcomed the informality. “You’re going to be a very valuable player in all of this,” she said to Pence, “because you know the territory, and I know—with no disrespect for the sensitivity and knowledge of the President-elect—you know the territory. So in that territory, we will try to find our common ground where we can.” It’s a good bet that Pelosi intended to throw some shade on President-elect Donald Trump. But Pence let it blow by because he knew what he was there to do. There is no one in America, save the President-elect himself, who has more responsibility to make Trump’s first term a success. Key among Pence’s tasks, after staffing the new Administration and keeping the peace with conservative activists, is finding a way to reach across party lines to make the government work. Perhaps that’s why he described his meeting with Pelosi as the first of many, called her “a worthy opponent” and reflected fondly on their debates over the years in the House. That same day, he offered incoming Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer his personal cell-phone number with an open invitation to call. “Politics is the art of the possible, and knowing people and having relationships is finding out what is possible,” Pence told TIME weeks later during a brief interview at Trump Tower.
How Pence got here The Vice President– elect climbed slowly through the ranks. He lost his first two elections, spent years on talk radio and then rose from U.S. Congressman to governor of Indiana.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
‘S O M U C H O F WHAT VICE PRESIDENT PENCE BRINGS FILLS GAPS IN PRESIDENT T R U M P ’S B A C K G R O U N D.’ MITCH DANIELS, former governor of Indiana
After 12 years in Washington as a Congressman (before becoming governor of Indiana), Pence has been putting a lot of his relationships to work. “If the President-elect is wise enough to use him very extensively, I think he will serve himself very well,” former Indiana governor Mitch Daniels tells TIME. “So much of what Vice President Pence brings fills gaps in President Trump’s background.” Pence has already made a mark. “One of my
1988 First-time candidate Pence waged a nasty challenge against Democratic incumbent Representative Phil Sharp. Pence lost by over 6 points, tried again in 1990 and lost by an even bigger margin the second time.
Pence’s team on Capitol Hill was regarded as one of the best. He is seen meeting with aides in 2005
‘CHRIST JESUS CAME TO SAVE SINNERS, AMONG WHOM I AM FOREMOST O F A L L .’ PENCE,
writing after a 1990 defeat
great decisions in life was choosing Mike Pence to be my running mate,” Trump tells TIME. “He is truly a high-quality human being, first class in every respect. He is also a talented politician who loves people and wants to help them every step of the way.” Pence installed allies to head the CIA and the Department of Health and Human Services and the Medicare and Medicaid systems. He elevated a fellow Republican governor to
1992 The Mike Pence Show host What started as a small gig at of a local radio station grew into a program that was syndicated statewide on 18 stations. It made him a conservative celebrity in Indiana.
become the envoy to the United Nations and another to run the Energy Department. He camped out on cable TV to make the incoming Administration’s case. His goal, as the right hand to a man he once opposed—and still disagrees with on tactics and tone—is to become invaluable. “I don’t think Donald knew him very well,” former House Speaker John Boehner says of Trump’s running mate. “But he has found out over these last four months that he made a much better decision than he realized.” LittLe on Pence’s résumé suggests he was destined for his current role. The small-government conservative who fought George W. Bush on a prescription-drug bill now finds himself defending decisions like the Carrier jobs deal, which Tea Party stalwarts call “cronyism and corporate welfare.” The devout evangelical who routinely describes himself as “a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order” helped America elect someone who, before he started running for the White House, might have failed all three tests. A party leader who tried to pass a comprehensive immigration bill that was decried at the time as amnesty stood next to a rabble-rouser who won the White House on the promises of deporting immigrants and building a wall along the Mexican border. But then, this isn’t the first time Michael Richard Pence, 57, who grew up in a middleclass Democratic house where his family displayed pictures of John F. Kennedy, has surprised. His path has never followed a straight line. He arrived on Indiana’s Hanover College campus in 1977 as a fairly typical young person: somewhat liberal, open-minded and curious about what lay beyond his experiences at the St. Columba parish in Columbus, Ind., where
2000 Winning candidate Twelve years after his first attempt, Pence realized his childhood dream of representing his hometown in Washington. He narrowly won with 51% of the vote. He would win re-election by bigger margins.
C A P I T O L H I L L : G E T T Y I M A G E S; T H E M I K E P E N C E S H O W : YO U T U B E ; W I N N I N G C A N D I D AT E : A P ; B U S H : E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E O F T H E P R E S I D E N T O F T H E U N I T E D S TAT E S
2000S Conservative foil No one accused Pence of going along to get along. He took conservative positions that at times split him from his party and then President George W. Bush on issues like spending and education.
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he spent at least six days a week as an altar boy. His family didn’t talk politics at home, but Pence had an interest. He collected a box full of news clippings about JFK, and at age 15 he was a volunteer for the Bartholomew County Democrats. “Dad didn’t like politicians or lawyers,” he told the Indianapolis Business Journal in 1994. Pence would become both. Despite his Catholic heritage, he gravitated toward the evangelical groups on campus— because they were more fun and seemed to have a more personal relationship with Jesus, he says. “I gave my life to Jesus Christ, and that’s changed everything,” Pence said in 2010. Even as he came to describe himself as an evangelical, he continued to attend Mass, where he met his future wife Karen, with whom he would have three children. At the same time, Pence was growing uncomfortable with his Democratic Party’s support for abortion rights. (He still voted for Jimmy Carter over Ronald Reagan in 1980.) After college, he considered graduate school and even the priesthood. Instead he settled on law school and spent four years as a corporate attorney. Yet the political bug kept nipping at him, and in 1988, at age 29, he decided to challenge Democratic incumbent Phil Sharp in the state’s then Second Congressional District. Pence launched a scrappy first campaign, riding his single-speed bicycle across the district, but the thing Hoosiers remember more than his gladhanding is his stomach for negative ads. One flyer featured a picture of rolled-up cash, razor blades and white powder that looked like cocaine. There’s someThing Phil sharP isn’T Telling you abouT his record on drugs, it read. On the next page, spelled out in fauxcaine: iT’s weak. Pence lost by more than 6 percentage points. He tried again two years later, with
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
former U.S. Congressman
Pence arrived in Washington a year later determined to rise through the ranks, but not by playing along. He was one of 34 Republicans who voted against the Bush education overhaul branded No Child Left Behind, which increased federal control over grade school, and in 2003 he was one of 25 Republicans who voted against a Medicare program for seniors’ drugs, which added to the deficit. Both, he said, smacked of Big Government. Outside the halls of Congress, he joined a lawsuit seeking to overturn the McCain-Feingold campaignfinance law. John McCain, Pence said in one contentious meeting, was “so deep in bed with
2015 Religious-liberty advocate As governor, he signed into law a bill that critics said allowed businesses to discriminate against LGBT patrons. The backlash was fierce, and Pence quickly backtracked.
G E T T Y I M A G E S (2)
2009 House leadership team The conservative rabble-rouser chose to shape his party from the inside, taking charge of the House Republican conference and partnering with Speaker John Boehner.
‘FOR MIKE, IT’S MORE ABOUT THE RIGHT THING TO DO THAN THE EXPEDIENT THING T O D O .’
another viciously negative strategy. In one Pence ad, a man dressed in Arab garb thanked Sharp for keeping the U.S. reliant on Mideast oil. Pence supporters posed as members of an environmental group and called neighbors to tell them, incorrectly, that Sharp was turning his family farm into a nuclear-waste dump. Pence, who claimed not to know about the scheme, would later recognize the calls as “a manifestly dumb idea.” In the end, only 42% of voters backed him, and Pence went home a deeply disappointed man with a guilty conscience. As penance, he wrote Sharp an apology letter and later published a manifesto against negative campaigns. “Christ Jesus came to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all,” Pence wrote, quoting Scripture. These “Confessions of a Negative Campaigner” became a guiding principle for his future campaigns, still a decade away, and the next step of his career as a conservative policy thinker and talk-radio host. In an era of redmeat radio, Pence cast himself as a calmer alternative, “Rush Limbaugh on decaf,” he said. The remake worked, allowing him to finally win the House seat in 2000.
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the Democrats on this issue that his feet are coming out of the bottom of the sheets.” Leaders at both ends of Pennsylvania Avenue noted his independent streak and uncanny ability to attract press. Those close to Pence attribute his early success to a strong moral compass. After all, Pence kept a Bible within arm’s reach in his office and often cited Scripture to explain his votes. As public opinion was shifting on same-sex marriage, Pence did not waver. “For Mike, it’s more about the right thing to do than the expedient thing to do,” said John Hostettler, a former Congressman from Indiana. In 2006, Pence tried to midwife an immigration bill that would have offered a path to citizenship for immigrants in the country illegally. The plan won applause from Bush, who invited him to the White House to give his effort some juice. Conservatives called it a betrayal, and the bill never got off the ground. Even so, Pence caught the eye of party bigwigs. Boehner, then the Republican leader, gave him minor tasks to test both his competence and his loyalty. Pence passed, and in late 2008, Boehner phoned Pence and urged him to throw his name into the race for the No. 3 spot in the GOP leadership, chairman of the House Republican conference. “Really?” came Pence’s reply. “Can I call you back?” Boehner says Pence called him back an hour later and said he would do it. “It was one of the best decisions I made,” Boehner says. “Pence and his team were constant sources of support and good counsel.” That’s not to say Pence had curbed his independence. Rather, when he disagreed with Boehner, he did so quietly so as not to embarrass his friend, who was struggling to hold together a Republican Party being tugged in competing directions by Bush-style conservatism and the rising Tea Party. It’s a fight that no one has yet won, and one Pence will now try to referee among the shrinking GOP establishment, Trump’s country-club plutocrats and Rust Belt populists who want what they were promised. It may be Pence’s toughest assignment. Pence’s fans started talking him up as Indiana’s next governor, if not President. He genuinely enjoyed working as Boehner’s eyes and ears among conservatives but also was looking at his next moves. “You can’t have your heart in two places,” Boehner told him. So Pence returned home to Indiana, knowing that Republicans like to nominate governors over legislators as presidential nominees. Pence went to all corners of the state. This time, it was a Big Red Truck Tour instead of a single-speed 58
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
bike. He ditched the lawyer’s pinstripes for a leather bomber jacket. He kept his social conservatism in check, preferring to stick to his talking points that promised to take his state “from reform to results.” His campaign had tinges of Make America Great Again.
‘YOU’RE GOING TO BE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED S T A T E S .’ PENCE
says he told Trump in July 2016
Pence and TrumP first got to know each other on the back nine of the billionaire’s club in Bedminster, N.J., over the Fourth of July holiday, when Trump’s odds of becoming President seemed more certain than Pence’s of winning a second term. In his time as governor of Indiana, he had stumbled, declining in approval ratings and struggling with missteps. “In Washington, where he cut his political teeth, they talk in big ideas. In the states, you have to have results. There’s no place to hide,” says Indiana senate president David Long, a fellow Republican who considers Pence a pal. Pence had proposed a state-run news agency that drew ire from all corners, not just for its perceived affront to free press but also because of its price tag. He clashed with the Republicanled legislature on the budget and was forced to scale back his cherished cuts in corporate and personal income taxes. Most damaging, he signed a law that supporters said defended their religious freedoms by allowing them to deny services to gays, lesbians and those who are transgender or bisexual. The vocal critics called it discrimination. “Indiana is a state of crisis,” the Indianapolis Star’s editors wrote in a rare Page One editorial. Pence caved, provoking outrage from Christian conservatives who thought he had gone wobbly. But as the two men approached the 17th hole, Trump wanted to talk about himself and his campaign. He asked Pence how this campaign might end. Pence had no hesitation, he recounted in an interview. “You’re going to be President of the United States,” Pence said. “Well, that’s pretty definitive,” Trump said in reply. The businessman started seeing the appeal in Pence’s pedigree as a Washington insider, social crusader and state leader. Pence’s stock rose further when he told an NBC News journalist that Trump had “beat me like a drum” on the course. A few weeks later, Trump came knocking. Literally. His plane just happened to break down in Indianapolis, and the Pences invited Trump and his three eldest children to breakfast at their home the next day. Pence, who in public can be rather stilted, delivered an impassioned indictment of both Bill and Hillary Clinton that was reminiscent of his days as a talk-radio host. By the evening, Trump was
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signaling that he was inclined to go with Pence, campaign aides told reporters. Pence’s selection for the ticket proved to be an antidote for the summer’s #NeverTrump fever. Republicans, especially those with Establishment footing, had gnashed their teeth over their nominee for months, fearing Trump was unelectable or, even worse, uncontrollable. But with the mild-mannered Pence at the table, it was acceptable. Trump also dispatched Pence during the campaign to begin to lay the groundwork for an Administration, which the Trump team had always avoided. “We spent exactly zero days in Washington,” Trump’s first campaign manager, Corey Lewandowski, says these days. Pence would play catch-up. Back at the Capitol, GOP Senators made a request to Pence: come to lunch every Tuesday. Republicans in the upper chamber usually hashed out strategy and policy over meals just off the Senate floor every week. Of course he’d be there, he told them during the summer. Across the Capitol, Pence’s task was to mend fences. A pal of Paul Ryan’s, Pence successfully negotiated the détente between the feuding House Speaker and party nominee. Like a Sunday-school teacher, Pence told the pair to knock it off and get back to the same hymnal. Then after the election, when conservatives threatened Ryan’s role as Speaker, Pence was on the phone calling potential naysayers to tell them that Trump wanted to keep Ryan in that role. And when the full House Republican conference welcomed him back to the panel he once chaired on Nov. 17, he received an extended standing ovation. Pence returned the favor with a strong selfie game, raising an iPhone up a selfie stick. The resulting snapshot was mocked for featuring so many white men. It wasn’t just good manners or efficient photography. It was a down payment to the partners who could help the TrumpPence Administration. “Buckle up,” he told his former colleagues.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
Trump and Pence make a stop in Cincinnati on Dec. 1 as part of Trump’s “thank you” tour
CELL-PHONE DIPLOMACY The most powerful mobile phone in America might be in Pence’s hands. To lawmakers and CEOs alike, he has been offering his personal line so that they have a way to get through to the West Wing directly.
political future hinges on Trump’s fortunes, and his identity could be determined by the policy positions Trump takes. Pence simply cannot run for President in four or eight years if the Trump Administration is a failure. To have a chance at the top job, Pence has to make Trump a winner. And for Pence to maintain his political identity, he has to keep Trump on a conservative path. But Pence is ultimately a man of faith. As he said in a 2012 farewell speech to the House, things don’t just happen by chance. “When you see a turtle on a fence post,” he said, “one thing you know for sure is that he didn’t get there on his own.” It will be up to Trump how to treat his new tortoise, the slow and steady plodder who might prove a winner in the end. And for now, Mike Pence is fine with that. □
T Y WRIGHT— GE T T Y IM AGES
Pence in action over the past few months has been a man who has advanced from Trump’s outer orbit to the center of his inner circle. He defends Trump’s tweet storms, excuses his false statements and backs hires like chief strategist Steve Bannon, who once published blistering criticism of Pence on the website Breitbart. Pence stayed silent when Trump contradicted him during debates and at rallies, and maintained that the President-elect was behind a deal that saved 700 jobs at one Indiana factory. Without Indiana’s economic-development dollars, which Pence still controls, the deal would
DE FACTO LEGISLATIVE CHIEF The 12-year veteran of the House is expected to be Trump’s eyes and ears on Capitol Hill. Already there are signs he will work directly with congressional leaders to push Trump’s plans to fruition.
have been DOA. Loyalty is the ultimate qualification inside Trump Tower, and Pence was rich in that commodity. In recent weeks, Pence has been the central figure inside Trump’s Administration-inwaiting, interviewing candidates for roles large and small. So much of actually running the government happens in assistant secretaries’ offices, not in the showy spectacles. Pence understands this and is comfortable keeping his hand on the rudder in these offstage moments. For instance, he doled out his cell-phone number to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s board of directors at a recent meeting in Washington. In private, Pence can mellow his billionaire boss. The question will be, to borrow a phrase Hillary Clinton once said of herself, just how high a pain threshold Pence possesses. His
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1: António Guterres takes office as the new U.N. Secretary-General for a five-year term.
1: Fifth annual World Hijab Day
3: Starbucks founder Howard Schultz steps down as CEO; Kevin Johnson, the company’s president and COO, will take over.
1: Malta assumes the presidency of the Council of the European Union for a six-month term.
17–20: The World Economic Forum gathers leaders at its annual meeting in Davos, Switzerland. 20: Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States. 21: The Women’s March on Washington advocates for women’s rights under Trump’s presidency. 28: Lunar New Year rings in the Year of the Rooster.
23–26: The Democratic National Committee holds its winter meeting and will vote on a new chair.
29: President Donald Trump’s 100th day in office.
27: The U.N. Human Rights Council session begins.
TBD: The NBA opens its first elite basketball training center in India after launching three similar centers in China.
1: Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Finland.
1: Coca-Cola CEO Muhtar Kent steps down; president and COO James Quincey will succeed him.
31: British Prime Minister Theresa May’s self-imposed deadline for triggering Article 50 of the E.U. treaty, which will begin the U.K.’s exit from the union. 31: India’s deadline for exchanging 500- and 1,000-rupee notes, which were discontinued as part of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s crackdown on crime and corruption.
3–5: The World Economic Forum on Africa takes place in South Africa. 26–27: Italy hosts the G-7 summit with the leaders of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the U.K. and the U.S., as well as representatives from the E.U.
June 5: Bill Cosby is expected to face trial on sexual-assault charges. 10: Expo 2017, a global conference on the future of energy, begins in Kazakhstan. 12: The annual Fortune 500 list hits newsstands. 30: The last day of Ryan Lochte’s 10-month ban from U.S. swimming following his misbehavior at the Rio Olympics.
July 1: Mexico’s central bank head Agustín Carstens steps down. 7–8: Germany hosts the G-20 summit.
15: France’s state of emergency established after the 2015 terrorist attacks expires. August 1: NSA leaker Edward Snowden’s temporary asylum permit in Russia is set to expire. 9–10: Australia-China BusinessWeek, organized by the Australian Business Forum, is held in Melbourne.
M AY: A P ; P O P E , H E R N Á N D E Z : G E T T Y I M A G E S; I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y S TA N L E Y C H O W F O R T I M E
Theresa May, the U.K.’s Prime Minister, will pilot the country through the beginning of Brexit in 2017
13: First anniversary of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia’s death.
31: Pope Francis (above) invites Catholics to participate in celebrations in Italy marking the 50th anniversary of the Charismatic Renewal.
23–24: The Healthcare Innovation Summit, run by the African Innovator Group, convenes in Johannesburg.
12: The U.N. General Assembly convenes in New York City for its 72nd regular session.
27–29: The 40th World Energy Engineering Congress, presented by the Association of Energy Engineers, will be held in Atlanta. TBD: Spain’s Catalonia region is expected to hold an independence referendum.
November 6–17: The U.N. Convention on Climate Change will hold the 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties in Germany. 10: Gambia withdraws from the International Criminal Court.
December 10: The Nobel Prizes are bestowed on the winners. 31: The deadline for California to begin issuing sales licenses for recreational-marijuana retailers following a 2016 referendum.
October 2: The U.S. Supreme Court begins its annual term. 10: Liberia elects its next president; incumbent Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is not running for re-election. 13–15: The World Bank and International Monetary Fund hold annual meetings in Washington.
TBD: North Carolina holds a special legislative election after a federal court found racial gerrymandering and required the state to redraw its district lines.
26: Honduras holds a presidential election; incumbent Juan Orlando Hernández (above) is running for re-election after the Supreme Court overturned a one-term limit.
TBD: TIME names its Person of the Year. Compiled by Tessa Berenson and Julie Shapiro
World elections: races to watch They will determine 2017’s balance of power By TARA JOHN NETHERLANDS MARCH 15
The far-right Party for Freedom is ahead in the polls for the parliamentary election. If it wins a majority, its populist leader and E.U. opponent Geert Wilders could be in position to become Prime Minister.
FRANCE APRIL 23
The presidential election in one of Europe’s largest economies could pit the far-right and anti-E.U. Marine Le Pen against an Establishment figure like former Prime Minister François Fillon. If no candidate wins a majority in April, a second round of voting will be held in May.
IRAN MAY 19
Incumbent President Hassan Rouhani is running for re-election, but he faces hard-line rivals critical of the nuclear deal he struck with the U.S.; incoming President Donald Trump’s threats to tear up the deal likely won’t help Rouhani’s bid.
KENYA AUG. 8
President Uhuru Kenyatta is running for re-election and will likely face rival Raila Odinga, who disputed the results of the previous race in 2013. Kenyans are on edge, as many of the country’s previous elections have been marred by violence.
Angela Merkel, currently the E.U.’s longest-serving leader, is running for a fourth term as Chancellor in a country polarized by her open-door refugee policy.
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DeVos, 58, and her family, heirs to the Amway fortune, are longtime GOP donors
The schoolyard rebel Donald Trump taps a champion of vouchers for all By HALEY SWEETLAND EDWARDS PerhaPs The besT way To undersTand Betsy DeVos, President-elect Donald Trump’s pick to lead the U.S. Department of Education, is to see her as she sees herself—an insurgent fighting against a broken public-education industry. “More and more parents are coming to realize their children are suffering at the hands of a system built to strangle any reform, any innovation or any change,” she said in May at a conference held by the American Federation for Children, a conservative advocacy organization that she chaired until recently. “This realization is becoming more evident as the momentum builds for an education revolution.” At the heart of that revolution, DeVos believes, is a simple idea: parents should be able to use public funds to send their children to whatever private, religious, charter, online-only or for-profit school they choose, including schools run out of the home. It’s a vision that many teach64
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
‘SHE HAS A REPUTATION FOR GETTING THINGS D O N E .’ MARGARET SPELLINGS,
former Education Secretary under George W. Bush
ers, the teachers’ unions and most Democrats say would come at the expense of traditional public education by draining funds from an already strapped system. “It would destroy neighborhood schools,” Randi Weingarten, the head of the American Federation of Teachers, tells TIME. Slight, blond and partial to fitted blazers, DeVos doesn’t look the part of a bomb thrower. That’s partly because she hasn’t had to be on the front lines. The former chair of the state Republican Party attended a private Christian academy in Michigan and sent her four children to private schools. As the daughter of Edgar Prince, who sold his auto-parts manufacturing company for $1.35 billion in 1996, and the daughter-in-law of Richard DeVos Sr., billionaire co-founder of Amway, much of her influence has come from her ability to donate vast sums of cash. But that’s part of the reason that DeVos’ critics see her unexpected rise to Trump’s chief of
D E V O S : A N D R E W H A R R E R — B L O O M B E R G /G E T T Y I M A G E S; T H I S PA G E : J O S H U A L O T T — T H E N E W YO R K T I M E S/ R E D U X
schools as so disruptive: her effort to reform the public education system is driven not by personal experience, but by a deeply held belief, rooted in her family’s Calvinist-influenced Christianity, that it’s the right thing to do. Since the 1970s, both the Prince and DeVos families have given tens of millions to conservative organizations. The Princes were key donors to the Family Research Council, and both families were major supporters of the Council for National Policy, an organization linking conservative activists and financial benefactors. DeVos’ brother, Erik Prince, founded the mercenary firm formerly known as Blackwater. The DeVoses, meanwhile, have given more than $1.3 billion, according to a Forbes estimate, to an array of conservative causes, including measures pushing anti-union right-to-work laws and opposing same-sex marriage. Betsy DeVos and her husband have followed suit, funneling millions to state and federal political campaigns, legislative efforts and ballot measures designed to expand access to vouchers, increase the reach of charters (independent schools that receive public funding) and usher in a free-market vision of public education. “I have decided, however, to stop taking offense at the suggestion that we are buying influence,” DeVos wrote in the Capitol Hill newspaper Roll Call in 1997. “Now I simply concede the point. They are right. We do expect some things in return.” In 1993, DeVos helped pass a law that paved the way for charter schools in Michigan. In 2011, her organization, Great Lakes Education Project, helped pass another to remove caps on charters in the state. The move helped fuel an explosion of new schools, about 80% of which are now forprofit institutions. This year, DeVos fought an effort that would have imposed city oversight on Detroit charters, which rank among the worst in the country. In 2000, she helped bankroll a statewide school voucher initiative, which ultimately failed, but since then she has successfully helped push for related programs across the country. Partly because of her advocacy and money, nearly two dozen states, including Indiana, Arizona and Florida, now have voucher programs. Trump, who campaigned on the promise of passing a $20 billion federal voucher program, has championed DeVos’ agenda on the national stage. And the Republican-led Congress will likely be sympathetic to her efforts. Both Representative Virginia Foxx, who chairs the House committee on education, and Senator Lamar Alexander, who chairs the Senate version, have supported voucher initiatives in the past. Last year, Alexander introduced an amendment that would have allowed federal funding to follow
Students learn writing at a Detroit charter school
BIG SPENDERS The DeVos family gave roughly $90 million in 2013 and $94 million in 2014, nearly half of which went to groups involved with promoting vouchers, charter schools and religious education SOURCE: MLIVE M E D I A G R O U P
low-income students to the public or private school of their choice. But DeVos’ power to revolutionize the K-12 landscape will likely run up against institutional limitations, such as Common Core. Both Trump and DeVos have promised to “end” the controversial state-based achievement standards. But the Education Department is forbidden under the new federal law passed in December 2015 from either setting such benchmarks or incentivizing states to adopt them. Common Core was adopted by state lawmakers, and will also have to be dismantled by them. DeVos’ power will be further confined by the realities of federal funding. While the U.S. spends more than $600 billion a year on public K-12 schools, less than 9% of that comes from the feds. That means any new education program, even if it originates on DeVos’ desk, will require state and local buyin. Trump’s federal voucher plan, for example, would require not only that Congress allocate $20 billion to the program—a potentially heavy lift given that lawmakers have already promised tax cuts and a balanced budget. It would also require states to pony up another $110 billion. While voters have been willing to implement such programs for poor or disabled students, they have been wary of across-the-board school choice initiatives. To get the job, DeVos will first have to answer concerns from Democrats, who have raised questions about unpaid state fines assessed against a political action committee she ran. Then there is the potential opposition she will face in office from fellow conservatives, who have long called for more local control over education. “If DeVos and Trump love school choice and the children it benefits, they will keep the federal government far, far away from them,” warned Joy Pullmann, a top editor at the conservative outlet the Federalist. Lindsey Burke, an education-policy fellow at the conservative Heritage Foundation, expects DeVos to focus on lower-hanging fruit, like pushing Congress to reauthorize Washington, D.C.’s voucher program, or introducing voucher initiatives on Native American reservations and for the children of the active-duty military. While it’s unclear what DeVos will accomplish, there is no doubt about her direction. Just months before Trump appointed her, she promised never to give up on her life’s work. “To those outside this room who oppose our education revolution: make no mistake, we will not relent, we will not rest,” she vowed at the May conference. If the Senate gives her the expected nod in January, it will be a significant victory for DeVos and the revolution she helps lead. □ 65
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Why America is losing Asia Donald Trump’s victory may hasten a retreat from the region By HANNAH BEECH/SHANGHAI
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
President-elect keeps the world guessing on his future statecraft—Might he upend the delicate diplomacy between China and Taiwan, or perhaps spark a trade war?—a larger question has emerged: Has America lost Asia?
‘IF THE U.S. IS NOT THERE, THAT VOID ... WILL BE FILLED BY C H I N A .’ JOHN KEY, former Prime Minister of New Zealand
For seven decades, as the continent rose from the ashes of World War II, Pax Americana helped keep the peace in Asia. In the Pacific, the U.S. Seventh Fleet ruled the waves, ensuring that container ships could ferry cheap exports abroad and thereby lift hundreds of millions of Asians out of poverty. On land, tens of thousands of U.S. troops died in Vietnam and Korea. Asia’s socialist soldiers did not directly menace American territory, but American values were offended. Each of Asia’s communist dominoes, U.S. generals and foreign policy advisers worried, could threaten the U.S.-led global order. Through a network of security alliances— five of America’s seven collective defense treaties are with partners in the Asia-Pacific—
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in 2015, a saTelliTe spied barges owned by one of the world’s biggest dredging companies, China Communications Construction Co. (CCCC), working at disputed reefs in the South China Sea. The Chinese were busy converting bits of contested rock into seven artificial islands, much to the chagrin of the five other governments with competing claims over the western Pacific Ocean. Admiral Harry Harris Jr., head of the U.S. Pacific Command, criticized China’s island-building campaign, which includes military-ready runways and radar nests, calling it “a Great Wall of sand with dredges and bulldozers.” In July 2016, an international tribunal dismissed Beijing’s vast claims over the South China Sea. No matter. China’s new islands will not be unmade. CCCC will soon begin more reclamation work in the western Pacific. This time, its crews will be dredging in the Philippines, the longtime U.S. ally that, until recently, had staunchly opposed China’s maritime construction. But in October, amid a flurry of deals made during new Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s trip to Beijing, CCCC won a contract to develop a harbor in Davao City, Duterte’s hometown where he was once mayor. While in China, Duterte, who took office this past June, announced the Philippines’ “separation” from the U.S., proclaiming that in the military and economic spheres, “America has lost.” Chinese state-owned companies seized the opportunity. “We are devoted,” says CCCC spokesperson Mi Jinsheng, “to making the world more open.” Duterte’s decision to cozy up to China happened even before Donald Trump was elected U.S. President following an “America first” campaign that embraced isolationism and protectionism. Despite Barack Obama’s efforts to tilt American foreign policy back toward the Asia-Pacific, most of the region has been pulled into China’s economic orbit. Now, as the
UNFREE TRADE Trump campaigned against the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, which would have extended U.S. economic influence in Asia; now Asian nations may sign on to a China-led deal instead
A satellite image of Subi Reef, where an artificial island is being developed by Beijing in the South China Sea
the U.S. military tied itself to the world’s most populous region, which today produces nearly 40% of global economic growth. Yet Trump’s victory—not to mention Brexit and the rise of the far right across Europe— bespeaks a global turn inward, a preference for tribe over trade. For many in the U.S., globalization has become a dirty word. Yet Asia has thrived precisely because of America’s defense of the rules of global commerce. It is an irony of history that China—the biggest beneficiary of this U.S.-led order—is now poised to challenge postwar U.S. leadership in the Asia-Pacific. At the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Lima in November, New Zealand’s then Prime Minister John Key put it plainly. “We like the U.S. being in the region,” he said. “But if the U.S. is not there, that void needs to be filled, and it will be filled by China.” During his four years in power, China’s leader, Xi Jinping, has preached about a “Chinese dream”—stable authoritarianism
DAVOS MAN The Chinese President will make his first visit to the World Economic Forum in Davos in January—a symbol of China’s growing status as a major pillar of the international order ASIAN POPULISM The U.S. has clashed with Duterte in the Philippines as he carries out a bloody crackdown on illegal drugs, but he may get along better with Trump, a fellow populist
married with personal enterprise—that could supplant an American ideal of democracy and international law. As the U.S. has withdrawn from regional trade initiatives, China is offering up alternatives. Most of Asia now counts China as its largest trading partner, a return to the continent’s natural order for centuries. Beijing’s footprint is growing fast. In Indonesia in 2016, to take just one example, Chinese foreign direct investment is set to nearly triple year-onyear. Thailand’s economy depends on Chinese tourists, while massive South Asian ports are being developed to service Chinese trade. With Duterte’s Beijing deals in play, China is likely to surpass the U.S. as the Philippines’ biggest investor next year. Some of the countries drifting toward China are doing so as much out of personal politics as economic necessity. Duterte famously nurses an animus toward America, which once colonized the Philippines. Malaysia’s Prime Minister, Najib Razak, has been tainted by allegations of corruption involving a national development fund—allegations that he has denied and which local authorities have cleared him of. However, eight governments, including the U.S., are investigating assets in their countries linked to the fund. Not surprisingly, Najib, who used to golf with Obama, has tacked away from America, racking up more than $30 billion in deals during a November trip to Beijing. It’s unclear how much Beijing wants to play superpower. Being the world’s policeman is expensive and exhausting. China is only now building its first overseas military outpost, a tiny base in Djibouti. Nor is it certain that a Trump Cabinet, stocked with military brass and conservatives leery of communism, will retreat from the Asia-Pacific. So far, Chinese foreign policy has been more about Beijing pursuing its perceived national interests—the South China Sea, say, or Taiwan—than articulating some grand ideological narrative. China, says Elizabeth Economy, director for Asia studies at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York, “has no standing as a guarantor of regional security or builder of strong institutions of good governance in the developing nations of Asia.” Chinese state-media sniping that American democracy is messy and unpredictable is not the same as presenting a workable alternative to the current global order. And for all of America’s inattention or hypocrisy in supporting regional strongmen, the U.S. has made modern Asia a safer and richer place. That landscape—and legacy—will not be easily covered over by Chinese sand. • 67
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The 2017 fear index What might just happen (or not) in the year ahead By NATE HOPPER MILD FEAR
THE TREASURY DOESN’T TURN PLATINUM
SNAPCHAT GOES PUBLIC
WESTWORLD IS REAL
The Supreme Court declares that intelligent robots are people too. Robots find the classification beneath them.
PERMANENT SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER
On Aug. 21, there will be a total solar eclipse, the first visible in the contiguous U.S. since 1979; relieved of its view of the world, the sun decides to stay behind the moon.
After the eclipse begins, Boeing and SpaceX move up their manned space trials, enabling more of us to join the sun in hiding.
IT’S CHILLY BIGLY
For his Inauguration, President Trump opts to just retweet the oath of office.
Climate-change deniers point out that polar bears have always looked that sad.
FUNK NEVER DIES
THE SUPER BOWL WILL TEAR US APART
After a close loss by the New England Patriots, Green Party leader and Massachusetts resident Jill Stein demands a recount nobody wants. Faith craters in America’s last remaining institution.
After unpublished songs from the late Prince’s archive debut, the Left Coast parties so hard that California quakes and breaks into the sea, finally giving the state the secession many of its liberals wanted.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
THE INTERNET OF HACKINGS
After successfully disrupting the 2016 U.S. presidential election, hackers turn their attention to the final four on The Voice.
IT’S TIME FOR A SPACE STAYCATION
S N A P C H AT; W E S T W O R L D : H B O ; R O C K E T: S PA C E X ; M N U C H I N , M I R A N D A , M O O N , P O L A R B E A R , P R I N C E , H A C K E R , B E L I C H I C K , G O O D E L L , T R O P H Y, T R U M P : G E T T Y I M A G E S
The startup’s wildly anticipated IPO is cut short when its new stock ticker disappears after six seconds.
Lin-Manuel Miranda, creator of the smash musical Hamilton, about America’s first Secretary of the Treasury, struggles to come up with a rhyme for the surname of the incoming appointee: Mnuchin.
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The departing U.N. Secretary-General reflects on Trump, global citizenship and the future of disarmament By ELIZABETH DIAS The President of your home country of South Korea, Park Geun-hye, has been impeached. Do you have any interest in running for President? I will have to discuss with some leaders of Korean society what and how I can contribute to my motherland. Korea has achieved democratic institutions and democratic maturity and also economic success. I’m confident that with the sense of maturity and wisdom and resilience, Korean people will be able to overcome this current crisis as soon as possible. We seem to be living in a new age of nationalism. Where does that leave the U.N.? When member states are divided, the U.N. cannot function properly. When Security Council members are united, they have been able to address the issues protecting international peace and security. I’m concerned about this growing trend of nationalism in many, many parts of the world. We are living on, after all, a very small planet. There is not much meaning at this time to the geographical borders or individual national regulations. We are going through such a rapid, transformative process of globalization that we have to act as one human being. We have to act as a global citizen.
You’ve said disarmament is facing a crisis. I’m deeply concerned about the lack of progress in the global disarmament process. President Obama made in clear in 2009 in his very famous address in Prague that he really wanted to make this world free of nuclear weapons during his lifetime. Nothing has been moving. Our aim should be the complete elimination of nuclear weapons on this earth, particularly the U.S. and Russia, who hold 95% of all nuclear weapons. What is your greatest regret on leaving office? I have been really trying to resolve all these crises: Syria and Libya, South Sudan and the Central African Republic. Five million people have become refugees, and 15 to 16 million people inside Syria need humanitarian assistance. Of course, this is sort of a collective failure. But I deeply regret that I have to leave this to my successor. What advice do you have for your successor? I’m encouraged that the General Assembly has elected António Guterres. It is a very delicate process of coordinating with 193 member states. It would be important that the General Assembly and Security Council change, improve, the decisionmaking process. There is a hugely misunderstood misperception that often consensus is regarded as unanimity. •
F A B R I C E C O F F R I N I — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S
How should those who believe in multilateralism and globalism make the case to those who are skeptical? Multilateralism sometimes brings more complicated processes in decision making. That may frustrate the people. It’s not like one national system, which may be applied immediately and make even a faster decision. It may take a longer time than expected, but we have to nurture this process, nurture multilateralism, because we are living in a tightly interconnected world.
‘WE HAVE TO ACT AS ONE HUMAN BEING. WE HAVE TO ACT AS A GLOBAL C I T I Z E N .’
In a world where antidemocratic movements are on the rise, is there a danger the U.N. could be used as an antiliberal tool? The U.N. has been working with all different Administrations, from Republican to Democratic. For over 71 years, the U.S. has been playing a crucially important role as a leading member of the U.N. I am confident that under the leadership of Presidentelect Donald Trump, we will be able to see that kind of very smooth and collaborative relationship.
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The fastest man on wheels PHOTOGR APH BY THOMAS PRIOR FOR TIME
Lewis Hamilton, the greatest race-car driver of this generation, has big plans for 2017: Recapture a Formula One title he lost under bitter circumstances. And help his sport catch fire in America
By SEAN GREGORY
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iercing screams swallow up Lewis Hamilton as he enters an amphitheater at the Circuit of the Americas racetrack in Austin on a warm evening in late October. Hundreds of fans have been waiting for hours, pressed against a gate, in hopes of getting something, anything, autographed by the fastest driver on the planet. They shove hats, programs, posters, even cell phones in his direction. One clever devotee places a cap on the tip of his selfie stick, like bait on a rod, and stretches it over the throng. Another name-drops Hamilton’s pet bulldog: “Sign this for Coco!” he shouts. “I love your f-cking dog! You’re my f-cking hero!” Hamilton smiles and signs the hat. Fittingly, Michael Jackson’s “Rock With You” blares over the loudspeakers. Here, the British-born racecar driver is as big as a pop star. More than 400 million people around the globe watch Formula One races on TV, transfixed by the high-tech cars that resemble sleek fighter jets shooting across the track at more than 200 m.p.h. And Hamilton is the sport’s biggest name, a three-time champ with a raft of famous friends who is swarmed by fans at races from Australia to Azerbaijan, from Monaco to Malaysia. In the U.S., however, such recognition is rare. Formula One comprises 11 teams with two drivers each, backed by brands like Mercedes, Red Bull and Ferrari. Over some 20 races spread across eight months and five continents, the teams fight for the Constructors’ championship, while each driver vies for the individual title. America hosts just one race per year, the fall Grand Prix in Texas, and Formula One lags in popularity behind homegrown racing circuits like NASCAR, not to mention the NFL, NBA and many other pro and college sports. “So many people I meet in America ask me, ‘What’s Formula One?’” Hamilton says before walking out to his autograph session a day before the Austin race. “What, do you live in a shoe box? Haven’t you at least heard of it?” For years the American market has vexed Formula One, even as it grew into one of the most popular sports elsewhere in the world. The races are often televised at odd hours and rarely on broadcast networks, making it particularly tough to lure casual viewers. But that may be changing. In September, Liberty Media, the U.S.-based conglomerate controlled by billionaire John Malone, bought Formula One in a deal valued at $8 billion. The purchase has stoked optimism that a domestic ownership group with a range of technology and entertainment businesses in its portfolio will figure out how to make Formula One work in the States. “The U.S.
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
A N T H O N Y W A L L A C E — A F P/G E T T Y I M A G E S
‘PEOPLE EITHER LOVE HIM OR HATE H I M .’
market is important,” says Chase Carey, the former Rupert Murdoch lieutenant whom Liberty installed as Formula One’s new chairman in September. “It’s an area of opportunity for us.” Hamilton will be critical to the effort. The son of mixed-race parents, he became the first black driver in Formula One after growing up in public housing north of London, rather than being groomed in the gilded garages that typically breed championship drivers. Since winning his first title in 2008 at just 23, Hamilton has become as much of a celebrity off the track, a Fashion Week regular whose Instagram feed is filled with shots of him hanging out with Rihanna and Justin Bieber. He’s recorded hiphop songs and had a role in the latest Call of Duty. “He’s an ambassador for Formula One,” says Christian Horner, head of the rival Red Bull
reclaim a world title in 2017 that he feels he lost in spite of his driving. “It’s been quite a painful couple of weeks,” he tells TIME in a December telephone interview from his home in Monaco. “This is really a time of year when you’re turning, trying to leave the negative behind and take the positive forward. But of course, it will build. The yearning for next year will build.”
Racing Team. “He takes it to places where you wouldn’t normally see it, particularly in the U.S.” For an ambassador, Hamilton is not exactly known for diplomacy. The 2016 season played out as a high-stakes rivalry between Hamilton and his Mercedes teammate, Nico Rosberg, with Hamilton repeatedly citing engine trouble for races he lost. On Nov. 27, in the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi, Hamilton defied team orders, slowing the pace in an attempt to thwart Rosberg and keep his own title hopes alive. Hamilton won the race, but Rosberg still beat him out for the world championship––and then announced his surprise retirement. The hypercompetitive Hamilton was not a model of grace in defeat. “Lewis is Marmite,” says Horner. “People either love him or hate him.” The loss is fuel for Hamilton, who wants to
TEAM LEWIS Hamilton can’t win without his 20-person pit crew, here changing tires during the Singapore Grand Prix in September. At their fastest, Formula One pit stops take some 2 seconds; a flawed exchange can cost a driver a race.
Hamilton’s patH to the top of auto racing began at age 6, when he started entering––and dominating––remote-control-car races on weekends. His talent landed him on the British children’s show Blue Peter, where he won a race against the host and a bunch of bigger kids. (A YouTube clip shows him raising a tiny, triumphant right arm in victory.) He quickly graduated to go-karts. Hamilton says that the first time he puttered around in a kart, he picked up the braking technique––hit them late around the corners to maximize speed––that he still uses today. “I remember that day,” he recalls, “feeling vrrrrrrrrrrrrm.” Hamilton’s parents split when he was 2. His father Anthony managed his racing career while holding down multiple jobs. They stood out in the U.K.’s all-white karting scene. “We were the scruffy black family,” says Hamilton, whose paternal grandparents are from Grenada. “We had the sh-t equipment, sh-t car and a sh-t trailer.” Still, Hamilton kept winning, roiling others on the youth racing circuit. “I had parents come up to me and say, ‘You’re not good enough, you should probably quit,’” says Hamilton. “But I just beat your son. What are you talking about?” He recalls racist taunts at the track and says he was picked on at school, where he was one of a handful of black children. About 5 ft. 9 in. and 150 lb. today, Hamilton was never imposing. But at one point, he decided it was time to fight back. “I remember being in the back of the car with my dad. I took my seat belt off, and was like, ‘Can I do karate?’” Hamilton says. “I was 6 years old. I was being bullied and hated it. So I went and did karate and learned how to defend myself.” At an auto-sports award show in 1995, the 10-year-old Hamilton met Ron Dennis, head of the McLaren racing team, and told him that he wanted to race one of his cars one day. Dennis signed him to McLaren’s young-drivers program, and he flourished. By the age of 21 Hamilton had secured a spot in Formula One, where he turned in one of the greatest rookie seasons ever, losing the championship by a single point. Hamilton’s instincts and tenacity were evident from the start. Otmar Szafnauer, chief operating officer for the Sahara Force India racing team, recalls watching Hamilton tail McLaren 77
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teammate Fernando Alonso, the defending two-time world champ, at the street race in Monaco, whose narrow course makes passing especially difficult. Hamilton finished second behind Alonso, but not before applying heavy pressure. “Someone else in that same situation would say, ‘I have no chance at passing here—it’s Monaco, I’m a rookie, he’s the world champ— just take your second place,’ ” says Szafnauer. “Not Lewis. That’s what makes him special.” He won the title in 2008. Two years later, after finishing fifth, Hamilton fired his father as his manager. “It was a pivotal moment, and still the toughest thing I’ve really ever gone through,” he says. “Growing up so close to someone and looking up to someone, and having them move heaven and earth for you every single day, and one day you say, ‘I don’t want you to be a part of it anymore.’ ” The following two seasons were rough, with Hamilton matching his career-worst fifth-place finish in 2011. But he says the move was worth the personal fallout. “It was necessary and a very positive thing in terms of moving forward,” Hamilton says. “I’m almost 32 now. I’m not squandering my money. I don’t do drugs. I still have the values on which I was raised.” He switched teams, from McLaren to Mercedes, for the 2013 season before taking the ’14 and ’15 world titles and finishing a close second this season. His net worth, meanwhile, is estimated to be more than $200 million. But the damage remains. Hamilton calls his current relationship with his father “still a work in progress.” The brash confidence that has enabled Hamilton’s heroics on the track has rubbed many people the wrong way. “There are so many haters, it’s kind of crazy,” says Lindsey Vonn, an Olympic champion skier and a close friend. “When I first met him, I had heard the rumors that he was really arrogant. He’s not even remotely arrogant.” Vonn was part of a small group of boldface pals—including tennis icon Venus Williams, broadcaster Gayle King, actor Christoph Waltz and NASCAR champ Jeff Gordon—who were on hand at the race in Austin. Hamilton often hopscotches the globe between races, appearing at exclusive events with his famous friends. Though he is single now, his longtime relationship with pop star Nicole Scherzinger provided a steady stream of tabloid fodder. The hobnobbing has riled some members of Formula One’s old guard. “If he was at McLaren,” Dennis, his former boss and mentor, said in 2015, “he wouldn’t be behaving the way he is, because he wouldn’t be allowed to.” Hamilton’s response is the equivalent of pointing to the scoreboard: three titles and 10 race wins this 78
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
season, including the last four of the year. Besides, he says, his interests in music and fashion prevent him from burning out on the track. “There’s very little that can distract me, really,” Hamilton says. “I’m very much a person of energy, and when you meet someone you naturally feel an energy, good or bad, you know?” His current boss has no objections. “People out there try to put other people into boxes,” says Toto Wolff, head of Mercedes-Benz Motorsport. “ ‘This is how you should be, this is how you should behave, this is how you should concentrate on this sport.’ It’s all wrong. If it works for Lewis to fly around the world and go from one fashion show to another, hang out with his friends and do a gig, if that works fine, we should just accept it. We’re much too judgmental.”
‘THERE’S VERY LITTLE THAT CAN DISTRACT M E , R E A L L Y .’ HAMILTON, on balancing off-track interests like fashion and the demands of racing
From his perch in his company’s swank luxury suite, Heineken marketing executive Gianluca Di Tondo waves to the Dallas Cowboys cheerleaders entertaining the crowd before the Austin race. Fighter jets fly over. The University of Texas marching band blares its horns. Di Tondo is betting on this sort of Americana to turbocharge Formula One here. In June, Heineken became a global partner of the circuit, joining brands like Rolex and Emirates. “We are emotionally very attached to this market,” Di Tondo says of the U.S. The pitch is much different here from in Europe, where even nonfans have at least a passing familiarity with the top drivers. “Americans either love it or don’t give a sh-t,” says Di Tondo. Looking out onto a grass hill overlooking the track, he sees room to grow. “That’s where we need the second-tier fans.” Since Hamilton’s rookie season in 2007, Formula One’s annual global revenue has risen 53%, to $1.83 billion as of July 31, 2016. North and South America combined account for only 10.6% of the haul. But there are signs of growth. Races broadcast on NBCN, a cable sports network, averaged 429,000 viewers this season, the most in 21 years for a single U.S. cable channel showing Formula One. The Austin race, which debuted in 2012, set an attendance record in 2016: almost 270,000 over three days. The number was surely inflated by a Taylor Swift show at the track the night before the race and an Usher concert after––but many, including Hamilton, think that’s just what Formula One needs. “The way Formula One is run is not good enough at the moment,” Hamilton says. “The Super Bowl, the events Americans do, the show they put on is so much, so much better. So if you were to mix in a little bit of that template through there, I think we’d be more inviting to the fans.” Expect Liberty to energize the American
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Hamilton racing in the Bahrain Grand Prix in April. Under new regulations, Formula One cars will be faster in 2017
Hamilton calls his tumultuous 2016 season “one of the heaviest on my heart.” He suffered three engine failures, while the cars of his teammate Rosberg rode clean. And then there was the 80
Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
FAST LANE Formula One’s new American owner, Liberty Media, is counting on Hamilton’s international star power to help grow the sport in the U.S.
spiteful final race, in which the front-running Hamilton slowed the pace to let other cars catch up to Rosberg in the hopes they would knock him to fourth place––and allow Hamilton to win the championship. Rosberg salvaged second, and Hamilton was called out for going his own way. “Anarchy doesn’t work within any team or any company,” Mercedes’ Wolff said afterward. Weeks later, Hamilton says he has no regrets, especially since he remains convinced that his title hopes were felled by his engine. “The team’s job is to provide both drivers with equal opportunity,” he says. “And unfortunately, I didn’t have equal opportunity, because I had failures on our side of the garage. The other side didn’t. So that puts more stress on the importance of myself sucking every ounce of opportunity. At the end, that’s all I could have done. I didn’t do anything dangerous. I didn’t put anyone in harm’s way. I’d do it again. You’re out there to fight.” Hamilton says he wanted the three-peat “with every blood cell in my body.” After falling just short, he’s desperate to win in 2017. “I’m in a good head space,” he says. “I have a process that I need to take into next year. When I lost the championship, the motivation to want to take it back next year became twofold. I now have twice the desire.” The question is whether America will come along for the ride. •
L ARS BARON — GE T T Y IMAGES
efforts. “Given how small Formula One is in the States, it’s a low bar to clear to have some sort of impact,” says Robert Routh, an equities analyst at FBN Securities. Liberty gets a profitable business––the circuit earned $318 million in operating income in 2015––while Formula One joins a company that can leverage existing assets to help it grow: Liberty’s QVC network can push Formula One merchandise; SiriusXM can provide Formula One programming; Live Nation can produce entertainment around Formula One events. “We have an enormous opportunity to take this sport to the next level,” says Carey, who helped launch Fox News and Fox Sports before becoming Formula One’s chairman. “In a world where there are more and more choices, there are fewer really distinguishing events.” Carey sees the chance to brand Formula One as an upscale alternative to other racing circuits. “NASCAR is sort of T-shirts and beer,” he says. “This is the sport of stars and celebrity. It’s champagne.” If so, Hamilton is Dom Pérignon. “We need six of him,” says F1 CEO Bernie Ecclestone, the circuit’s 86-year-old grand poo-bah.
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Calendar January 3: One of the year’s best meteor showers, the Quadrantids, appears, visible to skygazers in the northern hemisphere. 5–8: The latest electronics and tech gadgets are un veiled at CES in Las Vegas. 13: Nintendo reveals more about its new offering Switch, a videogame console that doubles as a handheld gaming gadget.
20: Spring begins in the northern hemisphere; autumn begins in the south. TBD: NASA astronaut Jack Fischer and Russian cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin blast to the International Space Station. TBD: The disappearing photo app Snapchat is expected to become part of a publicly traded company in a hotly anticipated IPO. TBD: Filmmakers show off their latest aerial shorts at the New York City Drone Film Festival. TBD: SpaceX’s threeengine Falcon Heavy rocket, designed to carry humans to the moon and beyond, is expected to have its maiden flight.
February 1: Cardiovascular health is brought to the fore as doctors draw attention to American Heart Month. 16–20: Top researchers present gamechanging science at the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s annual meeting. 27: Tech fans descend on Barcelona for the Mobile World Congress, where smartphone companies reveal their latest wares. TBD: Samsung is expected to unveil its next Android powered iPhone rival.
March 10–19: Entrepreneurs, investors and tech fans
April 18–19: Facebook shows off its latest offerings, from virtual reality to drones, at its annual F8 conference. 22: Environmentalists across the globe celebrate the 47th Earth Day. 24–28: Some of the world’s top thinkers share their genius at TED, which is in Vancouver this year. 28: Thousands of students flock to Washington to learn about space exploration, marine biology and other careers at the XStem Extreme Stem Symposium.
May 10–12: Windows fans get a
peek at upcoming updates at the annual developer conference Microsoft Build. 28: Amateur photographers and tourists flock to New York City for Manhattanhenge (above), a phenomenon in which the sunset perfectly aligns with Manhattan’s street grid. TBD: The search giant unveils its latest software and gadgets at Google I/O. TBD: U.S. language prodigies face off in the Scripps National Spelling Bee finals. 30: The world’s most influential tech leaders gather in California to discuss the future of the industry at the Code Conference.
June 1: Dozens of new emojis are unveiled to help enliven your textmessage game. 1: Hurricane season starts over the Atlantic Ocean. 13–15: Gamers of all stripes land in Los Angeles for E3, the year’s top video game convention. 15: Cellular roaming charges are abolished in the E.U., easing the costs that come with crossborder travel. 19–25: Boeing, Airbus and other aerospace firms show their latest jetliners at the International Paris Air Show, the world’s foremost aviation gathering. 21: Summer begins in the northern hemisphere; winter begins in the south. 29: Happy birthday to you, iPhone. The Apple device turns 10.
July 22–30: Computer hackers from around the world gather in Las Vegas for the Black Hat and DEFCON digitalsecurity conferences. 23–29: Greenthumbed researchers convene in Shenzhen, China, for the XIX International Botanical Congress.
28: For World Hepatitis Day, the World Health Organization urges people to get vaccinated. August 14–16: Researchers share big ideas about little machines at Barcelona’s Global Conference on Nanotechnology. 21: Stargazers flock to towns like Hopkinsville, Ky., for the best view of a rare total solar eclipse, one of the most spectacular shows in the sky. 22–26: Videogame makers try to oneup one another with their latest creations at Gamescom in Cologne, Germany.
September 1–6: Electronics companies from across the world gather in Berlin to flaunt their latest gizmos. 7: Apple is expected to unveil a radical new iPhone, rumored to have a curved screen design. 15: NASA’s Cassini probe crashes into Saturn (on
M A N H AT TA N H E N G E : G E T T Y I M A G E S; G R E E N : B L O O D H O U N D S S C ; G A M E C O N T R O L L E R : X B O X ; I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y S TA N L E Y C H O W F O R T I M E
28: The highly anticipated sequel to the BBC nature documentary Planet Earth hits U.S. television screens.
gather in Austin for the annual SXSW festival, which is where companies like Twitter and Foursquare got their start.
purpose) to protect its moons from earthly bacteria. 22: Autumn begins in the northern hemisphere; spring begins in the south. 27: The world’s smartest teens compete for top honors in the Google Science Fair, a global online science showdown.
October 1: Global charities raise awareness—and cash— during National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. TBD: British fighter pilot Andy Green (above) tries to break his own land-speed
record in a rocket- and jetpowered vehicle called the Bloodhound SSC. TBD: The Nobel Prizes in science are announced, recognizing the most significant advances in chemistry, physics and medicine. TBD: Apple and Google are expected to launch new versions of their Mac and Android software.
November 13: Planet spotters find Venus and Jupiter just 0.3 degrees apart in the night sky, a rare gathering of the two bodies.
TBD: Competitive hopefuls in countless categories will vie for spots in Guinness World Records.
December 1: World AIDS Day raises awareness about HIV treatment and prevention, and highlights progress made around the world. 14: The Geminid meteor shower produces about 100 shooting stars an hour for those in the northern hemisphere; search for the constellation Gemini for the best view.
21: Winter begins in the northern hemisphere; summer begins in the south. 31: The earth’s population is expected to top 7.4 billion for the first time. TBD: Russian billionaire Yuri Milner’s Breakthrough Prizes are awarded for advances in life sciences, physics and mathematics. TBD: Microsoft releases Project Scorpio, its most powerful Xbox video-game console to date. Compiled by Lisa Eadicicco
New frontiers in medicine Look for major progress in these key areas By ALEXANDRA SIFFERLIN MARIJUANA RESEARCH GETS SERIOUS
Eight states voted to legalize marijuana for medical or recreational use in 2016, putting the total number of states with some form of legal pot at 28. In states where it is legal, doctors already prescribe it for things like pain, depression, migraines and PTSD—but research has been limited by federal drug laws. A growing quorum of scientists is calling for legitimate research into marijuana’s potential as a form of medicine.
A MAJOR HIVVACCINE TRIAL LAUNCHES
Thanks to highly effective drugs that can render an infected person’s viral load so low as to be undetectable, HIV is no longer a death sentence. And in the largest trial of its kind, scientists hope to test and approve a preventative vaccine as well.
SUPERBUGS BECOME A SUPERTHREAT
In 2016, global leaders promised to address the growing issue of drug resistance—meaning bacteria that can no longer be treated with antibiotics— during a historic meeting at the U.N. headquarters in New York City. Major progress is yet to be seen, but companies like McDonald’s have vowed to phase out antibiotics in their chicken, and scientists are hunting for new drug compounds in places like caves and the ocean.
CRISPR TACKLES CANCER
CRISPR is the most hyped technology in medicine for good reason: it allows scientists to easily and inexpensively edit any piece of DNA from nearly any species. Chinese scientists recently claimed they used CRISPR to treat a person with lung cancer, but the report hasn’t been verified. Meanwhile, U.S. scientists are about to launch the first human trials using CRISPR to treat cancer stateside— the first of what will surely be many studies like it.
CLIMATE CHANGE AS PUBLICHEALTH THREAT
Climate change and pollution are contributing to the spread of infectious disease, less nutritious food, asthma and dangerous heat waves. In response, the U.S. and other nations have committed to reducing greenhousegas emissions by as much as 28% below 2005 levels by 2025. It remains to be seen if Presidentelect Donald Trump will honor that commitment, but scientists say the issue is only growing more critical.
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WHAT MAKES LIFE EASIER
7 food trends for 2017
Grocers are now selling imperfect produce, which often goes to waste simply for being unattractive
Innovations that are shaking up how we eat and drink By KATY STEINMETZ
‘Ugly’ vegetables go mainstream
Pristine produce will have less photogenic—and also less costly—cousins in the fresh-food aisles. That’s thanks to a growing effort to reduce waste by farmers and grocers, particularly the waste of wholesome, if somewhat unsightly, fruits and vegetables. In the U.S., up to 40% of food goes to waste—that amounts to a per-household cost of about $2,200. Meanwhile, the U.N. estimates that some farmers chuck 20% to 40% of lessthan-flawless-looking plants simply because they aren’t pretty enough to meet retailers’ expectations. But now, even large grocery chains are developing an appetite for the ugly stuff. In early 2016, Whole Foods launched a program with the nonprofit Imperfect Produce to start stocking some of its stores in Northern California with knotty potatoes and blemished oranges. At a Brooklyn location, another Whole Foods started a program selling “ugly greens.” Walmart, the largest grocery retailer in the U.S., has gotten in the game too, selling wonky potatoes and apples with patchy exteriors. Hy-Vee, another chain, has promised to stock all of its 242 locations with aesthetically challenged goods as well. imperfect produce, proclaims a sign on one of its displays in the Kansas City area, is perfectly delicious and nutritious.
Eating local takes on new meaning
AASHI VEL, food-tourism entrepreneur
Veggie burgers get meaty
At Cockscomb, a restaurant in San Francisco’s Mission Bay neighborhood, some burgers are delivered to tables with little flags stuck in the top buns that read impossible. It’s a reference to the startup that makes the patty, Impossible Foods, as well as what that patty is supposed to be: an impossibly meatlike vegan burger that took five years to produce and launched at a handful of restaurants in 2016. It’s not the only company trying to win over consumers with imitation meat that is meant to look, feel and, yes, even “bleed” like the real thing. While food companies have long tried to woo vegetarians with patties made from sweet potatoes and chickpeas, new companies
STEPHANIE GONOT FOR TIME
Airbnb bills itself as the soulful alternative to the hotel: a way to stay in a real neighborhood, mingle with real residents and see the real heart of a city in a way tourists on double-decker buses never could. In that spirit, the $30 billion homesharing company launched a new feature in November that takes immersive travel one step further: “Experiences,” or paid activities led by locals. The company plans to offer food-related ventures, like foraging with an Italian truffle hunter, in 51 cities by the end of 2017. Other, smaller startups are also banking on the idea that travelers can be best connected with locals by way of their stomachs. “It’s
‘GONE ARE THE DAYS WHEN EXCITING DINING MEANT MICHELIN S T A R S .’
getting harder for people to find the kind of authentic experiences they want,” says Aashi Vel, whose company, Traveling Spoon, offers access to homemade meals and cooking lessons in countries like Thailand and India. The model plays to the belief that the less readily an experience can be replicated, the better it is. “Gone are the days when exciting dining meant Michelin stars,” Vel says.
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like Beyond Meat are trying to convert the omnivorous set to plant-based protein too. Making burgers out of plants instead of animals takes far less land and a quarter of the water, says Impossible Foods’ David Lee. When you consider the fact that Americans eat about 271 lb. of meat per year, any dent in that total could mean real progress for the environment.
also be able to download the company’s app to see what items are in stores or on the way there from farms.
Nano-breweries go big
Beer is having a moment. The number of breweries in the U.S. has reached a record high of more than 5,000, with about 2,000 more in the planning stages. The vast majority of those are independent craft operations catering to the public’s growing obsession with all things small batch. “The rise of the smallest of small local brewery is very strong,” says Julia Herz of the Brewers Association, a trade group for the beer industry. Some in the new wave of breweries are improbably teeny—they’re called nanobreweries for a reason—occupying only a few hundred square feet and brewing just one or two barrels at a time. (A single MillerCoors facility in Colorado, by comparison, brews an average of about 35,000 barrels per day.) Chris Higgins opened his mini tap room in Middlebury, Ind., in May with a one-barrel-at-a-time system and 21 varieties of beer. Part of the attraction for people like him, he says, is the low startup cost and the ability to try a slew of new recipes on a whim. “That’s the beauty,” he says, “of a nano.”
Robots are the new chefs
It’s not quite in the realm of The Jetsons, but many companies are trying to harness the power of robots and artificial intelligence to make our food—a trend that’s only expected to grow in the coming years. California-based Zume Pizza, for instance, employs robots that spread sauce and plop pies in the oven, baking them on the way to customers. Other outfits are working on “intelligent” appliances like ovens and refrigerators that sense the food inside and make suggestions about how best to cook it, whether that’s estimating roasting times based on weight or offering recipe options based on the ingredients you already have at home. Moley Robotics, headquartered in the U.K., is among the most ambitious, developing a robotic kitchen that is set to launch in 2017. Two robotic arms can be instructed to whip up a crab bisque from start to finish; the company plans to “teach” them to imitate the techniques of actual chefs. At a price of nearly $100,000, the suite isn’t going to be adopted by the masses, but it’s a reminder that the future of automation is on its way.
In-store apps offer transparency
A particularly memorable episode of the TV show Portlandia, which pokes fun at the hipster excesses of Portland, Ore., features two diners so desperate to know about the provenance of their chicken that they abandon the restaurant and travel to the farm where it was raised. The joke, however hyperbolic, plays on a real and growing consumer desire for transparency about food—which has companies working to meet that demand through technology. Using an app on your smartphone, scan a QR code marking the seafood from Red’s Best, a company that operates in the Boston area, and up pops information about where and when the fish was caught (as well as the name of the boat). Pippin Foods, a New York–based startup that aims to connect grocery stores with farmers, launched a pilot program in December in which tablets will be put alongside produce sections. Shoppers can read about the farm where their squash was grown and the methods the farmer used to grow it. Consumers will
Startups are trying to win over meat eaters to the veggie section of the menu by experimenting with ingredients that simulate the texture and taste of the real thing
Indoor farms sprout up
From the Arctic to America’s urban centers, farmers are harvesting crops in inhospitable landscapes by growing indoors, without soil or sun. Companies are nurturing leafy greens in climate-controlled shipping containers and converting whole warehouses into incubators for kale. Why? Because indoor farming can bring fresh local food to places it can’t usually be found and can make use of space that might otherwise sit unproductive. Some believe that indoor cultivating, which allows for growing yearround, will be necessary as the world population increases and arable land area does not. Many are applying a method that marijuana growers have long perfected in their garages: hydroponics, which uses solutions like nutrientrich water rather than soil to grow plants. That’s part of the recipe for startups like Square Roots, which opened several shipping-container farms in a Brooklyn parking lot in 2016. Focused on fostering food entrepreneurs in unlikely places, the business is now helping several of them sell their container-grown food around the city and hopes to have similar operations set up in 20 cities by 2020. “Demand for local food massively outstrips supply of local food,” says CEO Tobias Peggs. “It doesn’t matter how much food we grow—there’s a market for it.” •
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NASA has a new way to fly
Dragon relies on another SpaceX vessel, the Falcon 9 rocket, to get into orbit—but the Falcons have presented the company with some serious technical difficulties so far. In June 2015, one of its rockets exploded shortly after liftoff, and in September 2016, another didn’t even get that far, blowing up on the launchpad during an engine test. The explosion appears to have been caused by a malfunction in a pressurized helium tank in the rocket’s second stage—something the company is hard at work trying to correct for future flights. For now, Boeing’s booster, the Atlas V, is causing few headaches. It’s the Starliner itself that’s slowing things down, as the designers
How private companies are modernizing the space program By JEFFREY KLUGER
A test of the Dragon spacecraft’s landing engines, which could be used in lieu of parachutes
USE ONCE, USE AGAIN The Dragon and Starliner spacecraft should get a combined 20 flights to and from earth orbit, unlike the single-use Apollos that flew in the 1960s and 1970s
work to refine flight software and, more challenging, trim mass from the vehicle. After all, in space, every pound counts. Still, for both companies—and for NASA— 2017 is likely to be a threshold year. Boeing will put Starliners through various static tests at its labs in California and New Mexico. And SpaceX’s next big milestone will be the January return-to-flight launch of the Falcon 9, when the rocket is expected to carry a flock of nine communications satellites to orbit. Assuming Falcon does get its wings back, SpaceX aims for an uncrewed test flight of the Dragon sometime in the fourth quarter of 2017, followed by a crewed flight in the spring of 2018. Boeing’s corresponding flights will happen in June and August 2018. What few people doubt is that these ships are going to fly and that astronauts aboard U.S. spacecraft will once again lift off from launchpads on American soil. The business model may have changed—and indeed it has considerably— but the urge to explore never will. □
S PA C E X
If you’re lIke most people, you probably don’t remember the last time the U.S. stopped flying people to space. But it was in July 1975 that the last Apollo flew, 1981 when the first shuttle took its place, and today America is on track to beat that flightless streak. No astronauts have taken off from Cape Canaveral or anywhere else on U.S. soil since the shuttles were retired in the summer of 2011. In the coming years, however, the launchpads will roar again, with two new crew-rated ships—made not by NASA but by independent companies. Both are reminiscent of the old Apollo model—a conical spacecraft atop an upright rocket—but in nearly all other respects, the spacecraft represent a complete rethinking of how NASA does business. All of America’s earlier spacecraft were made to order, with NASA drawing up the specs, choosing a manufacturer and then saying, effectively, “Build this.” The new ships embrace a new model altogether. Thanks to the push to privatize space travel, two companies— Boeing Aerospace and SpaceX—have designed and built the new spacecraft and are, in turn, selling their services to NASA. Both Boeing’s Starliner and SpaceX’s Dragon supersize the Apollo, expanding its cockpit capacity from two crew members to up to seven, depending on how the seats are configured. What’s more, neither ship is a one-use throwaway like the Apollos; both are designed to be flown up to 10 times. NASA plans to use the spacecraft to carry crews to and from the International Space Station—a job that’s now done exclusively by Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft. NASA intended for Starliner and Dragon to have their first flights in 2017, but that schedule has slipped and may push back a little further. The delays are mostly the result of the usual R&D challenges of designing a ship that is reliable enough to carry astronauts to space.
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Children play on a smoggy day in New Delhi, where thousands die early from air pollution yearly
How bad air came back Air pollution is getting worse—and hurting us even more By JUSTIN WORLAND On many winter days in new delhi, if yOu look at the weather app on your phone, it will sum up the forecast in one word: smoke. Step outside, and it becomes clear why. As the temperature drops and wind speeds fall, allowing pollutants from the city’s swarm of cars—more than 9 million and growing—and fumes from nearby factories to linger in the air, the Indian capital is enveloped by a thick smog. Depending on how bad the pollution is, the haze fluctuates from a sickly yellow to a dark, cough-inducing gray. The effect is deadly, with one 2015 study blaming the city’s deteriorating air quality for as many 30,000 early deaths a year. Those who can afford them have been buying antipollution masks and air purifiers for their homes. But many of Delhi’s 25 million inhabitants, like 45-year-old Vikas Jadav, have no choice but to spend hours outdoors, breathing the toxic haze on a daily basis. Jadav drives one of the city’s distinctive black-and-yellow three-wheeled taxis. The vehicle has no windows. From two sides, it is open to the elements.
Protesters in New Delhi wear pollution masks during a November march to push for clean-air regulations
All around Jadav, cars and trucks belch out toxic petrol and diesel fumes. “I came here 10 years ago,” he says. “Every year, I find I cough more.” But there is nothing he can do about it. The only solution for him, he says, is to not think about it. “This is my work,” he says. Delhi ranks high on a World Health Organization (WHO) list of cities with unhealthy levels of air pollution, but it is far from alone. WHO research found that 90% of the world’s population lives in areas with unsafe airpollution levels. And it’s not just cities in the developing world, like Beijing, that face dirty air—Western metropolises like New York City and London are on the list as well. At the beginning of December, Paris was hit by some of the worst air pollution in a decade, leaving the Eiffel Tower cloaked in smog. For all the deserved focus on climate change as the planet’s major environmental threat, a much older one—bad air— is still a persistent danger. Economic growth in places like Delhi and Beijing has led to the rapid construction of coalfired power plants, quick factory construction
F I E L D : R E U T E R S; M A S K S : G E T T Y I M A G E S; I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y S TA N L E Y C H O W F O R T I M E
and traffic-choked streets. Regulations—to the extent that they exist in these places—receive little attention from the officials charged with enforcing them. Most European cities enjoy strong environmental protections, but they’ve still been hit by a wave of smog in recent years. Here the problem centers on the switch to diesel vehicles. Those cars—which drive along increasingly crowded streets—are actually better for the climate than gasoline-powered cars, but they emit more of the pollutants that directly harm human health. “In London, you can actually smell the pollution,” says Simon Birkett, the founder of the NGO Clean Air in London. “Go down Oxford Street, you can literally smell it.” A slew of previous research has shown that poor air quality hurts the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, contributing to ailments like lung and heart disease. But scientists are gaining a better understanding of the damage that even low levels of pollution can do to the body. When fine particulates—tiny particles of air pollution that cause haze—enter the body, they can harm the brain and damage developing fetuses, among other effects. Today some 7 million people around the world die prematurely thanks to air pollution, and the scale and seriousness of the problem has finally caught the attention of politicians. European cities like Paris and Berlin have implemented restrictions on vehicles to limit smog. London Mayor Sadiq Khan—who made the British capital’s worsening air pollution a key issue in his campaign—just committed to spending more than $1 billion on initiatives aimed at addressing the issue, primarily by overhauling the city’s thousands of buses. Diesel-vehicle drivers will soon need to pay $15 just to enter the city center. Developing countries like India are still doubling down on polluting coal, arguing they need cheap energy to keep their economies growing. But public-health experts argue that air pollution exacts its own toll on the economy—the World Bank pegs the cost of bad-air-related deaths at about $225 billion a year. “You have to make the case that pollution is a big problem,” says Dr. Phil Landrigan, a pediatrician and environmental-health expert at New York City’s Mount Sinai Medical School. “You make the case on public-health grounds, you make a moral case, you make a business case.” Air pollution, more than any other environmental threat, truly affects everyone. The rich and the poor still breathe the same air— which means we should all have an interest in cleaning up the skies.—With reporting by Nikhil kumar/New Delhi •
CAN TRUMP ‘SCRAP’ GREEN RULES? Undoing Obama’s environmental legacy won’t be easy President-elect Donald Trump put discarding much of the Obama-era environmental agenda at the top of his list of priorities. But doing so isn’t as easy as many think, and could spark a high-profile fight in the early days of Trump’s term. President Obama called the Clean Power Plan, which pushes states to move away from coal-fired power plants, the most significant step the U.S. has taken to fight global warming. Trump could direct the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to chuck the regulations, but that would require a years-long rulemaking process and scientific evidence to back up a new policy. And even that effort would face litigation that at the very least would slow things down. Trump could ask Congress to draft legislation gutting the regulation more quickly, but such efforts—like a GOP attempt to weaken the Clean Air Act in the 1990s— have often backfired. Every environmental regulation has its quirks, but Trump will face a similar set of challenges with each rule he tries to undo—and there are many. But Trump appears ready to fight, choosing Scott Pruitt, a key foe of EPA regulations, to lead the agency. Pruitt has sued the agency on several occasions as Oklahoma attorney general and will bring that zeal to his new job. “He’s very proud of his leadership challenging the EPA,” says Brendan Collins, an environmental lawyer at the firm Ballard Spahr. “He’s got some experience and knows how to get things done.” That’s a CV that should have greens worried. —J.W.
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How AI is getting more human Robot assistants are on the rise. Here’s what they can already do By LISA EADICICCO SOFTBANK PEPPER
This voice-controlled speaker is powered by the Google Assistant, which helps users manage their calendars, perform Google searches or translate speech.
NEST CAM OUTDOOR
The Japanese robot, which can understand human speech, recognize body language and make gestures of its own, is being tested as a customer assistant in retail stores.
The security camera’s software can distinguish between people and other subjects, like animals, to reduce false alarms.
Microsoft’s intelligent eyewear can see, map and understand its wearer’s physical surroundings, allowing them to view apps and games as 3-D holographs.
The company’s Alexa software enables users to chat with its Internet-connected speaker, asking it to read news and weather reports or even order a taxi.
This bot aims to be a more lifelike version of Echo and Home, maneuvering around the house as it answers users’ questions and expressing “emotions” via a virtual face.
This camera-equipped robotic toy can recognize and react to its owner’s face, and even say his or her name.
These bots follow warehouse workers as they pick items from shelves, then help them carry inventory to reduce physical strain.
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The smartphonecontrolled Star Wars toy is smart enough to remember its surroundings so it can adapt accordingly as it roves your home.
This bot, which is now in use, moves through hospital hallways to deliver medicine, supplies and lab specimens, giving doctors and nurses more time to focus on patient care.
BOSTON DYNAMICS SPOTMINI This robotic pup (developed for research purposes) uses sensors and cameras to move with lifelike precision. It can even handle delicate objects like wineglasses.
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The foldable drone can see and avoid midflight obstacles like trees and buildings. It can also track and follow subjects, like a downhill skier.
Thanks to a combination of cameras and sensors, the electric sedan knows how to stay in a highway lane, match its speed to that of surrounding traffic and even park itself.
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The sensors in these models enable them to “see” floors as they clean, which helps them do a more thorough job.
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The Uber-owned company specializes in turning ordinary big rigs into selfdriving trucks by outfitting them with hardware and software that enables them to see roads and map routes.
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Dr. Cristin Kearns
The former dentist turned investigative researcher is exposing how the sugar industry got us hooked By ALEXANDRA SIFFERLIN You started investigating the sugar industry after attending a dental conference on diabetes. Why? I got a government brochure about preventing diabetes, and the nutritional advice was to reduce calories, increase fiber, decrease fat. It didn’t say anything about sugar. One of the speakers had a fast-food nutrition guide, and [a sweet tea] got ranked as a “healthy.” I asked him, “How can you characterize sweet tea, which has a ton of sugar in it, as a healthy drink?” His response was that there’s no evidence linking sugar to chronic disease. I just looked at him like, What? So that led you to start digging into how industry was affecting public-health messaging? I came across all of these references to the Great Western Sugar Co. The company was based in Denver, and sugar beets were historically a major crop in Colorado, so the company decided to donate many of their records to local libraries. In the first folder that I opened, there was a confidential memo with the Sugar Association’s letterhead on it. I was like, What did I just find? Are you kidding me?
What did the memo reveal? It was a memo the Sugar Association sent out to its PR guys at various sugar companies about a report they had put together called Sugar in the Diet of Man. The report, which they put together with consultants, was meant to be a review of all the scientific research about sugar, heart disease, diabetes, tooth decay, obesity, etc. Of course, it ultimately concluded that sugar didn’t have a role in any of those things. Your most recent research showed the sugar industry funded studies blaming fat instead of sugar as the leading cause of heart disease. I don’t think we realize how much we’ve been
marketed to. The whole “low-fat is healthy” movement allowed products high in sugar to be promoted as healthy. I don’t think the average person really grasps that there is industry money behind many food- and health-related studies.
‘I DON’T THINK WE REALIZE HOW MUCH WE’VE BEEN MARKETED T O .’
Do you think Americans are catching on? We’re in a time now where Big Soda is fighting the soda taxes, and the public is waking up to industry tactics. There’s a whole movement of trying to increase people’s awareness of food. What needs to change? Even though the science is clear that sugar contributes to heart disease, we’re still having these same debates about the role sugar plays in people’s health. I think my research can help us understand why these debates have gone on for so long. The tobacco industry still funds research, but the more high-quality, respectable journals have refused to publish it. That hasn’t happened yet in the food world. Has your own diet changed? I used to drink soda instead of coffee. That was a long time ago. Do you consider yourself an activist? That gets turned into sort of a bad word sometimes. I am taking action, let’s put it that way. I really want evidence to support what I’m bringing to light. I don’t want to just point the finger and say the sugar industry is bad. I want to document what they’re doing. I want the work to lead the way, and not have it be about me. Many of your colleagues describe you as soft-spoken. Are you? People don’t expect me to come out with the material I have. Because I am not preachy, people seem to trust me as reliable. I’ll take it. That’s who I am. I’m a proud introvert. □ 97
PHOTOGR APH BY NINO MUÃ‘OZ FOR TIME
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Wonder Woman breaks through She’s been a suffragist, a soldier and a sex symbol. But it took 75 years to bring the world’s most famous female superhero to the big screen. Why we need Wonder Woman now
By ELIANA DOCKTERMAN
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was supposed To be a photo-op. Earlier this year, the United Nations decided to name Wonder Woman an honorary ambassador ahead of the 75-year-old comicbook character’s first-ever feature film. The title had previously been bestowed on Winnie the Pooh and the red Angry Bird without much commotion. But this time, the U.N. named the bustiered bombshell Honorary Ambassador for the Empowerment of Women and Girls. The U.N.’s press officers set up a ceremony in October at the organization’s New York City headquarters to honor the comic-book character as well as Gal Gadot, the Israeli actor who played her in 2016’s Batman v Superman and will reprise the role this summer. Things quickly went sideways. As Gadot greeted dozens of cheering elementary-school-age girls, the adults sitting behind them raised their fists and turned their backs. Outside, some 100 U.N. staffers gathered in protest. More than 600 of them had signed a petition objecting to “a large-breasted white woman of impossible proportions” and “the epitome of a ‘pinup’ girl” becoming an official symbol of female power. Two months later, Wonder Woman’s ambassadorial privileges were unceremoniously withdrawn—setting off another round of cheers and jeers. Wonder Woman has seen it all before. Since her inception, the world’s most recognizable female superhero has been a source of controversy, her values and significance changing with the times. She has been a suffragist, a sex symbol, a soldier—and President of the United States. Along the way, Wonder Woman changed costumes dozens of times, her hemline migrating up, down and back up again. But the woman who now plays her hasn’t gotten used to the vitriol. “There are so many horrible things that are going on in the world, and this is what you’re protesting, seriously?” Gadot asks, reflecting on the U.N. blowback. Warner Bros. cast perhaps the only actor in the world who, like Wonder Woman, is both a model and a soldier: Gadot won the title of Miss Israel in 2004 and served in the Israel Defense Forces. But that doesn’t mean the 31-year-old hasn’t been baffled by persistent debates about Wonder Woman’s looks—and the sexual and anti-Semitic harassment Gadot has received online over the past two years. “When people argue that Wonder Woman should ‘cover up,’ I don’t quite get it,” she says. “They say, ‘If she’s smart and strong, she can’t also be
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Filmmaker Jenkins directs Gadot on a Wonder Woman set in the U.K.
sexy.’ That’s not fair. Why can’t she be all of the above?” That question is on the minds of studio executives who are hoping that, after a decade of white men dominating the comicbook-movie boom, audiences are ready for something new. Female superheroes don’t have much of a track record at the box office, partly because of movie studios’ reluctance to bring female leads to the screen. Their logic has been that their target demographic—teenage boys— wouldn’t want to see a woman fight. A string of early-2000s bombs like Elektra and Catwoman didn’t help. While Batman has had nine liveaction feature films and Superman seven, Wonder Woman has had none. Some of Hollywood’s most powerful directors have tried. Joss Whedon (The Avengers), George Miller (Mad Max) and Paul Feig (Ghostbusters) all failed to bring the Amazonian princess to the big screen. Come June it will be a woman, Patty Jenkins—one of the first female directors to command a budget of over $100 million—who finally releases a Wonder Woman film. Much more than money is at stake: if Wonder Woman works, it could change the kinds of role models we find at the movies. To follow Wonder Woman’s evolution is to trace the trajectory of the women’s movement in America. The man who created her in 1941, William Moulton Marston, was a feminist, a psychologist and the inventor of the liedetector test. Marston conceived Wonder Woman as a parent-friendly comic-book alternative to bellicose male heroes. Batman carried a gun, and Superman was a shade too close to the German Übermensch, the concept that Adolf Hitler used to describe his fantasy of a “biologically superior” Aryan race. What comic books needed, Marston thought, was a hero who would represent America’s position in the war: a patriot motivated to shield the innocent. Marston’s Wonder Woman was born Princess Diana on the fictitious all-female island of Themyscira and trained as an Amazon warrior. Her first exposure to men came when an American soldier, Steve Trevor, washed ashore after a plane crash. Diana traveled to the U.S. with him and fought in World War II. Her weapons were defensive—bracelets capable of deflecting bullets and the Lasso of Truth, which allowed her to acquire intelligence. (She didn’t get her sword until the 1980s.) She and the shield-wielding Captain America premiered within months of each other.
Marston also wanted to create an icon for little girls. “Not even girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force, strength, power,” he wrote in a 1943 magazine article. “Women’s strong qualities have become despised because of their weak ones. The obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman.” The result was a woman who fought alongside male soldiers and, in 1943, ran for President of the United States—against her love interest Steve and the Man’s World Party— and won. Her looks were a matter of debate from the start. Marston was inspired by the pinups that adorned soldiers’ barracks. In almost every comic, Wonder Woman found herself, at some point, bound up in chains—an image Marston argued was essential to the larger narrative of breaking free from the patriarchy. (His editors worried it was too kinky, but let it slide.) To that end, Wonder Woman illustrator Harry G. Peter mimicked the statuesque Amazonian women drawn during the 1910s by artist Annie Lucasta Rogers. “Amazonian women breaking chains and wearing tiaras, that was the visual vocabulary of feminism and suffrage,” says historian Jill Lepore, who wrote The Secret History of Wonder Woman. Marston believed that Wonder Woman’s attractiveness was part of her power, presaging the sex-positive feminism of future icons like Lady Gaga and Beyoncé. After Marston’s death in 1947, Wonder Woman evolved—or devolved—depending on her editor. When the war ended and men returned from the front lines, many women who had been filling in on the factory lines were sent home. Accordingly, Wonder Woman was demoted from superhero to babysitter and fashion model. A cover from 1949 shows Steve carrying Wonder Woman, now wearing dainty ballet slippers instead of combat-ready boots, across a pond. Sidebars in the comics that had previously highlighted historical feminist figures were replaced by weddingadvice columns. In 1972, Wonder Woman experienced a resurgence when Gloria Steinem put her on the first cover of the feminist magazine Ms. The headline, Wonder Woman for President, was partly a throwback to Marston’s original. A few years later, she got a TV series starring Lynda Carter. “They didn’t think a woman could hold her own show, so they had an awfully difficult time with the networks,” says Carter. The show ran on ABC for one season 101
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and on CBS for another two. It was enough of a ratings success that Carter credits it with paving the way for subsequent female-led action shows like Charlie’s Angels. The messages were mixed. The first shot of Carter as Wonder Woman, for example, shows her skipping along a beach in a short purple nightgown, the kind a Bond girl might wear. Yet when she finds Steve unconscious, she lifts him up and carries him to safety. Nevertheless, the series made an impression on a generation of girls, including on future director Jenkins, who totted a Wonder Woman notebook around with her in grade school. “We all fought at recess about who was going to be Wonder Woman, because she was the only female superhero we could even think of,” Jenkins says. “So it was play Wonder Woman or be out of the game.” In the 1980s, the hero disappeared from television, but the comic-book version got a modern setting and a more muscular frame. In the 1990s, she was outfitted in a skintight black leather outfit in a bid for more readers. By the 2000s, her plotlines confronted issues like rape. Throughout, a handful of Wonder Woman projects kicked around Hollywood, with names like Jennifer Aniston and Sandra Bullock reportedly attached. They all failed to materialize—until now.
‘IF SHE’S SMART AND STRONG, SHE CAN’T ALSO BE SEXY. WHY CAN’T SHE BE ALL OF THE ABOVE?’ GAL GADOT,
75 years of wonder Wonder Woman has been a ball buster and a babysitter. Her changes mirrored women’s advancement. Here, some of her many iterations:
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1941 A hero is born ... William Moulton Marston invents Wonder Woman, an Amazonian superhero who fights for women’s rights and democracy. Her look is inspired by both pinup girls and suffragists.
1949 ... and demoted After Marston’s death, DC strips Wonder Woman of her powers, making her a model and a babysitter. Women’s-history sidebars in the comics are replaced with wedding advice.
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Jenkins had a lot of time to think about how she’d make a Wonder Woman movie: she began to pitch the idea after her film Monster won Charlize Theron an Academy Award in 2004 and established Jenkins as one of Hollywood’s best-known female directors. Jenkins was hired in 2011 to direct the sequel to Thor. She would have been the first woman to helm a Marvel movie—or any major superhero film—but she and the studio parted
ways over “creative differences” later that year. Jenkins declines to discuss the experience, save to express appreciation for Marvel’s initial hiring of a female director—even if a man ended up making the film. Since Iron Man premiered in 2008, Marvel and its parent company, Disney, have produced about two superhero films a year, grossing upwards of $8.3 billion globally. In a bid to catch up, Warner Bros., which owns rival DC Entertainment, has launched an ambitious effort to make at least 10 new movies based on Batman, Superman and the rest of the Justice League heroes and villains over the next five years. But both studios have lately realized that to continue fueling the superhero boom, they will need to come up with more diverse protagonists. Fans have been asking for characters who look more like them both on social media and during question-and-answer sessions at San Diego Comic-Con, the annual pop-culture convention that draws more than 130,000 fans. Marvel will premiere its first superhero movie with a black lead under Disney, Black Panther, in 2018. But Warner will beat its rival’s first female superhero film, Captain Marvel, by two years. Wonder Woman will certainly be different from any previous comic-book film. It takes place during World War I, at the same time as the American and British suffrage movements. Robin Wright plays an Amazonian mentor, and Connie Nielsen is Wonder Woman’s mother. When their paradise is attacked by men with guns, the women warriors fight back with arrows. Later, Wonder Woman travels with Steve, masquerading as his secretary, to join the Allies. Her lariat shines against the gray backdrop of the war’s trenches. To re-create the all-female paradise of Themyscira, Jenkins and her producers flew
dozens of female actors and stunt doubles to a town in Italy called Happy Village. “It was like a kibbutz, all of us living in little bungalows, beautiful and green with no cars,” says Gadot. “We had all these women in armor fighting on the beach, and meanwhile all the men— husbands and boyfriends—are walking around with strollers and taking care of the kids.” Jenkins says it set the tone for the filmmaking. “It wasn’t just a gathering of beautiful women,” she adds. “It was exclusively badass, interesting women.” The unique history of Wonder Woman, and the pressure from fans to get it right, meant the filmmakers had to tread carefully. Steve, played by Star Trek star Chris Pine, needed to be supportive but not emasculated. “After all, none of us wants to be in love with someone who isn’t grand in their own right,” says Jenkins. And they had to find pathos in a goddess and a compelling narrative for a character who is more interested in peace than conflict. Batman, with his constant moral anxiety, has always been more interesting than, say, the purely good Captain America. Jenkins drew inspiration from the 1978 Superman film starring Christopher Reeve. Like Marston, she wanted to make Wonder Woman a character to look up to. The heroes that studios put onscreen can determine whether a child sees herself as a protagonist or a sidekick—and there has not yet been a Superman-like figure for young girls. The fact that a woman could utter the same stoic dialogue Superman has for years, Jenkins believed, would make the character stand out. “We’ve spent years treating male heroes in certain ways,” she says. “I just applied those same tropes to her, and all these incredible radical moments suddenly appear to an
Gadot, a former model and soldier, drew on her experiences to play the Amazonian superhero
1968 Spy time Rejecting her dual identity as hero and secretary, DC rebrands Wonder Woman as a James Bond–like spy figure. In this psychedelic version, she loses her powers but gets to wear pants.
1972 Feminist icon In a callback to a 1940s comic in which Wonder Woman wins the presidency over the Man’s World Party, Gloria Steinem puts “Wonder Woman for President” on the cover of the first issue of Ms. magazine.
1975 Small screen Lynda Carter stars in a TV version of Wonder Woman that runs for three seasons. It’s one of the first female action series, but often emphasizes Wonder Woman’s beauty over her power.
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audience.” Gadot thinks the bigger challenge was proving the character could exude both force and compassion, characteristics often held in opposition. “We knew it was tricky. We wanted to find the balance between portraying her as confident and strong and feminine and warm,” she says. “I didn’t want her to be a ball buster. I didn’t want her to be bossy. You can be powerful and also loving.” Then there was the issue of the costume. The movie version looks far more war-ready than the one Carter wore in the television series. Still, critics were quick to note that Wonder Woman fights in a bustier and skirt, while her ally Batman’s body is fully covered, save his mouth and eyes. Gadot admits that she nearly froze in the getup while filming during winter in London. Greg Rucka, who currently writes one of the Wonder Woman comics, says the character’s outfit has been hotly debated during his tenure at DC. “I get frustrated when I’m given [an illustration of] Diana in three-inch heels, because she can’t fight like that. I have an easier time with her flying than fighting in three-inch heels or dental-floss bottoms,” he says. “I like the costume for the movie because Gal can actually run and jump and kick in that.”
1987 Resurrection Writer George Pérez reboots a flagging franchise. He modernizes Wonder Woman’s story, emphasizing her Amazonian origins and making her more muscular.
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1992 Skintight ’90s Comics go sexy in the 1990s, and Wonder Woman is no exception. Her many makeovers includes a punk aesthetic (right) but also slinky leather outfits in a bid for young male fans.
Woman greeted everyone she met with love, Gadot rattles off compliments to waiters that make them blush and leans in to tell jokes to strangers. She sees her job, partly, as clarifying Wonder Woman’s message of empowerment. “I think people take it the wrong way when I say I’m a feminist,” she says. “Feminism is not about burning bras and hating men. It’s about gender equality. Whoever is not a feminist is a chauvinist.” Gadot has spent the last two years at ComicCon emphasizing the importance of strong female figures in boys’ lives too—including an off-script moment in 2015 when she told a young boy who said he was bullied for wearing
2004–2005 The flop era Halle Berry’s Catwoman (2004) and Jennifer Garner’s Elektra (2005) falter at the box office. Convinced female superheroes can’t make money, studios acquire and drop several Wonder Woman scripts.
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Gal Gadot is as close to embodying an Amazonian idol in real life as you can get. She competed in a Miss Universe pageant (owned and produced by Donald Trump) and—like her Holocaust-survivor grandfather and parents before her—served in the Israeli military as part of the country’s mandatory conscription. Like Wonder Woman, she considers herself a pacifist: “I know it sounds cheesy, but I wish we didn’t have to have an army at all,” she says. If the original incarnation of Wonder
In the 1970s, Wonder Woman got her first TV show, starring Lynda Carter. It sent mixed messages about feminism, like this scene from the first episode
Wonder Woman gear that he was “more of a man” for loving and supporting women. “We need to educate boys, show boys strong women in powerful positions,” she says. “It’s all about expanding the possibilities of what women can be. I know I couldn’t do this without my husband,” Israeli real estate developer Yaron Varsano. The backlash against Gadot mirrors much of the abuse endured by other women in the spotlight—from Susan B. Anthony to Hillary Clinton. “Did you see the feedback I got from the fans after they cast me for this role?” Gadot asks. “It was all about my breasts and bottom literally being too small.” She has typically responded with wit, at one point shooting back
2011–2015 New heroes In 2011, NBC films and then nixes a Wonder Woman pilot. But from 2012 on movies like The Hunger Games, the new Star Wars and Mad Max prove empowered women are bankable.
For the new film, out June 2017, the filmmakers tried to recapture the character’s original values
2016 Resurrection 2.0 Wonder Woman gets a new origin story in the comic books focused on female empowerment. Controversially, comic-book writer Greg Rucka says in an interview that the character is bisexual.
that true Amazons cut off one of their breasts in order to better shoot arrows. Marston biographer Lepore draws a comparison to the comments about Gadot’s body to resistance against strong women throughout history. “I do not envy Gal Gadot in her position. I don’t think it was some accident, for instance, that it was Jennifer Lawrence’s nude photographs that were hacked after she starred in The Hunger Games,” she says. “That’s the age-old move to demean a powerful woman and put her back in her proper position: reduce her to her appearance.” That’s the paradox of Wonder Woman: It’s not only run-of-the-mill Internet trolls and zealous comic-book fans who take issue with her (or the actor who plays her). Some of Wonder Woman’s most ardent critics are the very people who desperately want to see more popular feminist icons but can’t ignore the ways in which the character falls short as an ambassador for women. To be sure, if you were to ask a contemporary feminist to write a new female superhero, she’d probably be nothing like Wonder Woman. And yet, this summer it’ll be up to a flawed figure to try to break whatever the superhero equivalent of a glass ceiling is. When Warner Bros. premiered the first Wonder Woman trailer last July at ComicCon, much of what flashed onscreen followed familiar beats: A bad guy arises with a terrible new weapon. The fate of humanity is threatened. A new hero suits up for battle. But then, something unexpected: Steve turns to Wonder Woman and says, “I can’t let you do this.” She pauses and then calmly replies, “What I do is not up to you.” The rest of the trailer was completely drowned out by the sound of thousands of fans whooping for joy. •
2017 A feature future Director Zack Snyder casts Gal Gadot as Wonder Woman for 2016’s Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. She will also star in Wonder Woman’s first feature film, premiering on June 2, 2017.
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Calendar January 3: Roxane Gay releases a short-story collection, Difficult Women. 8: Jimmy Fallon hosts the 74th Golden Globes. 15: HBO’s The Young Pope stars Jude Law as the first American Bishop of Rome. 20: M. Night Shyamalan spins fear from dissociative identity disorder in Split. 28: BBC America puts the planet’s splendor on display again in Planet Earth II.
5: Lady Gaga brings her powerful pipes to the Super Bowl LI halftime show. 12: Beyoncé is up for nine Grammys; Lena Dunham returns for a final season of Girls. 14: Decorated author George Saunders drops a novel, Lincoln in the Bardo.
Shell; Jessica Chastain stars in a WW II drama, The Zookeeper’s Wife.
24: Racism is the real villain in writer-director Jordan Peele’s horror film Get Out.
5: See Baby Groot dance again in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.
4: Nigerian writer Lesley Nneka Arimah releases a story collection, What It Means When a Man Falls From the Sky.
26: Jimmy Kimmel hosts the Academy Awards.
14: Tensions—and redlines—rise in The Fate of the Furious, the eighth installment in the franchise.
3: Hugh Jackman is Wolverine for the last time in Logan; Ewan McGregor and director Danny Boyle reunite for T2 Trainspotting. 7: Excerpts from Joan Didion’s notebooks are published as South and West. 17: Disney’s live-action Beauty and the Beast hits theaters; Marvel’s Iron Fist show lands on Netflix.
23: The Roald Dahl classic Charlie and the Chocolate Factory opens on Broadway. 28: Emma Watson joins Tom Hanks’ sinister tech company in The Circle.
TBD: See who wins Best Kiss at the MTV Movie Awards.
13: Read Sherman Alexie’s memoir You Don’t Have to Say You Love Me. 16: Broad City director Lucia Aniello directs her first feature, Rock That Body. 23: Sofia Coppola remakes western The Beguiled.
31: Scarlett Johansson is a cyborg in Ghost in the
30: Will Ferrell and Amy Poehler star in The House.
The British singer, a rising force in soulful pop, will make a winter debut.
Expect more of the master rapper’s biting wit and blockbuster beats.
The vibey London group returns in January with its third indie-pop album.
The pop royals and hip-hop rookies we can’t wait to hear from next year
Sweden’s latest export is a youthful and vivacious singer-songwriter.
By RAISA BRUNER
The trio of American sisters follow up their folksy-cool 2012 debut.
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12: Goldie Hawn (below left) and Amy Schumer are kin in the comedy Snatched.
TBD: The Enterprise soars to prime time in Star Trek: Discovery.
24: The Power Rangers leap onto the big screen; Woody Harrelson plays a neurotic misanthrope in the graphicnovel adaptation Wilson.
The 2017 album watch list
2: Paula Hawkins follows up The Girl on the Train with the thriller Into the Water.
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17: Gore Verbinski’s A Cure for Wellness is a thriller that unfolds at a mysterious spa.
7: New Peter Parker Tom Holland casts webs in Spider-Man: Homecoming. 14: The human-ape conflict continues in War for the Planet of the Apes. 21: Jada Pinkett Smith and pals hit the road in Girl Trip; Rihanna (above) stars in the sci-fi epic Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets; Allied forces face grave danger in Christopher Nolan’s WW II film Dunkirk.
28: Idris Elba plays the Gunslinger in a film adaptation of Stephen King’s The Dark Tower. August 1: Laurent Binet releases a novel about the French intelligentsia, The Seventh Function of Language.
The embattled Tha Carter V is finally due to drop.
The rockers’ fifth album returns to early influences.
The dance-punk troupe calls off its retirement.
Detroit’s fiery rapper gets political in new material.
Diplo’s hitmaking trio will drop a fourth EDM album.
4: Emojis come to life in Emojimovie: Express Yourself. 25: Morgan Freeman and Tommy Lee Jones star in an action comedy, Villa Capri.
13: Follow Jason Voorhees’ latest murderous rampage in a Friday the 13th reboot; watch Michael Fassbender investigate a woman’s mysterious disappearance in The Snowman.
TBD: Stunts are all but certain at the MTV Video Music Awards.
20: Gerard Butler heads to space to prevent satellites from wreaking havoc in the disaster movie Geostorm.
27: The third movie in J.J. Abrams’ Cloverfield anthology arrives.
22: Miles Teller battles an Arizona wildfire in true story Granite Mountain; ninjas suffer through high school in Lego Movie follow-up The Lego Ninjago Movie. 29: Tom Cruise plays a pilot turned smuggler in the ’80sset biopic American Made. TBD: The 69th annual Emmys honor TV’s finest.
October 6: Harrison Ford returns as Rick Deckard in the longawaited sci-fi sequel Blade Runner 2049.
November 3: Chris Hemsworth and his mythical hammer descend upon New York City in Thor: Ragnarok. 15: Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella drops Hit Refresh, a book about change. 17: DC Comics superheroes convene for Justice League.
22: Pixar’s animated Día de los Muertos movie, Coco, features an all-Latino cast. December 15: The force is with Daisy Ridley and John Boyega in Star Wars: Episode VIII. 22: Anna Kendrick and Rebel Wilson come out singing in Pitch Perfect 3; Dwayne Johnson and Kevin Hart (left) fuel a Jumanji reboot; and Alexander Payne (The Descendants, Sideways) returns with Downsizing, starring Kristen Wiig. 25: Hugh Jackman plays circus legend P.T. Barnum in a biopic, The Greatest Showman. Compiled by Mahita Gajanan and Eliza Berman
The Kiwi says her second project is more grownup.
Pop’s mogul is overdue for a full-length album.
Hip-hop’s matriarch is back on the release radar.
The former One Direction star debuts as a soloist.
LIL UZI VERT
This fast-rapping Philly native is rapidly rising.
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Hawkins, who plays a veteran forced out of hiding, opens up new territory for 24
Racing the clock in the ISIS era With a revamped cast, 24: Legacy is after more than nostalgia By DANIEL D’ADDARIO The original Fox series 24 wenT inTo production in 2001, months before the news added rocket fuel to the idea of a counter terrorism operative racing the clock in real time to avert disaster. 24: Legacy has switched out the cast and the central threat, but the reboot (which begins on Feb. 5, following Super Bowl LI) arrives with a boost of its own: the edgy new political world surrounding an impetuous new President. “That’s the success of most things, isn’t it? Timing,” says Miranda Otto, who plays a former CTU head drawn back into the action. “There’s something that’s addictive about watching, in the same way that people turn on the news during political events wondering, What’s the next thing that’s going to happen? Who’s scripting this?” Who indeed? 24 debuted seven weeks after the 9/11 attacks with Kiefer Sutherland as intelligence veteran Jack Bauer, the one man standing in the way of repeated existential threats to the Republic, from nuclear detonations to biological warfare. Its vision of 108 Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
In 24’s first season, Sutherland, right, guarded Dennis Haysbert’s presidential candidate
a world of rogues and moles seeking to carry out masscasualty attacks felt gripping, and its tough, seasoned hero unafraid to rough up some baddies was congruent with the cowboy mythmaking of the George W. Bush era. But Sutherland’s decision to move on from 24 after a oneseason revival in 2014—he now plays the President on the similarly anxious Designated Survivor—brought new opportunities. In Bauer’s place, 24: Legacy introduces Eric Carter, a former Army Ranger living in seclusion after taking part in a mission that killed a top terrorist. He’s played by Corey Hawkins, coming off an acclaimed performance as Dr. Dre in 2015’s Straight Outta Compton, an inclusive casting move that opens up new dramatic territory. After all, unlike Bauer, Carter is subject to an added level of scrutiny pretty much everywhere he goes. “What would happen if a young black man is running around the street with a gun in his hand and he’s no longer a commissioned officer?” Hawkins asks. Once again, the show’s power is in the timing.
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Donald Trump’s already-fraught relationship with the U.S. intelligence community gives the show a whole new level of relevance, on top of lingering questions like torture. Fox co-chairman Gary Newman notes, “Just this election cycle, there’s been discussions about the use of intense interrogation techniques and whether they’re valid. These issues, which [the world of] 24 sometimes touches on, are still relevant issues today.” Oddly, 24: Legacy finds its roots in one of the most-hailed accomplishments of Barack Obama’s presidency: the killing of Osama bin Laden. Producers Manny Coto and Evan Katz began pondering a take, separate from 24, on the lives of SEAL Team 6’s members after that operation. One real-life detail that initially caught Coto’s attention: a SEAL was offered a witness-protection-like job as a beer-truck driver. In the series, Carter and his Ranger colleagues face reprisal after a bad actor gets access to their identities and begins a systematic revenge. Other plot points turn on everything from the treatment of veterans to the threat of doxxing. “We never got a call from the network saying, ‘We need another 24,’” says Coto, who serves as showrunner. “It came in reverse.” The Types of Terrorism are different, but the feeling is the same: shiftless anxiety denied catharsis in favor of endlessly spiraling bad news. (The ever-ticking countdown clock returns too.) Moving past the showy villainy of the original, the ISIS-era 24: Legacy operates in an atmosphere of smaller-scale but moreincessant threats, the only constant the further ratcheting-up of the stakes. “You look at what happened in Ohio,” says Hawkins, referring to the car ramming and mass stabbing at a state university, for which ISIS claimed responsibility, “how people can be radicalized at a moment’s notice—that’s what this show is tapping into.” That process—finding the newsy energy within a story worth telling, rather than searching for a way to leverage a much-loved brand—may set 24: Legacy apart from lesseffective recent TV reboots, from MacGyver to Gilmore Girls. All parties involved are hoping for multiple seasons’ worth of stories—a distinction few TV reboots have been able to achieve lately once the dopamine hit of nostalgia dissipates. Again, the show seems to have its timing down. With President-elect Trump having won the election partly on the basis of his promise to take the fight to ISIS, Hawkins and the rest of the 24: Legacy team can likely look forward to mining at least four years’ worth of all-new real-life drama. •
A NEW CLASS OF HARD-ASS HEROES Two Oscar-winning actors and a resident bad girl light up new series For 11 seasons on the FXX series It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Kaitlin Olson has brought a loopy, dark mania to each of her drunken rants as sociopathic aspiring comedian Dee Reynolds. Now she’s coming to network TV as the least likely of saviors. On Fox’s The Mick (debuting Jan. 1), Olson plays Mackenzie Murphy, a woman whose own alcohol-fueled thrill ride of a life doesn’t exempt her from having to clean up her sister’s messes. She ends up playing mom to her wealthy nephews and niece—taking up residence in their Greenwich, Conn., manse—after Sis flees federal charges. It’s a fish-out-of-water story in which Olson flops about with fearless élan, scared only of her own propensity to actually be good at this. Elsewhere, FX mixes up the superhero template with Legion (Feb. 8), in which Downton Abbey’s Dan Stevens plays an institutionalized mental patient slowly discovering that what he long thought was illness may actually be a very special set of gifts. It all ties into Marvel’s X-Men universe, where differences represent strength. But comics are hardly the only place where divergent skill sets come in handy. Nicole Kidman (below), Reese Witherspoon and Shailene Woodley band together in HBO’s Big Little Lies (Feb. 19), an adaptation of Liane Moriarty’s hit novel about a group of suburban mothers who resist a world determined to break them. To that subset of viewers interested in seasoned female actors assaying morally complex characters: this is your Avengers. —D.D.
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Refugees through the looking glass A new novel imagines migrant escape via magic portals By SARAH BEGLEY in The new year, ciTizens around The world will argue over the fate of refugees fleeing by sea, by land and by air. But in Pakistani author Mohsin Hamid’s new novel, they escape by enchanted door. Exit West (out March 7) takes place in an unnamed city where Islam prevails but sex, ’shrooms and smartphones are also prolific. A young couple, Saeed and Nadia, are falling in love even as their city is spiraling into war, with explosions plaguing every neighborhood and “helicopters [filling] the sky like birds startled by a gunshot.” The conflict accelerates the relationship, and soon Saeed and Nadia decide to seek out one of the doors they’ve been hearing about, portals to another, safer part of the planet. Using doorways to exit conflict zones, people (mostly dark-skinned) emerge in Western societies to the surprise of other people (mostly light-skinned) and spark controversy. In refugee camps and squatter dens, the couple must protect themselves from
CV Hamid’s previous novels include How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia and The Reluctant Fundamentalist, a finalist for the 2007 Man Booker Prize
the furious “natives” who are organizing mobs to brutalize these vulnerable new arrivals. Hamid’s prose powerfully evokes the violence and anxiety of lives lived “under the drone-crossed sky.” But his whimsical framing of the situation offers a hopeful metaphor for the future as the “natives” come to accept their new neighbors. “Perhaps they had grasped that the doors could not be closed,” he writes, “and new doors would continue to open, and they had understood that the denial of coexistence would have required one party to cease to exist, and the extinguishing party too would have been transformed in the process.” •
Not totally deplorable Ottessa Moshfegh’s story collection spotlights loners and losers with tales of a range of creeps and weirdos in despair, looking for something that will make this world more palatable to them (or vice versa). Moshfegh sympathizes with these people on the margins even as she mocks them, often suturing together
110 Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
comedy and tragedy in one sentence. In the case of an alcoholic schoolteacher sitting alone at a bar: “I dipped a finger in my beer,” she says, “and rubbed off my mascara.” A delusional actor with eccentric interests responds to a disappointment by
“staring at the sun through the smog on the balcony, holding his eyes open with his fingers, crying.” This cast of boors may not be the kind of folks readers would seek out to spend time with in real life. But in Moshfegh’s stories, their company is irresistible. —S.B.
Some stories in Homesick have appeared in the Paris Review and other journals
HAMID: JILLIAN EDELSTEIN
Ottessa Moshfegh earned plaudits for last year’s Eileen, which won the PEN/Hemingway Award for debut fiction and was short-listed for the Booker Prize. But her literary career began with stories. Homesick for Another World (out Jan. 17) showcases her mastery
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A collection of tales that bind Flying Lessons aims for maximal inclusion By SARAH BEGLEY
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THE PILOTS Contributing writers include:
MATT DE LA PEÑA
paint, they see her not as a peer but as lessthan. “For kids of color, those little micromoments happen all the time,” Medina says. “We have to help them make sense of that.” The stories will also resonate with any kid who’s ever felt different—which is to say, every kid. Soman Chainani (The School for Good and Evil, 2013) contributes a personal story about a nerdy Indian boy on vacation in Spain, who gazes at the cute boy on the beach wondering whether he’s staring because he likes him or because he wants to be him. Chainani notes efforts at inclusion can themselves be segregated—“this is the disability story, this is the gay story.” But for him, there were multiple things that made him feel like an outsider as a kid, including being “a bone” at 6 ft. 115 lb. “It isn’t so much about finding a story that mirrors exactly your situation, but [one that] somehow produces the same feelings.” “What we want to do,” Oh says, “is to talk about how the human experience is what bonds all of us, instead of putting us into these parcels, these categories, and saying, ‘No, you’re different, and I can’t relate to you.’ ” •
W O O D S O N : J U N A N A G L E ; A L E X A N D E R : P I L A R V E R G A R A ; D E L A P E Ñ A : H E AT H E R W A R A K S A
When ellen Oh Was in elemenTary school, her teacher read a classic children’s book to the students: Claire Huchet Bishop’s The Five Chinese Brothers. That day at recess, she says, “the kids started to chase me around and do Chinky eyes at me and use ching-chong language.” In art class that afternoon, a boy painted mustard yellow on her arm, telling her she “wasn’t the right color for a Chinaman.” Oh, who is Korean American, is now an author herself and wants to make sure young readers today feel recognized in their literature. As president of the organization We Need Diverse Books, she has edited an anthology of short stories for middle-grade readers representing the breadth of American childhood. Flying Lessons & Other Stories, to be published Jan. 3, includes contributions from nine award-winning and best-selling authors, including Jacqueline Woodson (Brown Girl Dreaming, 2014) and Grace Lin (When the Sea Turned to Silver, 2016), plus newcomer Kelly J. Baptist, whose story about a homeless boy whose father has died won a contest that’s part of the organization’s mission to build up new writers. Kwame Alexander (The Crossover, 2014), who wrote a story in verse about a boy who gains the ability to read people’s thoughts after hitting his head, says he likes to tell stories about kids “who happen to be from a different culture or community or background, who laugh and breathe and cry and have hopes and dreams just like every other kid. But they aren’t viewed as other, and they don’t view themselves as other.” Other tales focus explicitly on the feeling of being different: Meg Medina (Burn Baby Burn, 2016) writes about a Latina girl whose father has arranged to paint the gym in her new school in lieu of paying tuition. When a group of students traipse through the workspace and mess up the
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Pike and Oyelowo in A United Kingdom, the true story of an interracial marriage
Diversity waits on a green light With #OscarsSoWhite in view, Hollywood inches ahead By STEPHANIE ZACHAREK The world of film resisTs change, mosTly because movies—even independent ones—take so long to conceive, plan and finance, let alone actually make. Plus, the majority of people who decide which movies get made and how are still white men, who are often slow to greenlight anything that might challenge them. No matter how you feel about either preserving the sovereignty of white dudes or shoving them aside, they’re here to stay, at least for one more year. Yet 2017’s movies will seem radically different because we are radically different. Whether our worst fears will play out or not, plenty of us worry that we’re entering a period of cultural regression—and just when we thought things were getting good too. If early 2016 was dominated by the #OscarsSoWhite debate, by the fall, those of us who care about the variety and substance of movies gave ourselves permission to breathe a sigh of relief. Barry Jenkins’ Moonlight showed us men of color who, instead of just fulfilling all our cherished notions of who men of color are, were living lives we couldn’t previously have imagined seeing 114 Time December 26, 2016–January 2, 2017
CAN MOVIES UNIFY OUR NATION? OR WILL WE LIVE IN ONE ROILING, ANGRY COMMENTS SECTION?
onscreen. The picture told us something we didn’t already know, about people we’d never seen before—probably because we just weren’t looking hard enough. Other movies—like Jeff Nichols’ Loving, Anna Rose Holmer’s The Fits and Nate Parker’s The Birth of a Nation—made 2016 seem more progressive, in terms of the types of stories we saw onscreen, than we might have expected in January. Not that everything was rosy: Asian and Latino actors and filmmakers weren’t particularly well represented. And while a remake of bro-fave Ghostbusters featured women in the starring roles, that film opened the noisiest and dumbest battle of all, a showdown that reminded us just how ingrained sexism really is. At least our cartoons were steeped in civic principles: Byron Howard and Rich Moore’s animated parable Zootopia described an animal Gotham where predators and their prey live peaceably, until nefarious government forces step in to instill fear. On to 2017. While audiences clamoring for more movies made by and about white dudes
A U N I T E D K I N G D O M : F O X S E A R C H L I G H T; C O P P O L A , S H A K U R : G E T T Y I M A G E S
are probably going to be in luck, what can the rest of us look forward to? Amma Asante’s A United Kingdom (Feb. 17) dramatizes the real-life, apartheid-defying marriage between Seretse Khama (David Oyelowo), the man who would become the first President of Botswana, and Ruth Williams (Rosamund Pike), a white London office worker. More than 20 years after his death, Tupac Shakur will finally get his biopic, All Eyez on Me (June 16). We’ll see what director Patty Jenkins has done with Wonder Woman (June 2), starring the formidable Gal Gadot. Ava DuVernay is hard at work on her adaptation of Madeleine L’Engle’s fantasy classic A Wrinkle in Time (it won’t be released until 2018, but it’s one more thing to look forward to). And Sofia Coppola, anti-comic-booksuperhero filmmaker extraordinaire, gives us a Civil War–era western, The Beguiled (June 23), starring Elle Fanning, Kirsten Dunst and Colin Farrell. Note that this is a remake of a 1971 picture directed by Don Siegel, among the manliest of manly directors, and starring Clint Eastwood, among the manliest of manly stars. There’s more: the Sundance Film Festival (Jan. 19–29) will host premieres of Sabaah Folayan and Damon Davis’ Whose Streets?, a documentary about the Ferguson, Mo., uprising after the killing of Michael Brown, and The Force, Peter Nicks’ documentary about the Oakland, Calif., police department. Other features slated to play at Sundance include Matt Ruskin’s Crown Heights, based on the true story of a Brooklyn man falsely convicted of murder, and the fraternity-hazing drama Burning Sands, starring Moonlight’s Trevante Rhodes and directed by Gerard McMurray, an associate producer of Ryan Coogler’s 2013 Fruitvale Station. For now, though, those movies are just titles with names attached. How will we feel, at the end of 2017, after we’ve seen them? The final months of 2016 have been a viper’s nest of anxiety, accusations and posturing, with comers from all sides. Suddenly, there’s a rift between white working-class Americans and those they view as condescending coastal liberals—or rather, a rift has been steadily growing, and too many were too slow to see it. This divide hasn’t hit the world of movies, at least not in any immediately visible way. But the specter of white supremacy has to be on filmmakers’ minds. How destructive a force will it be? That’s a question no one can answer right now. The way forward, and perhaps the only way to avoid madness, is to think less about people who would like to obstruct progress and more about pushing forward. In late January 2016,
LONG TAKES A remake and a biopic with new audiences in mind:
Her next film is The Beguiled, based on Thomas Cullinan’s 1966 Southern-gothic novel, previously adapted by tough-guy director Don Siegel and starring Clint Eastwood.
More than two decades after the iconic rapper’s murder, biopic All Eyez on Me releases in June. It will be directed by music-video veteran Benny Boom.
in the wake of #OscarsSoWhite, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences made an official move to diversify: its goal was to double the number of women and minorities in its ranks by 2020. What’s more, the Academy’s board instituted changes to the criteria used to determine members’ voting eligibility, requiring each member’s status to be reviewed every 10 years. In other words, if you’re an old-timer who hasn’t been active in the industry for decades, you’ll have to meet certain standards to maintain voting rights. The Academy, too long a petrified forest with numbingly predictable tastes, needed to be modernized, diversified and electrified, and maybe these changes will help when it comes to honoring good work in the industry. But what about the movies themselves? Is there any way they can unify our cleft nation, or are we doomed to a future of filmgoing tastes divided between so-called cultural elitism and populism? Are we looking at a future of living inside one roiling, angry comments section? Maybe it’s useFul, or at least comforting, to remember that movies aren’t always what we want them to be, when we need them to be. Today Sidney Lumet’s 1957 drama 12 Angry Men, in which a jury holdout, played by Henry Fonda, tries to persuade his fellow jurors, all white, of an 18-year-old Puerto Rican boy’s innocence in the killing of his father, is considered a classic of cherished liberal ideals. But as Pauline Kael pointed out in an essay written over 50 years ago, “Ask an educated American what he thought of 12 Angry Men and more likely than not he will reply, ‘That movie made some good points’ or ‘It got some important ideas across.’ His assumption,” Kael writes, “is that it carried these ideas, which also happen to be his ideas, to the masses. Actually, it didn’t: this tense, ingenious juryroom melodrama was a flop with the mass audience, a success only at revivals in art houses.” Movies have lives beyond anything we can imagine for them upon their release. That’s true whether they’re flops or hits, whether they reach the mainstream immediately or eventually or never. The movie landscape of 2016 was better than many of us expected it to be, but there’s a danger in viewing the past year’s movies—as terrific as so many of them were—as any sort of sign of great progress. We can always do better. Complacency and self-congratulation are so 2016. Last year, and the year before, and maybe even every year before that, we thought we were stepping up to the plate. Let’s see what happens now that we really have a plate to step up to. • 115
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The reboot playbook expands Hollywood is finding (many) more ways to revive familiar stories By ELIZA BERMAN SAME CHARACTER, DIFFERENT ACTORS Spider-Man: Homecoming, due in July, installs the fourth Peter Parker in as many decades, following a recent Captain America cameo that sent the Internet abuzz.
2002, 2004, 2007
The actor, 20, is also likely to star in a sequel
1977–79 (on TV)
FROM ANIMATION TO LIVE ACTION
Disney’s Beauty and the Beast remake puts a human face on a once animated bibliophile, painstakingly re-creating her 2-D costumes and breathing life into her cadre of sidekicks, from candelabra Lumière to teapot Mrs. Potts.
EMMA WATSON 2017
FROM SMALL SCREEN TO BIG The slo-mo beach run returns in a high-res adaptation of the hit series, which throughout the 1990s proved that drama seekers need look no further than the lifeguard chair. Dwayne Johnson steps in for David Hasselhoff, Kelly Rohrbach for Pamela Anderson and Alexandra Daddario for Nicole Eggert.
SAME UNIVERSE, NEW STORIES Producer J.J. Abrams builds on Cloverfield (2008) and 10 Cloverfield Lane (2016) with a new film, likely titled something Cloverfield. The Twilight Zone–inspired monster anthology features different casts in the same fictional world.
PAIGE O’HARA (voice) 1991
REBOOTING REBOOTS OF REBOOTS Both The Mummy and King Kong debuted in the early 1930s, kicking off two of the most prolific franchises in movie history. In 2017, Tom Cruise will make archaeology cool again in a reboot of The Mummy, while Brie Larson will star in the 1970s-set origin story Kong: Skull Island.
King Kong: Fay Wray is Ann Darrow
King Kong: Jessica Lange is the sympathetic Dwan
King Kong: Naomi Watts steps in as Ann Darrow
Kong: Skull Island: Larson debuts as Weaver
The Mummy: Boris Karloff kicks off the horrors
Abbott and Costello Meet the Mummy: A comedic turn
The Mummy: Peter Cushing stars
The Mummy: Enter Brendan Fraser
The Mummy: Cruise revives the franchise
H O L L A N D : S O N Y; W AT S O N : W A LT D I S N E Y; B AY W AT C H M O V I E : PA R A M O U N T; K O N G : W A R N E R B R O S .; C R U I S E : U N I V E R S A L ; G A R F I E L D, M A G U I R E , H A M M O N D, M I R R E N , B E A U T Y A N D T H E B E A S T, B AY W AT C H T V, C L O V E R F I E L D, F R A S E R , A B B O T T A N D C O S T E L L O, W R AY, K A R L O F F, L A N G E , W AT T S , C U S H I N G : G E T T Y I M A G E S
The Fate of the Furious (that’s the eighth installment, if you’re counting) adds a touch of class with British actor Helen Mirren.
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The entertainer dishes on next year’s Hello, Dolly! revival, reissuing her first album and being a mentor By ELIZA BERMAN Do you remember the first time you saw Hello, Dolly! ? I was in Fiddler on the Roof [in the late 1960s], which was around the corner, but I was working all the same nights, so I never got to see it. When I was invited to do it, I walked to the Library for the Performing Arts, one of my favorite places, and watched it. It was the last revival Carol Channing did, in 1995. Even at 75, she was absolutely extraordinary. I met her a couple of months ago and fell in love. She’s a real light in the world. It’s very big shoes to fill. Did she have any advice for you? Make it your own. That’s what everyone I talked to said. You can’t do somebody else’s version of it. It’s a tall order. It’s wonderfully constructed. It’s this exquisite little jewel box, like a watch—so finely tuned, and every little piece works.
DAN HALLMAN — AP
The revival has already broken box-office records. What is it that still resonates 50 years after its debut? First of all, it’s hilarious. Second, it has that terrific score that is part of everyone’s DNA. It’s thoroughly American and familiar. It also has a sweetness and a lightheartedness that is genuinely needed in these dark times. That’s why I decided to do it. People have had a rough few years and there’s a lot of violence and ugliness in the world, and this is like a valentine, a sunbeam, a ray of sunshine. How different is a big Broadway production from a Las Vegas concert series? It’s much smaller. Also, I’m the boss when I do my own shows. Now I’m an employee, I’ve been hired, so it’s up to me to bring what I can. But I’m terrified that I’m going to turn around and say, “What are all these people doing on my stage?” I’ve worked for myself for close to 50 years. It’s going to be a collaborative effort. It’s a change of pace, but I think I’m up to it. I’ve met human beings before, so I think I’ll be fine.
‘DOLLY! HAS A SWEETNESS THAT IS GENUINELY NEEDED IN THESE DARK T I M E S .’
Do you think Broadway is friendlier than Hollywood to women over a certain age? I do. I don’t think it enters into their equation. They think about the material first—Does it have resonance? Will it reach an audience?—and then cast it according to what the play requires. I don’t think they care who comes as long as there are bodies in the seats. Everyone hopes for a good box office, but they’re more willing to take a risk on Broadway than they are in Hollywood. You recently reissued your first album, The Divine Miss M, which turns 45 next year. What made you want to revisit it? I hadn’t realized that much time had passed. It’s a really interesting reflection of the time that it was made, kind of a fearless mixtape of music that may not have been looked at in a positive light. All this stuff that I unearthed and put a new polish on, I presented as something worthy. Also, if I waited until it was 50, I might not be around! As a mentor on The Voice, did you give young artists similar advice to what you received early on? I wasn’t really mentored. I had a singing teacher here and a dancing instructor there, but I followed my own sense of what was dramatic or interesting as a performer. These kids don’t get exposure. You have to turn the lightbulb on, and if someone doesn’t, you can flounder for years. They don’t give it to you in schools anymore. There’s very little art in public schools. If they don’t teach kids to be human beings, performers are going to be more and more robotic. Is there anything you haven’t done that you still want to tackle? Dolly is a big stretch. I’ve been in a Broadway show, but never the lead. It’s a brandnew thing, and at my age , it’s quite a challenge: she has to be funny, she has to sing, and she has to dance. I might be done after this. I’ve done a lot. □ 117
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2017 milestones Anniversaries you’ll hear about
The ‘Gangnam Style’ video is uploaded to YouTube JULY 15, 2012 The popularity of Psy’s K-pop ode to materialism— and its signature horseydance move (above)—would eventually require the videostreaming site to upgrade its views counter to track large enough numbers. Also in style: May 7 marks 80 years of Ray-Ban sunglasses.
Apple releases the iPhone to U.S. customers JUNE 29, 2007 In honor of the retail debut of the much anticipated device, which had been unveiled by Steve Jobs that January, every Apple store in the U.S.—164 at the time—remained open until midnight. Also in retail: The then 4.2 million-sq.-ft. Mall of America turns 25 on Aug. 11.
Princess Diana’s passing AUG. 31, 1997 The Paris car wreck that led to the death of the “people’s princess” also killed her companion, Dodi al Fayed, and their driver. An estimated million people came out for her funeral procession later that week.
Also in world-changing women: On Jan. 23, 20 years will have passed since Madeleine Albright, the first woman to be U.S. Secretary of State, was sworn in to office.
Not long after the infamy of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made his own infamous move, giving the military new powers that would allow it to relocate Japanese Americans.
AIDS drug AZT gets federal approval MARCH 20, 1987 The O.K. by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was the first for any lifeextending AIDS treatment.
FDR signs Executive Order 9066 FEB. 19, 1942
Also in persecution: On June 12 of the same year, Anne Frank received a diary for her birthday.
Also in health: June 28 will mark five years since the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a crucial component of the Affordable Care Act.
SEPT. 25, 1957 Under guard by hundreds of federal troops, nine black students (below) made civil rights history by entering their Arkansas school. Also in integration: March 24 will be the 15th anniversary of Halle Berry’s becoming the first black woman to win an Oscar in the Best Actress category.
Also in war: The Six-Day War, which redefined Israel’s borders, will have ended 50 years ago June 10.
Walt Whitman dies MARCH 26, 1892 The poet (above) passed peacefully at home after a career that revolutionized American literature with works like Leaves of Grass.
Little Rock’s Central High School is integrated
France and Russia in the trenches.
The Golden Gate Bridge opens MAY 27, 1937 Members of the public first walked across the San Francisco landmark (above) on the day of its completion. Cars crossed the next day. Also in California icons: Buffy the Vampire Slayer premiered on TV 20 years ago on March 10.
The U.S. enters World War I APRIL 6, 1917 Following years of debate over neutrality, the U.S. formally declared war on Germany, joining Britain,
Also in verse: Twenty years will have passed since rapper Christopher Wallace, also known as the Notorious B.I.G., was fatally shot on March 9.
Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to a church door OCT. 31, 1517 The priest sparked the Protestant Reformation— forever reshaping Christianity—by posting his radical views on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Also in faith: Mother Teresa, who became a saint in 2016, will have died 20 years ago on Sept. 5. Compiled by Lily Rothman
P S Y: YO U T U B E ; W H I T M A N , B R I D G E , L I T T L E R O C K : G E T T Y I M A G E S; C A R L M Y D A N S — L I F E P I C T U R E C O L L E C T I O N /G E T T Y I M A G E S
The files may shed light on what the CIA knew about assassin Lee Harvey Oswald before JFK’s death
JFK assassination secrets scheduled for 2017 release By JOSH SANBURN The TorTured paTh ThaT began wiTh a left turn onto Dealey Plaza on Nov. 22, 1963, will find its unlikely end point this October in College Park, Md. At a National Archives annex, the last remaining documents related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy are being processed, scanned and readied for release. For those who believe that the clues to who killed JFK are hidden somewhere deep inside the government’s files, this may be the last chance to find the missing pieces. Under the terms of the 1992 JFK Records Act—a result of Oliver Stone’s 1991 movie JFK, which revived fascination with the idea of a cover-up—the government was given 25 years to make public all related files. The time is up on Oct. 26, 2017. About 3,000 never-before-seen documents, along with 34,000 previously redacted files, are scheduled for release. The files—many of which trace back to the
‘WE’RE AT THE FINAL CHAPTER OF JFK D I S C L O S U R E .’ JEFFERSON MORLEY,
author of Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA
House Select Committee on Assassinations from the 1970s—promise to be less about second shooters and grassy knolls and more about what the government, particularly the CIA, might have known about assassin Lee Harvey Oswald before Kennedy’s death. (The CIA declined to comment for this story, and the FBI did not respond to a request.) Already, the law has helped fill out one of the most significant periods of the 20th century, revealing information on military plots to invade Cuba; Kennedy’s plans to execute a withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam; and the formation of the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination. According to the National Archives, the final batch includes information on the CIA’s station in Mexico City, where Oswald showed up weeks before JFK’s death; 400 pages on E. Howard Hunt, the Watergate burglary conspirator who said on his deathbed that he had prior knowledge of the assassination; and testimony from the CIA’s James Angleton, who oversaw intelligence on Oswald. The documents could also provide information on a CIA officer named George Joannides, who directed financial dealings with an anti-Castro group whose members had a public fight with Oswald on the streets of New Orleans in the summer of 1963. “The records that are out there are going to fill out this picture,” says Jefferson Morley, an author who’s spent decades researching the assassination. But Martha Murphy, who oversees the effort at the National Archives, warns that many of the documents may be of little value. She believes that any potentially revelatory information, like Oswald’s CIA file, has already been released—albeit with redactions (that text will be restored for the new release). Most of the trove was deemed “not believed relevant” by the independent Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) in the 1990s. Still, John Tunheim, who chaired the ARRB, says “something that was completely irrelevant in 1998 may look more tantalizing today.” For curious observers, even irrelevant documents are better than nothing—and nothing is still a possibility. The law says that if an agency doesn’t want certain files made public, it can appeal to the President, who could decide to hold them back after all. That has prompted almost two dozen authors, academics and former ARRB members to write to the White House counsel urging that all documents be released. “We’re at the final chapter of JFK disclosure,” Morley says. “Sometimes I think we’re going to win. Sometimes I think it’s a fool’s errand. But we’re going to find out.” •
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Predictions about prediction Data is out, and pure gut instinct is in By JOEL STEIN
I L L U S T R AT I O N B Y M A R T I N G E E F O R T I M E
While 2016 Was a horrible year for predictions— Brexit! Trump! FARC plebiscite! Leicester City! The Game of Thrones guy who deserved to die but no one thought would die and was finally killed by that other Game of Thrones guy!—that is not going to stop me from making prognostications. In fact, I feel very confident about my first prediction: 2017 is going to be a horrible year for predictions. I also predict that Warren Hatch, a superpredictor who is a senior vice president of a forecasting consulting firm, will not be making predictions in this column like he did last year. Sure, he admitted to me that forecasters “took a few lumps” this past year, but he said increased global uncertainty only makes expert predictions more important. Then he defended oddsmakers who gave Clinton huge odds to beat Trump by arguing that “events with a 1-in-4 chance of happening are supposed to happen 1 in 4 times, so the election was far from a failure for those who didn’t put his chances below 1%.” That’s exactly the kind of academic mumbo jumbo designed to misdirect us from the fact that the elites know nothing. So in 2017, I’m turning to people with common sense who speak truth from their guts and have the guts to speak common truth from their sense. Good people who don’t worry about whether their sentences are coherent as long as they sound good. I recruited Lisa Vanderpump, the restaurant-owning star of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills and Vanderpump Rules, who has delivered such hard truths as “People are replaceable, and they need to know that,” and “You’re not important enough to hate.” She gets her intel not from big data but from real people. “When you’re in the restaurant industry, you’re around a lot of people and get a great pulse reading. I hear things before they hit the tabloids. I see the person out of rehab who orders a Diet Coke with a slip of vodka in it,” she explained. Unlike Nate Silver, she won thousands of dollars in bets with friends by predicting that Trump would win, based on what she heard drunk people saying. For 2017, Vanderpump predicts that Trump will soften stances he took during the campaign: “He’ll be more moderate
than people thought. He’s not so worried about the morality laws, like with the LGBT community. He’s more worried about the trade deals.” She thinks his Supreme Court pick will not come from the list he released during the campaign. “He’s chosen me to be a judge in the Miss Universe contest several times. He’s invested in my judicial prowess,” she said, before sending me a photo of the 45th President of the United States holding her dog Giggy, a tuxedoed Pomeranian that is so tiny, it makes his hands look big. in technology, Vanderpump sees massive changes: “We’re going to have radar-based sensors so we can find a parking space. Imagine: you plug in to your phone and find your car-parking space. That’s cool.” In economics, department stores will suffer, with a few big ones going bust. The price of oil will increase. WikiLeaks will dump more files. Veganism will become more popular. George Clooney will run for office. Fashion will become glitzier. A surprising number of Vanderpump’s predictions centered on dog eating. She thinks Congress will pass HR 752, a bill she got Florida Representative Alcee Hastings to sponsor that would scold China for holding the annual Lychee and Dog Meat Festival in Yulin. She has taken a harsh Trumpian stance against China, though I think it would be more effective to simply stress how great lychees taste by themselves. Although Vanderpump’s guesses were even smarter than I’d hoped, I don’t have a lot of faith in predictions anymore, since they’re based on historical data and can’t calculate for huge new events. So the only 2017 prediction I feel totally comfortable making is that we’re going to hear an unprecedented amount of the word unprecedented. • 121
Q U I Z
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The 2017 quiz on news-to-be Test your news sense by predicting the headlines to come in the year ahead In 2017, the most interesting political figure not named Trump will be:
When it comes to his conflicts of interest, Donald Trump will make no changes to his business practices because: him to
U.S. car sales will level off at least 16 million units in 2017, thanks largely to:
B. Americans don’t really care
A. Seven-year car loans
C. The Trump kids cannot afford to buy his
B. Seven-year car warranties
A. His lawyers say the law doesn’t require
interests in the family partnerships
D. Congress won’t let him write off capital-
gains taxes, as it has for other public servants
D. Gasoline prices staying
below $3 a gallon
The most likely headline in religion will be:
California Governor Jerry Brown, for the 42nd year in a row
Rex Tillerson’s nomination as Secretary of State will: A. Slip by, because Democrats try
to pick off two or three of Trump’s nominees rather than concentrating on one B. Fail, because both parties want a scalp for
the Russian email-hacking scandal
C. Drag on for weeks because of the constant
D. Be eclipsed by the hearings for Energy
Incoming Senate minority leader Chuck Schumer, who still knows how to make a deal
Secretary designate Rick Perry, who once believed (but famously could not recall in a televised debate) that he wanted to abolish the department
A. End as water levels rise and
C. Deflate as buyers flock to Havana for
C. Political corruption in South
Korea hobbles Washington’s efforts to constrain the Hermit Kingdom D. Hard-partying Kim Jong Un
dies in a car accident; Pyongyang accuses Seoul, Washington of assassination
The most dramatic change in domestic policy under Trump will be:
B. Anti-abortion groups
A. Rolling back Obama’s
successfully push Congress to strip Planned Parenthood’s government funding
many climate and clean-energy initiatives
C. The Dalai Lama meets
and offshore tracts to oil and gas drilling
with President Trump in the Oval Office D. Billy Graham
invites Trump to visit him at his home in Montreat, N.C.
B. Opening more public land
C. The repeal and replacement
D. The enactment of a new
corporate and personal-income tax framework
The standout sports performance of 2017 will belong to: A. Serena Williams, who breaks Steffi Graf’s Grand Slam singles
title record by winning her 23rd major at the Australian Open
B. The Dallas Cowboys, who win Super Bowl LI with two rookies: C. The Golden State Warriors, who avenge their loss to the
Cleveland Cavaliers in the 2016 NBA Finals by defeating LeBron James’ Cavs in seven games D. The Chicago Cubs repeat
as World Series champions, and the good times roll at Wrigley
D. Climb once more as Puerto Ricans
fleeing the debt-ridden island continue to move to the mainland E D I T O R S ’ P R E D I C T I O N S : 1 . C ; 2 . B ; 3 . A ; 4 . A ; 5 . D ; 6 . B ; 7. B ; 8 . A ; 9. A
into the eastern Pacific
G E T T Y I M A G E S (9)
B. Go bust as Chinese and Brazilian money
Kellyanne Conway, Trump adviser
B. Pyongyang test-fires an ICBM
quarterback Dak Prescott and running back Ezekiel Elliott
The decade-long boom in Miami condo sales will: buyers bid only on higher floors
Kim Jong Un announces Pyongyang has successfully put a nuke atop an ICBM
the Vatican and China thaw, and China in turn recognizes the Catholic Church’s authority to name its own bishops
interruptions by climate-change protesters dressed as sick polar bears C.
A. Third-generation dictator
A. Relations between
Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, as she tries to make Goldman Sachs a fourletter word.
The big news from the Korean Peninsula will be:
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