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AIR FERNANDA BATISTA 2013


STUDIO AIR 2013, SEMESTER 1 FERNANDA BATISTA TUTORS Daniel Davis Kirilly Barnett

“If you can draw a building with a few sweeps of the pen and everyone recognizes not only the structure but also associates it with a place on earth, you have gone a long way towards creating something iconic” Tom Wright, 2000


CONTENT INTRODUCTION PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE PART A - CASE FOR INNOVATION ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC ART LOUVRE COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES ARCHITECTURE AND PARAMETRICISM CONCLUSION REFERENCES Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

PART B - DESIGN APPROACH INTRODUCTION CASE STUDY 1 CASE STUDY 2 WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT LEARNING OUTCOMES REFERENCES

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


INTRODUCTION

Hi! My name is Fernanda, 21 years old and I am a study abroad student here in The University of Melbourne for this semester. I was born in Viceroy Hotel Brazil, and live in a city called Sao Luis in the northeast region. Currently I am in my last year of the Architecture course. The reason IYas came source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

to Australia - Melbourne was to discover how the cities, people and culture work in here. I really enjoy visiting new places, getting to know different cultures, and as far as my conditions can lead me, try to experience real life in new environments. In Brazil I have worked with several softwares, such as AutoCad, Revit, Adobe Photoshop and Corel Draw, that helped me to develop projects and improve my habilities to present them. In order to create 3D models, I mostly use Google SketchUp associated to Vray plugin. Rhino and Grasshoper will be a new experience for me, and I am really glad to have the opportunity to learn and work with it. I believe they are powerful tools and in the architectural world can be very helpful in the creative process. What I think it will be the most interesting thing for me in the subject it is the opportunity to practice things there I was introduced before just in theoretical manners, as well as see the opinion that other people from this course have about the new possibilities that technology has to offer to us.

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE

Architecture has allowed me to experience things that I have never imagined it would be possible for me in this stage of my life, study in this university at this moment is one of them. During the 5th semester of the course I started to work as an intern in some architecture offices, and have stopped just before come here. In the offices that I have been I had opportunities to work with interior design and development of architectural projects of different typologies.

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

I also had the opportunity to be part of an international workshop, called Equinox, during three editions, one of them I went to Paris – France, to work with the students of the Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée and develop a project for a city called Mont-de-Marsan. In the most recent edition of this workshop I worked as tutor, aiding the groups – formed by people of three different nationalities, to develop projects for the city of Sao Luis. As a future architect I face all the experiences that life can put me through as an opportunity to learn about different environments, cultures, cities, countries, etc. The world and what it has to offer is the most valuable source of knowledge for the type of professional that I want to be.

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Convention Centre One of the projects that I have done in the university in Brazil in partnership with two colleges


PART A CASE FOR INNOVATION


ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

“Above all, architecture ought to be seen as discourse. Buildings as material facts are small part of the overall field of architecture, a field which is better regarded as a network of practices and debates about the built environment.� WILLIAMS, Richard (2005). 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), p. 115

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Some days before I wrote this text I was talking to a friend of mine

Rem Koolhaas defines New York as a result of an unlikely marriage

about future plans and some things that we might do in the next

between appearance and performance where architecture was not

years. I was telling him that I will do whatever it takes to go to New

only aesthetics but had succeeded in providing the basis for a unique

York and spend at least a month in there, his reaction was not that

metropolitan life (HAJER, 1994). This idea proves how great the

positive about this wish of mine. He started to question me why

outcomes that architecture can lead are. If a set of buildings and

would I want to go there, if the city was made basically of traffic

designed spaces can make people interact with each other and

and inconvenient skyscrapers, I decided not to argue about my

influence the way they behave it demonstrates how beyond single

position, instead of it I just said it would be nice for my career and

constructions architecture is.

that in New York there is a whole lot more to experience behind skyscrapers and crazy traffic.

Architecture and its product has to be seen in a context, independent of the way that it is thought, as a form of art, as a symbolic realm, or

Architecture is more. In the common sense people think about

as spatial experience. The person who thinks about architecture has

architecture and usually think about nice building, houses.

to be open-minded and consider it an important element with a huge

Unfortunately most of them cannot see what is behind those single

power of interaction. Power because the modifications caused by the

elements that they see. Many cities around the world, even if

product of architecture can revolution determined space, society,

destitute of projects of renowned architects, have their own

city, or country. Imagine Paris without the Eiffel Tower.

architectural experience working as network and involving many elements of the urban space.

Even the crazy traffic in New York, the yellow cabs all around, are part of the city network, and above all, are part of its identity. New York's

A single skyscraper when inserted in determined urban

culture of congestion is a result of the interaction between the

environment can lead to different outcomes. It happens because

diversity of activities and the composition of the urban space itself.

the city is made of different elements, each one of them with its

The world is not made of single positive elements, the interaction

different meanings, different aims, working in this network that

between all of them is necessary and turns the networks alive. This

defines the urban space.

life surrounds architecture and its product providing possibilities to

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

interact with societies and ability to influence their cultures. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

New York City source: www.thelittlewomaninsideme.blogspot.com

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


THE CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE

Here is one example of a project that had a great impact in the logical dynamic of a city. Valencia, Spain, itself is an amazing place, however the insertion of this project in its context turned the city into a much more interesting space, as well as renovated a degraded part of it.

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

The City of Arts and Science designed by Santiago Calatrava and

The results of the implementation of this project transformed the city

Felix Candelas was inaugurated in 1998 and finished in 2005,

in many aspects and created an amazing public space for its

corresponds to a big complex formed by four main buildings - L'

population. The image of Valencia as a historic site was overcome

Hemisferic, EL Museu de les Ciencies Principe Felipe,

and it also incited the propagation of contemporary architecture in its

L'Oceanografic and the Palau de las Arts Reina Sofia. In additional

surroundings. The experiences that the linear park provides to the

to the fabulousness of the buildings and its different shapes, the

population is unique, it allows the contact with the nature, the use of

complex has an amazing landscape project that turns the master

urban equipment distributed around the area, suitable ways to

pieces even more extraordinary.

pedestrians and accessibility, as well as a sensorial experience

Many were the sources that inspired the concept of the complex

To create a symbol of the contemporary times was a goal that was

and led to its final outcome. It is located in an area that used to be

achieved with success by its authors. With the City of Arts and

provided by the materials and elements that compose the complex.

the end of the former riverbed of the river Turia, which was drained

Science the architects were able not only to show their style and

and rerouted after a natural disaster in 1957. The project was

design approach but also to imprint the contemporary way of solving

supposed to renew the area, protect its environment, and

urban issues by creating something iconic in the local and global

symbolize the 21st century in the city scenario, which was marked

scale.

by architecture styles from periods before the introduction of modernism.

The way Santiago Calatrava and Felix Candelas work with the

Calatrava's intention was to bring the sensations of the sea a little

personalities and discoveries as architects and in all their projects it is

bit closer to this part of the city using the water as a major element

possible to notice the interaction between the desired shape and the

shapes, curves and the structural elements is unique, it defines their

for the whole site. The shapes of the buildings along the linear park

structural elements in a balanced way. Although Santiago Calatrava

formed by the complex were inspired by many elements, such as a

is the architect that receives most credit for this project, the presence

boat and an exoskeleton of a prehistoric animal, they are also a

of Felix Candelas and his way of thinking can be noticed in the works

reflection of the styles of their designers and the use of shapes to

of Calatrava, his influence in his way of designing, and the use of

London Aquatic Centre

generate structural components. source: www.zaha-hadid.com

elements and shapes according to structural definitions. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

City of Arts and Science Valencia, Spain source: www.cac.es


DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC ART

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Another example of contemporary architecture that has been very

The intention of the architects was to reach a design that could

well accepted and has a great significance for what it represents in

achieve a gentle and non-violent integration between a

the global scenario is the new Department of Islamic Art in the

contemporary architectural design and the historical place that is the

Louvre Museum. It was designed by the Italian architect Mario

Louvre building.

Bellini and his French colleague Rudy Ricciotti, inaugurated in 2012. The roof is the highlight of their creation, it represents an

This way the 'Veil' represented by the golden blanket visually is a

undulating golden blanket. The contrast between the new

subtle undulating surface for observers in the level above of the

architecture and the surroundings of neoclassical facades turns

courtyard in which is located. The building was designed with the aim

the space into an extraordinary environment where the old and

to use natural light and diffuse it through the area of exhibition.

new coexist. As well as the project of the City of Arts and Science the new The department of Islamic Art is the first contemporary

Department of Islamic art has single shapes that ally the use of

intervention in the Louvre Museum after the glass pyramids

technology, materials, and structure to generate the design that

designed by I. M. Pei. As the glass pyramids the golden blanket

differ from some other examples of architecture around the world.

represents the architecture of the contemporary times in an

Even being from different times, with those projects it is noticeable

ancient scenario. London Aquatic Centre

It also highlights its timeless feature and the

source: www.zaha-hadid.com attempt to renew its spaces according to nowadays moment.

how great are the results achieved by an architect using the alliance between design, technology and structural knowledge. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Department of Islamic Art - Louvre Museum source: www.bellini.it


ARCHITECTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES

The architecture that is produced today represents different times.

Physical examples of the use of those associations are becoming

Depending on the places in which the examples are taken in

each time more frequent. It represents the acceptance of those ideas

consideration people can see young old products of architecture.

by the designers and also the discovery of how to work with the tools

Those young old elements are a result of the alienation that

that technology has to offer in order to achieve determined result. In

dominates the mentality of the human being according to its

some countries of the Middle East those examples of contemporary

conditions. Some people just close their eyes to the possibilities

architecture are already icons of determined cities, most ofYas them Viceroy Hotel

that the world has to offer. The relationship between technology

have an important ideological meaning to those cultures, they do not

and the creative process is an example of a range of possibilities

represent just a building itself.

source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

that are offered today. Many are the softwares that aid in the development of ideas, projects, etc. However, the use of those

The Burj Al Arab for example, was created to be iconic, people were

tools are becoming even more frequent, it is noticeable a certain supposed to see the building and reference it to the city of Dubai, amount of prejudice surrounding the discussion of how effective

something that was extremely successful. The exterior and interior of

those softwares can be.

that building represents the use of great design techniques in accordance with the environment of the new city.

It is interesting how the world reacts to the new. It does not matter in which field it is applied, there are always positive, negative and

Abu Dhabi, another Middle Eastern city also has many buildings that

neutral opinions about the introduction of determined thing.

were designed with the aid of computational techniques, the Yas

Although the use of computational design techniques in the

Viceroy and its cover is already an icon of this city and what it

architecture field is not so recent, new materials and possibilities represents to the world nowadays. are released frequently. These are capable of improve the results that were achieved before as well as add new ideas that can be

With the aid of technology the architecture of the future is being

integrated in the creative process. With the aid of these softwares

created. The discoveries and productions that have led to the

the architecture of the future can be materialized in a smaller

moment lived now have showed that the evolution of techniques

amount of time, different if it were produced only with the use of

applied in the design process are constantly changing and have

traditional techniques. Parametrical design might generate the

proved to be very effective. As far as the possibilities can take the

idea of future, although we can notice examples of parametrical

designers the more varied will be the results achieved. The questions

models that certainly were produced by using traditional

behind the discussion about the acceptance of contemporary

techniques, the introduction of softwares that can improve the

computational design techniques are not related to the style of the

efficiency of the design according to different aspects represents a

designer, but the way how those people can perceive the possibilities

big step in the association between technology and the production

that are offered by the evolution of knowledge.

London Aquatic Centre of ideas.

source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


ARCHITECTURE AND PARAMETRICISM

“Parametricism is the great new style after modernism. The new style claims relevance on all scales from architecture and interior design to large scale urban design. The larger the scale of the project the more pronounced is parametricism's superior capacity to articulate programmatic complexity.� Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design Patrik Schumacher, London 2008

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Architecture styles are always something difficult to understand.

Although parametricism seems to be much more unrestricted than

Their ideology becomes clearer to the society by the time some

other styles of architecture there are plenty of discussions and

other style appears and contrasts with it. In the case of

prejudice around its approach. Some of them are related to the

parametricism it is even more difficult to understand because it is

principles of design in its most natural way, such as sketching, using

relatively young, and at least in some cultures, the presence and

pencil and paper. However it gives the impression to be different,

physical examples of the previous styles still being very strong. In

those principles still happening with parametricism but within a

addition to all of it, the discussion around a new style always

different interface, in which, the tools are always commanded by the

represents a source of polemic and prejudice till the time it is

designer, like this, the sketching process still present but in the

legitimated partially by the world community.

design space.

Parametricism has been developed over the last 15 years and is

Another source of discussion around the principles of parametricism

now claiming hegemony with avant-grade architecture. Closing a

is related to the use of tools designated to aid the design process.

transitional period of uncertainty generated by the crisis of

The main point of discussion is how to use them effectively and follow

modernism and marked by a series of short lived episodes such as

their evolution, something that is extremely important in

Postmodernism, Desconstructvism, and Minimalism, it introduces

parametricism as it is based on the use of technology as a source of

new ideas and strategies based on the use of computational

strategies. Like this parametricism evolves according to the

design techniques (Schumacher, London 2008). It is based on the

development of the tools and what technology enables it to reach.

use of technology as a source and tool to improve the design

Despite being a young movement physical examples in the

process and reach innovative outcomes. With the rise of

architecture field can be found with some sort of relevancy

parametricism, models first denied by the principles of the

nowadays. Parametricism as a style is expensive, the same way it is

The tools generated to

based on technological principles it requires profit and technology in

support parametricism made the creative process and

order to be materialized. Many examples that can be found around

previous styles could be developed.

development of design easier. Imagine, create different shapes

the world are already symbolic for their magnitude, what the

and materialize it in the real world became simple than it was

buildings represents to the local community, their content and

London Aquatic Centre before. source: www.zaha-hadid.com

function in determined moment and urban space. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk

Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


ARCHITECTURE AND PARAMETRICISM

DANISH PAVILION – Shangai EXPO 2010

LONDON AQUATICS CENTRE

The Danish Pavilion in Shangai (EXPO 2010) is a project that

Zaha Hadid is one of the biggest references of the use of

summarizes contemporary architecture with an interesting

parametricism today. Among the various projects developed by her

approach based on the attribution of significance to the elements

practice The London Aquatics Centre highlights the use of parametric

of the project and what it aimed to be. Designed by BIG (Bjarke

Yas Viceroy shapes in accordance to a logical structure developed to Hotel

Ingels Group), the main goal of the project was to design a pavilion

accommodate the crowd in a flexible way during the 2012 London

that could represent the Danish culture, its environment, and

Olympic Games. The concept that inspired the geometry of the

source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

lifestyle.

building was the idea of water in motion. Based on it, the design of the Centre reflects the purpose of the building, extending it to the

Through interaction the visitors were able to experience some of

development of structures and mechanisms to provide efficiency

Copenhagen's best attractions – the city bike, the harbor bath, the

during its use. The roof definitely is the most relevant feature of this

nature playground and an ecological picnic. It was designed as a

project as it expresses the aimed idea of fluid movements and

traffic loop to provide the idea of motion and aid the transition

reflects the style of the designer. As it was one of the main spaces

through the different scenarios that compose the pavilion. An

during the 2012 Olympic Games, this building received a considerate

important element of this project is the harbor bath, which is the

amount of attention during this event, as a result it promoted the

central element of the pavilion, and was designed with the purpose

style applied in its designer to the global society, what makes it a

of lodging the real little mermaid, a symbol of Denmark, during the

really important piece in the history of parametricism as a design

EXPO 2010.

style. Among the many examples of parametric architecture the

The pavilion is movable and could be placed in a different space

a style it is supposed to turn some features of the design process

flexibility of the structures and models can be perceived. Although as

after the exposition, a feature that proves how successful this

more efficiently the implementation of new tools are adding and

project was related to its flexibility purpose. Although the

transforming the approach of it. The new ideas introduced by

attribution of meaning in architecture is a very common fact what

parametric systems have not been able to improve some important

makes this project unique is the association between the ideas of

features of the traditional methods of designing, which are also part

the space that it makes reference and the use of special elements

of the new approach established by parametricism. Till now one of

from it highlighted in the conceived design.

the main contributions of parametricism to the architecture field is the flexibility generated by the models or shapes reached by the designers. As a style it is becoming more popular but still not being

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

effectively accessible. There is a long path to course till the achievement of partial legitimation. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


CONCLUSION PART A

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

During this first part of the course it was really relevant to make a

One of the questions that I still have related to this movement is how

deep research related to how parametric ideas are spreading over

accessible it can be. How its ideas can be applied in other fields such

the world. It made possible to understand how a determined

as the urban design and planning? How destitute societies can

movement takes place in the society and involve the human and

experience it without all the technological tools that it requires? How

technological development. Although parametricism is relatively

effective it can be related to the urban experience of the cities and

young it is already possible to establish some relationships

the people in it?

between what it represents right now, and what its discourse aims to be. Many comparisons are made between parametricism and

Those are questions that I aim to be able to answer by the end of the

the previous movements, such as modernism, what makes the

course based in research, however a parametric experience would be

discussion around this topic intriguing. I believe as a movement it

extremely necessary in order to answer it precisely according to the

aims to be revolutionary however the stage of technological

point of view of how impacting a parametric element is.

history in which it happens is too advanced, what puts a distance between this attempt to achieve this goal. It represents a different approach of architecture London Aquatic Centre

that still consolidating and in some

decades it will be possible to analyze its relevance more precisely. source: www.zaha-hadid.com

END OF PART A Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


REFERENCES ALLEN, Stan. The Future That Is Now. Published in:http://places.designobserver.com,2012. Grandes Arquitetos. Santiago Calatrava. Colecao Folha de Sao Paulo. 2012 HAJER, Marteen. The generic city. in Theory, Culture & Society 1999. Vol 16. p 137-144 KOOLHAAS, Rem. Nova York Delirante. S達o Paulo: Cosacnaif, 2008. MUKHERJEE, Rukmini.Creating Public Realm through Urban Renewal Learning from the City of Arts and Sciences for the Indian Urban Scenari.Published in Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2012 SCHUMACHER, Patrik.Parametricism-A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design. Published in: AD Architectural Design - Digital Cities, Vol 79, No 4, July/August 2009.

Yas Vice source: http://visitabu

WILLIAMS, Richard (2005).'Architecture and Visual Culture',in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts,ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press),pp. 102-116 WOODBURY, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design. (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 websites www.archdaily.com www.arcspace.com www.atkinsdesign.com www.bellini.it www.big.dk www.designboom.com www.dezeen.com www.e-architect.co.uk www.lemonde.com.fr www.louvre.com.fr www.visitabudhabi.ae www.zaha-hadid.com

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

PART B DESIGN APPROACH London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


INTRODUCTION

All the things in nature are made of pieces. Pieces capable of connecting with each other and create organisms that function to a determined purpose. The nature itself is flawless, capable of creating patterns, cells, pieces, that work together harmonically in order to achieve determined function or give life to determined being. We humans, as product of the nature, are made of pieces, and the many things we create are made of it – buildings, tools, cities and so on. Applying this concept the man has created exceptional things, since the most simple, till the most complex. Relating patterns to the design of buildings architects have achieved different outcomes during different periods and styles of architecture. With the advent of parametricism a new interface of use of patterns emerged, it became easier to apply Yas Viceroy Hotel

some ideas and imitate nature and other elements shapes with the aid of computation, generating a reasonable progress insource: the application http://visitabudhabi.ae/ of these ideas in the way of design.

PATTERNS AND ARCHITECTURE The etymology of 'pattern' is from the Latin pater, or patronus,

Patterns are elements generally, designed in order to articulate

meaning father, patron, god or master, from which is derived the

themselves and others similar establishing a logical relationship to

notion of pattern as a model, example, matrix, stencil or mould.

achieve determined goal. Its use in architecture has been present for

The contemporary concept of pattern is as a sequence,

many centuries and they have been evolving according to the

distribution, structure or progression, a series or frequency of a

techniques applied in the way of design. The use of patterns relate to

repeated/repeating unit, system or process of identical or similar

an important feature of the contemporary way of design, the idea of

elements. Synonyms and related concepts include habit, meme,

creating modules in order to use in a variety of ways to achieve the

template, motif, configuration, organization, arrangement, figure,

intended goal. One of the main potentials of the use of patterns is the

tessellation, system, process, sample, duplicate, convention and

articulation that can be generated from those elements. For Patrik

texture. This multiplicity of meanings points to the manifold roles

Schumacher, articulation is the central core competency of

of pattern in the creation, reproduction, evolution and processes of

architecture, and designed patterns provide one of the most potent

space (GARCIA, 2009).

devices for architectural articulation. Although the idea of patterns

There are many definitions of patterns, independent of the

believes that in the new era of parametricism patterns have been

complexity level of the discourse around them they all converge to

reinvented and have become an innovative and powerful register of

has been present in architecture for many centuries Schumacher

a point, which is the pattern as an element that can be applied in

articulation, providing amplification of surface difference and

the various moments of the design process, an idea that has been

correlation, ultimately resulting in dynamic, high performance

useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others

ornamentation(SCHUMACHER, 2009).

(FOWLER, 1997).

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk

Jacob K. Javits Convention Center - New York - USA

Burj Al Arab source: http://archinect.com/ source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


CASE STUDY 1 My team has decided to research and explore the possibilities of Patterning. We have chosen this field because we believe the main idea behind the use of patterns is something that has been present in architecture since the early periods, and is connected to many techniques, existing and new skills, developed and incorporated by the contemporary way of design. The two projects we choose for this case study have different approaches in the way of using patternings in their context, but both have a really important feature, which is the meaning and relevance of the designed patternings both for the building itself as for what it represents. These are projects from different times that even with decade's differences of technological development have unique ideas and incorporate timeless performances of architectural design.

SPANISH PAVILION

ARAB WORLD INSTITUTE

Expo 2005, Nagoya, Japan (FOA - Foreign Office Architects)

1987, Paris, France (Ateliers Jean Nouvel)

FOA, Foreign office Architects, was a practice that used to

The Arab World Institute is located in Paris, 5th district, a central area

incorporate the use of patterns in its most relevant projects, the

that gives this building significant relevance in the city context. Yas It was Viceroy Hotel

Spanish Pavilion, designed to represent Spain in the Universal

designed by Jean Nouvel, one of the most renowned French

source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Expo of 2005 in Nagoya (Japan), is one of these projects. The

architects in the world nowadays. The manipulation of light and of

architects aimed to approach the theme of sustainable

layers of transparency and opacity are recurring themes in his works

development through construction traditions in the country.

(PALUMBO, 2008). Applying this remarkable feature Jean Nouvel

Expressing this subject through architecture, they tried to link the

designed The Arab World Institute connecting different goals in a

Spanish historical legacy with a vision of the future, identifying the

system that associates energy efficiency, cultural signs and

most representative architectural elements of this culture of

aesthetics. The design aim was to create a building that could

synthesis and playing with them in the pavilion's design.

represent the Arabic culture coexisting in the western world.

The interior of the pavilion is composed by seven areas that

Through a pattern façade the architect was able to connect the

converge to one central space. The façade is one of the most

building with the main purpose, associating these elements with a

significant features of the building, it was designed based in

system inspired in the diaphragms of cameras. The facades design is

patterns, six different types established on an orthogonal grid,

composed by big patterns that have adjustable metal lenses

encoded with a color. The patterns were made of glazed ceramic,

embedded in its south facing glass façade to control light to the

incorporating in its fabrication a compilation of usual Spanish

interior (PALUMBO, 2008). The effect provided by the patterns - their

techniques and traditional Japanese ceramics. The idea of creating

composition in the façade, light reflections, and shading - recall

a ceramic facade symbolizes the Spanish approach to Japan. The

traditional symbols and ornaments of the Arabic culture. For Jean

six colors of the patterns are variations of the red and yellow of the

Nouvel the building is a hinge between two cultures and two

national flag, reflecting the colors of wine, roses, the blood of the

histories, the patterns of lines and markings on the same façade are

bullfights, sun and sand – colors universally associated with Spain.

an echo of contemporary art. He also considers the theme of light an

The patterns are ordered according to a system to allow the light to

important outcome of the design as it is reflected in the southern

enter in the building, providing shading effects, and regulating the

wall, which consists entirely of camera-like diaphragms, and

solar gains and spread of thermal load over the pavilion.

reappears in the stacking of the stairs, the blurring of contours, the superimpositions, in reverberations and reflections and shadows

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

(NOUVEL, 2011). Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


Spanish Pavilion - Nagoya - JAP source: http://agephotostock.com/

London Aquatic Centre

Arab World Institute - Paris - FRA

source: www.zaha-hadid.com

source: http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/


CASE STUDY 1 Explorations

Based on the Spanish Pavilion Grasshopper definition we explored the many possibilities adding, changing, substituting parameters. It is a 2D definition and its aim is to arrange the patterns according to a logical and interesting sequence. The most relevant results we obtained were related to the image sampler, the grid, adjusting and adding internal and charge points parameters, and transforming from 2D into 3D.

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

1

2

Spanish Pavilion Definition

3

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


1

2

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

3

4

5

6

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


CASE STUDY 2

Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

For this case study my team has choose to work with The AU Office and Exhibition Space. It is a project that incorporates many of the ideas that we aim to achieve in our final production. We tried to re-engineer the main element that composes the building as well as understand how it connects with the context of the project and the surroundings.

AU OFFICE and EXHIBITION SPACE 2010, Jungong Road, Shanghai, China (Archi Union Architects Inc)

The AU Office and Exhibition Space is located in Jungong Road,

The design intent of this project was to not only to revitalize a

Shanghai, China, designed by Archi Union Architects Inc. It used

dilapidated building, but to create something unique and significant

to be an old warehouse and it was revitalized with the purpose of

to its context with the aid of computational techniques. This way the

being an office and exhibition space in an area that is reviving as

designers achieved an important relationship between simplicity and

an artist`s complex. The whole building is composed by three

a mark of the contemporary times.

identical warehouses in which the functions are distributed. REVERSE ENGINEERING PROCESS

London

The most relevant element of the project is the external facade

The process of reverse engineering the facade of the project was

which consists of a parametric wall that encloses the building in

mostly solved by applying the use of Grasshopper 3d with the use of

three sides. This wall was conceived applying computation

parameters in order to achieve the same effects present in the

techniques in order to create special effects based on simple

original facade. The basis techniques applied in this case study was

hollows concrete blocks, the movement provided by the rotation

the further development of the ones taken from experiments in Case

of these elements confer a special feature to the entire facade,

Study 1, such as various patterning methods and image referencing.

which imitates silk undulating in the wind. This special effect

A significant difference between the techniques employed within the

relates to the building`s past as it used to be a warehouse to store

two case studies were that the former was primarily in 2D whereas

fabric. The patterns and the form they are arranged, according to

the latter was in 3D, which poses some challenges that had to be

specified Centre angles, also provide texture to the facade and lighting Aquatic

overcome during the process. Research into the AU Office and

source: www.zaha-hadid.com and shading effect to the interior parts.

Exhibition space also gave great insight into re-engineering it. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


AU Office and Exhibition Space - Shanghai, China source: http://www.archdaily.com/

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com


CASE STUDY 2

REVERSE ENGINEERING

THE PROCESS

1 Creating a flat surface for referencing in rhino

2 Divide the surface into columns and rows with a reference point in each cell

3 Create X & Y plane by the points from STEP 2 3

1

4 Rotate the X & Y planes by ‘Image sampling

4

2 5

4 Create the concrete blocks with the ‘center box’ tool

4 Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

SIMILARITIES x DIFFIRENCES Based on the process of reverse engineering the façade of the AU Office and Exhibition Space we were able to understand how ideas can be improved with the use of computation. According to the outcomes achieved we could notice similarities and differences between the original idea and the one we recreated. The first one use as patterns hollow concrete block, represents a consolidated idea with the purpose of being an element of the project, while the second exemplifies a single component, developed through a consistent patterned manner, with brick components oriented through image sampling, and in the future will evolve to be the main component of an installation.

Images provided by Archi Union Architects Inc, it shows how the designers referenced in the hollow blocks into a plane of evenly distributed points before skewing the direction of the blocks by

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

referencing in a black and white image of flowing silk. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com


WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT

The Western Gateway Design project is a competition that aims to choose the best possibility to welcome people to the city of Wyndham. The purpose is to design an installation near the edge of the urban growth area, the project has to connect with the context of the city, providing an entry statement and arrival experience, becoming a new identifier for the municipality. It has to be relevant and eye catching as it will primarily be viewed by motorists travelling at high speed, the installation must be an indication of arrival into metropolitan Yas Viceroy Hotel source: http://visitabudhabi.ae/

Melbourne.

Based on the requirements of The Western Gateway Design Project my team started to develop the idea we aim to achieve in the end of the course based on the research about the city, as one of the goals of the project is to connect and enrich the municipality through the design. Because of it we believe it is extremely necessary to know about the culture, environment and recognize the potentialities of the city of Wyndham. After this first stage of research we started to develop our idea for the installation based on the research field we choose and the use of Case Study 1 and 2 as a starting point for investigation.

CASE STUDIES – FURTHER DEVELOPMENT According to the tasks completed in case study 1 and 2 and the

With the tasks of Case Study 2 completed we further developed our

research about patterns, we were able to establish the primal

concept, searching for ways to achieve our goals for the project.

concepts we wanted to approach with the project. During Case

Using a pattern as the base of our installation we wished to arrange it

Study 1 we established the base of our project discourse relating it

according to a logical sequence in order to achieve an acoustic and

with some of the results of the precedent projects and the

optical performance. To explore the acoustic feature we were

architectural approach through the use of patterns. By the end of

inspired by the acoustic-absorption patterning from anechoic

this phase our desire was to design an installation that could

chambersš. And to incorporate the optical experience our reflection

provide a sensorial experience to the drivers, through the

was based on the use of colors and the appliance of optical illusion

appliance of acoustic and optical effects, it was also our intention to

that could be generated through the arrangement of patterns in the

proportionate a seasonal characteristic, something that could

installation. Although we obtained many ideas from this first phase

change along the time, and at last, give a flexible appearance to

of brainstorm and based on research concluded that we could

the installation instead of a rigid static feature.

establish a relationship between them and our product, we were advised to condense our intentions, select the most important

London Aquatic Centre

features we wanted to approach and from this point elaborate a solid

source: www.zaha-hadid.com

concept. Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


AU Office and Exhibition Space - Shanghai, China source: http://www.archdaily.com/

Western Interchange - Site of the Gateway Installation source: www.wyhdham.vic.gov.au

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com


WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT Design Development

During the mid-semester presentation my team presented the process that has been leading us to our final design, which still under development. We are engaged with this task according stages, the first is the consolidation of the discourse of our project that has led to the concept of our design, the second is based on the exploration and experiments of design possibilities using computation, and the third is the materialization of our design according to our concept.

PROPOSITION

Yas Vice

source: http://visitabu Create a parametric structure over Princes

PATTERNS

+

VISUAL EFFECTS

Highway with patterning upon lightweight

+

SHAPES

materials to create a strong and lasting visual

= KEYS ELEMENTS

MATERIALS

HOLES SIGN

COLORS

EXALT THE MUNICIPALITY

SHADING

DESIGN

SENSORIAL EXPERIENCE

impression built upon the contrast between shadow and light. The diagram on the left shows our concept through the process of how we are attempting to achieve our main goal, and the

MEANINGFUL SHAPES

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

sequence below shows the transition of the design intent during the design development.

Precedent Projects

Linear 2 Sites

The City of Wyndham is a region experiencing rapid development and growth, our concept aims to use architecture that has been designed through advanced computational design technology to promote societal advancement. We gained inspiration from the nature of Wyndham, in particular from the animals, which inspired us to research and explore the potential of computational designs and patterning. We were taken by snakes' growth process

Enclosure Tunnel

Section Cells

especially in the way they shed their skin. This concept has been the basis of many of our explorations and corresponds to our design process in which we constantly experiments with different

London Aquatic Centre design approaches. source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com


Best results achieved through the exploration of shapes and patterns

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com


LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

Yas Vice source: http://visitabu

MID SEMESTER PRESENTATION RESULTS

RESEARCH TASKS RESULTS

Unfortunately during the mid-semester presentation we could not

The researches we have been doing along this course have been

transmit the idea of the process of design development made by

extremely useful during the design development. It represents a

my team. Our presentation lacked visual prototypes that could

knowledge that can be applied in many situations in an architect

clearly explain our ideas. The critique recognized the research we

future professional life. It is also important to be able to

did, and the basis of our discourse but was not able to connect it

understand how the contemporary architecture uses the

with the design. Even without a positive result in this second part

techniques developed by technology according to a pragmatic

we will keep with our approach, and although we have explored

methodology. Although the main focus of most of the research is to

many design possibilities based on our concept, we have not

understand and recognize the effectiveness of contemporary

achieved the final shape and the pattern we are going to apply in

architecture it is interesting to correlate the skills applied in the

the installation. From this stage of the process we must evolve to

conception of nowadays way of design with traditional methods

reach our final design.

considered overdue by many people.

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com

Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au


REFERENCES AD Architectural Design – Patterns of Architecture, Vol 79, No 6, November/December 2009, guest editor: Mark Garcia, general editor: Helen Castle FOWLER, Martin. Analysis patterns: reusable object models. 1997 GARCIA, Mark. Prologue for a History, Theory and Future of Patterns of Architecture and Spatial Design. Published in: AD Architectural Design – Patterns of Architecture, Vol 79, No 6, November/December 2009. MOUSSAVI, Farshid. The Function of Form. Ed. Actar and Harvard Graduate School of Design. 2009. SCHUMACHER, Patrik. Parametric Patterns. Published in: AD Architectural Design – Patterns of Architecture, Vol 79, No 6, November/December 2009. WILLIAMS, Richard. 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 102-116

Yas Vice source: http://visitabu

Websites http://www.archdaily.com http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk http://www.pritzkerprize.com http://www.vitruvius.com.br

London Aquatic Centre source: www.zaha-hadid.com Danish Pavilion source:www.big.dk Burj Al Arab source: http://dimscale.blogspot.com.au



STUDIO AIR 1ST SEMESTER 2013 JOURNAL CFI_609040_FERNANDABATISTA