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SPANISH MODERNISM FROM THE MACRO AND MICRO andrea URMANITA fenty MULIADI


Barcelona is a city whose identity is deeply defined by its architecture and urbanism. Its public spaces successfully integrate figure and ground into everyday experiences, a phenomenon that lures and amazes millions of visitors each year. The legacy of modern-day Barcelona begins in the 19th century, when a desire to define the Catalan identity emerges. Since then, this identity has been continuously redefined through the deliberate shaping and reshaping of the urban fabric. In today’s Barcelona, current social and economic trends are further transforming land-use patterns in the region, presenting an opportunity for Barcelona to redefine itself once more—this time, to meet the new challenges of a globalized world.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROPROSAL TOPICS ITINERARY THE CITY AFTER FRANCO: WHERE BARCELONA REDEFINED ITS IDENTITY DECENTRALIZATION & SUBURBANIZATION IN METRO BARCELONA A RETURN TO THE CENTER: THE 22@ PLAN FOR POBLENOU BARRIO: NEIGHBORHOOD SARRIÀ-SANT GERVASI HORTA-GUINARDÓ LES CORTS GRÀCIA NOU BARRIS SANT ANDREU SANT MARTÍ EIXAMPLE SANTS-MONTJUÏC CIUTAT VELLA


PROPOSAL OBJECTIVES

WHAT THE FELLOWSHIP MEANS TO US

We propose a three-week study on the architecture and urbanism of Barcelona, scheduled for Summer 2010. We will unravel past and present cultural narratives and shed light on how different influences have left their mark on the city’s identity. We wish to explore these influences from the micro (street & city) and macro (regional) levels and understand how they are shaping the Spanish urban environment today. Furthermore, we hope to propose a more strategy for Barcelona to develop itself into a competitive global city. While both of us will focus on the influence of Spanish Modernism, we will each take on the topic from different vantage points. Andrea will focus on the macro level, specifically on Barcelona and Bilbao’s urban redevelopment and transformation of its former industrial uses. On the micro level, Fenty will analyze specific buildings and how the Spanish identity has been influenced by the modernisme movement. We selected districts for our itinerary that highlight Spain’s social, political, artistic, architectural, economic, and industrial histories. We intend to visit historical architectural landmarks and urban design projects, observe public space usage, and discuss they city’s future design goals with local leaders in planning and design.

We view this fellowship as a unique and valuable learning opportunity, unlike anything that could be taught in a classroom or studio. This fellowship will help us establish a professional network abroad and understand international perspectives in design practice. This firsthand exposure to new design paradigms will enrich Andrea’s future graduate studio work, including her plans to pursue an Urban Design degree after her time at USC. Fenty hopes that the fundamental design discoveries that she makes during this fellowship will enrich her own creative process and methodology as a future architect. If selected as recipients of the Gesundheit Traveling Fellowship, we intend to distill what we learn from Spain into a valuable multidisciplinary report that can be shared with the USC community and beyond. Specifically, we believe that the results of our research can benefit the School of Architecture for use in future educational ventures.


TOPICS BARCELONA AND THE CATALAN IDENTITY

BARCELONA ON A GLOBAL SCALE

The Catalan identity is a cultural enterprise that strongly associates itself with the iconic brand name that Barcelona represents. Barcelona capitalized on the opportunity to host the Universal Expositions of 1888 and 1929 and made its presence felt as a European capital and world-class city. Barcelona used the mega-event platform again to showcase its cultural rebranding in 1992, when it hosted the Olympic Games. We propose that major events and movements in Barcelona’s history have contributed to the branding of its public image. One example is the Spanish Modernisme movement, during which Catalan architects like Antoni Gaudi and Josep Puig i Cadafalch made lasting contributions to Barcelona’s urban identity—as can be seen on the iconic Block of Discord along the Passieg de Gracia.

After the 1992 Olympic Games, Barcelona once again earned a spot in the international market. In an era of globalization, Barcelona is faced with the challenge of becoming a city that can stand on its own as a cultural and economic force. Its civic and cultural identity already drives a successful tourism industry, but can enhancements to Barcelona’s architecture and public spaces provide viable strategies for sustained global competitiveness? We intend to investigate the feasibility of this idea during our fellowship.

BARCELONA FROM THE STREET

BARCELONA AND REGIONAL FORCES

In 1859, Barcelona launched the Eixample, its first expansion and arguably the most influential intervention on the city fabric. The Eixample implemented Ildefons Cerda’s master plan of gridded chamfered blocks, which promoted efficient land use and circulation. The strong order of the new grid provided the framework for countless public space configurations, and it—along with the influence of Spanish Modernisme—provided a unique architectural form and character that was distinctly Catalan. At this scale, our study will evaluate iconic Catalan architecture and their contribution to Barcelona’s urban identity. We also plan to evaluate everyday spaces within the public realm and propose opportunities for ecological design and linkability between the city and existing natural systems. Of these projects, we ask the following questions: What were the political, social, and economic forces behind their creation? How are these spaces honored and inhabited by the public? How do these places guide daily patterns of movement? Will the presence of these icons play a role in Barcelona’s future development and identity?

Our study will examine and evaluate Barcelona’s post-industrial redevelopment in comparison to similar Spanish cities. Not only will we visit and compare Madrid’s infrastructure and public open space to that of Barcelona, but we will also compare Barcelona and Bilbao, two cities whose landscapes and socio-economic identities have undergone significant transformation. Industrial activity along their ports has shifted, while growth of the nation’s technology sector is occurring at the fringe. We pose the following questions: Is there a more sustainable way to manage industry-driven growth? How have recent redevelopment projects improved (or diminished) the quality of life in Barcelona and Bilbao? How will the waterfront continue to evolve in the next decade and what new uses can be implemented to existing ports?


WEEK 01

Tracing Identities Past and Present 1 DISTRICT

FOCUS

June 6

Flight LAX > BCN

June 7

Ciutat Vella

La Rambla

June 8

Ciutat Vella

El Barri Gotic La Ribera

June 9

Ciutat Vella Montjuïc

El Raval Olympic Stadium

June 10

Eixample

Modernisme Architecture

June 11

Eixample

City Infrastructure

June 12

Debriefing Site revisits (if necessary)


WEEK 02

Tracing Identities Past and Present II

WEEK 03

DISTRICT

FOCUS

June 13

Eixample

Public Open Space

June 14 designer

Potential

June 15

Gràcia

Public Open Space

June 16

Sant Martí

El Poblenou

June 17

Sant Martí

El Poblenou La Vila Olímpica del Poblenou

discussion

with

June 18

Sant Marti

June 19

Site Revisits (if necessary)

Comparing and Contrasting for the Future DISTRICT

local

Diagonal Mar

architect/urban

FOCUS

June 20

Train to Bilbao

June 21

Bilbao

Waterfront Redevelopment

June 22

Bilbao

Local Arts and Culture

June 23

Train to Madrid

June 24

Madrid

Public Open Space

June 25

Madrid

Public Infrastructure

June 26

Train to Barcelona Flight BCN > LAX


THE CITY AFTER FRANCO: WHERE BARCELONA REDEFINED ITS IDENTITY


PROJECTS NOT PLANS In 1979, Oriol Bohigas is selected as the director of planning for Barcelona. Bohigas looked at the city from the bottom-up rather than from a top-down, master-planning approach. He insisted on a series of smaller surgical interventions in select parts of the city that were particularly depressed and had the best potential to distribute development value evenly and efficiently. This “projects, not plans” mindset allowed the city to pay closer attention to urbanism at the human scale as well as to the particular needs of individual neighborhoods.

Almost 40 years of authoritarian dictatorship ends in 1975 with the death of Il Caudillo Francisco Franco. Immediate transition begins, and steps toward democracy are made to rescue a dilapidated and overcrowded Barcelona. Unlike previous periods of urban rebirth, there was no longer any land left for the city to expand; thus, infill redevelopment in existing parts of the city was the only option. This gives Barcelona yet another opportunity to redefine its urban identity, putting plans and political framework in place that will affect the city’s urban design process for decades to come. In 1976, the General Metropolitan Plan (GMP) is approved, setting density restrictions within Barcelona, imposing a new legal planning framework that allows modification on a project-by- project basis. Additionally, the GMP proposed a substantial quantity of land to be set aside for green zones and public facilities, removing numerous pieces of land from the property market, much to the chagrin of private developers. However, this directly accounts for the exceptional quality of Barcelona’s public spaces. The GMP is still used today as a basic reference point for all redevelopment projects.


OLYMPIC REDEVELOPMENT & AREAS OF NEW CENTRALITY By 1975, Barcelona was suffering from overcrowding, poor living conditions, and a lack of public facilities and services. Between 1981 and 1987 marked a period of widespread urban public space projects in Barcelona. Three kinds of projects were completed under the initial program: plazas, parks, and streets. Some were improvements to existing parks like Parc Guell, while some were new parks built over underutilized land, such as the Parc de l'Espanya Industrial, once a factory site. The Olympics initiated development in four major areas: Montjuïc, Diagonal, Vall d’Hebron, and the Port. In addition to the Olympic Village site, the municipal government designated “Areas of New Centrality” around the city to focus new investment to diffuse planning improvements citywide, to create new reference points within the city by promoting a specific concentrationof service sector uses, public facilities, and transit‐oriented development. The conditions in each designated area allowed for either new construction on empty land or renovation of old building functions. Multiple owners were also involved, allowing for a flexible development schedule.

MONTJUÏC The Olympic Ring hosted track and field, swimming, baseball, and wrestling, and it was also home to the main indoor arena for the 1992 Summer Games. The Estadi Olimpic de Montjuïc Lluis Companys, built for the 1929 International Exhibition, was part of a vision to host the Olympic Games the following decade. However, ambitions to host the Games died when the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936. Though Olympic development was considered a way to connect Montjuïc to the rest of the city, it still remains considerably segregated.


VALL D’HEBRON A period of economic downturn after the 1992 Olympic Games made regular maintenance of public space too costly. This resulted in the neglect and dilapidation of several parks and recreational facilities, particularly in communities that lacked the means or initiative to step in and help where the public sector could not. This was apparent at some of Vall d'Hebron's outdoor Olympic facilities. Built after the public space initiative of the 1980s, the disrepair and vandalism have begun to reveal an aging social infrastructure. EL RAVAL El Raval is home to a significant immigrant population, among which include Pakistani and Filipino communities, indicative of the global economic forces at play in Barcelona. Addition of the Barcelona Museum of Conteporary Art, the Center of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona, and facilities for the University of Barcelona turned El Raval into a burgeoning culture and arts district. New parks were also built as part of a public-space initiative, though some residents criticize an overabundance of unprogrammed open space. DIAGONAL MAR International events such as the 1992 Olympic Games are used to enhance prestige, attract private investment, and focus and motivate the city's workforce. Buildings and infrastructure constructed for the events are of high quality and serve a double purpose: for short-term use during the events and as a means of regenerating decaying districts in the long-term. Barcelona’s southeastern waterfront was no exception. It saw immense redevelopment at the turn of the 21st century, spurred by the International Forum of Cultures held in 2004. PORT VELL & PORT OLIMPIC When Barcelona received the Olympic nomination in 1986, the city chose the southern coast—the city’s industrial hub—as the future Olympic Village location. Choosing a site within Barcelona, despite the abundance of open land beyond the city, was a deliberate decision: the site opened a potential axis of communication with a renewed coastal space, opening up a potential chain of redevelopment along the underutilized waterfront. A site outside the city would have had serious consequences for the city’s transformation and future identity.


DECENTRALIZATION & SUBURBANIZATION IN METRO BARCELONA


HOUSING TYPOLOGY MIX WITH RESPECT TO COMMUNITY POPULATION

26%

MULTIFAMILY HOUSING SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSING

74% 0 - 1000 RESIDENTS

30% 70% 1000 - 5000

44% 56%

5000 - 10000

32%

68% 10000 - 50000

23%

77% 50000 - 100000

15%

85% > 100,000


LAND URBANIZATION IN METROPOLITAN BARCELONA, = 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres)

1957 1972

10,000 HECTARES 20,000 HECTARES

46,700

1992 1994

HECTARES

56,000

HECTARES

Three major trends currently influence the urban landscape: a decentralization of economic activities, urban expansion and sprawl, and social segregation between the urban center and periphery. As much land has been urbanized in metropolitan Barcelona in the past five decades as in the preceding two millennia. It is important to note, however, that this expansion does not reflect a growth in population, for the population of the greater Barcelona region has remained at approximately 4.25 million for over two decades. Over 300,000 residents have left the city center to live in new developments in smaller towns in the second metropolitan ring, where there is a greater supply of more affordable housing--however, their jobs, shops, and public services have remained in the city. This consumption of both exurban land and fossil fuels triggers serious issues of environmental sustainability as those in suburbia increase both their daily commute and their dependency on cars .

Source: Local, Local! La ciutat que ve, Diputacio Barcelona


LOCATIONS OF PRIMARY DWELLINGS & PERCENTAGE OF HOUSING STOCK, 1991 & 2001 LESS THAN 5% BETWEEN 5% AND 15% BETWEEN 15% AND 25% MORE THAN 25%


INCREASE IN PARKED CARS BY TOWN, BETWEEN 1991 AND 2007 = 200 vehicles

OLIVELLA

136

B E G U E S

902%

SANT CEBRIA DE VALLALTA

359

M A S Q U E FA

763%

CANYELLES

SANT ESTEVE SESROVIRES

285

484

B I G U E S

753%

2506

459%

VA C A R I S S E S

876%

3843 1269 4364 1738 4651

626%

1446

CABRERA DE MAR

1033

S A N T ANDREU DE LLAVANERES

608

757%

3689

709%

1961

DOSRIUS

933

731%

1746

SANT PERE DE VILAMAJOR

2923

747%

1517

837%

767

738%

1386

CUBELLES

1129

794%

2675

L L I C A D ’A M U N T

342 2769

763%

5481 1748 7386


A RETURN TO THE CENTER: THE 22@ PLAN FOR POBLENOU


3 1 2

20 11

22 23

19

21

6

4

14 15

5

7 13

24

12 17 16

18

27 10

28

9

8

26

25


22@ AFTER

29 KM

8

PUBLIC PARKS

10 12,700 Y E A R S

(18 mi.) of

B I K E LANES

(7.8 mi.)

meters

OF STREETS REDONE

1,500 C O M P A N I E S 44,600 NEW JOBS 72% university graduates

114,000 m for new 2

(1,227,080 sf)

GREEN AREAS

4,000 NEW

social dwellings

114 PROPOSED 22@ DEVELOPMENT ZONE PUBLIC & CULTURAL HISTORICAL ELEMENTS TECHNOLOGY & ENTREPRENEURSHIP 0

200

400

800’

10 UNIVERSITIES

25,000 STUDENTS

800

STUDENT H OU S I N G U N I TS

145,000 m2for new (1,560,760 sf)

P U BL IC FACIL IT IES HISTORICAL ELEMENTS LISTED FOR PRESERVATION


DENSITY, COMPLEXITY, COHESION The Poblenou district, adjacent to the Olympic Village to the east, was relatively untouched during the redevelopment process of the late 1980s; it remained cut off from the central part of the city by its industrial sites and existing railway lines, creating a discontinuity between the scale of Poblenou’s large blocks and those of Cerda’s Eixample. When the General Metropolitan Plan was approved in 1976, however, the zoning class for Poblenou—Class 22a—limited the land solely to industrial uses, putting plans for renewal at a standstill. Poblenou’s 22@ (22 arroba) Plan is a rebranding of its former zoning-class designation. 22@ is an attempt towards policy that will protect local competitiveness, functionality, and the central city's quality of life,


by carefully preserving the existing urban fabric and defending a model of urbanization characterized by density, complexity, and social cohesion. While the 22@ Plan focuses on bringing housing and retail into the core, it also proposes a highly digital lifestyle through the development of an Information Communication Technology (ICT) sector. The 22@ Plan proposes to insert a high-tech campus city model of the global ICT, design, media, and data industries with a very local support system. It means attempting to surgically insert 3 million square meters of new productive activities into 115 existing city blocks while stabilizing the local population and adding four thousand new affordable housing units, along with new infrastructure and more public amenities, all without undermining the values of the already-exsting community. MANCHESTER OF THE MEDITERRANEAN Barcelona’s industrial sector established itself in Poblenou in 1850. The textile sector was the first to establish itself in the district, then spinning and weaving mills with the advent of steam power. The food industry, primarily flour mills and alcohols, entered the scene, followed by the metal industry, which became the dominant sector in the mid‐20th century. However, by the end of the 1960s, the decline of industry brought Poblenou to disrepair and neglect.


occasionally with children’s playgrounds, aesthetically pleasing planters, and park benches. From the waterfront, there are no attempts made to attract pedestrians towards the interior streets of Poblenou. Overall, the pedestrian experience is somewhat purposeless and disconnected. THE PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE There is a notable scale issue while walking along the waterfront and through Poblenou. While the corridor along Avinguda Diagonal at the Plaça de les Glòries--served by light rail--is at a suitable scale for pedestrians, the area along the waterfront is not pedestrian friendly. The residential towers that surround Parc Diagonal Mar are isolated in empty plazas, cut off from the park by a large body of water that makes no attempt to connect occupant with the natural landscape. As one begins traveling west from Parc Diagonal Mar, the trail alongside the highway and the sea is a sprawling stretch of unprogrammed space, peppered


SILICON VALLEY SYNDROME? The 22@ Plan currently proposes the creation of a high-technology industrial cluster, much like the Silicon Valley. While this cluster model is successful in several regions, there is the threat of failure due to Barcelona’s lack of an existing culture to promote an economy so new to Barcelona at such a large scale. Also, the 22@ Plan was planned during the dot.com bubble; it is possible that Barcelona was not aware of what exactly was necessary for the city to become a successful high-tech, new-economy sector.This is not to say that the city made a poor decision. At the very least, the selection of programming is critical; ICT could find synergies with environmental monitoring, which will greatly affect sustainability and how successful resource management will be in Barcelona and beyond. The infrastructure proposed for the 22@ Plan can attract firms that could benefit from this technology, possibly forming profitable digital networks that span continents, while located and doing business in Barcelona.


BARRIO NEIGHBORHOOD


NOU BARRIS Can Peguera, Canyelles, Ciutat Meridiana, La Guineueta, Porta, La Prosperitat, les Roquetes, Torre Baró, la Trinitat, Nova, El Turó de la Peira, Vallbona, Verdum, Vilapicina i la, Torre Llobeta SANT ANDREU Baró de Viver, Bon Pastor, El Congrés i els Indians, Navas, Sant Andreu de Palomar, La Sagrera i Trinitat Vella HORTA-GUINARDÓ El Baix Guinardó, El Guinardó, Can Baró, El Carmel, la Font, d'en Fargues, Horta, la Clota, Montbau, Sant Genís dels, Agudells, la Teixonera, La Vall d'Hebron SARRIÀ-SANT GERVASI El Putget i Farró Sarrià Sant Gervasi - la Bonanova Sant Gervasi - Galvany les Tres Torres Vallvidrera Tibidabo i les Planes

GRÀCIA Vila de Gràcia, el Camp d'en Grassot i Gràcia Nova, la Salut, el Coll, Vallcarca i els Penitents

EIXAMPLE L’Antiga Esquerra de lEixample, La Nova Esquerra de l’Eixample, Dreta de l'Eixample, Fort Pienc, Sagrada Família, Sant Antoni


SANT MARTI El Besos i el Maresme, el Clot, El Camp de l’Arpa del Clot, Diagonal Mar i el Frony Maritim del Poblenou, el Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou, Poblenou, Provencals del Poblenou, Sant Marti de Provencals, La Verneda i la Pau, la Vila Olympica del Poblenou

CIUTAT VELLA La Barceloneta, El Gotic, El Raval, Sant Pere, Santa Caterina i la Ribera SANTS-MONTJUÏC la Bordeta, la Font de la Guatlla, Hostafrancs, la Marina de Port, la Marina del Prat Vermell, El Poble sec, Sants, Sants-Badal, Montjuïc, Zona Franca - Port -

LES CORTS la Maternitat i Sant Ramon, Pedralbes


SARRIĂ€-SANT GERVASI

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution

Mount Tibidabo appears as vast green areas. Better panoramic view can be seen from the communications tower designed by Norman Foster. There is a vast park as well, named the Parc etropolita de Collserola.


HORTA-GUINARDÓ

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution

The district is characterised by the undulating landform with mountains, hills and valleys. Major urban landscapes include Parc de Collserola, Vall d’Hebron medical complex, Parc del Laberint, te Centre Municipal de Tenis, the Palau d’Esports de Barcelona and the Velodrom d’Horta.


LES CORTS

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution


GRĂ€CIA

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution

The village of Gracia was established to the south of La Salut in the 17th century around the Convent dels Josepets, now the Placa Lesseps, and remained separate from the city until 1897. A district for examples of Catalan art nouveau, or modernisra style such as the Casa Vicens and the Casa Fuster.


NOU BARRIS

Parc del Centre del Poblenou Jean Nouvel

Gas Natural EMBT

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution

Having a total of 14 neighborhoods, it used to be a blue-collar district. The transformation towards New Barcelona in between 1950 and 1970 changed the growth of infrastructure, transport links and services. It appears on urban landscape such as the modern Parc Central, the Parc de la Guineueta and the Parc del Turo de la Peira. Other urban areas for public use would include Mercat de la Mercè, Plaça Llucmajor and shopping streets such as Passeig Valldaura and Via Júlia.


Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau Lluís Domènech i Montaner

Located in the northern part of the city and close to the river Besòs, the neighborhood is divided by residential area on the west and industrial site on the east. The train railway becomes the boundary in between.

Torre Agbar Jean Nouvel Pullman Barcelona Skipper

SANT ANDREU

PRRB

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

The district was mainly influenced by the urban and planning city development. And this, it carries both modernism and the character of old Catalan tradition. The neighborhood combines the commercial behavior and cultural tradition. Major urban places include St. Andreu Market Square and the church of Sant Andreu del Palomar,

Forum Building Herzog & de Meuron

Urban Spatial Distribution

Parc Diagonal Mar EMBT

Parc Diagonal Mar EMBT


SANT MARTÍ The area was previously an autonomous village, and later became neighborhood of Barcelona. The neighborhood area of El Poblenou developed greatly from the 22@ Barcelona plan. Significant architectural works would include Torre Agbar by Jean Nouvel, Forum Building by Herzog & de Meuron, and ME Barcelona Hotel by Dominique Perrault. On the other hand, outstanding open space and landscape include Parc Central del Poblenou by Jean Nouvel, Parc Diagonal Mar by Enric Miralles, Parc del Forum and the Plaça de les Gloriès Catalanes.

Forum Building Herzog & de Meuron Peix d'Or sculpture Frank Gehry

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Parc del Centre del Poblenou Jean Nouvel

Parc del Centre del Poblenou Jean Nouvel

Urban Spatial Distribution


EIXAMPLE There is a unique characteristic to the neighborhood: the grid pattern with chamfered corners. Cerdà’s plan is to improve the city by broadening the streets for greater visibility and better ventilation. The west side of Eixample consist of buildings in different architectural styles built from the 1930 onwards. Significant architecture buildings would include Sagrada Familia, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, Torre Agbar and so on. Casa Batlló Antonio Gaudí Eixample

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Sagrada Familia Antonio Gaudí

Poble Espanyol Montjuïc

Urban Spatial Distribution

La Pedrera Antonio Gaudí Eixample


SANTS-MONTJUÏC

Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya Montjuïc

Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona El Raval

Fondacio Joan Miro Montjuïc

Open Space and Landscape Distribution

Urban Spatial Distribution

Montjuïc Hill has been the focus of key events: the 1929 International Exhibition and the 1992 Olympic Games. It also has museums such as the Fundació Miró, the Museu Font màgica de Montjuïc d’Arqueologia, the Museu Montjuïc Etnològic and the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, MNAC. The Olympic Ring, the main site of the Olympic Games, the Estadi Lluís Companys, Arata Izosaki’s sports palace, the Palau Sant Jordi, and the telecommunications tower designed by Santiago Calatrava. Nearby, the Museu Olímpic i de l'Esport Joan Antoni Samaranch and the Botanical Gardens.


CIUTAT VELLA There are four major neighborhoods; La Barceloneta, El Gotic, El Raval, La Ribera in the old district. This district carries most of the historical value, and become the oldest neighborhoods in the city of Barcelona. At the Parc de la Ciutadella, one can track back to the history of the military citadel and the 1888 Universal Exhibition. Significant building landmarks include the Gran Teatre del Liceu, the Palau de la Virreina, Boqueria Market, CCCB, MACBA, Carrer Montcada, Santa Caterina Market, Palau de la Música Catalana, Plaça del Rei, and etc. Santa Caterina Market Enric Miralles La Ribera

Open Space and Landscape Distribution Museum of zoology Lluís Doménech i Montaner Ciutat Vella

Palau del Lloctinent La Ribera

Urban Spatial Distribution

Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona El Raval


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Spanish Modernism from the Macro and Micro