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Singapore Architecture through Anomies Kallang Airport National Theatre Marina Bay Sands

Architecture has helped to build civic pride for a nation in recuperation after World War II; served as a serendipitous symbol for a nation whose future was in doubt; and revolutionized modernism for a nation breaking through the glass ceiling that was set. Adams Fenelon

In the heart of Southeast Asia, off of the southern tip of

developed colony. The best examples of traditional modern style

Malaysia, lies the small island city-state of Singapore. Despite having

buildings were produced by the department during the 1930s, while

a physical footprint of only 716 square kilometers, about two-thirds

they were headed by Chief Architect Frank Dorrington Ward.1

the size of New York City, Singapore is one of the premier global

Frank Dorrington Ward studied at the prestigious Kent

cities in the world. The nation is highly lauded for its rapid

College in England and went on to have a successful career, for

economic growth, strong social cohesion and most impressively, its

which he was ultimately honored with the Order of the British

transition from a developing nation to a developed one in a single

Empire for his contributions to the profession. He founded the

generation. The Singaporeans’ journey towards becoming who they

Singapore Society of Architects in 1923 and was named a fellow of

are today was beset with challenging times, times in which they

the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1939. After a stint in the

invariably both contended with and acclimated to major change.

Royal Engineers of the British Army, he moved to the Straits

What history tells us about Singapore is that whenever they find

Settlements in 1920, going on to serve as chief assistant architect

themselves in an anomic period, which is a period of instability

in the Public Works Department. He soon became chief architect

resulting from a breakdown of standards and values or from a lack

himself and served that role from 1928 until 1939. He is accredited

of purpose or ideals, architecture has proven successful for them in

with many prominent works of colonial architecture, particularly in

their attempts at (re)building their image.

Singapore. By his time as chief architect, the scope of the Public

Modern Singapore dates back about 200 years when a

Works Department had extended considerably, and in 1931 he

trading post for the British East India Company was established as

designed Singapore’s most important project to date: Kallang

part of the Straits Settlements in 1819. Due to its valuable location


in southeast Asia, Singapore has played an important role in


entrepot trade. It continued to do so after becoming a British

Kallang Airport was the nation’s first civilian airport and

crown colony in 1867. The early construction of Singapore could be

ultimately its first gateway to the rest of the world. The colonial

attributed to the Public Works Department, tracing back to 1883

authorities had aspirations of putting Singapore on the map and

when the first Superintendent of Public Works was appointed to

making a mark on the growing global aviation industry. Then-

build the infrastructure and public buildings for the newly

Governor Sir Cecil Clementi proclaimed, “Looking into the future, I

Johannes Widodo, "Modernism in Singapore," DoCoMoMo 29, September 2003: 54-60, 2 Duncan Sutherland and Neo Tiong Seng, “Frank Dorrington Ward," National Library Board Singapore, last modified 2016, 1


expect to see Singapore become one of the largest and most

to the sides and a cylindrical glass control tower that is front and

important airports in the world… It is, therefore, essential that we

center, symbolic of a cockpit. Reflecting early modernist British

should have here, close to the heart of the town, an aerodrome

architecture, it was fitted with Art Deco ornaments: a popular

which is equally suitable for land planes and for sea planes; and

design style that represented modernism in visual art form. The

the best site, beyond all question, is the Kallang Basin.”3 Being in

building clearly displays the architectural language of Streamline

such close proximity to the city center was ideal, but the site was

Moderne, with the emphasizing of curves, long horizontal lines, and

far from favorable. The site was a 339-acre, foul fever-infested tidal

the use of materials. From its early years, Kallang Airport was

swamp that required a vast amount of land reclamation to make it

described as the “finest airport in the British Empire” and public

feasible to host the airport. The condition of the site was described

figures weren’t shy in their praise of the new modern work of art,

by colonial engineer G. Starrock, as being a “…plague spot, an

including world-renowned pilot Amelia Earhart who called it the

eyesore, and a standing disgrace to the city.”4 Ultimately, it took six

“miracle aviation of the east.”6

years, S$9 million and 7½ million cubic yards of landfill, but the

In 1939, just two years after the celebratory opening of

project was completed and it marked the beginning of the

the Kallang Airport, Singapore found itself entrenched in World War

transformation of Singapore.

II, during which the airport became a fighter airfield for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Squadrons of the United Kingdom, New Zealand

©National Archives of Singapore

and the Netherlands East Indies Air Forces defended the airport until Singapore fell to Japanese control in 1942. The airport remained in their control until 1945 when the Japanese surrendered, marking the end of the war (Figure 2). With the end of the war came some notable changes surrounding the state of the nation. The most notable being the dissolution of the Straits

Figure 1 Kallang Airport Terminal Building, 1949

Settlements, leading to Singapore becoming a separate British The centerpiece of the airport was the main terminal Crown Colony. Due to building (Figure 1). Constructed of glass, steel and concrete, it is restorations needed to considered to be a masterpiece of the modernist style. Singapore’s repair the extensive State Minister for National Development in 2003, Dr. Vivian damage from the war, it Balakrishnan, expressed: “Building in the modern style was also a wasn’t until 1949 that ©Imperial War Museums, 1945

statement that we were breaking away from the old colonial civil aviation traffic society… Architecture, often seen as a manifestation of a society’s resumed at Kallang, but values, thus mirrored that break from old values and the warm the rehabilitation of their embrace of the new values and ideals of an independent and civic pride ultimately egalitarian Singapore.”5 The design of the main terminal building is came to serve no avail. a metaphor of a contemporary airplane with wings extending out

Figure 2 Evacuation of British POWs from Kallang Airport, 1945

Cornelius and Yap, “Former Kallang Airport Building," National Library Board Singapore, last modified June 11, 2013, 4 Don Beresford, “Who Will Be Kallang’s Last Passenger?" The Straits Times, June 12, 1955,

1.2.78?ST=1&AT=search&k=who%20will%20be%20Kallang%27s%20last%20passenger?&QT=w ho,will,be,kallang,last&oref=article” 5 Widodo, “Modernism in Singapore.” 6 Cornelius and Yap, "Former Kallang Airport Building."



Post-war technological advancements led to a growth in aircraft

NATIONAL THEATRE | 1963 - 1986

sizes and the need for more space and ultimately, the Kallang

Reflecting its transition in the mid-twentieth century

Basin lacked the area required to support this growth. By as early

from a colony to an independent nation, more recent modernism

as 1950, the government began planning to build a new airport

in Singapore is closely related to the nationalist spirit of the

outside of central Singapore, and by 1955, Kallang officially

nation. The modernist style was then applied in a conscious

relinquished its role to the Paya Lebar Airport.7

attempt to break with the colonial legacy and search for a national

In just eighteen years, Kallang Airport had become

identity. In 1958, the British parliament passed the State of

outdated and too small. One of the two hangars was dismantled

Singapore Act, converting Singapore from a colony to a self-

and reassembled at the new airport, while the landing ground

governing state, along with the State of Singapore Constitution,

soon became home to Singapore’s National Stadium. But much like

laying out the basic government structure for a newly self-

the adverse conditions surrounding it during its brief eighteen

governing Singapore. The change in status was official with their

years in use, the terminal building remains what it has always

first general election in 1959, and to celebrate, they turned to what

been for Singapore; a constant within an evolving nation. After the

has worked for them in the past: architecture. During Singapore’s

closure of the airport, the main terminal building soon became the

National Loyalty Week in December of 1959, then-Minister for

headquarters for the People’s Association for the next fifty years.

Culture Sinnathamby Rajaratnam announced plans to build an

Despite all of the things it has went through, it has remained in

open-air theater for the cultural entertainment of mass audiences.

relatively good condition, but in 1994 it underwent S$5.67 million in

Speaking at the event, Rajaratnam proclaimed “We must try to

conservation work to restore its green tinted windows, four tiers of

understand our fellow citizens of ours who belong to a different

steps at the base of the building, and main entrance (Figure 3).

race, and we must generally make joint efforts to achieve our common objective, that is, to establish national unity in our multiracial society.”9 The two foundational reasons for constructing a new theater were to commemorate the country’s self-governance and to establish a place for inter-cultural understanding amongst

©ColinAlly, Flickr

Singaporeans. The site that was chosen to house the incoming theater was King George V Jubilee Park, along the southern foothills of Figure 3 Kallang Airport Terminal Building as it Stands Today

Singapore’s historic Fort Canning Hill. The history of the hill goes

Currently owned by the Singapore Land Authority, the back to the country’s origins in the 14th century when the country site is vacated, but occasionally is still host to cultural events such was the Kingdom of Singapura. Full of historical remnants to this as fashion shows and art exhibitions like the 2011 Singapore day, this hill has been home to its fair share of monuments Biennale. In 2008, the building was designated for conservation, throughout its history, and it was once again getting set to further cementing its place in Singapore’s history.8 introduce another. On May 6, 1960, Rajaratnam invited five local architects to submit design plans for the National Theatre in a limited competition. With the government having aspirations of

7 8

Cornelius and Yap, "Former Kallang Airport Building." Cornelius and Yap, "Former Kallang Airport Building."

Lai Chee Kien, Koh Hong Teng and Chuan Yeo, Building Memories: People, Architecture, Independence (Achates 360, 2016). 9


defining the national identity of the nation, selecting an architect

Wong’s bold design of the National

the people. The competition brief called for the designs to serve as

Theatre was the modern

a cultural center and to be “architecturally distinctive and possibly

symbol that the country

Malayan in character.”10 Along with being the first competition for a

needed. The façade of

large-scale project, the government hoped that this would be the

the theater (Figure 4)

first theater funded entirely by the people. The final cost of the

consisted of a distinctive

theater totaled about S$2.4 million, more than their initial cost

five diamonds of brick

estimation of S$500,000, but public contributions amounted to an

rimmed by projecting

astounding S$856,000. Though not entirely funded by the people as

reinforced concrete

hoped, such a large contribution from the people helped the

edges. It featured an

incoming theater earn the moniker “The People’s Theatre.”11 The

open-air theater covered

submission that was chosen by an appointed committee was one

by a 150-ton fan-shaped cantilevered roof that was supported by

by young local architect Alfred Wong, who was beginning to make

the façade (Figure 5). The roof covered both the seating area of

his mark in the profession.

about 3,420 seats, and the stage, which was 80-feet wide by 60-feet

Alfred Wong was born on January 4, 1930 in Hong Kong,

©AWP Architects

who identified as Singaporean was important in resonating with

©AWP Architects

Figure 4 National Theatre’s Five Diamond Façade

Figure 5 National Theatre’s open-air seating

long and included a revolving stage. Flanking the centerpiece, were

but he is Singaporean at heart. In 1953, he graduated from

two curving two-story annexes on either side that housed the

Melbourne University with Honors in Design, and just four years

ancillary spaces, including the entrance foyer, exhibition rooms,

after graduating he founded his firm AWP Architects based in

and a store among other spaces. Construction of the theater was

Singapore. His contributions to Singaporean architecture did not

officially completed in March of 1964, and it subsequently played

stop there though, as he, in conjunction with other young

host to a myriad of events such as annual National Day Rallies and

architects, founded what became the Singapore Institute of

university convocations as well as performances from the likes of

Architects (SIA) in 1961 and went on to serve as president of the

Louis Armstrong and the Bee Gees.13 This theater went on to serve

SIA from 1963 to 1965. In his long and storied career, he went on to

a much greater role than initially anticipated - even before it was

serve on numerous departments and committees and in 1998, he

fully completed.

became the first recipient of the Singapore Institute of Architects

On July 9, 1963, Singapore, alongside thirteen other

Gold Medal, awarded for a lifetime contribution to architecture.12

Southeast Asian nations, signed the Malaysia Agreement, forming

He has designed many noteworthy projects throughout his long

the independent nation of Malaysia and ending 144 years of

illustrious career, but the National Theatre remains arguably his

colonial rule. To celebrate their newfound independence, they

most significant project, as it helped to vault him to relevance so

organized the Southeast Asia Cultural Festival, aiming to foster

early on in his career.

better understanding and closer relations through cultural exchanges among countries in Southeast Asia. On August 8, 1963, despite only being partially completed at the time, the National

Kien Teng and Yeo, Building Memories. Saparudin and Wei, “National Theatre," National Library Board Singapore, last modified 2018,

Seow, “Architect In Profile: Alfred Wong," Indesign Media Asia Pacific, October 29, 2015, 13 Kien Teng and Yeo, Building Memories.





Theatre was host to this inaugural festival. Billed as “the greatest

Much like the Kallang Airport, the lifetime of the theater

show in the East,” this eight-day event comprised of 1,500 artists

was short lived as on January 16, 1984, just twenty-one years after

from eleven Asian countries, including acts by Cambodian

its completion, the theater closed its doors. Unlike the airport

princesses and Hong Kong film stars.14 This event was a huge

though, the theater was slated for demolition in 1986; the main

success and they had hoped that this would be an annual event,

reason given was due to concerns regarding the structural integrity

but Singapore’s merger into Malaysia was far from harmonious. As

of the cantilevered roof. Architect Alfred Wong commissioned the

a result of overwhelming tension due to the inability to reach

firm of prominent engineer Ove Arup to check on the structure,

common ground regarding the political approach and the

and no major problems were reported to have been found. Such

economic conditions around their alliance, this new union was

affirmations of the structure were not enough though, as a

short lived.15 On August 9, 1965, just 23 months after the Malaysia

combination of the structural questions, substantial maintenance

Agreement, Singapore separated from Malaysia to become a

cost, and a lack of modern facilities such as air-conditioning and

sovereign state.

padded seats, in addition to plans for the city to construct an

To commemorate their newfound independence, the

elevated eight-lane expressway adjacent to the site and two

Public Works Department devised a series of fountains to place

underground tunnels directly under the site, were enough

around the city in an attempt to improve the aesthetic qualities of

justification for the demolition to continue on in 1986.17

the city. On May 1, 1966, the second in the series was unveiled in

Despite its short lifespan, the theater had served a much

shaped bowl made from reinforced concrete within a trapezium-

The evolving historical and cultural context during its formative

shaped water pool and had nozzles that shot jets of water up to

years only helped to amplify the significance of the theater; even

forty feet in the air.16 With the completion of the fountain, the

though Singaporeans found themselves in an anomic period, the

entire project came full circle, as the juxtaposition of the fountain

theater was emblematic of the spirit of self-help and nationhood

with the five diamonds on the theater’s façade read together as a

in the early days of nation building. The memory of the theater still

symbol of the five stars and crescent moon represented on the

lives on today by way of two heritage markers on the former site

Figure 6 The National Theater’s Façade Juxtaposed w/ the Crescent Moon Fountain – Symbolic of the Five Stars and Crescent Moon on the Nation’s Flag

country’s flag (Figure 6).

and a scaled replica of its

This was not a product of

distinct five diamond façade

advanced planning, as the

built to commemorate the 50th

two structures were

anniversary of the theater

designed separately by

(Figure 7). The conversation of

different architects, but

whether or not the demolition

one of serendipity that for

of this once beloved national

many, was a fortuitous

icon was justified also

sign of a developing

continues to live on. During an

national identity.

interview with architect Alfred

Kien Teng and Yeo, Building Memories. Seng, “Merger with Malaysia," National Library Board Singapore, last modified November 3, 2017,






Kien Teng and Yeo, Building Memories. Kien Teng and Yeo, Building Memories.

©Straits Times

more influential role than the nation could have initially imagined.

©AWP Architects

front of the National Theatre. The fountain consisted of a crescent-

Figure 7 Architectural Historian Lai Chee Kien w/ the Replica Depicting the Façade of the Iconic National Theatre

Wong, the preservation of modernist buildings was one of the

corporal punishment. Culturally speaking, Singapore is known to be

topics discussed and though he was reticent about which he

a strict and buttoned-up environment.

would preserve, he was cognizant of the larger forces that exist

Singapore is infamous for some of their questionable

beyond the profession. When considering the role that this theater

laws due to their trepidation regarding what they fear could

played, especially in relation to that of Kallang Airport, it raises

become vices among their own citizens. They have shown to be

questions about the underlying rationale behind preservation.

very serious in regard to their laws and rarely go against them, but

Whatever that reasoning may be, Singapore now finds themselves

in 2005 they lifted what was a strict forty-year-old ban on gambling

in a position that they have become all too familiar with in their

after being sold on the concept of an integrated resort. This move

short history: an anomic period.

was made mainly in an effort to fend off increasing competition for


tourists in mainland China. That same year, the government chose

First suggested in October of 1988 by then-First Deputy

the site of Marina Bay, located in Singapore’s Downtown Core, to be

Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong, and soon reiterated in January of

home to the first ever casino in Singapore. They set fifty-one acres

1989 by then-President Wee Kim Wee, there was a strong belief in

of reclaimed waterfront property at a price of about $1 billion;

the need for Singapore to adopt a set of shared national values: a

allowing bidders to compete on the strength of their concept

national ideology to prevent Singapore from becoming too

proposals. Of the nineteen bidders that submitted proposals, the

westernized. During Wee’s opening address to parliament that year,

Las Vegas Sands Corporation was chosen by the government to

he verbalized that Singapore had begun to adopt “…a more

build and run the first casino in Singapore.20 Their vision of an

Westernized, individualistic, and self-centered outlook on life” as

entertainment district consisting of three hotel towers, a casino,

opposed to “…[traditional] Asian ideas of morality, duty and

two state-of-the-art theaters and a convention center among many

society.”18 On January 15, 1991, the parliament of Singapore

other amenities, was master planned and designed by Boston-

formalized five shared values in a white paper. The Shared Values

based world-renowned architect, Moshe Safdie.

are: Nation before community and society above self; Family as the

Moshe Safdie is an Israeli-Canadian architect, urban

basic unit of society; Community support and respect for the

designer, educator, theorist, and author. He graduated from McGill

individual; Consensus not conflict; and Harmony among races and

University in 1961 and after being an apprentice for Louis Khan, he

religion. These values were not enacted to be enforced as law, but

went on to establish his own firm, Moshe Safdie Architects, in 1964.

as the moral anchor for the small nation in a rapidly changing

The project that he is most associated with is Habitat ‘67, which

world.19 To this day, the nation lives upon these values and it has

helped pave the way for his international career. His global

helped them earn the moniker the Fine City. So deeply rooted in

practice includes projects from nearly every continent, spanning a

their values, the nation has a strong reputation for its impeccable

wide range of typologies from housing to entire cities. Over his 50+

cleanliness and low crime rate, truly embodying their nickname in

year career, he’s been decorated with a number of awards

the traditional sense, but it also serves as a double entendre

including the Gold Medal from both the Royal Architectural

representing their heavy-handedness when it comes to enforcing

Institute of Canada and the American Institute of Architects.21

the standards set through their fines, prison time, and even

Though he has already made his mark internationally, his design of

Lim Tin Seng. “Shared Values," National Library Board Singapore, last modified July 13, 2015, 19 Kenneth L. Whiting, “Singapore Sets Values as Moral Anchor," Los Angeles Times, May 12, 1991,


Wayne Arnold, “Las Vegas Sands Is Chosen to Build Singapore Casino," The New York Times, May 27, 2016, 21 “Moshe Safdie, FAIA, FRAIC, OAA, SIA" Safdie Architects, accessed April 17, 2019,



structure in the world at

Sands is the project that really put his firm on the map in Asia. Of

213 feet (Figure 9), as well

the project, Safdie said, “Our challenge was to create a vital public

as having the largest

place at the district-urban scale – in other words, to address the

outdoor swimming pool

issue of mega-scale and invent an urban landscape that would

(15,026 square feet) at its

work at the human scale.”22 Construction began soon after the

height (Figure 10).23 The

project was awarded in 2006 and was ultimately completed in 2011,

audacious nature of this

and the solution to this challenge is arguably one of the most

project has helped to

ambitious designs in the world.

further cement

Figure 9 Skypark Public Observation Deck

Singapore’s status as a

Marina Bay Sands is the Hotel

©Safdie Architects

The defining part of

©Safdie Architects

the unprecedented ultra-modern development of Marina Bay

global city.

and SkyPark, which sets the

In conjunction with the many other

development. The hotel

amenities on site, this 9 million square foot, $5.7 billion

represents a new urban

development helped to catapult Singapore into one of the highest ©Safdie Architects

scene for the entire

typology characterized by its interconnectedness, with three 55-story hotel towers containing 2,560 rooms in

Figure 10 Skypark Infinity Edge Pool

ranked global cities. The result is the nearly tripling of the tourism sector of Singapore, drawing more than 19.6 million visitors and hosting nearly 2,000 meetings, conventions and exhibitions in its first year alone.24 Safdie described the project as being “…more

Figure 8 Marina Bay Sands Hotel and Skypark

total, connected at both the ground level and the top floor (Figure

than a building project, it is a microcosm of a city rooted in

8). The three towers are spaced apart to frame the views to the sea

Singapore’s culture, climate and contemporary life.”25 What really

from downtown, and each tower is “double-loaded” or spread

makes this project significant is not the prestige that it brings, but

apart at its base to form atriums at the lower levels. The three are

the intent, as it invites the western world into Singapore –

linked together at the ground level by a public pedestrian

something which the Singaporean government has been so

thoroughfare within a continuous atrium that connects the first 25

adamant about limiting since becoming a sovereign state. Having

stories of each tower. At the hotel’s apex lies the main attraction of

gone from being dependent on others for most of their history,

the Marina Bay Sands as a whole, the SkyPark; a nearly three-acre

they have taken great pride in being an autonomous and self-

tropical oasis that spans 1,115 feet from end to end and up to 131

sustaining nation. However, understanding that what got them here

feet wide. Atop the SkyPark lie many of the hotel’s amenities

won’t get them there, Marina Bay Sands illustrates the nation’s

including gardens, restaurants, a public observation deck, and a

willingness to adapt to external conditions, even if that means

one of a kind infinity edge pool. This unprecedented feature has

going away from what has been successful for them in the past.

set a new record on a number of different architectural and

Historically, Singapore has been looked at as being

engineering feats, including having longest occupiable cantilevered

solely the threshold to Southeast Asia, but they’ve developed to

“Marina Bay Sands: Singapore’s Architectural Icons," NBM Media, accessed April 17, 2019, 23 “Marina Bay Sands - Hotel and SkyPark," Safdie Architects, accessed April 17, 2019,


Chua, “Marina Bay Sands," National Library Board Singapore, last modified 2011, 25 “Marina Bay Sands: Singapore’s Architectural Icons.”



become a global hub for transport, entertainment and tourism among a number of other sectors. The role that architecture played in Singapore’s history cannot go unstated, as it not only helped to cement the variety of competences that they’ve compounded overtime, but also served as an anchor through the sudden changes they’ve encountered. Architecture has helped to build civic pride for a nation in recuperation after getting entrenched in World War II; served as a serendipitous symbol for a nation whose future was in doubt after their unceremonious exit from Malaysia; and revolutionized modernism for a nation breaking through the glass ceiling that was set. Today, Singapore is a prosperous multiracial society and one of the premier global cities in the world, a designation that no one could have thought possible considering their history. Despite the challenges faced, architecture has enabled Singapore to successfully reimagine its identity through multiple periods of instability and change.


Bibliography Arnold, Wayne. “Las Vegas Sands Is Chosen to Build Singapore Casino.” The New York Times, May 27, 2006, sec. Business Day. Beresford, Don. “Who Will Be Kallang’s Last Passenger?” The Straits Times, June 12, 1955, NL3693 edition.,will,be,kallang,last&oref=articl e. Chua, Alvin. “Marina Bay Sands.” National Library Board Singapore, 2011. Cornelius, Vernon, and Jan Yap. “Former Kallang Airport Building” National Library Board Singapore, June 11, 2013. Kien, Lai Chee, Koh Hong Teng, and Chuan Yeo. Building Memories: People, Architecture, Independence. Singapore: Achates 360, 2016. “Marina Bay Sands - Hotel and SkyPark.” Safdie Architects. Accessed April 17, 2019. “Marina Bay Sands: Singapore’s Architectural Icons.” Modern Green Structures & Architecture. Accessed April 17, 2019. “Moshe Safdie, FAIA, FRAIC, OAA, SIA.” Safdie Architects. Accessed April 17, 2019. Saparudin, Kartini, and Zhi Wei. “National Theatre.” National Library Board Singapore, 2018. Seng, Lim Tin. “Merger with Malaysia.” National Library Board Singapore, November 3, 2017. Seng, Lim Tin. “Shared Values.” National Library Board Singapore, July 13, 2015. Seow, Janice. “Architect In Profile: Alfred Wong.” INDESIGN Media Asia Pacific | Daily Connection to Architecture and Design (blog), October 29, 2015. Sutherland, Duncan, and Neo Tiong Seng. “Frank Dorrington Ward.” National Library Board Singapore, 2016. Whiting, Kenneth L. “Singapore Sets Values as Moral Anchor.” Los Angeles Times, May 12, 1991. Widodo, Johannes. “Modernism in Singapore,” no. 29 (September 2003).


Profile for Adams Fenelon

Singapore Architecture through Anomies  

This paper explores Singapore’s use of architecture in their attempts at (re)building their image, particularly whenever they found themselv...

Singapore Architecture through Anomies  

This paper explores Singapore’s use of architecture in their attempts at (re)building their image, particularly whenever they found themselv...

Profile for fenelona