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PROTO TAMANSARI YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

“Farming is all about food-security and creating jobs outside the city. Feeding the farmers and accumulating capital for future investments is priority.’’ Prof.Dr.Ir. Pablo Tittonell


PROJECT TEAM: Felixx Landscape Architects & Planners MLA.Ing. Michiel Van Driessche MA.Ing. Deborah Lambert Ing. Marnix Vink Ing. Willemijn van Manen Wageningen UR Farming Systems Ecology Prof.Dr.Ir. Pablo Tittonell

Gustoweg 45 h 3029 AR Rotterdam KvK Rotterdam 59639121 tel: 0031 (0)10 27 33 028 www.felixx.nl felixx@felixx.nl DISCLAIMER: This publication has been prepared by Felixx Landscape Architects & Planners. Reproduction and public presentation only after official permission. All materials Copyright Š Felixx Landscape Architects & Planners, Rotterdam The Netherlands, 2015


PROTO TAMANSARI YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

* This document is a concise graphical overview. More information and detailed project documentation on request.


INDONESIA’S CLAIM TO THE GREENEST METROPOLE In Indonesia, the urban and rural tissue are strongly intertwined. Two urban typologies exist in a very close proximity: the Desa (village) and the Kota (city).


DESA

KOTA


DESA KOTA This results in a vast area of unplanned developments around the cities. We call these areas ‘Desa Kota’.


DESA KOTA AREA


URBAN & AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE The Desa Kota is a mixture of agricultural and urban landscapes. It has the potential to become highly sustainable, but is likely to become the opposite.


VILLAGES

FARMLAND


URBANISATION Currently there are no tools to enable urban growth within the Desa Kota areas. So during the last years, the agricultural land is transformed into generic urban developments.


UPCOMING URBANISATION

SMALL SCALE AGRICULTURE


PROBLEMS The vast development of these areas is causing fundamental problems. Cities and their surroundings rely on the water storage capacity of the agricultural fields (sawa’s). Traffic flows are jamming as the existing infrastructure can not handle the many new users. The ecological conditions go down by demolishing the characteristic green environment. The specific social structures in the villages are replaced by metropolitan anonymity.


LOSS WATERSTORAGE CAPACITY

LOSS OF ECOLOGICAL VALUE

INCREASED TRAFFIC ON ROADS


KEEP AGRICULTURE ALIVE PREVENT RANDOM DEVELOPMENTS The goal is not to avoid expansion of the city. The ambition is to control the expansion, in order to transform the specific qualities of the Desa-Kota areas into a green and resilient metropolitan landscape. Therefore agriculture is key, as it occupies all non-built-up space. A healthy farming system can avoid random developments, and define the renewed character of the Desa-Kota.


RECENT HISTORY FARMING IN INDONESIA/BANTUL REGION To tackle the famine, the Indonesian government subsidised farmers to increase their production. Farmers became depended from governmental support. After achieving the required targets, agriculture was stripped off the political agenda. The flow of funds stopped, and farmers were left behind.


1949-1960

No state funding No initiatives farmers

1965

1960-1964

Starvation is reality

1965-1972

+ Begin of Soeharto Regime

1972

-

-

Poor rice harvest due to drought

Fall of Soekarno Regime

1965-1972

+

Increased rice production is Top Priority!

1972

1964

State-led programmes such as BIMAS and DINAS. The results were nevertheless disappointing.

1973

+ Extra funding for state-led programmes to increase yields


1970-1980

1980

+ Zn Mg

Cr Mg Zn Cr K Fe Mg Cu B Mg Mn Fe K

+ +

B

Side Effect: use of new varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides deplete the soil. The increase of yields stagnates.

Meanwile, the amount of people working in agriculture continues to rise, tearing down the individual income of a farmer.

MID ‘90

-

The amount of people working in the agricultural sector decreases because of the bad prospects.

1998

? =

End of the Green Revolution: the rural population did not gain welfare during the state-led programs and were not able to invest in a sustainable system when the subsidies stopped. The state had created a heavy dependence of financial support


1980-1985

-

Self-suffiency in rice production is achieved. Political interests drop, and fundings stop.

1998

LESSONS LEARNED Fall of the Soeharto Regime due to the Asian Financial crisis. Yogyakarta starts a democratisation and decentralisation process.


ECONOMIC CHALLENGE PROGRAMS FAILED TO CREATE CAPITAL FOR THE FARMERS Farmers don’t have a strong financial position. They are often not able to upgrade their farms and equipment. As such, selling land for new developments is a tempting offer.


LOW CAPITAL OF FARMERS

SOLD PLOTS FOR HOUSING DEVELOPMENT


INTENSIFY AGRICULTURE, PROVIDING A FULL INCOME Currently, people often combine farming with a job in the city. Putting farming as a sheer sideline, prevents further agricultural development. To allow for innovation, farming needs to be intensified towards a fulltime employment that provides a full income.


FARMER IN THE MORNING

CRAFTSMAN OR STOREKEEPER IN THE AFTERNOON


ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGE HIGH PRODUCTION POLICIES LEFT FARMERS WITH DEPLETED SOILS The high production targets were reached by using external resources, and the application of chemicals and pesticides.

Zn Cr Mg Mg K Fe Mg Cu B

Zn B

Cr Mg K


IMPLEMENT SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS Transforming the farming system should be combined with the implementation of sustainable, and resilient farming systems on the long term. This could avoid the use of expensive fertilizers and pesticides, and create a more healthy environment for all.


2. Functional Biodiversity

CO2 H20 N2 1.

Fertile soil

Flora and fauna

3.


SOCIAL CHALLENGE YOUNG PEOPLE HAVE NO INTEREST IN FARMING Currently being a farmer in Indonesia might not offer a very challenging prospect. The active farmers are getting older, and the younger generation seems to have no interest in taking over.


AGING FARMERS WITH NO SUCCESSORS

YOUNG PEOPLE MOVE AWAY TO THE CITY


MAKE AGRICULTURE CHALLENGING FOR HIGHER EDUCATED PEOPLE Agriculture should be reconnected to youth. Nowadays there seems to be gap between low-tech farming, and the knowledge development of the young generations. Ecological farming is highly knowledge intensive, and might arouse interest of higher educated people, to contribute to future ways of food production.


A CONVENTIONAL FARMER PURCHASING PESTICIDES

AN AGROECOLOGICAL FARMER INSPECTING HIS CROPS


VALUE THE CULTURAL IMAGE OF FOOD CHARACTER OF LAND & FARMING


Convince people that this can be contemporary


TURN THE EXISTING SAWA-SYSTEM.... The exisiting farming landscape offers a spatial framework for agricultural innovations.


... INTO A FARMING SMART GRID The geometric framework integrates innovations on production, processing and trading of food.


PRODUCTION INVOLVE EVERY SCALE Improving the production should involve all scales. Excluding small plots would create a strict boundary between the city and rural areas.


URBAN-RURAL DIVISION Common approach: relinquish smallest plots, merge medium plots & maintain bigger plots

RELINQUISH

MERGE

MAINTAIN

URBAN-RURAL SYNERGY Preserve existing scales, otherwise desa kota structure will disappear


INTENSIFICATION Intensification happens by layering different uses on the existing plots. Combining different cultivations provides different harvests. Moreover the layered system raises the individual yields per cultivation.


COMPLEX LAYERED SYSTEMS ALLOW FOR HIGHER YIELDS

Azolla Nitrogen Cover Crop

Feed

Nutrients

Nutrients

Nutrients Bio-control Weed Control

Duck

Feed

Rice

Nutrients Bio-control Weed Control

Plankton

Fish

Rice Yield (t ha -1) at increasing levels of complexity 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Rice

Rice + Ducks

Rice + Rice + Rice + Rice + Rice + Compost Compost Compost Ducks + Ducks + + Fish +Azolla Compost Fish + Compost

Research thesis by Gonzalo Garnacho Alemany, September 2014 Farming Systems Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands

Rice + Ducks + Compost +Azolla

Rice + Ducks + Fish + Compost + Azolla


DIVERSIFICATION Diversification of the production enables farmers to adress multiple markets, strenghtening their economic position. Meanwhile it reinforces the biodiversity and through this the ecological conditions.


Coconut

Rambutan Coffee Canna

Sweet Potato

Cocao Pineapple Taro


Plankton

Azolla

Fish

Rice

Duck

LAYERING BELOW GROUND In the wet sawas, cultivations could be layered below surface, avoiding transformation of the physical landscape.


Coconut

Coffee and Cacoa plants

Sweet Potato (Yam)

Rice

Pineapple

LAYERING ABOVE GROUND In the dry sawas, cultivations could be layered above ground. This would result into a transformation of the open landscape into a more enclosed and forested environment.


BASED ON ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL SPATIAL STRUCTURES Both techniques are combined into a new spatial configuration. This is based on the ecological conditions (water, soil,...) and on the cultural values (open landscape, enclosed villages).


ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT

CULTURAL CONTEXT


www.etsy.com


PEST CONTROL ISLANDS Within this new production landscape, several small plots with vegetation are added. Specific selected plants attract insects and animals that function as ecological pest control. No more pesticides!


PROCESSING NETWORK OF PROCESSING HUBS Raw materials should no longer be transported to the city for processing. A network of decentralized hubs deals with the local processing of the harvests. This adds an economic layer to the villages. Heavy transport can be avoided, and nutrient cycles can be closed.


CENTRALISED PROCESSING

NETWORK OF PROCESSING HUBS


PROCESSING PLANT IN VILLAGE The hubs reduce the logistics, allow for the closing of nutrient cycles, and strenghten the economic position of the villages.


NEW HIERARCHY THROUGH PROCESSING INDUSTRY The development of processing plants in the cities could generate a new hierarchy between the villages, based on the investment climate and provided employment.


LOCAL IDENTITY THROUGH PROCESSING INDUSTRY The settlement of specific industrial sectors could provide a distinctive identity to the different villages.


TRADE LINK VILLAGES TO THE CITY Trading the produced and processed goods links the villages to the city. This determines the relation between the city and the rural surroundings: The DesaKota as a rural foodmarket, where townspeople go to buy their food. Or the DesaKota as the sheer production grounds for local produced food, sold in the supermarkets in the city.


VILLAGE-ORIENTATED ECONOMY

RURAL FOODMARKET

PRODUCTION GROUND


PILOT AREAS WORKSHOP YOGYAKARTA/BANTUL Instead of a masterplan, agriculture, together with 4 other themes, defines a set of interventions. Pilot projects are developed to combine the different thematic interventions.


Economy

Mobility & Infrastructure

Resilient Agriculture

Area 1

Project Area 1

Area 2

Project Area 2

Green Realm

Irrigation & Flood Resilience


WORKSHOPS & STAKEHOLDERS International and local experts, planners and scientist join in workshops on site, to discuss the application and combination of different interventions.


PROJECT AREA 1 Urban area

Legend Green Public Space Node Playground Bicycle Rental Spot Educational Urban Farming Area Fishing Pond Garbage Collector Village Oriented Market Farming Education Course Water Filtering System Public Space along Waterfront Preserved Agriculture Land Converted Building become Village Oriented Market & Education for Farming Thematized Bicycle Path Existing River Vacant Land Built Area Street


Legend Green Public Space Node Playground Bicycle Rental Spot Educational Urban Farming Area Fishing Pond Garbage Collector Village Oriented Market Farming Education Course Water Filtering System Public Space along Waterfront Preserved Agriculture Land

Converted Building become Village ented Market & Education for Farm Thematized Bicycle Path Existing River Vacant Land Built Area Street


PROJECT AREA 2 Rural area

Legend Green Public Space Node Playground Bicycle Rental Spot Educational Urban Farming Area Fishing Pond Garbage Collector Village Oriented Market Farming Education Course Local Culinary Spot Parking Spot Bus Stop Water Recreation Water Filtering System Public Space along Waterfront Preserved Agriculture Land Village Oriented Market & Education for Farming Thematized Bicycle Path Existing River Vacant Land Built Area Street


FELIXX LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS & PLANNERS Felixx is a Rotterdam based office for proactive landscape architecture, established to advice on the new environmental challenges. The office operates within the fields of environmental design and spatial studies. Landscapes emerged from the transformation of nature areas into human living environments. As integrated spatial systems, they connect and organize all aspects to enable human life. Constantly evolving, adapting to the ever changing contemporary life forms. Actually, we design the space where society is touching ground. Landscape architecture is both a spatial and societal instrument. Therefore Felixx enjoys being a platform to identify new spatial challenges, by exploring landscape architecture as a pragmatic utopian practice. Engineering landscapes as smart spatial systems, while envisioning them as the paradisiacal environments we want to live in. By hitting this promising overlap between pragmatism and idealism, we want to improve the world we are living in and realize happy environments. Looking for opportunities to do so is Felixx’s everyday quest.

Gustoweg 45 h 3029 AR Rotterdam tel: 0031 (0)10 27 33 028 www.felixx.nl felixx@felixx.nl


PROTO TAMANSARI TEAM RESILIENT URBAN RURAL STRATEGIES KRILL Office for Resilient Cities & Architecture (NL) (Harmen van de Wal, initiator Proto Tamansari) SHAU Office for architecture and urbanism (IND+NL) SIGIT KUSUMAWIJAYA Architect and urban designer (IND) EKO PRAWOTO ARCHITECTS Office for architecture (IND) IHS-ERASMUS UNIVERSITY International institute of urban management, Rotterdam (NL) UNESCO-IHE Institute for water education, Delft (NL) WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY University & Research centre, Wageningen (NL) UGM, UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA Yogyakarta (IND) UKDW, UNIVERSITAS KRISTEN DUTA WACANA Yogyakarta (IND)


Proto Tamansari  

Strategy for resilient agriculture in Indonesian Desa Kota. Case study in Yogyakarta. In collaboration with Wageningen University.

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