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REBUILDING NEPAL K AT H M AND U VAL LEY OF BRICK

DEGREE PROJEKT IN ARCHITECTURE SECOND CYCLE, 30 CREDITS STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN 2019 KTH ARCHITECTURE Felicia Svensson & Amelie Norén


INDEX

4-9 4-5 6-7 8-9

Background Project introduction Nepal background Project incentives

12-39 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-21 22-23 24-25 26-29 30-35 36-39

Research Post earthquake situation - Temporary buildings Culture in Nepal Site visits Materials in Nepal Brick patterns in Nepal Construction Techniques Interlock Construction The Brick

42-65 42-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-57 58-59 60-61 62-64 65

The New Brick Factory Construction Project requirements Section Facades The global goals Building program Axonometries Visualisations Models End word

Rebuilding Nepal // Designing for Earthquakes Kathmandu Valley of brick Felicia Svensson & Amelie NorĂŠn Degree Project Studio Supervisor: Ori Merom


BACKGROUND


BACKGROUND

KATHMANDU VALLEY OF BRICK

In 2015 Nepal suffered two severe earthquakes within three weeks. Close to 9000 lives were lost, about the double got injured and nearly 3 million people were left homeless. Kathmandu Valley is located in the middle where the earthquakes hit which resulted in a lot of damage in the area. Now almost exactly four years later Nepal is still recovering. The country is dependent on foreign aid to make the economy go together and approximately 1,2 billion dollars is missing for Nepal to recover.

Construction. They currently run a brick factory in Sankhu run by women. Their vision is to create high quality and environmentally friendly construction techniques and to generate as many job opportunities as possible for people in vulnerable positions in Nepal. The company offers the public training in both construction and brick production. The local population is a culturally and traditionally invested people. Most people in Nepal are poor and about 90% live as self economising farmers outside the official economy. Inclusive growth is a constant challenge in Nepal. Only about 50 % of the population has electricity and running water. There are a number of different ethnic groups and large gaps between class, nature and living standards and the caste system is still practiced even though law forbids it.

Due to seismic activities the country has obtained its special geological qualities. The Himalayas consist of bedrock and the valleys in between mainly consist of clay and sand. This together with the topography have made it almost impossible to use other than local materials to build with. Since the main materials in the valleys are clay and sand, the brick have been a central building material. Creating Kathmandu Valleys significant architectural expression as the ”valley of brick”.

A number of foreign organisations, companies and governments have high influence in the country and due to the effects of earthquakes and a turbulent political history the country have a poorly managed economy.

We found Nepal’s current situation as a good opportunity for us to learn about the effects extreme climates have on the local population as well as the architecture. To get a more comprehensive picture of the situation we felt that we needed to go to Nepal. And to be able to do that we had to find sufficient funding and a client, either an organisation or a company that needed our skills.

The country is also highly influenced by the two neighbouring countries, India and China. It has been dependent on the trade with India for a long time but the influence from China have grown during the past years. Especially through the silk road that China is building through Nepal. Many countries in vulnerable positions, as Nepal, have welcomed China in the hope on improving the own country’s economy through the new trade route.

Our project is a Sida founded minor field study. This has given us both an obligation to follow Sweden’s policy for global development as it has given us a great opportunity to get involved with an organisation that has a lot of experience in the type of work we have an interest in doing. Our project is working towards several of the global goals but we have chosen to concentrate the project towards three of the goals. Goal 5; Equalty, Goal 6; Clean water and sanitation and Goal 11; sustainable cities and communities.

In this project we have not only looked at the negative effects of earthquakes but also been searching for positive outcomes of the recovering process. Asking ourselves where this potential progressions can take place and for whom it can lead to something valuable.

We have been working together with a Nepalese/ Australian construction company called Interlock

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BACKGROUND

POLITICS The political history in Nepal has been characterized by turbulence and violence and the demand on a democracy started to grow in 1991. Between 1996-2006, an armed Maoist insurrection took place to reduce the royal house’s power. When the king used dictatorial methods to retain his stand a larger part of the establishment turned against him. The monarchy was abolished in 2008 but due to continual political turbulence the new constitution was not established until 2015. The political situation today is still unsettled and political parties have a tendency to show their power with extreme violence. There have for example been several attacks on large

companies for inflicting on Nepalese interests and as punishments for not paying taxes to the government. Political parties have placed bombs, that have led to deaths among both the company’s employees and the general public, where the parties later have apologized for killing civilians. Medias are also threatened in Nepal. Even though they have freedom of press journalists and people in media are subject of harassment, death threats and physical violence. The attacks are carried out by security forces and armed gangs often connected to the Maoist or other political groups.

ECONOMY Nepal is one of the least industrialized countries in the world. Because of low demand from the local market, competition from the Indian market, poor infrastructure and a shortage of investment capital. Trade, tourism and industry make up the larger part of the countries GDP while natural resources are unutilized. About 90 % of the Nepalese live on agriculture, mainly for selfeconomization. The most important crops are rice, corn and wheat. Since a large part of the public are either self-economizing or a part of a spread out barter economy they are also outside of the official economy. This affects the economy of the country since there are a lot of

people who don’t pay taxes. A large part of the public is undernourished but the amount of people that live in absolute poverty has declined. The reason is considered to be because of money transfers from relatives that work abroad.Trafficking is a widespread problem. Nepalese are exploited in both the sex industry in India and as cheap labour in India and the Middle East.

FOREIGN AID Nepal is dependent on foreign aid for the economy to go together and has a foreign debt of approximately 5 000 000 000 US dollars. Money from other countries make up for over a courter of the country’s budget (300 million dollars from the world bank). UN and other organizations hold a lot of power over the Nepalese government and since they are giving aid they have power do decide what to build and not even though the countries priorities may be different. The country is also dependent on their neighbouring countries, India and China. India has had the biggest influence but the control from China is growing. China is currently building

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the giant One Belt One Road Infrastructure project that will cross through Nepal. The road through Nepal will link India to Tibet and is just a small part of the large trade rout.


ETHNICITY Nepal’s population of approximately 30 million inhabitants consists of a great number of different ethnic groups and castes. Napali, Pahari and Bihari speaking Hindus make up for 80 % of the population. These in their hand consist of several castes, Brahman, Chetri and Thakuri that dominate numerically and politically while people in low castes of carpenters and casteless are a minority. The main population in the south and central parts of Nepal are hindus, that live on farming. In Tarai in the south there is also a number of Hindi speaking, farming Tharu (7%). Their religion is a Hindu influenced tribal religion. The rest of the population are Tibeto-Burman

groups. Newari (1,3 million, 5,5 %) dominate in Kathmandu Valley. Their civilisation was established 500 B.C. and their architecture is significant for the whole valley, both in rural and urban areas. Newari are farmers, trade people and carpenters. Their religion is a mixture of Hinduism and Buddhism. The main population in the Himalayas are Tibetan. They live on farming, breeding of yaks, goats and sheep and longdistance trading. The most well known group is Sherpa; they are commonly hired as guides by foreign trekkers and climbers. The official language Nepali is spoken by about 50 % of the population, Maithili is spoken by 11 %, Bhojpuri by 8 % and Awadhi by 5 %.5

CLIMATE The climate of Nepal varies in relation to the geographical location. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are tropical and winters are mild.The year is divided into five seasons; spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter. Kathmandu Valley has average temperatures of 19°C – 35°C in summer and 2°C – 12°C in winter. The average annual rainfall is 1,600 mm. But depending on area it differs a lot, for example the yearly rainfall is 3,345 mm in Pokhara and below 300 mm in Mustang. The average annual rainfall in Kathmandu is 2156 mm comparing to Sweden’s annual rainfall of 500-800 mm. 80 % of the annual rainfall in Nepal is received during the

monsoon season between June-August. The air in larger parts of Nepal, mainly in bigger cities, is heavily polluted and the air in Kathmandu has been ranked as the worst in South Asia. Rapid urbanisation, unplanned development activities, smokes from brick kilns, ongoing road widening drives, construction works and increasing number of vehicles have contributed to the pollution. The countries geographical features contribute to the polluted air to stay in the valleys and the Himalayas act as a barrier from winds that could lower the local effects. The air pollution is a central environmental and health issue.

EQUITY Inclusive growth is a constant challenge in Nepal. Only about 50 % of the population has electricity and running water. There are a number of different ethnic groups and large gaps between class, nature and living standards and the caste system is still practiced even though law forbids it. The educational system is in neglect and 25 % of the children don’t finish the first five years of school. Up until 1960 there were almost no education and therefor illiteracy among adults are widely spread. Women have a low number of rights and domestic violence is common. For example women and girls have traditionally not been allowed to take part in family activities, school or communicate with their communities while menstruating, as they were considered impure. The tradition is called

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Chhaupadi and forces the menstruationg female to sleep in a hut. The tradition is banned but still carried out in some communities. Arranged marriages are common, a low number of females have formal positions and they have restrained inheritance right.There are several organisations and groups working for the empowerment of women in Nepal. There are also organisations that are offering the public training in construction to lower the gaps. It has been a vital part in the development of a more inclusive society creating opportunities for the public to become less reliant on others. This has also led to many women entering the training giving them the opportunity to both become independent and to establish themselves in a new community.


BACKGROUND

IN 2015 27% of working age women were employed

25 % of the population has clean water and sanitation

Nepal´s 147 000 km2 is covered by 2 000 Brick Kiln’s

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Many women and girls in Nepal are subordinated the men. Traditionally they have taken care of the home and only a third of the women are employed. This is an important subject to us and by focusing our project towards the

needs of the women working in the factory we want to create a safe working environment for them. By providing them with education in a safe environment they are given the possibility to become more independent.

About 25% of the inhabitants in Nepal have access to clean water and sanitation. Because of the poor sanitary situation and industrial emission, polluted water is a big problem. The majority of the households have their own well where they can shower, but drinking water need to be bought. In Nepal, the annual

amount of rainfall is big and therefore, in our project the rain water is collected on the roof. The water will be collected in a well and then pumped and filtered before it can be used in the factory. For watering the bricks unfiltered water can be used.

The firering process of the red brick is one of the main reasons to the high air pollution in Nepal. Therefore, we have aimed to work with more environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. Preferably a product made of locally harvested materials that is

also economical accessible for the local population. The company we have been collaberating with produces a product that is more resistant to earthquakes and therefore contributes to the opportunity to create safe homes.

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RESEARCH


RESEARCH

POST EARTHQUAKE SITUATION

The geology of Nepal is constantly changing. The Indian Plate in the south started to push down under the Eurasian Plate in the north about 55 million years ago. The collision process is still active and together with correlating phenomena it formed the Himalayas. The movements of this continent to continent collision have given rise to the exceptionally diverse geological conditions within Nepals narrow width of 250 km.

The earthquake in 2015 resulted in severe damage on many areas in Kathmandu Valley. Close to 9000 lives were lost, about the double got injured and nearly 3 million people were left homeless. Cities and villages in the epicenter were desolated and many places were unreachable. In january 2018 the worldbank conceded to a loan of 300 million dollars to rebuild Nepal, and still, 1.2 billion dollars is missing for Nepal to recover.

Close to 9000 lives were lost, about the double got injured and nearly 3 million people were left homeless

In january 2018 the worldbank conceded to a loan of 300 million dollars to rebuild Nepal, and still, 1.2 billion dollars is missing for Nepal to recover

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The government of Nepal authorized that the reconstruction of housing would be homeowner-driven at the same time they also required the work to be done by certified builders. As people were in desperate need of a home and without the money to afford to hire a carpenter people started to build their own temporary homes, often simple sheds or houses made out of corrugated steel sheets.

To address the demand for additional certified builders, different agencies and organisations started offering the public training in construction. Creating opportunities for the public to become less reliant on others. This also led to many women entering the training, giving them the opportunity to both become independent and to establish themselves in a new community.

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During our research we came into contact with one of these organisations, called From The Ground Up. As an organization they met a few different problems that made their work unsustainable. They got a reliance that they could not fulfill in the long run since they were dependent on external grants themselves. One of the founders of From The Ground Up, Nick Abraham, then established a construction company, called Interlock Construction. With the company he could pay taxes to the government and actually be a part of the Nepal society and labour market.


RESEARCH

TEMPORARY BUILDINGS

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RESEARCH

CULTURE IN NEPAL

Culture and religion has a high importance in Nepal. The religion is expressed in all parts of the cultural life. The customs are brought from both Hinduism and Buddhism and there are many temples for both religions in the country. The culture is also visible in the daily life, from placing religious artefacts at home to praying for new essential belongings, such as buildings or machines. Women in Nepal often wear Sari, a traditional garment worn in South Asia and both men and women paint a bindii, red dot, on their forehead to show their relationship status. Hospitality is important for Nepalese people. However, a visitor should consider not entering a home, or an individual room, without being invited. There are often

unwritten rules about who may enter or touch what in Hindu homes. The Nepali year is filled with different holidays and celebrations. The Labour Relation Committee regulates holidays in Nepal and every Saturday is considered a holiday. All employees are entitled to 13 paid public holidays per year and holidays are paid at normal wages. The majority of public holidays are based on religious and cultural traditions. The longest continuous holiday is celebrated during Vijaya Dasham with festivals lasting as long as six days. Several holidays are celebrated in regions and territories such as Kathmandu and Tanang.

Marigold flowers Marigold flowers have an important and noticeable role in the Nepalese culture. They are used as decoration for weddings, festivals and religious occasions. They are also used to welcome people at the main door, like on this drawing. One strong reason for the use of the Marigold is that it keeps insects away because of its smell. When marigold is offered together with other nice sensing flowers, it keeps insects away from the other flowers.

Prayer flags Prayer flags are a Buddhist religious act. They are most commonly hung at monasteries, stupas and rocks on mountain passes, but sometimes also on private buildings. Each of the colours is used to balance the five elements and bring harmony. When the wind blows through the flags good wishes of peace, strength, compassion and wisdom is brought to all people.

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THE NEPALI YEAR

11th PRITHVI JAYANTI

4th MAHA SHIVARATRI

A celebration to honour the late King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of modern Nepal

1st MAJDUR DIWAS

Maha Shivaratri is a Hindu festival celebrated befor the arrival of spring that marks the ”Great Night of Shiva”, a Hindu deity

15th MAGHE SANKRANTI

During the month of “Maghe”, near the end of the winter solstice, Nepal celebrates a holiday called

Labour Day

18th BUDDHA JAYANTI

Buddhists in Nepal celebrate Buddha Jayanti on the full moon day in the Buddhist month of Baishakh. In Nepal, the birthday of Buddha is of special significance to many because Nepal is the birth place of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha

7th GHYALPO LOSAR

Ghyalpo Losar, or “Tibetan New Year,” begins near the end of the year on the Tibetan Calendar and continues for two weeks.

“Maghe Sankranti”

30th MARTYR’S DAY

In Nepal, Martyr’s Day is a day designed to honour all who fought and dies to make Nepal a better place throughout its long, long history

29th GANATANTRA DIWAS Ganatantra Diwas (Republic Day) is a public holiday. It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed

5th SONAM LOSAR

5th GHODE JATRA

Sonam Losar, meaning New Year in Nepalese, is

5th RAMJAN EDUL FIKRA

Ghodejatra festival is also known as the

celebrated in Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and India

End of Ramadan, some employees may choose to take the day off on this day, however, most offices and businesses remain open

festival of horses or horse parade of Nepal

19th PRAJATANTRA DIWAS

14th NEPALI NEW YEAR

Democracy Day of Nepal

On the Nepali Calendar, Nepal Sambat (“Nepali New Year’s Day”) comes at the beginning of the lunar month called “Navavarsha”

14th RAM NAVAMI

Ram Navami is celebrated as the “incarnation” day, of the Hindu god Ram. Ram is believed to have been the seventh incarnation of Vishnu and is looked upon as a sort of “ideal man” and one who helped good to overcome evil.

24th LOKTANTRA DIWAS

Loktantra Diwas, or “Democracy Day”, is a holiday in Nepal. It occurs every 24 April and commemorates the restoration of Nepal’s representative assembly in 2006 after it was dismissed by the king in 2005.

12th EDUL AAJAHA

29th -13th DASHAIN FESTIVAL

Even though Nepal is only 4.5 percent Muslim, Edul Aajaha, Feast of Sacrifice is a national holiday in Nepal

Dashain Festival is a popular holiday among both Hindus and Buddhists in Nepal

15th RAKSHA BANDHAN

12th UDHAULI PARVA

Udhauli Parva is an annual festival and public holiday in Nepal, especially in the Kirant region. It is a colourful, lively time, the festival marks the end of the rice harves

13th KOJAGRAT PURNIMA

Marks the renewal of the sacred thread by Brahmins. Raksha Bandhan celebrates the holi bond between brothers and sisters

Kojagrat Purnima is a national festive day in Nepal. It is not a separate holiday, but it’s the final day of the 15-day Hindu festival of Dashain. Dashain is the longest and most important of all holidays on the Nepali calendar

19th GAI JATRA

Gai Jatra is a public holiday and annual festival in Nepal.

25th CHRISTMAS DAY 30th TAMU LOSAR

New year celebrated by the Gurung Community

27th-29th TIHAR FESTIVAL

Tihar Festival in Nepal is, essentially, the equivalent of Deepavali in India and other Hindu lands

23rd SHREE KRISHNA JANMASHTAMI

Shree Krishna Janmashtami, is a Hindu holiday taking place every year in the month of Bhadrapada

1st HARTALIKA TEEJ

Hindu women in Nepal observe an annual public holiday to celebrate the festival of Hartalika Teej, the “Teej” part of the name is from a word referring to the red teej bug, which is why wearing the colour red is customary on this day

3rd RISHI PANCHAMI

On Rishi Panchami, all women and those girls who have had their first period take part, seeking forgiveness for any errors committed during their periods

6th GAURA PARBA

Celebrated mostly in far western Nepal, this festival is observed in other parts as well. The main theme of this festival is to worship goddess Gauri

12th INDRA JATRA

Indra Jatra is an important annual festival in Nepal, particularly in the capital city of Kathmandu. “Indra” is the name of the Hindu god of rain of heaven, while “Jatra” means “procession”

19th CONSTITUTION DAY

A a new constitution was enacted on September 20th, with the date of celebrations correspondingly being moved

29th GHATASTHAPANA

Ghatasthapana is the first day of Nepal’s largest and most intensely celebrated annual festival, known as Dashain

7th NIJAMATI SEWA DIWAS

Civil Service Day is a public holiday. It is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed

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2nd CHHATH PUJA

Chhath Puja is a four-day-long festival celebrated in the Mithila region of Nepal as well as in parts of India. The festival is dated based on the local calendar, but it typically falls sometime in October or November on the Gregorian Calendar

12th GURU NANAK JAYANTI

Guru Nanak Jayanti is an annual holiday celebration for Sikhs in Nepal. Most of the population of Nepal is Hindu, but there is also a Sikh community that celebrates the birthdays of the first gurus of Sikhis


RESEARCH

SITE VISITS

On our field study we did several site visits in Kathmandu Valley, to get a good understanding of the current situation, extent of the damages, architectural values and city planning.

There are seven World Heritage Sites within the valley and It is the home of the Newari architecture.

Kathmandu Valley is located at the feet of the Himalayas. The area lies at the crossing of historical civilizations of the Indian and the Asian continent. The area in covered by about 130 important monuments and several of them are also pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists.

Kathmandu Valley is the furthest developed and populated area in Nepal. The majority of offices and headquarters are located in the valley, making it the economic hub of Nepal.

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RESEARCH

High density Low topography

Medium density Low topography

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Centered core Low topography


Dispersed core Medium topography

Low density High topography

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RESEARCH

MATERIALS KATHMANDU VALLEY

The movements of the continent to continent collision have provoked several effects such as landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading and local amplification. Due to its topography and lack of infrastructure, Nepal is a country where the availability of certain building materials is limited to specific areas. For example the main material used in the Himalayas is stone and the main material used in Kathmandu Valley is clay. Clay is then used to produce bricks. The brick have traditionally been a part of the loadbearing construction together with wooden beams. In more recent techniques the brick is mainly used for its appearance and thermal properties and the main construction often consist of a concrete or steel structure.

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THE BRICK TIMELINE The reference to different time periods are based on the development of the brick and are not 100% accurate on when the method have been used, many of these methods have been used for a long period of time and are still actively used.

ADOBE BRICK Total thickness of a wall is never less than 500 mm.

INTERLOCKING BRICK 300x150x90mm Better seismic capacity than the traditional red fired brick because of the concrete filling and the horizontal- and vertical rebars. The interlocking brick also have better thermal properties due to the size of the bricks and because it has a higher material density.

A sundried earth brick common in agricultural and rural contexts. Usually laid in two leaves on a stone foundation. The outer visible leaf have often been built in good quality bricks or with an other finish while the inner leaf has a simpler finish. The cavity between the leaves is filled with the same earth as that used to make the bricks and mortar.

STONE WALL Typical thickness of a wall is 450-600 mm Buildings with this construction do not share common walls with adjacent buildings and has a poor seismic capacity. The walls generally only consist of stone and mortar.

MALLA PERIOD 1200 - 1669 During this period the red fired brick, together with wooden beams and detailing, distinguished the architecture, especially in Kathmandu and Bhaktapur. Since walls were poorly bonded, they were at least 380-600 mm thick.

DACHI APPA BRICK Approx. 200x100x50mm

RED FIRED BRICK Average dimensions are 230x100x77

Conical brick with roots from the 1200, used until 1768. They have a glossy finish that makes them perfect as veneer bricks. They have conical shape to minimize the gap between the bricks. They have thin joints for both aesthetic and technological reasons. The Dachi Appa is has a good resistance against water penetration during monsoon rains.

This traditional brick have been used for over 200 years. Today it is generally offered in three different qualities and prices. The red fired brick have distinguished the Nepalese architecture for centuries.

THE INTERMITTANT KILN This type of kiln is open to the sky, is pyramid in shape, and has tapered walls that get thinner towards the top. The single chamber, placed on a rectangular base, is enclosed by thick walls. The fuel (straw, wood, coal) and the bricks to be fired are loaded into the kiln at the same time through a big door on the short side of the kiln. After loading, the door is closed up with fired bricks and the top of the kiln is covered with a layer of bricks and earth. Light is let through small openings in the bottom of the wall.

THE PRODUCTION OF FIRED BRICK

CUTTING

AIRDRYING

FIRING

Special knifes and formes are used to cut and shape the bricks.

Before firing the bricks are dried in the open air to avoid cracks forming from uneven shrinkage

The fuel is lit, the bricks fired, the fire extinguished, the bricks cooled and finally unloaded.

CALCINING ZONE

BURNING ZONE

The fired bricks produced in Nepal are still fired in traditional kilns. There are two different types of kilns typically used today, the Hoffman kiln and the Intermitted kiln. The Intermitted kiln is an old version that traditionally has been used by Newari families for a long time while the Hoffman kiln was developed in Europe in during the second half of the 19th century.

THE HOFFMAN KILN The Hoffman kiln was the first one to use continuous firing process and rotational fire.

DRYING ZONE

COOLING ZONE

AIR IN

LOADIN FRESH RAWMIX UNLOAD FINISHED BRICKS

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The individual sections are all open to the sky and all of them are accessible from outside. The chambers for dispersing the smoke are movable and always placed in the section after the fire. Air from outside comes into the first section and is drawn towards the chambers, crossing the burnt bricks in the chamber in between, cooling the air.


RESEARCH

COMMON BRICK PATTERNS IN NEPAL

Paving

Panels

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Windows

Doors

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RESEARCH

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

There are in particular three construction techniques that is commonly used in Kathmandu Valley. We have chosen to call them, traditional, common and modern.

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TRADITIONAL The vernacular Newari architecture consists of a 3 layered brick wall with a wooden beam structure and wooden detailing. Using wedges and perforating the brick wall have traditionally joined the wooden construction. The beams are joined in the corners to create a box, constructing the building to move as one entity. As wood has become a limited asset due to increasing prices, the wooden frame has been more or less discarded. The main quantity of buildings that got damaged during the earthquake is these old buildings. Probably because of a varying quality of built stock, old wooden frames and a less rigid construction method than more recent ones.

The floor beams can either be exposed or covered with a panel

Facade 1:100

STONES Traditionally used foundation. The stones allow the building to move separately from the ground as the stones can slide on each other. The stone foundation is built in trenches dug on site and reinforced with vertical steel rebars and a horizontal concrete tie beam on top.

TIE BEAM

with vertical reinforcement

STONE MASONRY

with vertical reinforcement

TRENCH

layout for foundation

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RESEARCH

COMMON This construction consists of two layers of traditional fired bricks that are joined together with concrete ribbons and strengthened with concrete steel. The walls are usually not cladded, which creates a distinguished architectural expression that showcase the buildings construction. This has been a common feature in the history of Nepalese architecture where the wooden construction has been visible in the facade.

Facade 1:100

CONCRETE A rigid foundation often built together with the common construction. The concept is to build a construction rigid enough to handle the vibrations of an earthquake without receiving damage or collapsing. The foundation consists of concrete and concrete steel that is joined together with the building´s construction.

Steel rebars Concrete foundation

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MODERN The construction methods used in Nepal often consist of a brick wall that is framed with another material, such as wood, concrete or steel. A common problem with these constructions is the brick mortar’s tendency of crumbling during heavy vibrations. Many of the modern building techniques used in Kathmandu Valley use an interlocking brick that has better seismic capacity than the traditional fired brick. The brick wall is reinforced with horizontal and vertical rebars and filled with a concrete mix to stabilize the wall. This makes the brick wall stronger and less dependent on a primary structure. Some of the interlocking bricks allow for the concrete ribbons to be hidden within the wall, which creates a new architectural expression where the construction is less visible in the facade. The bricks can be used as the loadbearing structure in smaller buildings but are often used together with either a steel or concrete structure.

Facade 1:100

RUBBER A modern foundation used in earthquake prone areas. The rubber layers in the foundation allow the building to move separately from the ground giving more freedom to the design of the buildings construction. A modernized version of the stone foundation.

Attachment Rubber layers Lead plug Plates

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RESEARCH

INTERLOCK CONSTRUCTION

The interlocking earth bricks are made out of a composition of sand, stone dust, clay and cement. And the materials are harvested within 1,5 km of the factory.

The factory is run by about 30 women that daily produce 1200 bricks. The production of the bricks is manual and for the factory to function a strong teamwork is required and a rather high tempo, however, there is always a happy athmosphere even though the work is physically hard.

The interlocking bricks are air-dried which lower the number of steps in the production and it can easily be run manually. Compared to an automatically run production process this production is highly independent on the human workers and the weather condition. For example, during heavy rainfall or even snow the production is called off.

The bricks are made out of locally harvested sand, stone dust, clay and cement

The factory produce 1200 bricks a day

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To make sure the bricks are dried properly they need to be protected from rainfall during this step. The finished bricks are stacked in piles in the open air and need to be watered every day to make sure the curing process isn’t going to fast.

Extraction of raw materials from their natural habitats has effects such as soil erosion, air and water pollution, geo-environmental disasters, loss of biodiversity, and loss of economic wealth.

The factory is run by a group of 30 women

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Three ways to lower the local effects is to reclaim the used land after the harvesting, intensely look over clay mining sites to prevent the threat of disease outbreak and to avoid clay harvesting close to drinking water sources since such water bodies easily can be polluted.


RESEARCH

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MAIN BUILDING The main building consists of the office and a living space with a bedroom and kitchen. There is always someone sleeping in the factory.

BATHROOM The bathroom is located in a separated building, together with the laundry machine, to create easy access from both the office and the factory

STORAGE This is where they store all the factory’s tools and machines over night.

FACTORY The factory is located under a roof of corrugated steel. It is only a small area of the factory that is actually used for the production of the bricks; the main area is used for drying newly made bricks.

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MATERIAL STORAGE Trucks come regularly with deliveries of clay, sand and stone dust. The material storage is located directly to the road to simplify the deliveries.

STACKING The largest part of the site is used for stacking the finished tiles.


RESEARCH

A DAY IN THE FACTORY This is followed every day except on occasions where there is a:

Religious holiday (about 45 a year)

Monsoon (3 days during our stay)

THE KITCHEN STARTS PREPEARING FOOD

THE PRODUCTION CONTINUES

At about 08:00 the cook starts preparing the Dal Bhat.

In between the two meals the factory and office continue as normal. Customers walk by to have a chat about the bricks and the factory produces tiles.

SECOND MEAL The second meal varies, common foods are noodles, fried rice, beaten rice and a variation of stews.

START OF WORK DAY IN THE FACTORY

START OF WORK DAY IN THE OFFICE

FIRS MEAL

ORDER PICK UP

Daily preparations - They bring all the tools out from the shed and prepare for brick producton. One of the girls makes coffee for everyone.

The Girls in the office start their work day a couple of hours later than the factory. They take care of the companies customer relations and accounting.

The first meal always consist of DAL (lentil soup) BHAT (rice) with tarkari (vegetable) usually complimented with a spicy chutney (fresh pickle).

Most of the brick deliveries are in the afternoon. A truck comes to deliver the bricks to the customer.

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END OF WORK DAY LOCK UP AND CLOSE Many of the employees stay even though the work day is finished. Sometimes they have a celebration or just hang out at the factory for a few hours.


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RESEARCH

THE BRICK

The brick produced in the factory is an interlocking brick and a modernized alternativ to the traditional fired brick. The thickness and the possibility to fill channels in the brick wall with cement creates a brick with better thermal and seismic qualities that can carry compression strenghts of up to 5Mpa.

to create a hidden bond beam that strenghten the construction and increases the buildings capacity to withstand an earhquake. End bricks are used in coners, window- and door openings to create a finished end.

The collection consist of four different bricks, the running brick, the bond beam brick and the two end bricks. Nothes in the end and base of the bricks allow for mortar to easily spread through the corses both vertically and horizonally after the bricks have been stacked. The deep cut in the bond beam brick is used

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RESEARCH

150 MM

CROSS SECTION

TOP

300 MM

90 MM

SECTION BOTTOM

150 MM

CROSS SECTION

TOP

300 MM

90 MM

SECTION BOTTOM SKALA 1:5

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150 MM

CROSS SECTION

TOP

300 MM

90 MM

SECTION BOTTOM

150 MM

CROSS SECTION

TOP

150 MM

90 MM

SECTION BOTTOM SKALA 1:5

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY


THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

The foundation we will use will be concrete columns and strip beams together with a load bearing steel beam construction and panels of interlocking bricks that will work as diagonal reinforcement and the slabs will be precast concrete panels. The panels The wall panels are placed in between the load bearing steel structure and consist of three layers. The inner layer is the horizontal and vertical rebars, used as reinforcement. The second layer is the mortar that is poured in the sockets of the bricks, it will fix the rebars and also reinforce the panel. The third layer is the interlocking brick itself that will be the facade material. By using the Interlocking earth brick we want to work toward the Global Goal 11; Sustainable cities. The Interlocking brick is designed to be easy to use for everyone and to minimize poor building techniques. This alternative makes it possible for “untrained� people to rebuild their homes in a safe way. The production process of the earth brick also leads to less carbon dioxide emissions than the production of traditional fired bricks. Patterns and type panels We have used three different panels to keep the structure logic and flexible, the panels can easily be exchange if the conditions would change in the future. The panels we have used are one closed panel, and two with windows in two sizes. We have also tried to find ways where it is possible to create patterns with the interlocking bricks.This will be a way for the company to show different ways to use their brick.

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INSULATING LAYER On the top floor insulation will be added to the walls to create a better living environment

PANELS OF INTERLOCKING BRICKS

STEEL BEAM CONSTRUCTION

COLUMNS AND STRIP BEAMS FOUNDATION with precast concrete slabs

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Axonometry 1:200


THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

2. 1.

3.

INNER WALL 1. Brick wall 2. Window sill 3. Crossbars 4. Insulation 5. Interior cladding

4.

5.

1.

2.

3. WALL BUILD-UP 1. Steel beam structure 2. Vertical and horizontal rebars 3. Concrete filling 4. Interlocking earth bricks 4.

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PANEL DESIGN

BRICK WALL The brick wall will work as diagonal reinforcement

STEEL BEAMS AND COLUMNS That will transfer loads to the foundation

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COLUMN AND FOUNDATION MEETING Rods will be cast into the concrete foundation and later screwed to a plate that the columns will be welded against

Panels 1:40


THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

Before we started designing our client had a few requirements for the new factory. Those requirements included a drying station for the bricks that would be a sliding shelf system to optimize the space in the factory. The ground around the building will be used for storing bricks and therefor they wished for the building to be compact and well planned to free as much space as possible of the land. Because of the heavy rain during monsoon periods the material bays need to be covered by a roof. They also wished to have a bigger office with a minimum of seven desks and a bathroom inside. In addition to this they wished for a classroom to be able to further educate their employees and to educate more people.

The country is highly influenced by the two neighbouring countries, India and China. It has been dependent on the trade with India for a long time but the influence from China have grown during the past years. Especially through the silk road that China is building through Nepal. Many countries in vulnerable positions, as Nepal, have welcomed China in the hope on improving the own country’s economy through the new trade route. There are plans on building the new Silk road through Sankhu, and unfortunately, right through our site, this means that the new factory has to be set back 17 m from the center of the existing road. Luckily, there is a possibility for Interlock Construction to sign the land behind their plot.

In addition to the clients wishes for the new factory there are also a number of building regulations that we had to consider.

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Ground coverage 60&, 50% if it’s a commercial building

Boundary set back for door/window/cantilever 1,5-2m

FAR 1:50

Information is extracted from the document; DUDBC Nepal National Building Code

17 m set back from center of exoisting road due to future development plans

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

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DIDI

THE FACTORY WORKERS

BISHNU

Didi is the factory cook. She starts her work day at 9am and finishes around 4pm. She serves two meals a day. Dal Bhat at 11am and a second meal at 2pm.

The factory is run by a group of 20 women. Most of them live in the hills behind the factory and walkes up and down the quiet steep road twise a day.

Didi, as many of the women in the factory have young children. It is pretty common that they bring their children to work since women are the caretakers in Nepalese culture and there is not always socially accepted for the man to stay at home.

They have a strict work ethnic and often refuce to use machines to help their work. They prefer low tech techniques and the culture is a part of every day. When they are brought a new machine they always pray for it by sacrificing flowers.

Bishnu is the head of operations in the factory and office. She is one of the younger employees, about 24 years old but also one who have been together with the company since it was established two years ago. Bishnu lives in the more �urban� part of Sankhu. As the hed of operations she lookes over the production, order materials when needed, take care of the companys economy and arrange meetings with clients.

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Section 1:100

NICK & JAKE Nick is the founder of Interlock Construction. He also run a sister constuction team in Australia. Nick is from Australia but came to Nepal and Sankhu after the earthquake in 2015. He had raised money in Australia to be able to go to Nepal to contribute with his carpentry skills.

DAMPHU

Jake is from England were he runs a landscaping company. Nowadays he goes to Nepal for three months each year to help Nick and his company. Jake is also in the process of becoming a share holder in Interlock Construction and will be the head of operations when the company establish themselves in England.

He started by founding an organisation called From The Ground Up. Jake one of Nick moves in between Australia and the organisations charity workers joined Nepal and tries to go between each Nick when he later decided to found second month. the construction company.

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Is Interlock Construction’s project manager. He lives in the hills beside Sankhu together with his family; his wife and two children. Damphu is one of the locals that took part of the training the organisation From The Ground Up offered. ”It’s amazing to see the progress all of our employees have made. Damphu for example, went from using a screwdriver as a hammer to be our project manager” Nick Abraham, Founder of From The Ground Up and Interlock Construction


THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

South Facade 1:100

West Facade 1:100

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North Facade 1:100

East Facade 1:100

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

RAINWATER COLLECTION

The average rainfall in Nepal is 1300 mm every year and only 25% of the local population have access to clean water. To meet the Global Goal 6; Clean water and sanitation we want to take care of that water and use it for example watering the bricks. By sloping the roof and the terraces we allow the water to be led and collected in the back of the building. The water will then be pumped to the water tanks and can then be led to the taps, toilet and so on.

VENTILATION

Most of the walls in the factory will be openable to allow for the wind to go through the ground floor. Since the bricks they produce are air dried the ventilation is an important factor in this building.

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SAFE ENVIRONMENT By working towards the Global Goal 5; Equality, we want to meet the needs of the women working in the factory. To create a good and safe working place for them we kept in mind that they often bring their children to the factory. Spaces that aren’t frequently used, as the terrasse, classroom and living area can be provided to the children that come to work with their mothers. The terrasse can for example be closed off to create a safe playing environment.

FLEXIBLE SYSTEM

We have used three different panels to keep the structure logic and flexible, the panels can easily be exchange if the conditions would change in the future. The panels we have used are one closed panel, and two with windows in two sizes.

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

FACTORY PROGRAM

When designing we have taken the needs of the users into account. The factory is run by a group of 30 women. Firstly we have the factory workers. To be able to do their work sufficiently we have designed the factory with an open plan with a logistical order of the production process. Materials-sifting-blending-pressing-and-storing. The bricks are manually compressed and then airdried. Compared to an automatically run production process this production is highly dependent on the human workers. We have tried to create a safe working environment for them where they have their own facilities. Where we have provided them with their own bathroom and shaded outdoor patio. The material bays are placed between the road and production area making it possible for trucks to deliver material and keep the easy accessibility for the workers.

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Ground Floor 1:100

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

Second Floor 1:100

One floor up we have the office and Kitchen where the company cook, Didi works. She prepares and serves two meals a day to all the employees but also serves coffee and some snacks to the people in the office. As the meals are an important part in the Nepalese culture we have drawn a terrace where all of the employees can enjoy their meals together. And for Didi we have designed a spacious kitchen with access to both the terrace and office.

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In the office we have Bishnu, she is the head of operations in the factory. There are currently three Women working in the Office but from time to time also the project manager, Damphu, The Owner of Interlock Construction, Nick, volunteers, students and of course clients. Therefore we have supplied them with several desks, a meeting table in the middle and in connection, a classroom.

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Top Floor 1:100

Since the company owner works both in Australia and Nepal he needs somewhere to stay when in Nepal. This together with the need to offer accommodation to foreign workers and to have someone looking over the factory at night have created a demand for a living area with sleeping arrangements. The top floor is therefore a living space with it’s own kitchen and bath.

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

LOGISTICAL ORDER

MATERIAL DELIVERY Material bays with direct access from the factory PRODUCTION AREA / INITIAL CURING Weather sheltered indoor area

FINAL CURING Outdoor curing

LOADING STATION Loading trucks for deliveries to clients

Axonometry 1:500

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LOADING STATION Loading trucks for deliveries to clients

FINAL CURING Outdoor curing

INITIAL CURING Weather sheltered shelf system

PRODUCTION AREA Open space with manually managed presses

MATERIAL DELIVERY Material bays with direct access from the factory

ilk wS Ne

ad

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LOGISTICAL ORDER

Future Scvenario 1:500 We decided to take the future plans on the Silk road into consideration while designing and since Interlock Construction is constantly growing it became important to us to design a flexible building that can change over time or even move to another land. In a future scenario when the Silk road is running through Sankhu and Interlock Construction have gotten the extra land, the building will be adjustable to fit with the new conditions.

The delivery road will be extended and all of the storage of bricks will be moved to the very back of the land. The drying station will be moved outside and placed under a roof structure to cover it from the rain, that will also free a lot of space inside the factory and allow the production to expand even further. The front door of the factory will be exchanged to a closed panel facing the road.

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

Visualisation

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Future Scanario

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

Pergola patio 1:20

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Pergola terrace 1:20

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THE NEW BRICK FACTORY

Reconstruction of the brick 1:1

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Catastrophes have severe effects on a society. But the recovering process can come with positive effects as well. In Nepal the effects led to a need for a collaboration between class and caste. Even though people in vulnerable positions, for example women and people in low castes, were more affected the high demand on the building sector led to new job opportunities giving them the possibility to both become independent and to establish themselves in a new community. The earthquake also led to new international contacts and the offering of training gave a possibility to learn new building techniques.

Through this project we have been given the opportunity to provide a facility to a company that in our opinion does valuable work and challenge the traditional working environment by providing local women with a platform where their opinions are valued. We have provided them with a building adapted to their working process and that we hope can give them room to find their own ways.

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DEGREE PROJEKT IN ARCHITECTURE SECOND CYCLE, 30 CREDITS STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN 2019 KTH ARCHITECTURE Felicia Svensson & Amelie Norén

Profile for Felicia Svensson

Kathmandu VALLEY OF BRICK  

Degree project in Architecture Second cycle, 30 credits Stockholm, Sweden KTH ARCHITECTURE Felicia Svensson & Amelie Norén

Kathmandu VALLEY OF BRICK  

Degree project in Architecture Second cycle, 30 credits Stockholm, Sweden KTH ARCHITECTURE Felicia Svensson & Amelie Norén

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