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CO-HOUSING FOR DESIGN STUDENTS IN ACADEMIC CITY

FEBIN THOMAS

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

COURSE CODE: ARC-14-405 COURSE TITLE: THESIS

A Thesis submitted to the School of Design & Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture

MANIPAL ACADEMY OF HIGHER EDUCATION – DUBAI CAMPUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE


ACKNOWLWDGEMENTS I would like to give my sincere thanks to Prof. Allan Louie T Lompot, Assistant Professor, School of Design and Architecture, MAHE Dubai for providing me with the mentorship, resources and all the facilities that were valuable to this research.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Ashok Ganapathy Iyer, School of Design and Architecture, MAHE Dubai for giving me continuous mentorship and encouragement.

I am grateful to the faculty of School of Design and Architecture, MAHE Dubai for their helpful opinions and their valuable input whenever I needed it and their readiness to help.

I want to thank my parents for their un-ending encouragement, support and help which helped me complete my research. I would also like to thank each one who helped me with this project.


Contents 1.0.

Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 1

1.1.

Aim ....................................................................................................................................... 2

1.2.

Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 2

2.0. Research Context ........................................................................................................................... 2 2.1. ................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2. Effect of Student Influx into Dubai ............................................................................................ 3 2.3. Co-housing................................................................................................................................. 3 2.3.1. Urban Co-housing ............................................................................................................... 4 2.3.2. Achieving Affordability with Co-housing............................................................................. 4 3.0. Research Methodology .................................................................................................................. 4 3.1. Semi-structured interview ......................................................................................................... 4 3.2. Survey Questionnaire ................................................................................................................ 5 3.3. Case Studies................................................................................................................................... 9 3.1.1. Allied Case Studies .................................................................................................................. 9 3.3.1.1. Nanterre Co-Housing, France .......................................................................................... 9 3.3.1.1. Gap House / Archihood WXY ......................................................................................... 15 3.3.1.3. R50 Cohousing ............................................................................................................... 20 3.3.2. Non-Allied Case Studies ............................................................................................................ 23 3.3.2.1. 1-6 Copper Lane N16 9NS .................................................................................................. 23 3.2.2.2. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld ....................................................................................... 26 3.3.3. Precedent Studies ..................................................................................................................... 29 3.3.3.1. Hedonistic Sustainability.................................................................................................... 29 3.3.3.2. CopenHill ........................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.3. Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS ............................................................................. 31 4.0. Design Literature Review ............................................................................................................. 33 4.1. Bylaws...................................................................................................................................... 33 4.1.1. Entrances .......................................................................................................................... 33 4.1.2. Counters and reception areas........................................................................................... 35 4.1.3. Internal corridors .............................................................................................................. 38 4.1.4. Alarms and means of egress ............................................................................................. 38 4.1.5. First aid facilities ............................................................................................................... 39


4.1.6. Balconies........................................................................................................................... 39 4.1.7. Mosques and prayer rooms .............................................................................................. 39 4.1.8. Dining Rooms .................................................................................................................... 40 4.1.9. Required accessibility in new housing buildings ............................................................... 41 4.2. Standards..................................................................................................................................... 42 4.2.1. MULTISTOREY HOUSING ....................................................................................................... 42 4.2.2. BALCONIES............................................................................................................................ 44 4.2.3. KITCHENS .............................................................................................................................. 46 4.2.4. BEDROOMS ........................................................................................................................... 46 4.2.5. BATHROOMS ........................................................................................................................ 48 4.2.6. Conditioning and Fitness Rooms........................................................................................... 50 4.2.7. Youth Hostels........................................................................................................................ 51 4.2.8. Parking Requirements .......................................................................................................... 53 4.2.9. Site Planning Requirements .................................................................................................. 54 4.3. Design & Technology ................................................................................................................... 55 4.3.1. Building Materials ................................................................................................................. 55 4.3.1.1. Bricks ............................................................................................................................. 55 4.3.1.2. Natural Stone ................................................................................................................. 57 4.3.2. Sustainable Building Materials and Resources ..................................................................... 59 5.0.

Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 59

6.0.

Design Brief and Requirements .............................................................................................. 60

6.1.

Brief .................................................................................................................................... 60

6.2.

Requirements ..................................................................................................................... 60

6.2.1. General Space Planning Matrix ......................................................................................... 60 6.2.2. Triple Sharing Room ......................................................................................................... 60 6.2.3. Double Sharing Room ....................................................................................................... 60 6.2.4. Single Sharing Room ......................................................................................................... 61 6.3.

7.0.

Site Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 61

6.3.1.

Location ...................................................................................................................... 61

6.3.2.

Dubai Climate ............................................................................................................. 62

6.3.3.

Site .............................................................................................................................. 62

6.3.4.

Dubai 2020 Master Plan.............................................................................................. 63

References .............................................................................................................................. 65


8.0. Appendix ..................................................................................................................................... 66


1.0. Introduction I grew up and was raised in Dubai. I have lived in this city for twenty-two years. Growing up in Dubai two problems that my family faced was housing and education. Not that there was a lack of schools or housing, but they were just too expensive. The education cost kept on skyrocketing, especially after the introduction of KHDA (Knowledge and Human Development Authority) and the need for higher standards in education. From 2001 to 2006, the nominal activity fee would be from Dh200 to Dh500. And for every field trip depending on the place, they would charge Dh50 to Dh80 per person. But in the recent years, maybe after 2010, the school activity fees have been skyrocketing. Now I pay between Dh1,000 and Dh1,500 per year in school activities fee, excluding the field trips expenses. The outdoor activity and field trips are now Dh150 to Dh200 (Nasir, 2018). Along with education another factor that gave my family headaches was housing. “The second quarter of 2013 marks the fourth consecutive quarterly increase in residential prices. In the past 12 months, residential prices have increased by 38 per cent for apartments and 24 per cent for villas, with rents increasing by 20 per cent and 17 per cent, respectively,” (Kapur, 2013). When my family migrated to Dubai, we first lived in a studio apartment in Bur Dubai due to the high cost of housing and later shifted to a small villa in Jumeirah both homes were inadequate for a family of four, this was due to the high cost of housing back then. Coming to the present day, the government if UAE proposed new visa rules for students. The changes — expected to be implemented by the end of the year — will allow full foreign control of businesses outside of economic free zones and long-term residency visas of up to 10 years for skilled professionals and students. Universities expect an influx of new talent once residency visas for students are extended from one to five years — and for academically “exceptional” students, if 10 years. Carwyn Fernandes, pro-vice chancellor of Middlesex University in Dubai, predicts their number of students to rise by at least 10% (from the current 3,200) in the first year of the new visa policy — a combination of more students coming from overseas and young expatriates deciding to stay in the country for higher education ("UAE – New visa rules for students,"). With an influx of new students, they will need housing. The current housing scenario of Dubai is not positive for college students who will be living alone and those coming from other cities. Students not living with their parents will have income constraints and will prefer to live in sharing accommodations to meet their needs. In this dissertation I plan to solve the housing needs of students living alone and on an income bracket in Dubai by introducing the concept of Co-housing in Dubai. Co-housing is a residential development in which individual households share some common facilities or amenities, and residents are communally responsible for managing the community ("co-housing,"). Co-housing can reduce the cost of living for students as it shares common amenities and it can also provide the students the freedom that they won’t enjoy living in a hostel. Introducing co-housing in Academic City will make the place livelier and consolidate its identity as an Academic Zone. In this dissertation I will focus mainly on designing a co-housing complex for Design Students in Academic City to solve the housing problems of Architecture students attending college in Dubai. 1


1.1.

Aim

To design a residential complex for Design Students attending college in Dubai Academic City.

1.2. • • •

Objectives To analyze the housing needs and preferences of college students attending college in Dubai Academic City. To design a housing model targeting the student demographics of Dubai. To design a residential complex using the concept of co-housing for the design students of Dubai situated in Dubai Academic City.

2.0. Research Context This dissertation will focus on solving the housing problems for students in Dubai. The government of UAE had passed new visa rules enabling students to apply for fiveyear term visas instead of the usual one year. Exceptional students can get visa for ten years. After completing their education students will receive a one-year visa to help them hunt for jobs. This will cause an influx of students into Dubai ("UAE – New visa rules for students,"). There is a lack of affordable housing in Dubai and there is no housing catering especially for students. Back home in India we have lot of PG (Paying Guest) hostels and organizations like YMCA to cater the housing needs of the students, such a system is missing in Dubai. As foreign students and NRI students who don’t live with their parents make Dubai an education destination for their studies, they will need housing and since students live on an limited income bracket, their transportation options will also be limited (Chang, 2017). This dissertation will focus on solving the above two problems of housing and transportation for students by designing a residential complex using the concept of cohousing for Design and Architecture students in Dubai Academic City.

2.1. Off Campus Housing Students opting to live off campus is something that happens a lot nowadays in Universities around the world. Even in Dubai many college students opt to live in private apartments sharing with a group of friends. There might be many factors that play into role of students choosing outside campus residence. Cost is a major factor. Campus provided hostels are expensive in Dubai, sometimes the hostel fees is on par with the college fees. In Manipal and Amity universities, the tuition fees is around 30,000-42,000 for different courses and the hostel fees is around 30,000-40,000 depending on single or double occupancy ("Amity Dubai hostel fees.," ; "Amity Dubai Tuition Fees.," ; "MAHE Dubai hostel fees.," ; "MAHE Dubai Tuition Fees,"). Some students prefer privacy and the ability to have their own room and their own bathroom they wouldn’t want to share their bathrooms with other students. Students also have 2


many diet choices and won’t prefer to eat the food provided at the college hostel. Ability to cook their own meals can be a reason for students to opt for off-campus housing (WODE, 2018). Some students stay back in Dubai for summer breaks or may prefer to work in Dubai during summer breaks. Students who wish to do internships during the summer won’t be able to use the hostel accommodation as it will be closed. Hence, off campus housing is an excellent alternative. Of campus housing gives students the freedom to choose whom to live with. Students who wish to live with students from other universities or some family members can do that in an off-campus housing, they have more freedom. College students are mature adults and they want more freedom, independence and responsibility. In hostels they lack that, always being policed by wardens, having in and out times and not able to be around the company that they want, such reasons will cause students to opt for off-campus housing.

2.2. Effect of Student Influx into Dubai Increase in the amount of non-local students into Dubai will influence the local rentals. Average annual rental price has increased by over 10% in areas with student clusters (Chang, 2017). The income of these non-local students will be low and their ability to commute or travel will be less. They mostly have lower income brackets than the local students and to cope up with problems faced while migrating to a new city they live in clusters along with other students. Mostly with students from the same ethnic background, students from the same university or students studying the same course. Limited housing capacities in university hostels causes students to opt for off-campus housing. Students often share apartments making renting easier. Apartment sharing is a common occurrence in Dubai, but it is not allowed in certain areas. According to Dubai law bachelors are not allowed to live in residential areas. Bachelor accommodation is only allowed in commercial areas like Al Rigga, there are accommodations for laborer’s in in Al Qouz (Saseendran, 2018) (Agarib, 2018). Due to the previously mentioned rules it will be hard for students to find accommodation anywhere in Dubai. Henceforth there needs to be private housing made available for students in the academic zones since the previous rules make it hard to construct houses anywhere else in the city. Housing in Academic City can liven up the place and give a feel of an educational hub.

2.3. Co-housing Co-housing is defined as “an individual community of private homes clustered around a shared space”- where the dwellings themselves are much the same as any other residential complex and the shared space can be anything from a common room, a kitchen, laundry or a recreational area (Haddow). Co-housing is becoming very popular among the student demographics as they opt for their own residences in search of freedom, independence and the ability to live with likeminded friends and peers. The flood of new private sector student housing offerings is an example of the delivery of co-housing (Haddow). Co-housing needs to be flexible to cater to the needs of students. They should have the ability to keep add-ons, because students may have 3


different needs and all the personal preferences of the students need to be tailored. Some students may like to work out, some paint, others music enthusiasts depending on their personal preferences the students should have the ability to modify their rooms. 2.3.1. Urban Co-housing Urban sites have the zoning in place to build multifamily housing, whether it is flats or clustered homes. This means reduced time and expense for land use approval. Fewer hurdles to development can mean fewer expenses and a faster development process (H.Kim). Urban sites have the added benefit of being close to amenities like grocery, supermarkets, malls, restaurants etc., making life convenient for the users. Walkable urban neighborhoods allow everyone of all mobility and availability levels to enjoy freedom of meeting with friends, running errands etc. (H.Kim). Walkability, in conjugation with the abundance of services made available by an urban site, makes urban co-housing an attractive option for most buyers (H.Kim). 2.3.2. Achieving Affordability with Co-housing Co-housing is intrinsically an affordable mode of housing. Though all co-housing that is constructed nowadays is not affordable. But co-housing can reduce the cost of living by limiting consumption by reducing the use of resources (Winter & Durret). Cohousing models implementing rain water harvesting and solar panels can help save a lot of money. Solar system can help the occupants earn money. The savings in energy, maintenance costs and food outweigh the apparent up-front costs due to new construction. A survey of 200 co-housing residents showed minimum cost savings per month of $200 - $2000 (Winter & Durret). Implementing shared kitchen and rooftop farming in a co-housing can give a massive reduction in cost. Cost of living can also be reduced in a co-housing complex by using a common room for washing clothes etc. The timings can be controlled, and the amount of water usage can be limited thus reducing the cost of living.

3.0. Research Methodology This research will take the help of a semi-structured interview, an online questionnaire and case studies to help broaden the research. These methods will be used to analyze and come to a conclusion to solve the housing needs for the Design students in Dubai International Academic City.

3.1. Semi-structured interview An interaction with Prof. Suresha of the Mechanical Engineering Department of Manipal Academy of Higher Education who is also the warden of the boy’s hostel, about the possibilities of Co-housing in Dubai, the preferences of today’s students 4


and the advantages and benefits of having private residences in Dubai International Academic City. Advantages of co-housing compared to other low-cost housing styles. In co-housing we have shared common spaces. These common spaces can be a kitchen, dining space or laundry. In a normal residence every individual will have a kitchen, dining pace or laundry this will reduce their living space. In a co-housing system, we will have more living space because many utilities are shared. This will also give us reduced costs. Success of co-housing in Dubai. Co-housing is more likely to workout in places with a high concentration of educational institutions and places with a lot of industries. Students and bachelors are the people most likely to invest in co-housing. Implementing co-housing in UAE. Housing models like co-housing already exist in UAE. In silicon oasis there exists a DIAC hostel very similar to co-housing. It has single occupancy and double occupancy with a shared kitchen. But to implement co-housing successfully the stakeholders must maintain high hygiene levels. Popularity of co-housing among students. Co-housing can become very popular among students as it is off-campus housing. The users will have the freedom the interact with students from other universities, nationalities. There is no in or out time and students can stay back during holidays go for internships etc. There is just a lot of freedom for the students to grow. Need of co-housing in Dubai. It will be needed. There are new visa rules being passed in UAE. Right now, students are not allowed to work, that might change, or new visa rules will permit the students to work in UAE. So, co-housing will soon be needed in Dubai. Effect of co-housing in DIAC. Any project undertaken for students will be with good intentions. Co-housing will have a positive effect on the students. Giving them more freedom and options. Teaching them to live in harmony and peace with other students and to share their resources. Since the students themselves must manage the resources they will have to build leadership qualities.

3.2. Survey Questionnaire An online survey questionnaire of 12 questions were conducted. The 12 questions were based on the earlier 6 questions created for the semi-structured interview.

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The questionnaire was sent to the residents of Dubai and 47 responses was received. The response with their inferences is given below:

According to most respondent’s introduction of a residential complex in Academic City will liven the place and create more business for the universities there as more students will choose to study there.

Most respondents agree that co-housing will become a successful housing model in Dubai and according to some forms of co-housing already exist in Dubai.

Many respondents showed a preference for co-housing and many others prefers to live with their parents. This hints that co-housing may have a chance for success in Dubai.

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Most of the students in Dubai are happy with their current accommodation, but it needs to be noted that most UAE students live with their parents.

Almost all respondents agree that there is a lack of affordable housing in Dubai. This has always been a problem for students and bachelors.

According to most respondents, people of different communities and ethnicities get along very well in Dubai. This means co-housing can be very successful in Dubai as students of different cultures can get along very well.

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Many respondents feel positive that Dubai is transforming to a fast-growing academic hub but also an equal number of respondents feel that the education is very expensive here. Co-housing in Dubai can help with making education cheaper.

The opinion over here is divided. Half believe that privacy is important, and the other half believe that co-housing can infringe on an individual’s privacy.

More students prefer socializing. Socializing helps students to build more contacts, take part in activities and get more leadership skills. In a co-housing student must actively manage the resources thus building their socializing and leadership skills.

Co-housing can be allowed in Dubai is the hygiene standards are maintained. There are forms of co-housing already existing in Dubai, usually used by bachelors.

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Co-housing can be made secure for the residents by employing adequate security measures. But not sure if they can have the same security levels of university hostels.

The current situation of student housing seems to be satisfying for more residents. But some believe that there is a lack of freedom and affordability.

3.3. Case Studies Case studies for this research involves Co-housing developments around the world. This will help with my thesis.

3.1.1. Allied Case Studies 3.3.1.1. Nanterre Co-Housing, France

ARCHITECTS LOCATION AREA PROJECT YEAR

MaO architects, Tectone Nanterre, France 158 sqm 2015

This project is a prototype for co-housing in France. This is the first time an experiment has been done with participatory housing in France. This site for this 9


project is located where the existing sub urban housing meets the ZAC ( mixed development zone) ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015).

Figure 1 Nanterre Co-Housing Façade, ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) The project consists of two buildings connected by a footbridge. This footbridge mainly serves the needs of all the upper floor housing. This layout provides the 10


building with ample amount of natural lighting and increases the number of possible aspects ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015). On the ground floor, the common areas (multipurpose halls, kitchen, laundry, DIY workshop, bike storage, etc.) are open onto a collective vegetable garden allotment. Here the outdoor spaces contribute to the interaction of the inhabitants. The garden is not just a visually stimulating flower garden. It is primarily an area to be shared, creating interaction between residents ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015).

Figure 2 Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015) The garden is not just a visually stimulating flower garden, it is primarily an area to be shared, creating interaction between residents, thanks to the various common 11


spaces located on the ground floor ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tect么ne," 2015). To the south and west the facades are pierced with large openings, creating loggias that contribute to passive heat gain in winter and comfort in summer.

Figure 3 Nanterre Co-Housing 1, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tect么ne," 2015) The footbridge is a place symbolizing the connection between the two buildings. It overhangs the garden and the common room, enabling residents to interact in a very natural fashion. The floor landings are designed as convivial spaces, large sized areas where residents can meet and enjoy their time ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tect么ne," 2015). The exterior millwork is made of painted wood with lacquered sliding wodden shutters. The quadrails are made of galvanized steels, composed of thin tubing welded to a galvanized baseplate ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tect么ne," 2015). The advantage of this project to its surroundings is that it can create more open spaces thus improving the quality of living and the spatial environment. This project will help to enhance the livability of the suburb that it is part of.

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Figure 4 Plan of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015)

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Figure 5 Section of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015)

Figure 6 Section of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + TectĂ´ne," 2015)

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3.3.1.1. Gap House / Archihood WXY Architects Location Area Project Year

Archihood WXY Bokjeong-dong 596 sqm 2015

Figure 7 Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) “There is a small gap which arises between the house and the village. It fills ‘the gap’ in between the people.” ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015)

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This project is in Bokjeong-dong, South Korea. This area has universities nearby and a large student demographics. Thus, there is a demand for student type studio housing. This area is crowded with multi-dwelling units, studios and student accommodation to facilitate the needs of students and other young white-collar employees.

Figure 8 Gap House

Figure 9 Gap House

("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) This concept supports the lifestyle of young single demographics. Sharing of common spaces such as living room, kitchen and dining area. Young people with lower income brackets will always be open to sharing spaces and amenities to reduce the cost of living. The concept of Gap House is to create a balance between common and private spaces. One large sized ‘Gap’ is a courtyard - a sharing open space through easily accessible pilotis. The front and rear façade get advantage of air ventilation and natural sunlight from the south through ‘the Gap’. The courtyard is originally inspired by a low wooden bench with deep, green shade under Korean zelkova where villagers used to gather. There also become a sense of place where people who walk the ally like to stop by and sit to break and talk each other ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015). The open courtyard design of the Gap House is designed to bring the residents close to nature and to encourage the interaction between the residents of the house. The Gap or courtyard helps create a good air ventilation within the house and helps to get in more sunlight into the house. It also enhances the aesthetics of the place.

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Figure 10 Courtyard Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) The smaller scaled ‘Gap’ represents the balconies of the six units. Designed to open to the outdoor courtyard. Residents feel nature and communicate with the neighbors. 17


Balconies designed to be linear in shape and placed deep inside each of units to keep onlookers from looking in. Balconies laid in crisscross pattern to enhance privacy between floors ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015).

Figure 11 Balcony Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015)

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Figure 12 Gap House Plan 1 ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015)

Figure 13 Gap House Plan 2 ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015)

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Figure 14 Section Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) 3.3.1.3. R50 Cohousing Architects Ifau und Jesko Fezer, HEIDE & VON BECKERATH Location Berlin, Germany Area 2037 sqm Project Year 2013 Located in Berlin-Kreuzberg, this project was designed as part of concept-based award procedure. The design was implemented in close cooperation with the clients. The building has six-story’s, a basement and an attic. The project has a total of 3 blocks, 19 individual apartments, one studio and various shared spaces. The flexible community space which connects the buildings main access with the public street space. This public space is made available for neighborhood groups and other public users ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015).

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R50 Cohousing is a typology for low cost affordable housing. This project provides maximum capacity for adaption and flexibility throughout its lifetime. A essential aspect of this design is its sustainability particularly its ability to integrate into existing urban fabric ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015).

Figure 15 R50 Cohousing ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015)

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Figure 16 R50 Cohousing Interior ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015)

Figure 17 R50 Cohousing Plan ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015)

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3.3.2. Non-Allied Case Studies 3.3.2.1. 1-6 Copper Lane N16 9NS Architects Location Category Project Year

Henly Halebrown Rorrison Architects London, United Kingdom Housing 2014

Figure 18 1-6 Copper Lane N16 9NS ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014) The objective of this design is to maximize external space and develop a building that manifests communality. There is a court at center around which 6 houses are laid out. The four 3-storey houses are clad in untreated vertical timber boards, the 2-storey houses are clad in brick. Each house is designed to have a generous provision of sunlight. This is done ensuing that homes don’t overlook each other ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014). The scheme allows for a continuous perimeter of communal gardens which offer varied growing conditions and atmospheres. The gardens should provide an excellent 23


habitat for local flora and fauna. As a result, there is a strong feeling of the project being intrinsically linked to its land. Both the plot that surrounds the perimeter of the project and the inner court emphasize this bond to the site ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014). The philosophy is to reduce the household’s collective impact on the environment in the construction of their homes as well as in their daily lives. The performance of the building fabric - insulation, air tightness, and heat recovery ventilation - plays a vital role with low-cost and proven technology. The only renewables are solar thermal panels. The embodied energy of construction has been considered in every respect: recycling waste material from the demolition; timber superstructure; timber cladding; timber fenestration and partial green roofs ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014).

Figure 19 First Floor Plan ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014)

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Figure 20 Upper Floor ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014)

Figure 21 Section ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014)

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3.2.2.2. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld Architects Location Area Project Year

Carpaneto Architekten, Architekten, BARarchitekten Berlin, Germany 7400 sqm 2013

Fatkoehl

Figure 22 Coop Housing at River Spreefeld ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015) The unique location of this project gives it the potential to create socially just, economically stable and environmentally responsible urban block ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015). The project is open to the river and its neighbors, they do not close themselves off like a private residential block. The project is open to the surrounding areas and is very open to the people living in the surroundings. The individual and communal spaces are the distinguishing features of this project. The open communal terraces in general offer compensation for the space that has been lost. Environmentally compatible building materials were used in the designing of this structure. The use of wood was maximized in the structure. The construction style of this building is to maximize the potential of the building and its surroundings. 26


Figure 23 Coop Housing Exterior ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015) In addition to conventional units, the project has six cluster apartments with a communal structure to provide housing for around 4-21 people. The project employs the communal use of Laundry room, fitness room, guest rooms, rooftop terraces and music and youth room.

Figure 24 Coop Housing Interior ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)

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The ground floor is largely open to the public, reflecting its attitude to the urban environment. It includes a carpentry workshop, catering kitchen, studios, daycare center, and a co-working space. Available to non-residents are Option Rooms – unassigned, unfinished spaces for community, social, or cultural projects. Option Rooms maintain the project’s open character at the juncture of living and urban development ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015).

Figure 25 Coop Housing Communal Space ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)

Figure 26 Coop Housing Communal Space 1("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)

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3.3.3. Precedent Studies 3.3.3.1. Hedonistic Sustainability Hedonistic sustainability is the idea or concept that you can design buildings that are sustainable, energy saving and environmentally friendly but at the same time ensure high quality of living and all the luxuries that the consumer is looking for. Hedonistic sustainability can be achieved when you stop thinking of buildings as structures and start thinking of them as ecosystems. Buildings should be integrated into the ecosystems and function as a part of the ecosystem. The main purpose of hedonistic design is to bring about sustainability but at the same time increase the quality of living. Some examples of Hedonistic sustainability are The Mountain and Copen hill by BIG Architects.

Figure 27 Hedonistic Sustainability (Garrity, 2014)

Figure 28 Hedonistic Sustainability (Garrity, 2014)

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3.3.3.2. CopenHill Copenhagen’s newest architectural gem is a waste management plant. This facility is also known as Amager Bakke. This waste management plant is the most efficient waste burning and energy generating plant in the world. This power plant can produce more than 25% energy from the same waste as before and can power over 160,000 houses throughout Copenhagen. The main intent of the designers was that the power plant should be inviting and fun to visit all this was achieved by combining sustainability with hedonism (Yuan, 2017). This is achieved by creating an artificial ski-slope on the rooftop and the world’s largest artificial climbing wall. This whole project is surrounded by a Recreational Area.

Figure 29 CopenHill (Yuan, 2017)

Figure 30 CopenHill Ski Park (Yuan, 2017)

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3.3.3.3. Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS Architects Location Area Project Year

BIG Architects Copenhagen, Denmark 33000 sqm 2008

Figure 31 Mountain Dwelling, Copenhagen ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009) The design of this structure consists of a sloping parking lot on top of which a terraced apartment complex is placed. This type of designing is common by the BIG group the main aim is to create Hedonistic Sustainability by juxta positioning two design features. The design is composed of 2/3 parking and 1/3 living. Parking is the base for the structure with the terraced housing placed on top of it. All the apartments have roof gardens facing the sun. The parking lot contains 480 parking spots. The roof gardens consist of a terrace and a garden with plants changing character according to the changing seasons. The building has a huge watering system which maintains the roof gardens. The only thing that separates the apartment and the garden is a glass faรงade with sliding doors to provide light and fresh air ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009). The Mountain Dwellings is located in Orestad city and offer the best of two worlds: closeness to the hectic city life in the center of Copenhagen, and the tranquility characteristic of suburban life ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009). 31


Figure 32 Mountain Dwelling Rooftop ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009)

Figure 33 Mountain Dwelling Balcony ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009)

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4.0. Design Literature Review 4.1. Bylaws 4.1.1. Entrances Entrances to buildings shall be located and oriented in such a way to ensure the shortest distance for pedestrians between the buildings, parks and beach facilities and public transportation modes (G. Dubai, 2017). An accessible path shall link the parking area, designated accessible parking zones and the side walk to the main entrances of all buildings or facilities (G. Dubai, 2017). The accessible path from street or public space shall avoid stairs and ramps. Gradients up to 2% are preferred, although up to 5% are acceptable to reach the main entrances at street level. If over 5% it should be designed as a ramp (G. Dubai, 2017). The accessible and inaccessible paths shall be marked with clear signage (G. Dubai, 2017). In existing buildings when the accessible door is not the main entrance door the direction to the accessible entrance shall be marked with the International Symbol of Access (ISA) (G. Dubai, 2017).

Figure 34 International Symbol of Access with directional arrow (G. Dubai, 2017)

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Figure 35 Direct access from parking to building entrance (G. Dubai, 2017) Each building entrance shall be provided with an identification number that shows the exact address (G. Dubai, 2017). Near the main entrance a directory as specified in section D shall display the main departments and services provided in the building. This information may also be provided by voice via a mobile application or via customer service. An information number and website should be posted (G. Dubai, 2017). A reception desk visible from near the entrance shall be provided in all public use buildings (G. Dubai, 2017). All entrance doors must have a clear passage width adequate to the intended use of the building and the expected number of users. Minimum dimensions are 900 mm x 2100 mm height (G. Dubai, 2017). 34


In case of revolving doors, an alternative door shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017). Entrance doors shall be power assisted, according to the specification of the Doors Section of this Code (G. Dubai, 2017). Doormats shall be levelled with the floor with a tolerance of +/- 2mm (G. Dubai, 2017).

Figure 36 Building Entrance (G. Dubai, 2017) 4.1.2. Counters and reception areas Counters and reception areas shall provide: 1. Seating places and clear spaces to accommodate wheelchairs, scooters or strollers (G. Dubai, 2017). 2. In reception areas enough seats for the foreseen waiting people shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017). 3. When providing sofas and additional regular chairs with a seat height of 430 mm with +/- 30mm tolerance and armrests shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017).

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Figure 37 Seating Zone (G. Dubai, 2017) 4. Front desks shall provide a low counter between 750 mm and 790 mm and a high counter between 950 mm and 1250 mm (G. Dubai, 2017). 5. Under the desk board a space 680 mm height and 480 mm deep shall be provided. These 480 mm can be included in the frontal interaction space of 1420 mm x 865 mm that shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017).

Figure 38 Front Desk Dimensions (G. Dubai, 2017)

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Figure 39 Front desk approaching space (G. Dubai, 2017)

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4.1.3. Internal corridors The width of corridors free of obstacles should be enough to allow all users passage in both directions, according to the buildings use, considering a minimum of 1000 mm per each simultaneous pedestrian (G. Dubai, 2017). Where there are direction changes, the clear passage width shall allow a maneuvering turning space of 1500 mm diameter (G. Dubai, 2017). Floor surfaces shall be firm, smooth, stable, and level, without glare and slip resistant avoiding vibration in wheel produced by excessive joints. Rugs and carpets should be firmly fixed to the floor and not have a high pile (G. Dubai, 2017). The accessible pedestrian walking path shall present reflectance contrast with the pavement not intended for walking of at least 30 points LRV (Light Reflectance Value) and/or by an easily perceptible texture difference (G. Dubai, 2017). A tactile warning surface shall precede any sudden level change (G. Dubai, 2017). The average minimum illumination is 100 lux calculated at floor level, with a minimum value of 60 lux (G. Dubai, 2017). 4.1.4. Alarms and means of egress Audio and visual emergency alarms shall be provided throughout the building. Visual emergency alarms shall have a rate of 30 flashes per second. They shall be in places where all building occupants can see them, including toilets, accessible toilets and family toilets. It is especially important to place visual alarms in locations where someone might be alone (G. Dubai, 2017). The procedures for evacuating a building should be posted, including evacuation procedures for persons with activity limitations (G. Dubai, 2017). Fire and life safety procedures should be posted in 14 pt. san serif font (G. Dubai, 2017). Persons with activity limitations who are unable to evacuate independently may be evacuated with the assistance of an evacuation device or evacuation chair. Fire safety personnel can assist the person into the evacuation device and then take them down to the stairs to a safe area (G. Dubai, 2017). Evacuation devices should be provided on every floor over one story. The devices should be consistently located near a stairwell. Fire personnel should ensure that people, including those with activity limitations, are trained on how to use evacuation devices (G. Dubai, 2017). Fire protected elevators that can be used for evacuation are an alternative to the evacuation device (G. Dubai, 2017). Evacuation procedures and training should be developed in conjunction with the Civil Defense regulations (G. Dubai, 2017). 38


4.1.5. First aid facilities First aid facilities shall be provided with an accessible door and an accessible path to the treatment area (G. Dubai, 2017). It shall contain a changing table usable for changing adults diapers if necessary (G. Dubai, 2017). 4.1.6. Balconies Terraces, verandas and balconies linked to accessible rooms or spaces shall be accessible to all people including people with mobility limitations (G. Dubai, 2017). To ensure this requirement, they shall fulfill the following characteristics: 1. The door to the balcony shall provide at least an obstacle free width of 900 mm (G. Dubai, 2017). 2. The balcony exterior and interior levels shall be the same (G. Dubai, 2017). 3. Whenever it is possible the balcony doors shall be installed flush with floor level. When raised threshold is necessary it shall have a maximum height of 20 mm and be beveled down to a height of 10 mm chamfered (G. Dubai, 2017). 4. The minimum dimensions of the balcony shall be 1500 mm x 1500 mm.

Figure 40 Maximum threshold rise (G. Dubai, 2017) 4.1.7. Mosques and prayer rooms Mosques and prayer rooms shall fulfill the following requirements: 1. An accessible path shall connect the public space with the building and the different rooms among them. An accessible entrance shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017). 2. A clear area shall be provided at the entrance to prevent shoes from blocking the accessible path. This shall be complemented with a KEEP CLEAR mat if the clear entrance is not guaranteed (G. Dubai, 2017). 3. Seats shall be provided at entrances and at other locations where people are required to remove their shoes (G. Dubai, 2017). 4. Seating should also be provided within the prayer hall to accommodate people who cannot bend to pray (G. Dubai, 2017). 39


5. The route to the designated area crossing the prayer hall’s carpeting shall have low pile carpeting (G. Dubai, 2017). 4.1.8. Dining Rooms Dining rooms shall fulfill the following requirements: 1. An accessible path of travel shall be provided to at least half of the dining areas (G. Dubai, 2017). 2. Illumination of at least 100 lux shall be provided in at least 10% of the dining room (G. Dubai, 2017). 3. Sound reduction materials should be incorporated into dining rooms (G. Dubai, 2017). 4. The floors, and walls shall be made of smooth & washable material that is easily cleaned and non-absorbent (G. Dubai, 2017). 5. Al least 10% of the tables shall comply with the dimensional criteria for tables described in section 5.20 and shall relate to an accessible path. At least 900 mm of clear width shall be provided to reach of these tables (G. Dubai, 2017). 6. Where self-service aisles or tables are provided, all food, condiments and cutlery shall be located between 900 mm and 1200 mm from the floor (G. Dubai, 2017). 7. A clear passage of a minimum 900 mm should be provided to all food service areas, condiments and utensils (G. Dubai, 2017). 8. Space for children strollers and mobility devices shall be provided (G. Dubai, 2017). 9. At least 10% of seats shall be movable (G. Dubai, 2017).

Figure 41 Example of an accessible dining room (G. Dubai, 2017)

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4.1.9. Required accessibility in new housing buildings The following dimensions and characteristics provides better quality of life for tenants and allow a low-cost conversion of any house to be accessible in the future if one of the tenants or family members has a disability (G. Dubai, 2017). These dimensions are compulsory for all new housing buildings: 1. The entrance and internal doors shall provide a free passage of at least 900mm (G. Dubai, 2017). 2. Wall mounted switches shall be between 900 mm and 1200 mm and be located a minimum of 600 mm from any corner (G. Dubai, 2017). 3. Corridor width shall be at least 1000 mm and 1500 mm in direction changes (G. Dubai, 2017). 4. Maneuvering space inside kitchen, bathroom, living room and one bedroom shall be at least 1200 mm free of door openings and fixed elements, and 1500 mm where turning is required (G. Dubai, 2017). 5. The bathroom shall contain at least a bathtub or roll-in shower, sink and toilet (G. Dubai, 2017). 6. In houses with more than one level, at least the kitchen, one bathroom and one living room or bedroom shall be accessible from the entrance door (G. Dubai, 2017). 7. Interior stairs width shall be at least 1100 mm wide (G. Dubai, 2017).

Figure 42 Maneuvering space in an accessible level kitchen (G. Dubai, 2017)

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4.2. Standards 4.2.1. MULTISTOREY HOUSING 1. Blocks A compact, layered building form (either single buildings or in groups) that gives high occupancy densities. The external spaces within and around the building are clearly differentiated in relation to form and function (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 43 Blocks (Neufert & Neufert) 1. Linear arrangement A spacious building configuration: either groups of identical block types or of buildings of completely different designs. There is little or no differentiation of the external spaces around the buildings (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 44 Linear arrangement (Neufert & Neufert)

2. Slab-blocks 42


This building form is often used in an isolated configuration. It can be extended both in length and height but allows little scope for variety among the room layouts. Differentiation of the surrounding areas is difficult (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 45 Slab-blocks (Neufert & Neufert) 3. Large-scale developments By expanding and interconnecting slab buildings to create large forms stretching over a wide area it is possible to develop large tracts. Differentiation between spaces defined by the buildings is almost impossible to achieve (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 46 Large-scale developments (Neufert & Neufert) 4. Point-blocks 43


These are distinctive individual buildings, often standing isolated in open spaces. A ‘dominant element’ in town planning, this building type is frequently designed in combination with low-rise developments (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 47 Point-blocks (Neufert & Neufert)

4.2.2. BALCONIES Balconies offer an effective means of improving the attractiveness of domestic accommodation units. They also give an extended work space as well as an easily supervised outdoor children’s play area. Typical uses include relaxation, sunbathing, sleeping, reading, eating etc. (Neufert & Neufert).

Figure 48 Types of Balconies (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 49 Types of Balconies 1 (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 50 Types of Balconies 2 (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 51 Balcony Layouts (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.2.3. KITCHENS

Figure 52 Kitchen Layouts (Neufert & Neufert)

4.2.4. BEDROOMS

Figure 53 Bedroom Layouts (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 54 Bedroom Layouts 1 (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 55 Bedroom Layouts 2 (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.2.5. BATHROOMS

Figure 56 Bathroom Locations (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 57 Bathroom Locations 1 (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 58 Bathroom Locations 2 (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 59 Bathroom Layouts 3 (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 60 Bathroom Layouts 4 (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.2.6. Conditioning and Fitness Rooms

Figure 61 Fitness Room Example (approximately 200sqm) (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 62 Fitness Room Example 1 ( 200 sqm) (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.2.7. Youth Hostels

Figure 63 Sample Hostel Accommodation for 50 students (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 64 Layout of Youth Hostels (Neufert & Neufert)

Figure 65 Sample of Youth Hostel Plan (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.2.8. Parking Requirements

Figure 66 Parking Requirements (Trakhees, 2011)

Figure 67 Sample Parking Lot with Dimensions (Trakhees, 2011)

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4.2.9. Site Planning Requirements

Figure 68 Vehicle Access for Corner Plot (Trakhees, 2011)

Figure 69 Vehicle Access for T-Junction Road (Trakhees, 2011)

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4.3. Design & Technology 4.3.1. Building Materials While selecting building materials we must ideally do for raw materials available locally to reduce the cost of construction. We need to make sure that the materials that we are using are of high quality even if it is of low cost. The materials must be long lasting, have nice features and must be low maintenance. 4.3.1.1. Bricks Bricks are a costly investment, but it pays off. Bricks can adjust the buildings temperature by storing heat and cool air. In the winters the bricks offer warmth, and, in the summers, it produces a cooling effect which is ideal for residents in the MiddleEast. Bricks cost less in the long run. They also require less energy for heating the structure. Advantages of Bricks: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Bricks have higher durability and reduced chances of getting cracks. Bricks are natural and do not impact the environment. The investment in bricks pays of in the short term and long run. Bricks can store heat and cool air, thus creating a pleasant indoor climate no matter what the weather is outside. 5. Bricks can absorb humidity and stay dry and healthy all year around. 6. Since it is a heavy material it is good at noise absorption. It can also absorb outside noise, creating good insulation.

Figure 70 Brick Layout Sections (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 71 Brick Layout Sections 1 (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.3.1.2. Natural Stone Natural stone can provide the user with good aesthetics, sustainability and performance for its cost. Natural stone is a natural material from the environment. It will help improve the environment. Natural stone has many advantages: 1. Stone is a naturally occurring material. It doesn’t need any resources to create it. Stone is abundant in supply. It comes in various colors and shapes. It doesn’t contain any harmful chemicals or toxins. It is available locally as raw material hence, reducing the transportation cost. 2. Stone is durable thus reducing the need to replace it. Hence, stone provides much durability and sustainability. 3. Stone is easy to take care and maintain. It will resist weather, wear and tear. 4. Stone can be recycled. Old stone can be disassembled and reformed to be used as paving materials, retaining walls, exterior walls, exterior façade, mosaic, wall design etc. 5. Stone is manufactured sustainably, conserving resources, preventing pollution and minimizing waste.

Figure 72 Natural Stone Layout (Neufert & Neufert)

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Figure 73 Natural Stone Layout 1 (Neufert & Neufert)

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4.3.2. Sustainable Building Materials and Resources The following are some of the qualities to look forward to while selecting sustainable building materials and resources: 1. Cradle to cradle: These are materials in which disposal is a part of the products life cycle. These materials are environmentally preferred materials and are circulated in closed loops thus creating waste free products. They maximize the value of the materials without damaging the environment. They provide more and more opportunities to reuse a product. 2. Regional Materials: They reduce the transportation cost and oversees shipping cost. Buying regional materials will help the local business and reduces the energy needed for transportation. 3. Rapidly Renewable Materials: They grow form plants harvested over 10 years. Since they take short period to grow, they also require less land to cultivate. Bamboo is a material that grows easily. It is useful for prefabricated flooring and wall panels.

5.0. Conclusion UAE is on a path of liberalization and Dubai is the educational and business hub of UAE. In order to attract more investors, minds and talent to Dubai and further its growth, UAE government has relaxed its visa rules. The new visa rules grant extended periods of stay for investors and top intellects. It also provides longer period of stay for college students and enables them to stay back after their education to hunt for jobs. This will attract an influx of students to Dubai, students who are new to Dubai and do not have their friends or relatives living here. They will need accommodation and the current housing scenario is not favorable to students. Students living alone will be on a narrow income bracket and the current university housing fee is as expensive as the tuition fee. To solve this crisis, I am designing a co-housing residential complex in Academic City for Design Students, this will be a prototype for further such housing units in Dubai. I have chosen to design particularly for design students as Dubai is famous for its architecture firms, internship opportunities and architecture colleges hence, there will be a lot of student opting to study architecture here. My project will be in Dubai International Academic City (DIAC), since the place has any universities and colleges that teach architecture. My thesis aims to design a co-housing unit, to reduce living cost. This typology is very common in Europe and is not existent in UAE. A co-housing unit will have common shared spaces like dining room, kitchen or laundry. This will help reduce energy consumption and cost of living. This design will involve the use of by-laws specified by Dubai Municipality and anthropometry specified in Nuefert Architects Data.

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6.0. Design Brief and Requirements 6.1.

Brief

This thesis aims at creating a design based on the concept of co-housing to achieve affordable housing solutions for the design students attending college in Dubai International Academic City (DIAC). This will be done by designing a cohousing residential unit in DIAC. Co-housing is style in which residential units share a large common space thus reducing the living costs. This style will be used to make student residence cheap and at the same time improve socialization.

6.2.

Requirements

6.2.1. General Space Planning Matrix S.no Space 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

No. of units Area per unit Lobby 1 14 sqm Office 1 12 sqm Printing/Stationary 1 24 sqm Common Dining 1 105 sqm Common Kitchen 1 35 sqm Laundry 1 40 sqm Recreation Room 1 60 sqm Gym 1 200 sqm Triple Sharing 74 25 sqm Room Double Sharing 44 18 sqm Room Single Sharing 32 11 sqm Room Car Park 1 600 sqm Bike Racks 1 84 sqm

Total Area 14 sqm 12 sqm 24 sqm 105 sqm 35 sqm 40 sqm 60 sqm 200 sqm 1850 sqm 792 sqm 352 sqm 600sqm 84 sqm

Total Built Area: 4168 sqm 6.2.2. Triple Sharing Room Space Bed space Bathroom

Area 21 sqm 4 sqm

6.2.3. Double Sharing Room Space Bed space Bathroom

Area 14 sqm 4 sqm 60


6.2.4. Single Sharing Room Space Bed space Bathroom

6.3.

Area 7 sqm 4 sqm

Site Analysis

6.3.1. Location The design is in Dubai International Academic City (DIAC). DIAC is a free zone launched in 2007 to cater the needs of the academic community in Dubai. It is home to regional and international universities. DIAC is home to about 25000 students around the world consisting of 150 nationalities. DIAC offers more than 450 undergraduate and postgraduate degrees ("Dubai International Academic City makes 10 years," 2017). DIAC is an educational hub sprawling over 18 million square feet, it has universities which are state of the art facilities due a demand in the higher education sector ("Dubai International Academic City makes 10 years," 2017). DIAC is an ecosystem for higher education with some of the most well-known universities opening their branches here. It is home to the over sea’s campus of Manipal University, Amity University, Herriot Watt University and BITS Pilani. There is an increasing number of transitional students attracted by the international universities in Dubai. This is increasing the investments of international universities who wish to open their branches in Dubai making it an international students’ hub.

Figure 72 Dubai International Academic City (Maps, 2019)

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6.3.2. Dubai Climate

Figure 73 Dubai Climate Statistics (Airports, 2019)

Figure 74 Dubai Wind Distribution (WINDFINDER) 6.3.3. Site The site is in Academic City next to Institute of Management Technology. This site has been chosen for its proximity to Dubai International Academic City, which keeps it in range of amenities like shopping, restaurants and printing services. Academic city is well connected by bus stops and the site is in proximity of many bus stops. This site is also very close to universities offering architecture like Manipal University, Amity University, Heriott-Watt University and American University in the Emirates.

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Figure 75 Potential Site (Maps, 2019) Land Use Area Plot Plot Coverage Maximum GFA Residential Apartment Type No. of units

Residential 2800 sqm 67% 4168 sqm Single, Double and Triple Sharing 150

6.3.4. Dubai 2020 Master Plan The 2020 Master Plan of Dubai intends to identify urbanization parameters, to forecast the transformation of population. It plans to incorporate sustainable and well integrated land use planning and mobility network and also develop acitivities hub and bring in world class investment. Most importantly Dubai plans to bring world class and affordable housing for all, including rental housing (G. o. Dubai).

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Figure 76 Dubai 2020 Master Plan Metropolitan Area (G. o. Dubai)

Figure 77 Dubai 2020 Master Plan Urbanization Parameters (G. o. Dubai)

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7.0. References 1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects. (2014). In. Agarib, A. (2018). Drive to prevent bachelors from staying in family-only areas. In. Airports, D. (2019). Climate. In. Amity Dubai hostel fees. In. Amity Dubai Tuition Fees. In. Chang, Z. (2017). International Real Estate Review. In. co-housing. In. Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten. (2015). In. Dubai, G. (2017). Dubai Universal Design Code. In. Dubai, G. o. Dubai 2020 Urban Master Plan. In. Dubai International Academic City makes 10 years. (2017). In It is now a leading international education hub with 23 universities from nine countries with 25000 students. Gap House / Archihood WXY. (2015). In. Garrity, A. (2014). Hedonism is Not Heathenism. In. H.Kim, G. Making a Case for Urban Cohousing. In. Haddow, A. Cohousing: Driving Housing Innovation by Changing the Way We Live. In. Kapur, V. (2013). 5 reasons why Dubai property prices will continue to rise. In. MAHE Dubai hostel fees. In. MAHE Dubai Tuition Fees. In. Maps, G. (2019). In. Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS. (2009). In. Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône. (2015). In. Nasir, S. (2018). Dubai parents express concern over rising activity fees in schools. In. Neufert, E., & Neufert, P. Neufert Architects Data. In B. Baiche & N. Walliman (Eds.), Third Edition. R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH. (2015). In. Saseendran, S. (2018). Official reiterates bachelor accommodation rules. In. Trakhees, D. o. P. D. (2011). Building Regulations & Design Guidelines - Architecture. In Fifth Edition. UAE – New visa rules for students. In. WINDFINDER. Wind & Weather Statistics. In Dubai Airport. Winter, J., & Durret, C. Achieving Affordability with Cohousing. In. WODE, J. (2018). Identifying Factors That Motivate Students To Choose Off-Campus Housing. In. Yuan, L. (2017). Copenhagen's Newest Architectural Gem Is A Waste Management Plant. In.

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8.0. Appendix

Figure 1 Nanterre Co-Housing Façade, ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015)10 Figure 2 Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) 11 Figure 3 Nanterre Co-Housing 1, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) ........................................................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 4 Plan of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) .................................................................................................................................................. 13 Figure 5 Section of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) .................................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 6 Section of Nanterre Co-Housing, France ("Nanterre Co-Housing / MaO architectes + Tectône," 2015) .................................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 7 Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) .............................................................. 15 Figure 8 Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015)

Figure 9 Gap House ....................................................... 16 ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) ...................... 16

Figure 10 Courtyard Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) ........................................... 17 Figure 11 Balcony Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) ............................................... 18 Figure 12 Gap House Plan 1 ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) .................................................. 19 Figure 13 Gap House Plan 2 ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) .................................................. 19 Figure 14 Section Gap House ("Gap House / Archihood WXY," 2015) ................................................ 20 Figure 15 R50 Cohousing ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015) .................................................................................................................................................. 21 Figure 16 R50 Cohousing Interior ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015) ............................................................................................................................ 22 Figure 17 R50 Cohousing Plan ("R50 – Cohousing / ifau und Jesko Fezer + HEIDE & VON BECKERATH," 2015) .................................................................................................................................................. 22 Figure 18 1-6 Copper Lane N16 9NS ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014) ............................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 19 First Floor Plan ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014) .................................................................................................................................................. 24 Figure 20 Upper Floor ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014) ........................................................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 21 Section ("1–6 Copper Lane N16 9NS / Henley Halebrown Rorrison Architects," 2014) ...... 25 Figure 22 Coop Housing at River Spreefeld ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)........................................................... 26 66


Figure 23 Coop Housing Exterior ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015) ................................................................................. 27 Figure 24 Coop Housing Interior ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015) ................................................................................. 27 Figure 25 Coop Housing Communal Space ("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)........................................................... 28 Figure 26 Coop Housing Communal Space 1("Coop Housing at River Spreefeld / Carpaneto Architekten + Fatkoehl Architekten + BARarchitekten," 2015)........................................................... 28 Figure 27 Hedonistic Sustainability (Garrity, 2014) ............................................................................ 29 Figure 28 Hedonistic Sustainability (Garrity, 2014) ............................................................................ 29 Figure 29 CopenHill (Yuan, 2017) ....................................................................................................... 30 Figure 30 CopenHill Ski Park (Yuan, 2017) .......................................................................................... 30 Figure 31 Mountain Dwelling, Copenhagen ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009) ......... 31 Figure 32 Mountain Dwelling Rooftop ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009) ................. 32 Figure 33 Mountain Dwelling Balcony ("Mountain Dwellings / PLOT = BIG + JDS," 2009) ................. 32 Figure 34 International Symbol of Access with directional arrow (G. Dubai, 2017) ........................... 33 Figure 35 Direct access from parking to building entrance (G. Dubai, 2017) ..................................... 34 Figure 36 Building Entrance (G. Dubai, 2017) ..................................................................................... 35 Figure 37 Seating Zone (G. Dubai, 2017) ............................................................................................ 36 Figure 38 Front Desk Dimensions (G. Dubai, 2017) ............................................................................ 36 Figure 39 Front desk approaching space (G. Dubai, 2017) ................................................................. 37 Figure 40 Maximum threshold rise (G. Dubai, 2017) .......................................................................... 39 Figure 41 Example of an accessible dining room (G. Dubai, 2017) .................................................... 40 Figure 42 Maneuvering space in an accessible level kitchen (G. Dubai, 2017) ................................... 41 Figure 43 Blocks (Neufert & Neufert) ................................................................................................. 42 Figure 44 Linear arrangement (Neufert & Neufert) ............................................................................ 42 Figure 45 Slab-blocks (Neufert & Neufert) ......................................................................................... 43 Figure 46 Large-scale developments (Neufert & Neufert) .................................................................. 43 Figure 47 Point-blocks (Neufert & Neufert)........................................................................................ 44 Figure 48 Types of Balconies (Neufert & Neufert) .............................................................................. 44 Figure 49 Types of Balconies 1 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................... 45 Figure 50 Types of Balconies 2 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................... 45 Figure 51 Balcony Layouts (Neufert & Neufert) ................................................................................. 45 Figure 52 Kitchen Layouts (Neufert & Neufert) .................................................................................. 46 67


Figure 53 Bedroom Layouts (Neufert & Neufert) ............................................................................... 46 Figure 54 Bedroom Layouts 1 (Neufert & Neufert) ............................................................................ 47 Figure 55 Bedroom Layouts 2 (Neufert & Neufert) ............................................................................ 47 Figure 56 Bathroom Locations (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................... 48 Figure 57 Bathroom Locations 1 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................ 48 Figure 58 Bathroom Locations 2 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................ 49 Figure 59 Bathroom Layouts 3 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................... 49 Figure 60 Bathroom Layouts 4 (Neufert & Neufert) ........................................................................... 49 Figure 61 Fitness Room Example (approximately 200sqm) (Neufert & Neufert)............................... 50 Figure 62 Fitness Room Example 1 ( 200 sqm) (Neufert & Neufert) ................................................... 50 Figure 63 Sample Hostel Accommodation for 50 students (Neufert & Neufert) ................................ 51 Figure 64 Layout of Youth Hostels (Neufert & Neufert) ..................................................................... 52 Figure 65 Sample of Youth Hostel Plan (Neufert & Neufert) .............................................................. 52 Figure 66 Parking Requirements (Trakhees, 2011) ............................................................................. 53 Figure 67 Sample Parking Lot with Dimensions (Trakhees, 2011) ...................................................... 53 Figure 68 Vehicle Access for Corner Plot (Trakhees, 2011) ................................................................ 54 Figure 69 Vehicle Access for T-Junction Road (Trakhees, 2011) ......................................................... 54 Figure 70 Brick Layout Sections (Neufert & Neufert) ......................................................................... 55 Figure 71 Brick Layout Sections 1 (Neufert & Neufert) ....................................................................... 56 Figure 72 Natural Stone Layout (Neufert & Neufert) ......................................................................... 57 Figure 73 Natural Stone Layout 1 (Neufert & Neufert) ....................................................................... 58 Figure 72 Dubai International Academic City ..................................................................................... 61 Figure 73 Dubai Climate Statistics (Airports, 2019) ............................................................................ 62 Figure 74 Dubai Wind Distribution (WINDFINDER) ............................................................................. 62 Figure 75 Potential Site ...................................................................................................................... 63 Figure 76 Dubai 2020 Master Plan Metropolitan Area (G. o. Dubai) ................................................. 64 Figure 77 Dubai 2020 Master Plan Urbanization Parameters (G. o. Dubai) ........................................ 64

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Profile for Febin Thomas

Co-Housing for Design Students in UAE  

This is my thesis document, I am designing a project to provide low cost housing for college students in Dubai International Academic City.

Co-Housing for Design Students in UAE  

This is my thesis document, I am designing a project to provide low cost housing for college students in Dubai International Academic City.

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