Explore 300 years of American History
With a Franklin County Spring Into History ramble!
Step into history....
Find your family in Franklin County! Genealogical Workshop at Mercersburg Inn June 21-23, 2017 Experienced & Beginning Researchers Welcome! Individualized consultations with Pam Anderson of Anderson CoGen by appointment Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday
Wednesday, June 21
Lunch on Your Own 1pm: Check In 1:30pm-4:30pm Lectures
• The History of Franklin County’s in and out migration • Original Records In and Around Franklin County • A Guide to Franklin County Repositories
Elegance and hospitality go hand-inhand at Mercersburg Inn, a top-rated 1909 Georgian mansion with 17 luxurious rooms.
Thursday, June 22
8am: Breakfast 9am-4pm: Research Lunch on Your Own 6pm: Dinner
8am: Breakfast 10am: Checkout
405 S. Main St. Mercersburg 717-329-5231 www.mercersburginn.com
Friday, June 23
Special Genealogy Workshop Rates! Two-Night Stay w/2 breakfasts & 2 dinners Single Occupancy-$355/room Double Occupancy- $465/room
*Add a Friday night stay $150 per room -breakfast included
Taxes and gratuities not included
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Pam Anderson, owner and geneaologist, strives to provide collaborative research to develop accurate and reliable family histories for future generations. 7778 Grindstone Hill Road Chambersburg, PA 17202 (717) 5970-1345 www.andersoncogen.com
Welcome to Franklin County, PA
and more than 300 years of American history!
Table of Contents
History of Franklin County.....................Page 4 Conococheague Institute......................Page 16 Fendrick Library.....................................Page 17 Buchanan State Park............................Page 18 Fort Loudoun.........................................Page 19 Chambersburg Heritage Center............Page 20 Old Jail....................................................Page 21 John Brown House.................................Page 22 Chambersburg Firefighters Museum....Page 23 Enoch Brown Memorial.........................Page 24 Allison-Antrim.........................................Page 25 Middleburg Mason-Dixon......................Page 26 Waynesboro Historical Society..............Page 27 Waynesboro Industrial Museum...........Page 28 Little Antietam Creek.............................Page 29 Renfrew Museum...................................Page 30 Monterey Pass Batlefield Museum.......Page 31 Preserving Our Heritage........................Page 32 Emmanuel Chapel.................................Page 33 Mont Alto Historical Society..................Page 34 Caledonia State Park............................Page 35 PA Forest Fire Museum........................Page 36
Explore John Brown and his historic northeastern headquarters before his raid on Harpers Ferry. Take a journey back in time to Frederick Douglass’ visit to Franklin County to prepare for John Brown’s Raid. Walk through the hometown of President James Buchanan and the Lane House, where his niece and first lady Harriet Lane lived. Explore the trails of the Underground Railroad that weave into the county’s history. Stop and reflect at the 9/11 Memorial. History happened here in Franklin County and it’s waiting to be explored! A ramble is a leisurely walk from place to place and during the Spring into History ramble, many historic sites open their doors for visitors to explore the county’s prehistoric, Native American, frontier, colonial, 19th and 20th century history. The 2017 Spring into History Ramble is April 29, 2017, but history can be explored anytime throughout the year using this guide of the county. Turn the page to begin a walk through early Franklin County history or to skip ahead and start on the history ramble, turn to page 16!
Key to History
Thank you to 2017’s Spring into History sponsors: Northwood Books, Anderson CoGen, and Dr. Paul Orange.
This icon denotes locations with genealogy resources to help visitors look into their pasts.
Spring into History│ GREAT MOMENTS │ 3
In the beginning... Archaeologists, digging in areas near streams and springs of Franklin County, unearthed artifacts dating back 10,000 years to the Ice Age. These remnants were left by nomadic hunters, following herds of animals across Franklin County. Centuries later, Native American tribes of Iroquois, Shawnees, and Delaware would follow the same migratory paths and hunt in the valleys of Franklin County. In the 1700s, Franklin County was the frontier. Scots-Irish, German, and Welsh immigrants settled throughout Franklin County, establishing homesteads and hamlets in and around present-day Chambersburg, Greencastle, Mercersburg, Shippensburg, and Waynesboro. Seeking freedom and opportunity, these immigrants were drawn to the lands of Franklin County--reminiscent of their homelands and filled with the natural resources to build a prosperous, new life. Homes and settlements sprang up along the frontier of Franklin County and at first, relationships with the Native American Indians were friendly.
Native Americans of Franklin County The first inhabitants of the Cumberland Valley were Native Americans. Tribes hunted in the area but did not have permanent settlements. They made temporary homes near streams and creeks and were hunters, gatherers, and foragers. The primary tribe of the region was the Lenni Lenape, often called the Delaware.
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Tension increased as more immigrants settled along the frontier of Franklin County, infringing on hunting lands and pushing the Native American Indians westward. Influences of the French-allied Indians added to the strain. The friendly relationship deteriorated, and settlers began building fortifications around their homes to protect themselves from attacks. Benjamin Chambers, founder of Chambersburg, constructed a fort around his home, gristmill and sawmill, which were located near the Conococheague Creek and Falling Spring. Surrounded by water on all three sides, Chambers Fort was 90-ft. wide by 300ft. long and was defended by swivel cannons and blunderbusses.
Ebbert Springs Ebbert Springs is one of the earliest documented sites of Franklin Countyâ€™s history. Stretching back 11,000 years, Ebbert Springs gives a glimpse of prehistoric Franklin County and fast forwards to show frontier life, French & Indian War era, and the Underground Railroad period. Named as a Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission archaeological super site, Ebbert Springs is set to become the centerpiece of an archaeological preserve and heritage park with work beginning mid-2017. The site will include interpretive trails, plantings of native grasses and woodland flowers, educational kiosks, and picnic areas. Educational, interpretive themes include prehistoric, native American, the Allison-Ebbert Homestead, agricultural and farming, frontier and pioneer lifestyles, French & Indian War era, Underground Railroad activity, geology and natural resources, biology, ecology, and environmental stewardship. The interpretations will be a valuable resource for local school districts and will give the Franklin County Visitors Bureau a destination for heritage-cultural tourists and groups.
Fort Loudoun & The Black Boys The British built Fort Loudoun to protect settlers along the frontier in 1756 as the French & Indian War impacted the frontier of Franklin County. Fort Loudoun served the Forbes Expedition as it built the Forbes Road across southern Pennsylvania to facilitate travel and supply lines to Pittsburgh. Though the British outpost began as a source of protection for Franklin County’s frontier colonials, it was attacked by the people it was to protect for risking their safety. More than ten years before colonials confronted the British at Lexington, Massachusetts, James Smith and his men, called the Black Boys, would confront the British at Fort Loudoun, Pennsylvania. Trading companies motivated by a chance for profit brought in guns, gunpowder, hatchets and knives, and these ended up being used against settlers in the Indian attacks. Angry that the British would permit this dangerous trading, James Smith and the Black Boys decided to stop the trade of weapons to protect their homes and families.
Other private forts in Franklin County were: •
Fort Davis was built in about 1754 and was about 2 miles south of Claylick on the Welsh Run. It was a settler’s fort also used by the PA colonial militia. Fort McCord was built about 1755 and attacked by the Delaware tribesmen led by Chief Shingas in April 1756. Twentyseven inhabitants were killed, scalped, or kidnapped. Today, the site is marked by a Celtic Cross near Edenville. Fort Morris was built in 1755 and was one of a line of frontier defenses erected to protect local settlers and garrison provincial troops. After a 2008 archaeological dig, Burd Street in Shippensburg was identified as the likely site of the fort. The location documented in journals of the period match the Burd Street site, plus more than 2800 artifacts were found, including a 12-lb. cannonball and flintlocks. Fort at Steele’s Meetinghouse was a log meetinghouse and church within a stockade and was located three miles east of Mercersburg along the West Branch of Conococheague Creek.
On March 5, 1765, Smith and the Black Boys stopped a pack horse caravan of eightyone horses at both Mercersburg and McConnellsburg, cautioning the traders to not proceed with the illegal materials. The convoy did not heed the warning. The next day, the Black Boys stopped the caravan at Sideling Hill and set fire to the contraband. The angry traders appealed to the British authorities at Fort Loudoun. The British arrested several citizens. In response, James Smith gathered 300 men and marched on the fort, where they captured enough men to exchange two British soldiers for each colonial. But, the British kept the weapons of the incarcerated men--a major offense to the frontiersmen, who depended on their rifles for hunting and protection. Over the next several months, the Black Boys continued to confront the traders and clash with the British at Fort Loudoun. It culminated on November 16, 1765, when James Smith and the Black Boys surrounded Fort Loudoun. The contingent grew to 100 men, firing on the fort throughout the night. The British surrendered. The weapons confiscated months earlier were returned, and Fort Loudoun was abandoned by the British in November 1765.
To explore fort sites in southern Franklin County, request Conococheague Institute's Biking and Driving Tour of French & Indian War Sites in Southwest Franklin County PA.
Spring into History│ 5
The Founding of Franklin County Benjamin Chambers In 1734, Benjamin Chambers, a Scots-Irish immigrant and millwright by trade, licensed the purchase of 400 acres of land from William Penn and built the settlement of Chambersburg around the joining of two water bodies - the Falling Spring and Conococheague Creek. As the tensions of the French and Indian War grew and Native American attacks in the area accelerated, Chambers constructed a stockade to protect his dwelling and mills. Surrounded by water on three of its sides, Chambers Fort was 90ft. wide and 300-ft. long and defended by swivel cannons and blunderbusses. Chambers recognized the influential role religion played in the community, so he set aside three plots of land for three congregations in Chambersburg—Falling Spring Presbyterian, First Lutheran, and Zion Reformed. In return for the land, Chambers requested that each congregation would pay a yearly rent of one rose to a descendant of the Chambers Family. Today, all three congregations continue the tradition of the rose rent.
Birthplace of James Buchanan In 1791, James Buchanan, who would become the fifteenth president of the United States, was born in a log cabin about 2.5 miles west of Mercersburg at Stony Batter, a trading post operated by Buchanan’s father. When Buchanan was five years old, the Buchanan family moved to Mercersburg. They lived on the main street and operated a general store in the building that is today the James Buchanan Pub & Restaurant. Across the street from the pub is the home of Harriet Lane, Buchanan’s niece, who served as the mistress of the White House during James Buchanan’s presidency. To commemorate her uncle, Harriet created a 600-ton, pyramid monument at Stony Batter where Buchanan was born. Today, it is the James Buchanan State Park. 6 │GREAT MOMENTS
Mason-Dixon Survey The Penn family of Pennsylvania and the Calvert family of Maryland claimed ownership of the same land. Holding fast to the claims, the Penns and Calverts pleaded their cases in the court of England. To settle the dispute, the court ordered two surveyors and astronomers-Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon--to establish the boundary between the two states. A marker was placed every mile and a larger crown stone every 5 miles. The crown stones, made from limestone and imported from England, show the Penn coat of arms on one side and on the other side the Calvert family coat of arms. Not only did Mason and Dixon’s surveying ensure that Greencastle and Philadelphia remained in Pennsylvania, but in future years the Mason-Dixon Line became commonly referred to as the line between the North and the South.
George Washington Slept In Chambersburg.... Really!
Thompson's Rifle Batallion In June 1775, as the American Revolution loomed, Franklin County men stepped
As the new president of the United States, George Washington faced the first test of the young nationâ€™s power when farmers in western Pennsylvania, angered by the tax levied on grain alcohols, refused to pay the taxes and attacked tax collectors. The farmers used grain alcohol as a currency and the tax removed their profit. The federal government applied the tax dollars to the debt of the Revolutionary War. In July 1794, the whiskey tax issue came to a head when western PA farmers attacked a federal marshal, and President Washington called out the militia. The confrontation became known as the Whiskey Rebellion. On Washington's trip to squelch the rebellion, he spent the night at the Morrow Tavern, located on South Main Street of Chambersburg.
forward to form a unit of the first battalion in the colonies authorized by Congress. The unit, led by Captain James Chambers, marched 450 miles to join the siege of Boston. The battalion became the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, with Chambers as Colonel. "The Homecoming" statue in Founding Family Park depicts family patriarch Benjamin Chambers greeting his son James Chambers and his grandson Benjamin on their return from the Revolutionary War.
Spring into History â”‚ 7
7778 Grindstone Hill Road Chambersburg, PA 17202
“Collaborative Geneology Services” Collaborative research to develop accurate and reliable family histories for future generations. • Record retrieval • Documented written reports • Genealogy tours
Member of: • Association of Professional Genealogists • National Genealogical Society • Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania
“I received your report package and I am very pleased with the result. I liked your enthusiasm and attention to detail. It is obvious you like the ‘search’ as much as the client. Looking forward to Phase II. Once we have the families located, we can build the biographical sketches.” -Mike K., Wisconsin
Northwood Books 59 North Main St. | Chambersburg, PA
717-267-0606 Over 9 miles of used, new and antique books! • New & Used Books • Antiques • Fine Bindings • Collector Editions • 70+ book categories • Fine Art
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Indian Captives & Casualties Enoch Brown On July 26, 1764, four Delaware warriors massacred schoolmaster Enoch Brown and 11 students. Brown pleaded with the warriors to spare the children before being shot and scalp. The warriors then began to tomahawk and scalp the children. One student survived being scalped by dragging himself to a nearby spring after the attack. When the Warriors returned to their village and showed the scalps they had taken, they were rebuked as as cowards by an old Delaware chief. Enoch Brown and the school children were buried in a common grave. In 1885, the area was designated Enoch Brown Park. A memorial and park mark the site, on Grant Shook Road off PA Route 16.
James Smith James Smith, known for his role with the Black Boys and the surrender of Fort Loudon, was captured at age 18 by the Caughnawaga tribe, part of the Iroquois nation. Smith survived the gauntlet, a form of torture Indians subjected their captives, and adopted him into their tribe. He lived among the Indians and observed their methods of warfare. After five years, he escaped and returned to Franklin County, where he shared his knowledge of Indian warfare. The Black Boys, named because they would darken their faces just as the Indian warriors did before battle, used these methods in defending their frontier homes.
Mary Jemison At the height of the French and Indian tensions, Mary Jemison and her family were captured by the Shawnee along Marsh Creek in the South Mountains. The raiding party with captives in town headed West toward Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh. The group was too large and too slow and the local militia were closing ground. At nightfall, Mary was separated from her family to continue the journey. The rest of the Jamison family were killed and scalped. Mary was purchased by members of The Seneca Tribe at Fort Duquesne. She was adopted by a Seneca family and named Dehgewanus, which means to falling voices. She lived the rest of her life with the Seneca, raising a family. She lived to be 90 years old.
Jean McCord Lowry Jean McCord Lowry was the sister of William McCord, who built Fort McCord and was married to John Lowry. When Indians attacked Fort McCord on April 1st 1756, she was in the fort stockade and the Indians set the fort afire. She tossed her three children out the second-floor window of her home to save their lives. They landed in the hands of an attacking Indian, who had just killed her husband. Jean was expecting another child and to save herself jumped out the window and was caught by Indians. She was taken by the Indians to Canada, held there, and worked in the household of the French governor. A devout Presbyterian, she held fast to her beliefs. Ultimately, she was taken to England and exchanged for French prisoners of war. She returned to America and was reunited with her children 8 years later when they were rescued by Pennsylvania frontiersmen.
Spring into Historyâ”‚ 9
Road to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in Franklin County Franklin County played an important role in the passage to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Its location just north of the Mason-Dixon Line signaled escaping slaves entry to the north, and the mountainous terrain afforded numerous hiding places in caves and wooded areas. Chambersburg, Greencastle, and Mercersburg had substantial free black populations, and by 1860, Franklin County had the fifth largest black population.
Equality, Abolition & Underground Railroad in Franklin County
Frederick Douglass in Chambersburg
It was no mistake that radical abolitionist John Brown selected Chambersburg as his supply base and staging area for his raid on Harpers Ferry. Chambersburg had excellent access by rail, was located in the north, yet was still close enough to the South for Brown to deploy his attack. In the summer of 1859, Brown and several of his associates stayed at 255 East King Street in Chambersburg, the Boarding House of Mary Ritner. Brown assumed the identity of Isaac Smith owner of a mining operation. Under this guise, Brown was able to receive the heavy shipments of weapons for his planned takeover of the Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. During his stay in Chambersburg, Brown met with abolitionists including the famous anti-slavery author and lecturer Frederick Douglass. Even though Douglas was opposed to Brownâ€™s plan to create a slave uprising, he met with Brown at an old stone quarry outside of Chambersburg in August 1859. Brown was unable to convince Douglass to join the raid on Harpers Ferry. Brown sent the weapons that he had been stockpiling in Chambersburg to the Kennedy Farm, just over the Maryland border. On Sunday evening, October 16, 1859, Brown and 21 of his supporters slipped into Harpers Ferry. They seized the federal Arsenal, killed seven men and injured about a dozen more. When news of the attack reached Richmond, the US Marines rushed to Harpers Ferry to regain the arsenal. Under fire, Brown and his men barricaded themselves in a small brick building and refused to surrender. Finally, a company of Marines, commanded by Colonel Robert E Lee, stormed the building and captured Brown and his men. John Brown was tried and found guilty of murder, treason, and inciting a slave insurrection. He was hanged along with nine of his followers on December 2, 1859 in Charlestown. 10 â”‚GREAT MOMENTS
In August 1859, when abolitionist Frederick Douglass came to Chambersburg for his secret meeting with John Brown, townspeople recognized him and pressed him to give a speech. This speech was given in a building on the square called the Franklin Repository, since burned in the 1864 Civil War burning of Chambersburg. The site is adjacent to the 1865 Franklin County Courthouse.
“A hazardous area of 100 miles which contained the most secretive, tangled lines of the Underground Railroad.” --Statement about Franklin County by Charles Blockson, well-known author, historian, and contemporary champion of Underground Railroad history
The South Mountain Road toFreedom; Rouzerville, Quincy, Caledonia & Beyond
Franklin County offered a number of entry points as well as the natural protection of mountains, forests, and caves. The Jacob Shockey farm, near Rouzerville just across the Maryland line, was at the foot of the South Mountain range. The forest sheltered the fugitives by day, and under cover of darkness, Shockey would guide the group eight miles to the Hiram Wertz farm near Quincy. From the Wertz farm, the escapees traveled another eight miles to an African-American community near Thaddeus Steven’s Caledonia Iron Works. Traveling today, the route would parallel Route 997. The community, sometimes called Africa, was the third largest African-American population in Franklin County in 1850.
Greencastle Underground Railroad Connections: The Anderson Family Located approximately three miles north of the Mason-Dixon Line near Greencastle, the farmhouse of freedman Timothy Anderson was a safe house on the Underground Railroad in the years before and during the Civil War. Matthew Anderson (1845-1928), son of Timothy, heard stories told by freedom seekers hidden in his family home and wrote about this experience in his biography, stating, “ Among the earliest impressions made upon my childish mind were the tales of horror about the South told by the fleeing fugitive as he lay in the secret enclosure of my father’s house where he was concealed. “ Matthew Anderson went on to attend Iberia and Oberlin College and attained a Masters
of Divinity from Princeton. In 1880, Matthew married Caroline Still, the daughter of William Still , Philadelphia Vigilance Committee leader and Underground Railroad activist. By the late 19th century, Matthew established religious, vocational training, and banking institutions that continue today. Brother Timothy Anderson Jr. became a sergeant in the U.S. Colored Troops.
MERCERSBURG Escape Routes The Mercersburg African American population was the largest in Franklin County. Just eight miles over the Mason-Dixon Line, Mercersburg offered many escape routes that were former Native American pathways. Escaping slaves followed the Warm Springs Indian Trail, which parallels PA 75, in Mercersburg. From here, escaping slaves would travel to Chambersburg to the safe houses along the current Route 30, and then on to Shippensburg along present-day Route 11. From Shippensburg escapees made their way to Carlisle, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, into New York State, and on to freedom in Canada. In the 1820s, African Americans begin to settle long Fayette Street in Mercersburg. The Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, believed to be part of the Underground Railroad, was located in this neighborhood, as is the Zion Union Cemetery where numerous U.S. Colored Troops are buried. Spring into History│ 11
Out of the Ashes:
The Burning & Rebirth of Chambersburg The town of Chambersburg was devastated by the fires set by General John McCausland (under orders from General Jubal Early) during the Civil War. McCausland and his men had demanded $500,000 in U. S. Currency or $100,000 in gold. The town was not able to raise the funds. It was the only town in the North that was burned by the Confederates during the war. The Rebels claimed the burning was necessary in retribution for Union destruction by General David Hunter in Virginia. A letter the day after the fire to PA Governor Andrew Curtin described the destruction, “[the Rebels]... fired the whole center portion of town, embracing twenty squares.” Most all the town’s buildings including about 300 homes were destroyed. The only structures not burned were churches and the Masonic Temple which Confederate Masons. protected. Residents lost homes, food, clothing, and furniture. Several reported that they lost absolutely everything except the clothes they were wearing. Remarkably, only one Chambersburg resident is known to have died in the fires. By the next day aid was already arriving in the form of food and clothing sent on the Cumberland Valley Railroad from nearby communities. The state government also sent aid.
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“Help on the way or provisions and clothing is coming...But such a scene of Ruin! No imagination can conceive it.” -Reverend B.S. Schneck In a letter to his brother and sister dated August 3, 1864, Reverend B. S. Schneck gave a chilling description of the Rebel destruction of Chambersburg. He said, “Some houses in each square were fired, and then others caught. In some cases, money was offered to be taken (in outof-the-way parts) by the men and the properties then saved. Except one house (the Misses Dennys 8 doors above where we are now), every house down on both sides for 7 squares is gone...The Bank, all the stores, all the hotels, every shoe, clothing and other store (except in the outskirts some small grocery etc. shops) are all consumed. In most instances, little – in very many, nothing – was saved, not even a single change of clothing…..Help on the way of provisions and clothing is coming…But such a scene of Ruin! No imagination can conceive it. Governor Curtin came up last evening and said to me: ‘the reality is fearfully beyond my conceptions.’” The Franklin Repository newspaper of August 24, 1864 reported the destruction as: “the fairest town of the Cumberland Valley is in ruins. Half its people are homeless and very many are penniless and helpless. The stoutest heart must quail as the blackened walls, and withered shades of our beautiful
village are witnessed, where were once cheerful and hospitable homes, heart some trees, and the busy hum of industry and the enterprise of our merchants…. Chambersburg must be rebuilt….Its stores must be replaced—its shops must be resounded again with the sound of the anvil and chisel; its artisans must find the same demand for their handiwork, and its professions have the same duties as they had a month ago….new structures must soon turn it to enterprise and profit. In short, the business of Chambersburg, in all its various branches, was imperatively demanded by the wants of the community, and it must be restored.” The newspaper went on to suggest that the reconstruction of the town would depend upon the determination and energy of its people. And that the best way to do that was to all strive together for the common cause by working side-by-side to accomplish the greater good of the community over the greater good of each individual. The newspaper predicted that there would be more money to be made in the town in the next two years than in the past five. And that money will be made by outsiders who come in to take advantage if the citizens do
“One and all let us resolve that Chambersburg shall be rebuilt....”
-Franklin Repository, August 24, 1864
It took Chambersburg’s citizens nearly 30 years to rebuild but the town grew due to the dedication of its citizens.
not undertake it themselves.
The burn order, written by General Jubal Early directing General John McCausland to burn Chambersburg if it could not provide them $500,000 in US currency or $100,000 in gold.
And finally the newspaper issued a challenge, saying “One and all let us resolve that Chambersburg shall be rebuilt, that her population will again sit down in prosperity where rebel brutality made withering desolation, and when once resolved, the good work will be more than half done.” In the North, the burning of Chambersburg was seen as a Confederate atrocity. The call “remember Chambersburg” echoed throughout the North. Nearly 600 citizens filed claims asking the federal government to repay them for the damage. Reverend Schneck’s claim included the personal loss of his private library of over 1,200 books.
The Franklin County Visitors Bureau holds a re-enactment of the burning and the rebirth of the town during 1864: The Burning every year on the third Saturday of July.
On February 15, 1866, the U. S. Congress allocated $500,000 toward the damages which were estimated at three million dollars including about $1.7 million in total property loss. In his book “The Great Invasion” by Jacob Hoke, the author gives his
impression of the aftermath as follows: Chambersburg was “burned in the centennial of its existence, A.D. 1864. The beautiful county in the midst of which it stands was rescued from desolation by the thrift and industry of our fathers; the success of the cause for which the rebels fought would have turned the tide of its prosperity backwards toward its original wilderness. That success was denied them, and civilization and morality and religion triumphed over barbarism, immorality and oppression, and in its consummation the burning of Chambersburg bore its part. It was part of the price paid for the great and glorious result finally achieved.” It took the citizens of Chambersburg nearly thirty years to rebuild the town destroyed by the war. The Franklin County Visitors Bureau honors the people of Chambersburg and their resilience to rebuild the town during the 1864: Burning re-enactment and light show each year the third Saturday of July!
Spring into History│ 13
Civil War & Fra News of the seizure of Fort Sumter came by telegram to Franklin County on April 12, 1861 and was followed by a message that President Lincoln was seeking 75,000 men to serve for three months to quell the rebellion. By early June, 20,000 men were trained and staged from Chambersburg. War had come to Franklin County.
October 1862 Jeb Stuart’s Raid Confederate general Jeb Stuart’s seized horses, food ammunition, and hostages in Mercersburg in October 1862. The Confederates continued on to Chambersburg, taking more horses, cutting the telegraph wires, and burning therailroad shops. A key objective of the Confederate mission was to burn the railroad bridge, near Scotland, but local residents convinced Confederates that the bridge was stone. It was not, and transportation via rail continued uninterrupted. Nonetheless, Stuart’s Raid was deemed a Confederate success. Shortly thereafter, President Lincoln dismissed General George McClellan from his command of the Union troops.
June 1863 Year of Destiny
Monument to Corporal William Rihl
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1863 was a year of destiny for the nation and Franklin County. In mid-June, more than 70,000 Confederate troops led by General Robert E. Lee entered Pennsylvania in what became known as the Gettysburg campaign. There were 20 military actions in Franklin County during the campaign. Corporal William Rihl of the first New York “Lincoln” Cavalry was killed in an ambush at Fleming Farm, near Greencastle. Rihl was the first Union soldier killed on Pennsylvania soil in the Civil War.
anklin County July 4, 1863 Soldiers Retreat
A 17-mile train of wounded and dying men began to retreat through Franklin County.
July 4-5, 1863 Battle of Monterey Pass
The retreat from Gettysburg included the second largest battle in Pennsylvania, the Battle of Monterey Pass. Fought during a driving thunderstorm in the mountains east of Waynesboro throughout the late hours of July 4 and the early hours of July 5, the conflict involved 10,000 Confederate and Union soldiers.
June 26-30, 1863 Confederate Encampment
Confederate Commander Robert E. Lee and 70,000 men camped in and around Chambersburg, planning to move towards Harrisburg. General A.P. Hill brought word of advancing Union troops, and Lee shifted directions, moving Confederate troops east toward Gettysburg, where Union troops stopped the Confederates from advancing further into the North.
July 30, 1864 Burning of Chambersburg Under order of General Jubal early, General John McCausland issued a ransom demand of $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in Yankee currency or Chambersburg would be Remains of Franklin burned. The demand was County Courthouse not met, and the core of the after the burning town was set ablaze. Loss of property and possessions totaled over $1.5 million and more than 2,000 people were left homeless. Spring into Historyâ”‚ 15
Franklin County Spring Into History ramble Conococheague Institute 12995 Bain Road Mercersburg, PA 17236 (717) 328-3467 www.conococheague.org
Located on the historic Rock Hill Farm near the village of Welsh Run, Conococheague Institute invites you to enjoy 30 acres of scenic farmland, wetlands, meadows, and trails. The site interprets the interactions between the first four ethnic groups who lived on the colonial frontier – Native Americans, Welsh, Scots-Irish, and Germans. See the mark these cultures left on the landscape, and learn about their way of life, beliefs, and religion. Walk through the authentic Four Square Garden as it is prepared for spring planting. Follow the self-guided tour with interpretive markers to the Welsh Run and the pioneer cemetery. The beauty of the outside experience is so appealing, you may need to remind yourself to come indoors! Costumed historical interpreters will guide you through two historic house museums and exhibits in the Welsh Barrens Visitor Center. Perhaps you will discover your family in the Institute’s library, housing more than 8,000 volumes of history (some very rare with a focus on the era of the French and Indian War) and providing access to a powerful on-line database of Early American research materials.
From Conococheague Institute to Fendrick Library (7.42 Miles) 1. Head southwest on Bain Rd toward Royer Rd 0.661 mi 2. Turn right onto Royer Rd 0.688 mi 3. Turn right onto PA-75 N/Fort Loudon Rd 5.67 mi 4. Slight left onto Buchanan Trail W/S Main St 0.398 mi
From The Ashes: Rebuilding History On February 26, 2016, the Negley log cabin on the property burned to the ground. The house was a centerpiece for events and stood since the first decades of the 19th century. Work has begun to rebuild the house through donations and effort by the local community!
Destination will be on the left
Swine, Wine & Roses – May 20, 2017 -- Roses, Wine, Craft Beer and 1820s Farm Life Depictions. Terror on the Conococheague July 29-30, 2017 Drums on the Conococheague: Then and Now- A Native American Powwow, September 9-10, 2017 Christmas Open House – Dec. 9, 2017
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Fendrick Library 20 N Main St Mercersburg, PA 17236 (717) 328-9233 www.fendricklibrary.org
Pick up a copy of the self-guided Mercersburg Historic Walking Tour The stone house that The Fendrick Library occupies today was built in 1788 by Captain Robert Parker (1754-1799), a veteran of the Revolutionary War. As a young man of twenty-three Parker enlisted at Philadelphia on April 28, 1777, and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Second Continental Artillery and later promoted to Captain. A member of General Washington’s staff, Parker became a friend of the Marquis de Lafayette and they fought together at the Battle of Brandywine. After the war, Parker settled in Mercersburg where he married Mary Smith, a daughter of Squire William Smith, founder of Smith’s Town, which became Mercersburg. Parker’s home was built both as a residence and for business. Great care was taken in the interior details - the window panes were brought from France. The carvings of mantels and cupboards, the scroll work on the stairs, and the turned balusters are the work of skilled artisans. Mercersburg is a community that honors its past. The Fendrick Library is proud to be a part of that community. Through the preservation and acquisition of historical and genealogical resources, the library’s staff and board members strive to protect and preserve Mercersburg’s heritage. Please use this opportunity to browse The Fendrick Library’s local History Room featuring photographs, memorabilia and ‘new’ historic collections from the past. Learn more about the fifteenth president while visiting the James Buchanan Room. Be sure to take a tour of the library to see all the changes and the new addition!
From Fendrick Library to Buchanan State Park (4.13 Miles) 1. Head north on PA-16 W/Buchanan Trail W (toward Oregon St.) 2. Continue to follow PA-16 W/Buchanan Trail W 3.49 mi 3. Slight right onto State Forest Rd/ Stoney Valley Rd 0.640 mi Destination will be on the left
Discover Your History The library has completed a project to digitilize microfilmed records from local newspapers and has access to materials for genealogical research, including a collection of the Mercersburg Journal, the local newspaper, going back to 1846. It also includes adoption records, early tax records, church records and other early history from the town.
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Buchanan State Park Directions to Site Pg. 4 (717) 485-3948 www.dcnr.state.pa.us/stateparks Self-guided Site This park is nestled in the gap of Tuscarora Mountain. Dedicated in honor of the 15th president of the United States, this narrow, peaceful hollow is the site of James Buchanan’s birthplace. A stone pyramid monument surrounded by majestic conifers stands on the site of the original cabin where he was born. Buchanan’s Birthplace State Park is an 18.5-acre park with an abundance of beauty throughout the year. It offers picnicking, fishing, and walking paths with picnic tables, restrooms and two pavilions.
From Buchanan State Park to Fort Loudoun (6.52 Miles) 1. Head Southeast on State Forest Rd/Stoney Valley Rd (toward PA-16/Buchanan Trail E) 2. Turn left onto PA-16/Buchanan Trail E 0.11 mi 3. Turn left onto Dickey’s Rd 0.05 mi 4. Turn Left onto Mountain Rd 3.57 mi 5. Turn left onto Fort Loundoun Rd/PA-75 0.65 mi 6. Turn right onto Hawbaker Rd 0.5 mi 7. Take right onto Lincoln Way/US-30 E 0.25 mi 8. Turn right onto Brooklyn Rd
Destination will be straight ahead
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James Buchanan and Harriet Lane Mercersburg native and fifteenth President of the United States, James Buchanan, was born in a log cabin in Stony Batter, Mercersburg. On the grounds of his cabin is now the state park. Upon the death of his niece Harriet Lane Johnston, who served as a first lady for her bachelor uncle, she set aside money to build memorials in Washington, D.C. and the pyramid stone memorial that stands at the site where he was born.
Fort Loudoun North Brooklyn Road, off Route 30 Fort Loudon, PA 17224 (717) 369-3318 www.fortloudounpa.com Self-guided Site Fort Loudoun was built in 1756 by the Pennsylvania Provincial Regiment to provide defense for frontier settlers and also served as a post for Henry Bouquet during the Forbes Road Expedition in 1758. Though built to protect the people of the frontier, Fort Loudoun, under the control of the British military, ended up being a source of harm to the settlers. The British military turned a blind eye to traders, supplying the Iroquois with weapons and ammunition, which were used to attack settlers. On March 9, 1765, more than ten years before the military engagement of Lexington and Concord, James Smith and 300 men took up arms and marched to Fort Loudoun to end the trading. Allegheny Uprising, a 1939 film starring John Wayne as James Smith, uses the rebellion at Fort Loudoun as its historic basis. In 1980, 1981 and 1982 an archaeological dig revealed the original site of the fort. Today, a replica of the fort is on site. The Patton House, named for the original settler of the site, Matthew Patton, depicts 18th century lifestyle.
From Fort Loudoun to Chambersburg Heritage Center (13 Miles) 1. Head north on Brooklyn Rd S toward U.S. 30 E/Lincoln Way W 0.705 mi 2. Turn right onto U.S. 30 E/Lincoln Way W 12.1 mi 3. Turn left onto S 2nd St 584 ft 4. Turn left onto Lincoln Way E 492 ft
Destination will be on the left
A letter from Colonial John Armstrong to Governor William Denny on November 19, 1756 in finding the land for Fort Loudoun: “I’m making the best preparation in my power to forward the New Fort, as well as to prepare the Barracks and all the others for the Approaching Winter. Yesterday the Escort of one hundred men returned from Lyttleton who left the Chattle &c, safe there and to-day we begin to Digg a Cellar in the New Fort; the Loggs & Roof of a New House having there been Erected by Patton before the Indians burn’s his Old One. We shall first apprise this House, and then take the benefit of it, either for Officers Barracks or a Store House, by which means the Provisions may the sooner be mov’d from this place (McDowell’s Mill) which at present divides our strength.”
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Chambersburg Heritage Center 100 Lincoln Way East Chambersburg, PA 17201 (717) 254-7101 chambersburg.org/pages/HeritageCenter Serving as an interpretive center for Franklin County, the Chambersburg Heritage Center & Gift Shop is an excellent place to begin your exploration of the region. The center is housed in a renovated1915 marble bank building, the former Valley National Bank, located on Chambersburg’s Memorial Square in the National Historic District. An 8-ft. tall, gold-leafed statue of Ben Franklin overlooks exhibits highlighting Franklin County’s architecture and transportation heritage as well as the county’s frontier, Underground Railroad, and Civil War history. Step inside the vault to view a display of prominent people of Franklin County. Spring into History Ramblers will enjoy the newly-hung, nearly life-sized replica of the Rex Smith biplane, flown by aviator Paul Peck across Chambersburg on September 23, 1911. After exploring the region’s history, stop in the Gift Shop for one-of-a-kind Chambersburg souvenirs from apparel and drinkware to local history books and artwork. The store also features locally-made bath and candle products and is the exclusive retailer of “Chambersburg Peaches” souvenirs, which the area is famous for.
From Chambersburg Heritage Center to The Old Jail (.5 Miles) 1. Head west on Lincoln Way E 52 ft 2. At the traffic circle, continue straight onto Lincoln Way W 814 ft 3. Turn right onto Hood St 597 ft 4. Take the 1st right onto W King St 1,184 ft
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11/30: The Crossroads of the Country In the heart of Chambersburg is the historic crossroad of Route 11 and Route 30, which each span hundreds of miles through the United States. The 11/30 brand uniquely represents the area of Chambersburg as teh only place these national routes intersect. Official 11/30 merchandise, including hats, shirts and more are for sale at the Heritage Center.
The Old Jail Franklin County Historical Society-Kittochtinny 175 East King Street Chambersburg, PA 17201 (717) 264-1667 www.franklinhistorical.org
Can you imagine doing “hard time” in the 1800s? This two-story, brick building was constructed in 1818 and served as Franklin County’s jail until 1970. Modern-day visitors can explore dungeons located in the basement, get a good look at a cell block, or walk through the jail yard, surrounded by a three-foot thick, 20-foot high limestone wall. The jail is also home to a museum and genealogical library operated by the Franklin County Historical Society – Kittochtinny. Discover Franklin County’s Underground Railroad and Civil War history and peruse exhibits of Native American artifacts and heirlooms of the founding family of Chambersburg. Several seekers of the paranormal have investigated the Old Jail for activity.
“The Old Jail is a gem of an attraction for the history buff, especially local Franklin County history. The displays and exhibits are thoughtfully done and the building is very interesting not only for its structure but its history. It is well worth the trip!” -TripAdvisor review
May Exhibit- “Benjamin Franklin the Philadelphian” June 10 & 11 - “Here Come the Brides” exhibit and Strawberry Festival September 9 - Locks, Stocks, & Rock October 7 - Halloween Tea October 13 & 14 - Annual Murder Mystery October 20 & 21 - Ghost Stories
From Franklin County Old Jail to John Brown House (285 ft) 1. Head east on E King St toward N 2nd St 285 ft
Destination will be on the left
Ties to the Underground Railroad During more than 150 years of use as a prison, The Old Jail housed numerous local criminals, including “Lewis the Robber,” and Captain John Cook, one of John Brown’s men who was captured after the unsuccessful raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. The cellar contains five domed dungeons with rings in the walls and floors that were used to shackle recalcitrant prisoners. Tradition suggests that these cells were also used as a way-station on the “Underground” railway to shelter runaway slaves enroute to freedom in the north.
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The John Brown HouseMary Ritner Boarding House 225 East King Street Chambersburg, PA 17201 (717) 264-1667 www.franklinhistorical.org
During the summer of 1859, abolitionist John Brown spent several months in the boarding house of Mary Ritner, daughter-in-law of Pennsylvania governor Joseph Ritner, while receiving supplies and recruits for his raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. Following the unsuccessful venture, four of Brown’s followers returned to the house to hide. Now a National Park Service Network to Freedom site, the John Brown-Mary Ritner House is operated as a museum by the Franklin County Historical Society – Kittochtinny. Both the inside and the outside of the former boarding house is restored to the period of John Brown’s visit.
From The John Brown House to Chambersburg Firemen’s Museum (.3 Miles) 1. Head west on E. King Street toward N 2nd St. 164 ft 2. Turn right at the 1st cross street onto N 2nd St. .2 mi 3. Turn right onto Broad Street 141 ft
Destination will be on left
“If John Brown came to Chambersburg today, he would feel right at home at the Ritner Boarding House.” -visitor to Franklin County Historical Society
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Chambersburg Volunteer Fireman’s Museum 441 Broad Street Chambersburg, PA 17201 www.chambersburgfire.com
The Chambersburg Volunteer Fireman’s Museum is housed in the borough’s old firefighting headquarters, built in 1900. It was used up until 1977 as an active firehouse and station. Among its collection are motorized equipment machines dating from 1925 to 1954, a horse-drawn steamer and other pieces of handpulled equipment. It also has ribbons from parades that date back to the 1800’s, memorabilia from Cumberland Valley Volunteer Fireman’s Association Conventions, mugs, replica fire engines, trophies from contests, musical instruments and marching uniforms from bands that fire companies used to have in the early twentieth century.
Pieces of Chambersburg’s History From Chambersburg Volunteer Firemen’s Museum to Enoch Brown Memorial (11.2 Miles) 1. Head southwest on Broad Street toward N 2nd Street 141 ft 2. Turn right onto N 2nd Street 180 ft 3. Take left onto Philadelphia Ave. .4 mi 4. Continue onto N Main Street 236 ft. 5. At the traffic circle, go straight onto Route 11 6.2 mi 6. Continue on Feaster Road, take Guitner Road and Stone Bridge Road to Enoch Brown Road. 4.3 mi
A special piece of the equipment on display is handdrawn apparatus dated with the year 1860. This machine was used during the 1864 Burning of Chambersburg to try and put out the blaze set by Confederate soldiers under the order of Gen. McCausland. Equipment on display also stretches into those in use in the 1950’s.
Destination will be on left
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Enoch Brown Memorial Park & Monument 2730 Enoch Brown Road Greencastle, PA 17225 (717) 597-3818 www.twp.antrim.pa.us Self-guided Site On July 26, 1764, four Delaware warriors massacred schoolmaster Enoch Brown and 11 students during the Pontiac Wars. Brown pleaded with the warriors to spare the children before being shot and scalp. The warriors then began to tomahawk and scalp the children. One student, Archie McCullough, survived being scalped by dragging himself to a nearby spring after the attack. When the Warriors returned to their village and showed the scalps they had taken, they were rebuked as as cowards by an old Delaware chief. Enoch Brown and the school children were buried in a common grave. In 1885, the area was designated Enoch Brown Park and is 3 acres of walking trails and play equipment. Formerly under the ownership of the Enoch Brown Park and Monument Association, in 1989 the association requested assistance and one and half years later, Antrim Township assumed control. This serene park pays homage to the innocent lives lost in the massacre and it is now a peaceful location, ideal for picnics, family gatherings and educational visits.
An excerpt from the Enoch Brown Park Commemoration From Enoch Brown Memorial Park to Allison-Antrim Museum (4 Miles) 1. Head east on Enoch Brown Road toward Stone Bridge Road .3 mi 2. Turn right onto Stone Bridge Road .6 mi 3. Turn left onto Williamson Road 1.9 mi 4. Turn right onto North Antrim Way .2 mi 5. Turn left onto W.. Baltimore Street/Buchanan Trail East .5 mi 6. Turn right onto S. Ridge Avenue. .4 mi
Destination will be on right
By Glen Cump, secretary of Enoch Brown park Association at the opening of 1992 Greencastle Old Home Week “August 4, 1885 was indeed a red letter day for Mother Antrim. The long wish for rain came down in torrents the two previous days. It was feared the weather would be unfavorable for the festivity planned, but there never dawned a lovelier day. Nearly five thousand people assembled on this hallowed ground to show respect and share in the dedication ceremony and unveiling of the monument to honor the memory of School Master Enoch Brown and eleven scholars: Ruth Hale, Eben Taylor, George Dustan, Archie McCullough and six others whose names were not known at that time, who were maimed and massacred in this grove on July 26, 1764. After a few preliminary remarks, the red, white, and blue mantel covering the monument fell to the ground as four little girls and nine boys pulled the cords...”
For more history, the next stop, Allison-Antrim Museum, has a copy of the full address online at www.greencastlemuseum.org/enoch-brown.html 24 │GREAT MOMENTS
Allison-Antrim Museum 365 S. Ridge Ave. Greencastle, PA 17225 (717) 597-9010 www.greencastlemuseum.org
Greencastle’s Allison-Antrim Museum is the former home of Alexander L. Irwin, which was known during Irwin’s lifetime as “Walnut Hill.” Today, the residence is an interpretive house museum decorated with period furniture. Located in the Barn, the iron slave collar, once worn around the neck of a slave named Ben, is a rare artifact with a poignant and startling story. Other resident exhibits include a collection of signatures from former governors of Pennsylvania, paintings by African American artist Walter Washington Smith, and artifacts from Carl’s Drugstore in Greencastle, which is the oldest, continuously operating drugstore in the United States. Because the area became one of the main arteries for the invasion of the North--known as The Gettysburg Campaign, the museum is also an official stop on the Pennsylvania Civil War Trails. A highlight of the property is the mid-19th century German bank barn with two bays of exhibit area.
From Allison-Antrim Museum to Mason Dixon/Middleburg (4.278 Miles) 1. Head southwest on S Ridge Ave toward Leitersburg St 459 ft 2. Turn right onto Leitersburg St 981 ft 3. Turn left onto S Washington St 0.618 mi 4. Head south on S Washington St 75 ft 5. Take the 1st right toward US-11 S/S Antrim Way 141 ft 6. Turn left onto US-11 S/S Antrim Way 3.66 mi
Destination will be on the right
Words Left Behind in a Civil War-era Bible “This Testament was given to me at Harrisburg, (Camp Curtin), by My Dear Father on the 13th of August 1862. Wherever I went while in the Army, it accompanied me. And I ever carried in in the pocket that covered my heart. It was with me at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and its precious pages soothed my fears, and taught me perfect submission to the will of Him, “who doeth all things well.” The little twigs and leaves in the book, I gathered at United States Ford, on the Rappahannock, just after having recrossed that river - from Chancellorsville. It was on a mist, rainy morning, the river was very high & rapid; the road extremely muddy...” -G. Fred Ziegler Amherst (college) Mass, Sept 18th 1864.”
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Middleburg/Mason Dixon Visit the Exhibition at Earl’s Market 15755 Pennsylvania Ave. (Center Square) Greencastle, PA 17263 (717) 263-1754 www.middleburgmasondixon.org
Middleburg/Mason-Dixon Line Historical Society works to retain the history of the area and procure, preserve, and display objects of the area’s heritage. The historical society maintains newspapers, artifacts, and old photographs as a way of holding onto what was once a vibrant community where historic events transpired. The village of State Line, originally called Spiglersburg, was developed by Jacob Strickler in 1812. By 1830 postal service was established for the town with David Brumbaugh serving as the first postmaster. Since then State Line has been the official name for the town. Another name for the village was Muttontown. Jack Wolgamot, a sheep owner, was the first settler of record in the area. He erected his log cabin on the Mason-Dixon Line with half of the home located in Maryland and the other half in Pennsylvania. Because State Line lies at the midpoint between Greencastle, PA and Hagerstown, MD, the Maryland side of the community was called Middleburg. Most of the people who settled in this area were Scotch Irish and German. During the Civil War, Confederate and Union troops traveled through the town, including Generals Lee and A.P. Hill.
Books on Local History From Middleburg/Mason Dixon to Waynesboro Historical Society (10 Miles) 1. Head north on US-11 N/PA Ave S toward East Ave/State Line Rd 161 ft 2. Take the 1st right onto East Ave/State Line Rd 3. Continue to follow East Ave 1.29 mi 4. Continue onto State Line Rd 1.34 mi 5. Turn left onto Hollowell Church Rd 3.15 mi 6. Turn right onto PA-16 E/Buchanan Trail E 4.20 mi Destination will be on the right
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The Middleburg/Mason-Dixon Historical Society has compiled two books containing information of the Middleburg area. Their book “Middleburg Grammer School Memories” is an 89-page volume features photographs and school days before it closed in 1955. “Home Town Memories” is a 52page volume of photographs and histories from the archives of the society. Many photographs and information was donated by members or friends of the society and includes history starting in 1812 up through the 1960s.
Waynesboro Historical Society 138 West Main Street Waynesboro, PA 17268 (717) 762-1747 www.waynesborohistory.com
The Waynesboro Historical Society is headquartered in the 1892 Oller House. Originally owned by Joseph and Myrtle Oller and donated by their daughter Rello, the house is in theQueen Anne style with 16 rooms on five levels, including an attic, a basement, a carriage house, and a two-story garage. With chestnut woodwork throughout the property and a winding wooden staircase, beautifully tiled fireplaces, and Victorian light fixtures, a tour of the Oller House will transport you back to a time of graceful elegance. Visitors will experience memorable images such as the “rib cage” shower in an upstairs bathroom, a Victorian era bedroom, and a model train village on the sleeping porch.
“This is an awesome place loaded with information available to everyone from researching town history or your own family genealogy.” -Kevin Leab, Facebook review
From Waynesboro Historical Society to Waynesboro Industrial Museum (.3 Miles) 1. Head southeast on Buchanan Trail E/W Main St toward Cleveland Ave 531 ft 2. Take the 2nd right onto S Potomac St 0.265 ft 3. Turn left onto W 3rd St 318 ft 4. Take the 1st right onto Philadelphia Ave 400 ft
Destination will be on the left
Waynesboro Chats The Waynesboro Historical Society holds monthly “Waynesboro Chats” which focus on a range of topics as decided by the group. In the past, they have included focuses on summer in Waynesboro, photographs, postcards, coin collecting, Christmas events, other specialty topics by speakers and many other topics. The chats are free and open to the public.
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Waynesboro Industrial Museum 35 Philadelphia Avenue Waynesboro, PA 17268 (717) 762-4460 www.industrialmuseum.weebly.com
Using a selective collection of significant artifacts, photographs, drawings, and documents the Waynesboro Industrial Museum brings awareness and insight into the rich industrial heritage of Franklin County and its role in America’s industrial history. The museum’s current exhibit, titled The Geiser Co. details the history of Geiser Manufacturing Company and the company’s impact on the Waynesboro Area. Not only are the contents of the museum intriguing, but the building itself is a former church, designed by Frank Landis, co-founder of the original Landis Tool Company.
“A great place to visit and learn about the industry in Waynesboro. They have a large collection of memorabilia and artifacts from the big four industries of Frick, Geiser, Landis Tool, and Landis Machine. The staff is very knowledgeable.” -Jared Wagaman
From Waynesboro Industrial Museum to Little Antietam Creek, Inc. (.8 mi) 1. Head southwest on Philadelphia Avenue toward W 3rd Street and turn left onto W 3rd Street 807 feet 2. Turn right at the 1st cross street onto S Church Street .3 mi 3. Turn left at the 2nd cross street onto E 5th Street .3 mi 4. Continue onto State Hill Road .5mi 5. Turn right onto Lyons Road 246 ft
Destination will be on right!
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Waynesboro’s Industrial History The Waynesboro Industrial Museum is selling “Geiser: A Waynesboro Industrial Icon’s History and Legacy” in their museum. The book, which contains authentic photographs, research by members of the museum, drawings and documents, tells the story of Geiser Manufacturing Company and its impact in the Waynesboro area. Visit the museum today to pick up a copy and see more surrounding the industry.
Little Antietam Creek, Inc. 8777 Lyons Road Waynesboro, PA 17268 (717) 387-2501 & (540) 319-3155 www.littleantietam.org
The Stoner Farm, south of Waynesboro, PA was settled by German immigrants Johannes and Catrin Steiner in 1744 and has been continuously owned by the Stoner (originally Steiner) family ever since. There are three buildings remaining on the property dating to various periods of Stoner occupation; a brick house built in the 1850s, an 1832 stone and timber frame bank barn and an 18th to 19th century stone house. Little Antietam Creek, Inc (LACI) a non-profit organization that strives to inspire and educate people of all ages in historical and archaeological research is currently conducting archaeology and architectural research and restoration at the Stoner Farm. Archaeology has uncovered the remains of an early Stoner house, likely dating from the 1760s and possibly earlier. This discovery, along with research in the stone house have led us to some interesting conclusions about the origin of the stone house and use of the grounds around it. Come and see what we’ve found! The archaeological site will be open and excavations will be ongoing during the day. Not only will you see what we’ve found but you can watch as we make the latest finds. There will be displays of artifacts recovered from the site and a self guided tour through the stone house.
Volunteers wanted to experience history hands-on! From Little Antietam Creek, Inc. to Renfrew Museum & Park (1.70 Miles) 1. Head northeast on Lyons Rd toward PA-997 S/Anthony Hwy 240 ft 2. Lyons Rd turns sright and becomes Welty Rd 1.49 mi 3. Turn left 587 ft 4. Slight left 266 ft Destination will be on the left
The purpose of LACI is to teach the process of historical research while conducting quality, indepth investigations. Volunteers are part of the archaeological crew, working and learning alongside the professionals. Those interested in doing any type of work, including laboratory work, documentary research, restoration and more can reach out to volunteer with LACI!
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Renfrew Museum & Park 1010 East Main Street Waynesboro, PA 17268 (717) 762-4723 www.renfrewmuseum.org
With more than 100 acres of relatively untouched land and 200 years of history, Renfrew Museum and Park is both a cultural and natural resource. The centerpiece of the property is the classic 1812 stone farmhouse presenting the story of the Royer’s who built it and the Nicodemus’ who preserved it. The second floor features a permanent display from the Snow Hill Cloister, a local 19th century celibate society. The property offers a Visitors Center in a typical bank barn, holding the permanent exhibit of prominent local potter, John Bell, and the Wagon Shed room with its display of antique tools. In addition, visitors can see the Smoke House, Summer Kitchen, Milk House, the 1852 Fahnestock House and Barn, and tour the grounds.
Civil War Encampment August 12-14
From Renfrew Museum to Monterey Pass Battlefield Museum (5.26 Miles) 1. Head southest on East Main Street/PA 16 toward Enterpise Avenue. 5 mi 2. The road turns slightly left and slightly right. Remain on Route 16. .13 miles 3. Slight right. .13 miles
Every summer, reenactors gather at Renfrew Museum and Park to camp and reenact Civil War battles. The public is invited to get a hands-on and live look at battles and encampments.
Destination will be on left.
Upcoming Events: • Summer Concert Series: Thursdays at 7pm from June through August • Pumpkin Fest: October 21 • Christmas On the Farm: Dec. 1, Dec. 2 and Dec. 3 • Royer Farmstead Days: July 15, August 12 • Renfrew Institute Jazz Festival: August 27 2-4pm • Women through History Seminars May 9, May 30, June 13 & June 20 30 │GREAT MOMENTS
Monterey Pass Battlefield Museum 14325 Buchanan Trail East Waynesboro, PA 17268 www.montereypassbattlefield.org
The mission of the Monterey Pass Battlefield Museum is to interpret and exhibit artifacts related to the battle of Monterey Pass, the Pennsylvania Campaign of 1863, and the American Civil War as it related to Franklin County. The Battle of Monterey Pass was fought along a rugged mountain ridge, in a blinding thunderstorm, during the middle of the night on July 4 & 5, 1863, just one day after the close of the battle of Gettysburg. The battle eventually spilled into Maryland during the early morning hours of July 5th, making it the only battle to be fought on both sides of the Mason Dixon Line. Through these exhibits, the museum shall encourage audiences to examine the past and its relationship to our shared future. Expect at least forty-five minutes to view the museum.
The fighting didn’t stop at Gettysburg....
From Monterey Pass Battlefield Museum to Preserving Our Heritage Archives & Museum (18.34 mi) 1. Head northwest on Buchanan Trail East toward Upland Road. Follow Route 16. 5.8 mi 2. Turn right onto North Church Street and follow Route 997. 6.7 mi 3. Take a slight right onto Park Street. 3 mi 4. Turn right to stay on Route 233 1.6 mi 5. Stay straight to go on South Mountain Road .3mi 6. Take 2nd left to stay on road 1 mi
Following the retreat of Confederate Major General Robert E. Lee on July 4, 1863 from Gettysburg, the soldiers retreated through South Mountain and was met by Union forces. For the rest of the day and into the early morning of July 5, the forces fought in the darkness and pouring rain at Monterey Pass and continued fighting over the Maryland line.
Destination will be on left.
Upcoming Events: • October 22 12pm-2pm Fall Battlefield Hike • December 17 12pm-4pm Christmas at the Pass Spring into History│ 31
Preserving Our Heritage Archives & Museum 11191 South Mountain Road South Mountain, PA 17261 (717) 762-2367 www.preservingourheritage.homestead.com
Centered in a one room schoolhouse on South Mountain, this organization works to educate the public about Quincy Township, Mont Alto, and other parts of the Greater Waynesboro area. Particular topics of interest include Mont Alto State Park, forestry, and political activities. The museum also boasts the largest single collection of original newspapers in the area from 1850-1923, all available to be viewed via microfilm.
Praise from Visitors From Preserving Our Heritage Archives & Museum to Emmanuel Chapel (4.9 Miles) 1. Head northwest on S Mountain Rd (toward Fahaney rd.) 1.1 mi 2. Continue straight onto PA-233 S/ Rocky Mountain Rd S 3.8 mi 3. Turn right onto Campus Dr 331 ft
Destination will be on the right
“You helped my Dad (Burton Drum) find his roots bittersweet though it was and answered questions he had wondered about over his lifetime. Thank you for keeping the history and records of South Mountain alive and available.” -visitor from Atlanta, GA “I just wanted to say that you’ve really done a wonderful job preserving the Mountain’s history. The museum looks very impressive and I hope to come by and visit when I’m in the area this October.” -Patrick Jablonski, Santa Fe, NM “I spent many happy summer days at South Mountain with my grandparents, William and Nervie Kauffman. I visited the museum several times and appreciate what you are doing.” -visitor from Elizabethtown, PA
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Emmanuel Chapel 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 Just off Route 233 www.ma.psu.edu/33211.htm Self-guided Site
Constructed in 1854, the chapel plays a large role in the history of the campus of Penn State Mont Alto, as well as its surrounding areas. Historians believe abolitionist John Brown taught Sunday School at the chapel and worshiped in the building shortly before his historic raid on Harper’s Ferry. Ironically, John Cook, one of John Brown’s raiders, was captured just steps from Emmanuel Chapel. In 1992, Penn State Mont Alto purchased the chapel from the Episcopal Diocese of Central Pennsylvania for $1 and renovated the chapel to the peaceful beauty of today.
Penn State Mont Alto’s Forestry Beginnings From Emmanuel Chapel to Mont Alto Historical Society (1.25 Miles) 1. Turn right onto PA-233 S/Park St 0.8 mi 2. At stop sign or 997/233 intersection - continue straight 0.365 mi
Destination will be on the right
Penn State Mont Alto campus, where the chapel sits, is home to one of the first forestry schools in the nation. Joseph Rothrock was convinced the way to ensure the sustainability of the forests, a state forestry school was needed. As he continued to secure lands, he set about to create a school to train foresters and unable to convince another to open a school, he accepted the “first class” of thirteen foresters at Pennsylvania State Forestry School in Mont Alto, PA in September 1903. The classroom was the forest, where students helped to fight forest fires, build fire roads, and develop the forest tree nursery and arboretum on the 33,000-acre campus. Today, the Pennsylvania Forestry School is the Mont Alto Campus of Penn State.
Joseph Trimbel Rothrock. Pennsylvania’s first Commissioners of Forests and known today as the “Pennsylvania Father of Forestry.”
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Mont Alto Historical Society 3 N. Main Street Mont Alto, PA 17237 www.montaltoborough.com
Mont Alto is a small community with a large history, connecting with John Brown, the Underground Railroad, and Civil War history. The area also has a Penn State University campus For 2017, the society focuses on a sampling of our previous displays. The Society display case will hold the photos of Mont Alto veterans who lost their lives defending our country. We will have items from previous exhibits such as the Underground Railroad, Foundry to Forestry School, Mont Alto Park and Quilts. The Mont Alto Historical Society, founded in 2006, works to keep the town’s history alive and inform people of the historical importance of the town. Every two months, the historical society focuses on a different part of Mont Alto’s history and creates a display in the borough office. The society holds yearly events, including the period Christmas Service at Emmanuel Chapel on the Penn State Campus.
From Mont Alto Historical Society to Caledonia State Park (7.2 Miles) 1. Turn left onto PA-997 N/Anthony Hwy/S Main St 4.9 mi 2. Turn right onto PA-997 N/U.S. 30 E/Lincoln Way E 2.3 mi 3. Turn left onto PA-233 N/Pine Grove Rd
Destination will be on the left.
34 │GREAT MOMENTS
Mont Alto Collectibles Mont Alto Historical Society started with five members and at the present time it has approximately 20 members and friends of the Society. To keep the historical society going, the group not only has paid membership, they sell a variety of items including calendars, t-shirts, Christmas ornaments and collectable Mont Alto redware pottery.
Caledonia State Park 101 Pine Grove Road Fayetteville, PA 17222
This 1,125-acre park is a beautiful park with 10 miles of hiking trails, camping and a pool, but it is also rich in Franklin County and Civil War-era history. Abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens built his charcoal ironworks at Caledonia State Park, which went into blast in 1837. The Caledonia Ironworks grew to include the charcoal iron furnace, forge, rolling mill, stables, warehouses, blacksmith shop, sawmill and tenement houses for workers and their families. At his ironworks, the foreman was a conductor on the Underground Railroad and would lead escaping slaves north. Many African-Americans also were hired to work at the ironworks. Stevens, who served on the Pennsylvania General Assembly and several times in the United States House of Representatives, championed the abolition of slavery, fair citizenship and due process laws and the right to vote. The park is home to a rangers station with more resources about Stevens and the park.
Gen. Early & The Burning of the Ironworks
Thaddeus Stevens 1792-1868
From Caledonia State Park to PA Forest Fire Museum Destination is across from the rangers station at Caledonia State Park
Due to Steven’s views on the abolition of slavery, when Confederate General J.A. Early came through while raising southern Pennsylvania, he burned and pillaged Caledonia. He followed a policy to destroy no private property or industry but made an exception in this case. Early explained his actions, “Mr. Stevens is an enemy of the South. He is in favor of confiscating their property and arming the Negroes. His property must be destroyed.” The furnace and forge was rebuilt and continued to operate at a reduced capacity until 1870. The current furnace stack was reconstructed as a reduced scale model in 1927.
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PA Forest Fire Museum in Caledonia State Park 101 Pine Grove Road Fayetteville, PA 17222 Across from Rangers Station
The museum’s mission is to preserve and showcase the heritage of forest fire protection while also celebrating Pennsylvania’s pioneers in forest stewardship. Museum officials use significant artifacts and interactive exhibits to trace the past and point to the future of forestry in Pennsylvania. In addition to these exhibits, the facility includes a library, training center, classrooms, volunteer accommodations, museum store, and administrative offices. The museum explores such conservation stewards as Joseph Rothrock, Gifford Pinchot, and Myra Dock. Children and adults are sure to enjoy the Smokey Bear exhibit with many “Smokey keepsakes,” such as lunch boxes, salt and pepper shakers, and figurines.
Photo Opportunities There is a large Smokey Bear stuffed animal that finds himself all around the museum and loves getting his picture taken with guests!
This concludes the Spring into History ramble tour! Spring Into History is sponsored by all sites in the tour, the Franklin County Visitors Bureau, and our advertisers Northwood Books, Anderson CoGen, and Dr. Paul Orange. FCVB invites you to Franklin County for year-round beauty, history, culture, and recreation. Please join us online, on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, or give us a call.
Your great moments are waiting in Franklin County! 36 │GREAT MOMENTS
Find more history here! There are many more historic places to visit and other places to begin your geneaological searching in Franklin County! 9/11 Tribute Memorial...........................................................Pg 38 Franklin County Veterans and 9/11 Memorial Park.........Pg 39 Antietam Historical Association...........................................Pg 40 Mennonite Heritage Center....................................................Pg 40 Alexander Hamilton Memorial Free Library......................Pg 41 Blue Ridge Summit Free Library..........................................Pg 41 Coyle Free Library...................................................................Pg 41 Fort Loudoun Library.............................................................Pg 42 Grove Family Library.............................................................Pg 42 Lilian S. Besore Library.........................................................Pg 42 St. Thomas Library................................................................Pg 42
Dr. Paul Orange & his staff would like to thank all veterans past and present for their service to our country.
“The deeds of our past Patriots formed this great nation. We must preserve and not destroy our history for all generations of Americans.” -Bailey Noelle Orange
Dr. Paul Orange, MD 4225 Lincoln Way East | Fayetteville, PA 17222 (717) 352-3616 | Fax: (717) 352-9013 Spring into History│ 37
9/11 Tribute Memorial
12143 Buchanan Trail East Waynesboro, PA 17268 www.washtwp-franklin.org/9-11-tribute/
In 2011, artifacts of the World Trade Center were made available to municipalities throughout the United States. Washington Township requested and received an artifact, a 4-feet, 1088-lb. steel I-beam. This I-beam, along with artifacts of the Pentagon and Shanksville, are the centerpieces of the Washington Townshipâ€™s 9/11 Tribute. The memorial was unveiled and dedicated on September 11, 2013. The memorial also displays a replica of the towers and plaques that tell the story of the fateful day for many years to come.
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Franklin County Veterans and 9/11 Memorial Park 2171 Carbaugh Avenue Chambersburg, PA 17201 http://www.veterantrailpa.org
In October 2011, ground was broken for the Franklin County Veterans and 9/11 Memorial Park. On May 19, 2012 (Armed Forces Day), the county memorial was dedicated by the First Counselor to the Apostolic Nuncio, the Vatican’s Ambassador to the United States, just as was done by the Apostolic Nuncio for the military Chapel in 1945. The United Churches of the Chambersburg Area developed the memorial park as a place for reflection and remembrance, to memorialize all those who lost their lives on September 11, 2001, and to pay tribute to Franklin County Veterans and First Responders. The 2,000 pound sculpture, designed by local artist Michael Fisher and fabricated by Sunset Metal Works, points to the heavens. The memorial itself is made from three steel beams salvaged from the World Trade Center. A time capsule in the ground at this site contains dust from Ground Zero. Also contained in the time capsule are descriptive writings and maps from the 9/11 attacks, brochures and photographs of this project. The vision of the Franklin County Veteran’s Memorial for the veterans of all wars was originally developed by the late Senator Pennsylvania Terry Punt.
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Antietam Historical Association
119 West Main Street, Waynesboro PA 17268 (717) 762-2006 www.antietamhistory.org The Antietam Historical Association is dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting, and disseminating historical information pertaining to the region drained by the Antietam Creek and its tributaries in Franklin County, PA and Washington County, MD. The organization keeps the area’s history alive and top of mind through a variety of publications, research assistance, image archive, and special activities. Antietam Historical Association maintains an active interaction with the community by perpetuating interest with historic fellowship, discussion, and scholarship.
• Potomac Street Irregulars, a group of those interested in studying local crime history: May 9, June 13, July 11, August 8, September 12, October 10, November 14 • October 21- Bus Trip to Strasburg, PA “Great Train Robbery” excursion on railroad, Bird-in-Hand farmers markets, etc.
Mennonite Heritage Center
4850 Molly Pitcher Highway, Chambersburg, PA 17202 (717) 504-8909
Used as the headquarters of The Mennonite Historical Association of the Cumberland Valley, the center features books relating to the history of the religious group, including Bibles and genealogy, as well as hundreds of letters written to and from Mennonites. The museum portion of the building contains articles from various meetinghouses, a rare “cooling table” from the old Bechtel farm, and a quilt displaying 45 Mennonite churches in the Cumberland Valley and related areas.
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Alexander Hamilton Memorial Free Library 45 East Main Street Waynesboro, PA 17268 717-762-3335 www.ahmfl.org
The mission of the Alexander Hamilton Memorial Free Library is to enrich the lives of the citizens of the greater Waynesboro area by providing free access to materials, information, programs and services through well maintained collections, qualified staff, up-to-date technology and partnerships with other libraries. Alexander Hamilton Memorial Free Library offers computers for public use, free Wi-Fi, Childrenâ€™s programs, Books for children and adults, Large print books, Audio-books and more.
Blue Ridge Summit Free Library
13676 Monterey Lane Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 717-794-2240 www.fclspa.org/locations/blue-ridge-summit-library The Blue Ridge Summit Free Library was organized and opened in September 1922 by the late Miss Mary Norwood. For twenty-six years it was housed in a room on the second floor of the Parish House of the Church of the Transfiguration on Summit Avenue, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania. The library is now housed in what was a train station of the Western Maryland Railroad. The station was built in 1891. From 1872 to 1957, the station provided passenger service to Blue Ridge Summit. In 1958, the railroad presented the deed to the station and one and one-half acres of land to Mrs. Robert Hearne, President of the Board of Directors of the library. The library freely serves communities in both Maryland and Pennsylvania.
Coyle Free Library
(temporary location) 340 N. 2nd Street Chambersburg, PA 17201 717-263-1054 www.coylefreelibrary.org
Located in downtown Chambersburg, the Coyle Free Library has been a part of the Chambersburg community since 1891 as it was started by a group of ladies called the Afternoon Club, a group that still exists today. Currently in its third location, the former post office, provides 20 public computers, a large collection of books (approximately 70,000), a wide variety of movies, free wifi, and a staff willing to help visitors find what they need. It acts as the resource center for the public libraries in Franklin and Fulton counties. The Coyle Free Library has moved to a temporary home on the corner of 2nd St and Broad St so the library can move forward with renovation and expansion of the building.
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Fort Loudoun Library
210 Mullen Street Fort Loudoun, PA 17224 717-369-4704 www.fclspa.org/locations/ft-loudon-library The library is nestled along the western edge of Franklin County. Located in a Historic Railroad Station this library serves the community with varied services from the latest best sellers and adult books, computer access, with WIFI availability, childrenâ€™s books and activities, story time, and tax forms.
Grove Family Library
101 Ragged Edge Road S. Chambersburg, PA 17202 717-264-9663 www.fclspa.org/locations/grove-family-library The newest library in the Franklin County Library System, it opened in February 2006 and has an average of 100 new library card applications per month. Services and events at the library include photography, geneaology, art, card making and languages. It offers author visits, concerts and an art gallery that promotes local artists.
Lilian S. Besore Library
305 E. Baltimore St. Greencastle, PA 17225 717-597-7920 www.fclspa.org/locations/lilianbesore-memorial-library
The Lilian S. Besore library is a recently renovated library with a main level community room, handicap accessible bathroom, a motorized handicap lift, and an adult reading room as well as a collection of almost 50,000 items, including fiction, non-fiction, movies, picture books, books on CD, etc. It is also a Passport Acceptance Facility!
St. Thomas Library
30 School House Road St. Thomas, PA 17252 717-369-4716 www.fclspa.org/locations/st-thomas-library On April 13, 1977 the St. Thomas Library opened its doors for the first time. The original collection consisted of 2,000 books plus magazines, records, art and puzzles. In the first three weeks the library had 45 patrons sign up for a library card. In 2004, the library moved to the second floor of the St. Thomas Township Volunteer Fire and Rescue Company and now has a collection of more than 14,000 books, and are open 6 days a week; 31 hours a week. The library staff is more than willing to obtain any book not available at St. Thomas Library, through inter- library loan.
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Within history are the clues to transform the dreams of tomorrow into a better reality today....
Remembering….Ed Miller & Anna Rotz History layers the narratives of human progress, failures, and personalities. Everything builds on history and everyone becomes a part of history. With history comes history keepers and story tellers. They are the ones, who keep the narrative growing and spreading. Within a one-day period in February 2017, Franklin County lost two of the county’s champions of history—Ed Miller and Anna Rotz. Ed Miller is identified with Renfrew Museum and Park and Renfrew Institute. In fact, many call him Mr. Renfrew. He was the caretaker for the Nicodemus Farm and carried Emma Nicodemus’ vision of Renfrew into reality. He captured the history of Renfrew, Waynesboro, and the Nicodemus family in a book called “Breakfast with Ed.” Ed was part of Renfrew for more than 60 years. Anna Rotz is synonymous with the Fort Loudon Historical Society. She served for more than 30 years as president, upholding the history of Fort Loudoun where colonials fired on British forces ten years before the American Revolution. Anna also served two fouryear terms on the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, wrote a column for the Public Opinion, and authored two cookbooks, “Heritage Hill Farm Cookbook” and “Grandma’s Apron Strings.” Ed Miller and Anna Rotz saw the history in their communities. They valued it and kept it front and center for others to see, embrace, understand, and share. Thank you, Ed and Anna. Franklin County is better for your passion, work, and contribution.
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