KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE Parts of Speech
PARTS of SPEECH Nouns A. Write down all the nouns you can find in the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The little boy stood at the window looking at the rain. There are too many elephants and not enough giraffes in this picture. The box contained many valuable treasures. We shall never reach the top of the hill if we keep stopping to admire the view. Monsters of different shapes and sizes often appear in children’s stories.
B. Write down all the nouns you can find in the following sentences and say whether each noun is a common or a proper or a collective or an abstract noun: 1. Roald Dahl was an author who wrote many books for both children and adults, including several collections of short stories. 2. “Thinking makes me tired!” exclaimed Emily as she struggled with her homework. 3. There was paint, glue and glitter everywhere after the Primary Threes had been making Christmas cards. 4. Cats and dogs are the most popular pets in Britain but some people do not realise the work and responsibility involved in looking after such animals.
C: Make two lists of all the nouns in Exercise B: one list should include all the plural nouns; the other list should contain all the singular nouns.
Verbs A. Write down all the verbs you can find in the following sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The little girl skipped and jumped and sang as she ran through the park. The teacher spoke severely to the children who arrived late for class. I believed what she told me but my friends just laughed. The elephants trumpeted loudly but the giraffes remained silent. The old man remembered a lot about his childhood and enjoyed the happy memories.
B. All the verbs in Exercise A. are in the past tense. Rewrite each sentence in the present tense and then in the future tense. C. Write down the complete verb in each or the following sentences and show which part is the main verb and which part is the auxiliary verb. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
We can come to see you tomorrow but we might arrive late. The elephants have finished eating but the giraffes are still chewing. I had just finished cutting the grass when it began to rain. Pigmy hippos have been known to live for over thirty years. If it had not been for the poor weather, they might have been able to reach the summit of the mountain.
Adjectives A. Write down all the adjectives you can find in the following sentences: 1. The ancient vase was covered in fine designs of fierce dragons and brave men. 2. The food was delicious and the surroundings were perfect. 3. The small, frightened elephant was surprised by the tall giraffe. 4. A vast, lumbering polar bear floated by on a towering iceberg. 5. The old apple tree produced one, final, perfect apple before it was blown down in the ferocious storm. B. Copy out and complete this table:
tall silly annoying bad smart
C. Write down three adjectives to describe each of the following nouns: 1. blackbird 2. shop 3. apple 4. shoe 5. book
Adverbs A. Write down all the adverbs you can find in the following sentences: 1. The robin sang sweetly whenever the sun shone brightly in the garden. 2. She often arrives early except when the train arrives late. 3. The mechanic will phone soon if the car is going to be ready tomorrow. 4. I told the dog twice to put the slippers down here. 5. The elephant almost bumped into the giraffe which was skilfully camouflaged among the acacia trees. B. Beside each adverb which you found in Exercise A., write down whether it is an adverb of manner (how) or place (where) or time (when) or degree (how much). C. Write out the following sentences, filling in each of the blanks with an appropriate adverb. 1. The boy smiled _____________ as he waited ____________ for his friends to arrive. 2. The elephant ate ______________ while the giraffe nibbled _____________ . 3. “Come over ______________,” she called _________________ . 4. The film ___________ ended and the audience left _____________ . 5. They _____________ remembered the events which had occurred _____________ .
Pronouns A. Write down all the pronouns you can find in the following sentences: 1. As I stood at the bus stop I saw my brother whiz by on his bicycle. 2. The elephant washed its back with water which it blew out of its trunk. 3. You must tell them when it’s their turn to see the puppies in their basket. 4. She knows a man who spent much of his life studying giraffes in their natural habitat. 5. The blue box is mine, the green box is hers, the brown box is yours, the pink box is his and the purple box is theirs! B. Beside each pronoun which you found in Exercise A., write down whether it is a personal pronoun, a possessive pronoun or a relative pronoun.
Conjunctions Make a list of all the conjunctions you can find in the following passage. The children were delighted when 3.30 came because it was time to go home. As it was Friday they would not need to do their homework when they got home. Instead they could go down to the park and meet their friends. If the rain held off they would be able to play football or tennis until teatime. Although she enjoyed her game of tennis, Janie was quite glad when it was five o’clock because she was feeling rather tired. After tea she went through to the sitting room and watched telavision until her friend Beth phoned up for a chat. The time flew by and, before she knew where she was, it was bedtime!
Prepositions Write down all the prepositions you can find in the following passage: The elephant stood beside the pool, gazing into the muddy water. Suddenly it heard a faint sound from the jungle behind it. Looking round, the elephant saw a giraffe approaching through the undergrowth. Beside the giraffe walked a smaller giraffe and behind them the elephant could just make out the shape of a zebra. Meanwhile, across the pond, other animals were beginning to gather for their evening drink. A pair of buffalos – with a young calf between them - were drinking thirstily while under the water the shape of a hippo was just visible. A lion walked past in the distance and in a moment the smaller animals had scattered but the elephant stood patiently, waiting for the rest of the herd to arrive.
Articles Write down all the articles you can find in the following sentences and say whether each is a definite or an indefinite article. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The boy found a surprise waiting for him on the table. In the jungle live many beautiful animals; my favourite is probably the elephant. James was given a new watch; it was the present he had been hoping for. In the shop window I saw a copy of the new book by my favourite author. Jane bought a pen, a pencil and a rubber and put them in the new pencil case her aunt had given her.
Revision Write down all the underlined words in the following passage. Beside each word write down what part of speech it is, giving as much information as you can e.g. verb, past tense (not simply verb) or abstract noun (not just noun). Maisie slowly walked towards the old, dilapidated house. She was shaking slightly and she could hear a strange clicking noise which she eventually realised was the sound of her teeth chattering as the icy cold wind swept through her. How she wished that she had remembered to wear her warm jacket……. or that she had brought her faithful dog, Benjy, with her for company……. or even that she stayed at home! She thought wistfully of the cosy living-room with its crackling fire and comfy armchairs and imagined how pleasant it would be to be there now, sipping a cup of steaming cocoa. But that was no way to think! Maisie pulled herself up to her full height, straightened her back, held her head up high and walked firmly towards the vast wooden door.