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The SouthernCalifornia SchoonerFleet

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The Southern Caldbrnia Schooner Fleet at Cerritos Park, Cerritos California. Photo by Bill Herrera by Kurt Nehring setting sail. Children get down on their t's ten o'clock in the morning. The knees to catch a closer glimpse of a water is relatively calm. There's a miniature beer-bellied sailor's dog lysubtle warmth to the cool morn- ing in the shadow of a canvasbimini. ing air as a sunlit blue Southern Cali- A few feet away, an elderly woman fornia sky begins to peer through a rhythmically tosses pieces of bread group of cumulus clouds. It's easy to some very persistent ducks, apparto stare at their puffy shapesas they ently uninterested in the parade of seem to hang there effortlessly and ships noisily making their way down reflect off the mirrored surface be- the cracked, uneven cement sidewalk low. Beyond a patch of trees and just in clever hand-pulled boat trailers. a few steps from the lake, there's al- Their masts seem to twitch and viready quite a bit of activity amongst brate in harmony as the jib, foresail a growing row of model schooners and main barely gather enough wind perched atop their stands. With the to gently billow above the heavilysquint of the eye, these vesselsalmost varnished topside. Nearby, almost at appear to be dry-docked in a shipyard arms length, two schoonerssit beside from a golden era long passed when one another in the watet proudly diswooden sailing yachts frequented the playing woven netting rigged beneath sea. Curious passersbyask questions their large, stout, square-sidedbowof the skippers as they make final ad- sprits with Sampson posts, toe rails justments to the rigging shortly before and the traditional deep cockpits of

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seaworthy yachts, They periodically rock from side to side, tied down to bar cleats with a hemp-like line and cradled in padded floating docks that protect the delicate hulls from the pond's sharply jagged shoreline. It's easy to spot the cleverly-placedguard wires and stanchions, portholes and life rings. There's a sensually curvaceous banister carved of some exotic wood that's only an illusion but seems to draw the spectator below deck to an imaginary saloon with walnut-clad cabinetry, beams, capping and exposed bulkheads that appear to have been dipped in numerous heavy layers of bright white paint. A closer inspection reveals a ship's bell, deckhouses and skylights, a boom crutch, barrels, buckets and mops, stowed ropes and bronzed belaying pins. It's all there. It's what the skipper's like to call "ginModel Yachting Magazine, Issue 139


gerbread". The minute detail to these floating pieces of artwork is fascinating. From their spoked wheel, steering compass,winch and polished binnacle to the weatheredmast hoops or blocks and shackle eyes,a labor of love: the inspired work of master craftsmen passionateabout their hobby. Satisfied by her designand a dream, thesebuilders are somehow driven for months to complete a project in the anticipation of her first tack, speed, balance & majesty.No, these schoonerswill never waste-awayin dust on the mantle. They'redesignedto do one thing. Sail. A few moments later, the first vessel is launched. She quickly heels over, making way through a slappingbowwave that producesa pleasant,satisfying sound to every skipper on shore. The huge wake to her stern is only

slightly broken by a small flat-ended dingy in tow, oars stowed, happily bobbing about. This is the pinnacle of radio-controlled model yachting. This is the Southern California Schooner Fleet. It's Schooner Sunday. So welcome aboard. As the story goes, the club originated several years ago as a spin-off of something Bob DeBow introduced to the San Diego Argonauts. Since that time, local skipper Bill Herrera has spearheaded the efforts to actively promote this segment of the hobby. He's been instrumental in arranging appearances at venues like the Long Beach International Boat Show with impromptu regattasin the lagoon and static displaysin the hall of the Convention Center. According to Bill, the club's also made appear-

ances at countless events in Scottsdale, San Francisco and Las Vegas, not to mention onboard the infamous Queen Mary. Even the original rules penned by the Argonauts have been adopted by clubs on the East Coast and other organizations in far-reaching locations like Australia and South America. SwedeJohnson,an icon, has been known to produce some incredible models over the years,specifically with his work on the "Santana", "Pinky II" and Chinesejunk, a few stellar examplesof his many talentsand brilHe's also liant personalachievements. responsible for initially organizing the SchoonerArgosy, a relaxing and enjoyablewell-attendedyearly event. Others, all noted skippers,have multiple contributions and accomplishments that continueto fbcus attention

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The Southern Caldbrnia Schooner Argosy at Mason Park, Irvine CaliJbrnia. Photo by Bill Herrera American Model Yachtine Association O 2005

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TheSouthernCaliforniaSchoonerFleet Regattaat Scottsdale,Arizona. Photoby Bill Herrera on the world of model yachting and itt smallbut growingcommunity.Several, like PeteKruse, werefeaturedon a recently aired thirty minute television program exclusivelyspotlighting the hobby. Filmed locally and hosted by the OrangeCounty Model Sailing Club, Peteshareda beautiful example of workmanship in his Windeameen, John Alden's first schooner.The fullscaleboat is sixty-sevenfeet on deck and has gone through an impressive restoration by her new owner Capt. Neil Parkerof Rockport, Maine. Both Pete and his wife Dagmar recently took advantageof an invitation by Parker to overnight accommodations onboard the Windeameenfollowedby a full day of sailing the sceniccoastline. Dagmar described the entire

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experienceas "schooner heaven". Of course, the models are rather tiny in comparison, with rules primarily allowing desigrsprior to 1950and with no more than fifty inches on deck. However,they're everybit as beautiful on the water, typically carrying over one thousand squareinches of sail in order to efficiently haul her thirty-five poundsof plank-on-framewood,electronics and lead. Someschoonersfike Dan Swanson'sMary JeannII weigh-in at a hefty fifty pounds but still manage to sail with graceand authority. Other notableq of course,are Dave Endert, Ron Battershill,Erwin DeRoggenbuke, Harry Bourgeious,thelateRalph Burton and Sweden'sGeorge Fleetwood who for yearshaveactivelyrepresented highly-respected model yachtingclubs

like the O.C.M.S.C., TiiCity, the El Borardo Helmsmenand San Diego's Argonauts to name a few. So whether it's a German Robbe kit of the 'Atlantis", a "Malabar l" from Hartman Fiberglas R/C or more recently Bob Burkhardt's exquisite hand built "BluenoseII", on the water they all take on the realm, realism and beauty that will forever draw us to the water'sedgeto view a spectacle,capture a digital image,add a memory or just relive a piece of yachting history. For yearsto come,the Southern California SchoonerFleet intendsto carry-on, in miniature, the traditions and legacies of thesefine sailing vessels. For more information, visit our website at geocities.com/socalschoonerfleet Model Yachting Magazine, Issue 139


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by Andrew Charters ic ely was d e s i g n e d b y F i fe of S c ot la n d i n 1 9 0 2 a s a f as t c r uis i n g y a c h t. O w n e d b y Cec il Q uent in , s h e w a s b u i l t b y Fa y & Co of S o u th a mp to n . " C i c e l y " won all her ra c e s th e fi rs t y e a r a g ains t t he big s c h o o n e rs o f G e rma ny and G r ea t Bri ta i n , w h i c h i n c luded " M et eo r III" , " C l a ra " a n d " Nor dwes t " . Sh e e x c e l l e d i n strong winds , p a rti c u l a rl y w h e n cl os e- hauled. S h e w a s I l 4 ft w i th 1 0 ,000 s quar e f e e t o f s a i l . M y mo del was s t ar t e d o n D e c 6 ,2 0 0 3 a n d launc hed o n J u n e 6 , 2 0 0 4 , ta k ing 375 hour s o f w o rk . T he hull is W e s t Sy s te m e p o x y wi th 2 lay er s of fi b e rg l a s s m a t. D e ck and s par s a re o f o l d h a rt p i ne f r om a hou s e b u i l t i n 1 7 6 8 . Th e s par s hav e g ro w th ri n g s 5 to th e l/ 8 inc h; we f i g u re th e tre e w a s o ver a 100 y ears o l d b a c k th e n . Sh e is 5 f eet on t h e w a te r l i n e w i th a 16 inc h beam. 9 -1 1 2 i n c h e s o f d raf t and 109- ll2 i n c h e s o v e ra l l . Sh e has 42 lbs o f b a l l a s t a n d i s pr obably ar ou n d 6 0 l b s to ta l w e i ght . S ails ar e o f 3 o z p o l y e s te r Da cr on. W inc hes a re a u to w i n d o w l i ft m ot or s wit h t h e p o w e r n e e d e d to h andle her 25.8 s q ft o f s a i l .

Cicely under sail. Photograph by Andrew Charters

C H E R U B INI . MBU PO Box 535 Lumberton,NJ 08048 Phone/Fax:609 518 9673 Email: JJVtown@AOL.com

CHERUBINI-MBU isstocking CapMaquettes functional hardware andworking scalefittings for R/Csailing andquality display models. Available in 1:10,1:15and1:20scales; thesearethefinest available. Thecatalog (andprice list), pages, 68color isavailable for$5.00 (cash, check orMo). Mostitemsinstockforimmediate shipment, factory placed orders frequently. Wealsorepreseni Aeronaut, Robbe, Dumas, Mamoli andmanyotherworldclassmakers fromtheUSandEurope. Please callforstocked items andquestions. Price listfreetoholders oftheCapMaquettes catalog.SASE appreciated. We're back! AmericanModel YachtingAssociationO 2005


The Model SailingYachts of Frankl n Bassford by Earl Boebert

course, free-sailing, and were raced on open water: the lake at Prospect Authors Note: We hqve discovered Park in Brooklyn, the Hudson Riveq material, which sheds light on some and Long Island Sound. The manner of the model yachting practices of the of racing was distinctively American: 1890's, and also provides us with the races were held on triangular courses plansfor an uncommonly graceful boat. of as much as a mile. Skippers folIn particular, the newly discoveredma- lowed their boats in one-man skiffs terial gives us previously unavailsble and trimmed or altered course as necdetails about the rigging andfittings of essary.Despite the fleet racing appearmodel yachts of this period. ance, each boat was actually being timed, with an adjustment made for rganized model yachting be- its sail area and l0 secondsdeducted gan, as best we can tell, in for each time its skipper was obliged the New York area in 1872.It to touch his boat. grewrapidly in popularity and by the The racing classeswere based on 1890'stherewerethreeclubs,an inter- LWL measurementonly, with a handclub union to determinechampion- icapping system to compensate for ships.and spiritedcompetition. differences in sail area. The boats of the period were,of Lewis Franklyn Bassford (1856-

1897) was the son of a composer, who had written an opera called The Phantom Ship, based on the story of The Flying Dutchman. When he was three months old, his parents set sail for France,where his father was to enroll in the Paris Conservatoire. They were lost at sea, and he was raised in New Jerseyby his maternal grandparents.He becamean expert on yachting and a marine artist; at least one of his works is reported to be the basis of a Currier and Ives print. He wrote four articles for Outing magazine, which appearedin February and March 1895 and March and April 1896,describing a first and second design which I will call the 1894and the 1895boats. These articles give us a remarkably detailed view into at least one

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The yacht "Katrinq," mentioned by Bassford as an example of the use of model yachts to aidfull-scale design. Note the similarity to his boat.

24

Model Yachting Magazine, Issue 139


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AmericanModel YachtineAssociation@2005

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designerand builder'spracticesof the day.As we will see,the model yachting done by Franklyn was in support of his full-scaleyacht designing,and so it is not clearhow widely spreadsomeof his ideaswere.Sadly,his yacht making venture failed, and he committed suicidein 1897.

navigator's skill must increase with late as 1922, when the International the sizeof the ship; "but in the model, A Class(a lll2 sizeversionof a hyasidefrom the initial trimming of the pothetical full sizerule) was being essailsbeforethe start, the boat herself tablished,seriousdesignerswere putmustdo the rest,and it is aboutcertain ting forth points similar to Bassford's abont lll2 sizesailingmodels. that the worstonewill get worsted. Hu ll Both theseresults have been too Bassfordthen continuesto argue often noted to requirefurther argument. An actual yacht may not have that a model should havethe proporthe mastposition, the centerof effort tions of a "proper" full sized yacht, of her sails may be veryfar from her that is, one that is estheticallypleasing center of lateral resistance,and the and most importantly, one that could profile form of her keel may be more havebeenbuilt. This philosophy parof a hindrancethana help;yet, with an allels that of "free-lance" models in extraordinarilycompetentcaptain,she model railroading, which are replicas may still very often win, whicha model of nonexistent,but perfectlyplausible, yacht so defectivenevercould. When, prototypes. Bassfordchosean LWL of 35", then,the modeldoeswin, aform which is worthy of imitation has beenfound the smallestallowed by the rules of the time and one, which conveniently and at a veryslight expense. A. Cary Smilh, the well-known scalesto the full sized"70 footer" class yacht designer,madethe crucial testof at ll2" to the foot. This yields a boat the vqlueof the modelin solvingthese a little over 50" LOA, which has proven to be problemsin the fall of 1889.He had built the seventy-footsloop Katrina, a very convenientsize.He then gives andshecarrieda leehelm,which,it was the following proportions: LOA = 1.5LWL. thought,might be remediedby moving Maximum draft = 6 to 8", with themastaft, thestepof which,however, wasso closeto the centerboardtrunk the point of maximum draft a little that the latter would also have to be ahead of the sternpost, yielding a moved,and the experimentpromisedto rounded keel which sheds weeds,is be very costly,with no certaintyof en- easierto unstuck if aground,and proAt Mr. Smith'ssuggestion videsa "reversetruss" for strength. tire success. Maximum beam at 600 LWL, an absolutefacsimile of the largeboat wasbuilt on a scaleof an inch to the which yields the "raking midsection" foot, andit alsocarrieda leehelm: " the type of hull. Freeboardof 1/10 the LOA at baby had the tricks of its mother,"as waswell saidat the time. Thefault was maximum point, down to ll20 at the correctedin themin- rudder post, rising again to avoid the first inexpensively iature. and the samealterations then appearanceof a droop. Bulwarksand rail: 5/8" at point applied to the large vesselon precisely the same relative proportions,show- of maximum freeboard, tapering to ing againthe sameresults,the Katrina 3/8at the point of leastand then down winningtheNew York YachtClub'sre- to nothing at the taffrail, to facilitate gattas of 1890-'91over the Shamrock draining of the deck. On his second hull he added2" scupperswith I 1/2" (whichhad defeatedher in'89) While this test is absolutelyfinal betweeneach, starting at the attachit only bearsout results, ment point of the aft shroud. and conclusive, StabilitY whichare obtainedandnotedeveryday of all in thehandlingandperformances movable external ballast in order to reallygoodminiatures. Of courseBassfordmissesthe in- carry the substantial amount of sail fluenceof "scaleeffect,"which arises popular at the time, and gives three becausereducing linear dimensions designs:"lead centerboards,"in which by x reduces area by x squared and the external keel simulatesthe shape volume by x cubed;as a result,the re- (in profile at least) of a centerboard, lationship between(say)sail areaand and two kinds of fin keel. The shape amount of ballast changes rapidly. and method of attachmentof eachis Faith in models as indicators of full- shown in his sketches.His preference sizecharacteristicshad a long life; as was for the full fin keel, which slips

Pp.pig:,'.F.pn:'.p..tp; Obiectives These were summed up best by Bassford himself in the opening paragraphs of his first article, aptly titled "Miniature Yacht Modeling. Its Practical and Scientific Service:" Model yacht sailing, of the scientific and practicql sort, must not be confounded with the pastime of sailing shop-made toys, the diversion and delight of many youths with an inborn and inherent passion for the sea. Nor must it be confounded with the methods of those who themselvesbuildmodels, sometimes monstrosilies, for the mere amusement of winning races in model yacht club regattas, regardless of whether or no their craft could be reproduced in any other proportions. The model yacht building and sailing of which I desire to treat is of great practical and economical value,for by it some of the most abstruse and puzzling questions of "form," in its ability to ride over and cut through a seaway, to get to windward, and other like points, can be more decisively demonstrated than by uctual vessels. Strange as this may seem at rtrst blush, a moment's consideration will show its reasonableness,for the miniature model when sailing is sailing entirely on her form; the simplicity of her equipment and entire absence of the individual element necessitate this result. If shefails in any particular it is thefailure of her design; if she succeeds the successis attributqble to her design alone; whereas in the actual boat the man at the wheel is able to counteract faults and tendencies to deviate from the true course and to hide many defects. If the model shows creditably il is on its own merits, whereasin the larger vesselsit may be, and often is, the captain and the crew to q great extent to whom the credit belongs. Owing to the capacity of many yacht captains, good results are often obtained from poor boats, and "the

26

Model Yachting Magazine, Issue 139


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to lock the fin in place. Bassford gives the displacementof the 1895boat as 14.9lbs and claimsthat l0 lbs. of lead can be carried; I calculatethe displacement at closerto 16 lbs, and basedon plank on lrame M boat experiencethe hull should swing I 1 to 11 1/2 lbs of lead easily.

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Three methods are described: bread and butter using solid lifts, bread and butter using lifts with the centers cut out, as we know today, and plank on steamedframe. Interestingly, Bassford spends considerable time extolling the advantagesof cutting the centersout of lifts; checking other publications of the era shows that thi s w as,i ndeed,an i nnovat ionat that time.

Rig Bassford'srig is closer to full-size practice than was common amongst the designsof those who engagein the " mere amusementof w i n ning r aces in model yacht club regattas."He duplicates in essentialdetail the "triple headed"cutter rig of the day, with its three foresails fiib, staysail, and jib topsail or flying jib), the gaff-rigged main, and club topsail. Most of his contemporaries, who were less concernedwith relatingto full-sizeboats, were running simplified gaff rigs with no topsail and one or two foresails. The artist in him comesout when he discusses sail proportions:

Sailplan of the 1895 boat. Lines indicate direction of selvageoJ'sailcloth. A thin brass wire batten is sewn where the two pieces of thejib topsail are joined, to flatten it under pressure of the wind. American Model Yachtins Association O 2005

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Dimensionsof the sails,in inches(not to scale). Thedegreeof roachof a particular edge(s)shown,whereapplicable,in parentheses. If a modelyqchtsmanhas the real interestsof his craft at heart he will devoteall his energiesto producinga light and shapely vessel,and cutting her sparsand sailsof stylishand effective shapesas well as proportions.For instqnce,nothingcanso materiallyadd to qppearances, at any visibledistance, as a cleanlycut club-topsail,with extremely short leach set over a Caff, peakedas high as possibleto preserve the necessaryarea in the mainsail,or a jib with a high clew and a staysail carried well up the mastheadto close theotherwiseawkward-lookinggap betweentheforestay and thejib-leach. The proportions he gives are as follows: Mast at l/3 LWL. Height of mainmast= LWL. Main boom |25LWL. 70ohof main boom to jib tack. 60'/oof main boom for gaff. Hoist of mainsail equal to or slightly lessthan length of gaff. Topmast = gaff plus 2-4" for setting club topsail. 55o/oof the fore space devoted to the jib boom, 45ohto the staysail boom. Jib topsail 50o/o of the stay carrying it. Spars thickest in center and tapering to both ends, except for the mainmast, which is parallel to the point of attachment of the shrouds, then taperedabovethat.

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As the sailplan shows,the resultis indeeda pleasingrig. With all sailsset, shecarriesan impressive1830square inchesof sailcloth.This full rig would only be usedin light air. Whenit starts to blow sail is shortenedby removing the club topsail,the top mast and its side and fore stays,the spreader,and the jib topsail.This not only reduces the sail area to a more reasonable 1400squareinches,but it also drops

the center of effort seveninches (the CE moves about an inch aft in the process).To give a comparison with contemporarydesigns,an EC 12 has similar draft, about 213the sail area, and carriesalmost twice asmuch lead. Hencethe needfor externalballast. The standingand running rigging is shownon the diagrams;the rigging of the halyards will be shown in the drawingsof the fittings. As mentioned before, the standing rigging is variable depending on the sail set. The permanent rigging consistsof the three side stayson either side.which run to the baseof the spreader,and the two fore stays that support the jib and the staysail.The other two side stays,and the topmost fore stay, are removed when sail is shortened.I have concluded that the removablespreaderis also takendown with the topmast,as there is no purposefor it after the side staysare removed, and Bassfordemphasizesthe importance of reducing windage by removing the topmast as well as the topsailclubs. The running rigging shows considerableingenuity.The basic mechanism for adjusting the sheetsis the pin rack. There are two, one on the spreaderand one on the deckjust after the mast. The deck rack is twelve

Model Yachting Magazine, Issue 139


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inches long by 314" wtde and is placed about six inches aft of the mast. Two or three lines of holes, spaced ll2" are drilled in the board. Screw eyes with their threads cut off are used for the pins. The sheetsfor the foresailsrun as shown in the diagram. One end is made fast to an eye on the port side of the boat. The sheetis then reevedthrough a hook attached to loop on the boom, through an eye on the starboard side, and then back to a pin on the rack. The sheet for the jib topsail is made fast to a pin arm of the spreader/ pin rack, reeved through an attached to loop or grommet in the clew of the sail, and then made fast to a pin on the other arm. Based on the sketches,I've concluded that the spreader exceeds the beam by about an inch on each

side,which would make it 12" long. The mainsheet is more complex. The diagram shows the sheet in its close-hauled, or beating position. It is hooked to an eye in the stern, and then reeved through an open eye on the boom, down to the tiller, back to another open eye, along the boom to a closed eye,and then to the deck and forward to the pin rack. When running or on a reach, the line is cast off from the stern eye and the two open eyeson the boom, and hooked to the tiller. Thus the "Zo'reeving of the line when close hauled takes up the considerable difference in sheet length between close hauled and boom outboard with such a long main boom. The advantageof this schemeis that it eliminates the need for separatebeating and running sheets.

The self-steeringmechanism is the sheet-to-tiller rig that was standard at the time. The center of effort of the mainsail is a good eighteen inches or so aft of the boom; when swung out for a run, this exertsa powerful asymmetric force, tending to turn the boat in the direction away from the boom. To compensate,an aft-facing tiller is rigged with tensioning elastic on the forward end. The mainsheetis hooked to the tiller. As the boom swings further outward (indicating greater wind force), the sheet pulls on the tiller against the resistance of the elastic and appliescompensatingrudder. The range of rudder angle is controlled by a traveler with two threaded buttons; this is placed at right angles to the rudder and the buttons A single'Jumper stay" is rigged on the port side. This runs from the end of the gafl, through a loop on a short line, and then down to the mast partner describedbelow.This line is usedto pull down the end of the gaff and hold the club topsail taut while running. It is loosenedfor runs and reaches. The halyards are shown in the fittings diagram, although in some cases you have to look a little carefully to see them. Bassford, interestingly, recommends the 'Jam bowline" knot even though flat toggles or browsers were well known at the time. There are two halyards for the mainsail. The "peak halyard" is reeved through the three rings on the upper mainmast in the zigzagfashionshown. At the apex of each "V" is a ring that attachesthe halyard to a fixed line, or o'pennant" on the gaff. This arrangement sits on the port side of the club topsail, when it is set, and raises the aft end of the gaff. The peak halyard is tensioned on itself by a loop and jam bowline on the top ring. The "throat halyard" is a short line that runs from the bottom of the three rings to jaw of the gaff and is looped and tensioned

The deckplan given in thefirst article. This is evidentlyfrom a preliminary study, becauseit is inconsistentwith other plans and statements in the text. The beam is too nerrow, and the two eyesfor the staysail sheet are aft oJ' the mast instead oJ slightly ft. N"tr t t"r-*d "f

AmericanModel YachtinsAssociationO 2005

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AmericanModel YachtingAssociationO 2005

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on itself; it is used to raise thejaw end of the gaff. A single halyard runs from the bottom corner of the club topsail, down the mainmast, and is made fast to a mast partner. The jib and staysail halyards are attached to the top corners of the sails, and run through the bent wire bridles then down to the mast partners.

Fittingsand Construction The details of the fittings are shown in the illustrations.Most of the drawingsare self-explanatory,but a few notes are in order. All fittings madefrom sheetare l/64" brass. The spreaderis made of hickory or equivalenthard wood, riveted to the brasshalf-collar. Bassforddid not giveexactdimensionsfor all the spars,but I am fairly confidentfrom the text and drawings of the following sizes:The mainmast is 5/8" diameter,taperedas described before.The topmastis 3/8" diameter, straightto the band holding the stays and then taperedand with a finial as shownin the drawing.All other spars and boomsare 3/8" in the centerand taper to ll4" at each end. The clubs for the topsailarea constan'r. 114". The hoist of the mainsail is attached to the mainmast with brass hoopsspacedat I ll2" intervals. The gaff is equipped with a "bridge."This is a l/8" squarepieceof "cigar box wood" (so-called"Spanish Cedar") which runs the lengthof the gaff on its lowerside.Holesaredrilled laterallythroughit everyl/2" or soand the mainsail is laced through these. The main,jib, and staysailboomsare equippedwith wire stapleseveryll2"

to hold a jack line to which the sail is laced.The endsof the sailsare sewn to the eyeson the brassbandsat the end of the spars. The club topsail is laced to two clubs with a running lock-stitch, which leaveseachturn circular rather than a spiral.The clubsattachto the gaff and topmast with two doubleloop bandseach.The insideband is fixed to the topmast and gaff, respectively,and the outsideband is fixed to theclub.Eachclub is cut with a shoulder so it can slip into the bandsonly to the properlength.Whenthe topsail halyardis madefastthe tensionon the sailholdsthe clubsin place. Likewise,the topmast slips into a lower band, which is fixed to the mainmast,and holds an upper band, which slips,overthe top of the mainmast in the positionshown.It is also shoulderedfor properfixing. Sincethe topmastis removedwheneverthe club topsailis,it would be reasonable to fix verticalclub permanentlyto the topmast. The bowspritis fixedmuchlike the clubs and topmast.It is shouldered, and slips through a gammon strap on the bow and into an inboardstrap attachedto the deck.Both strapsare rolled from sheetbrass.The inboard strap is cut with a tab that is rolled back and solderedto form the point of attachmentof the staysailstay.An inboard bobstayplate is fixed to the bow with the loop at the waterline. The bobstayruns from it, through a turnbuckle,and to the bowspritstrap asshown.Bassfordrecommends l/16" brassrod for the bobstay.The sketch, but not the plans,showstwo sidestays

attached to the bowsprit strap. These would run back to hooks at deck level, two or three inches aft of the bow. The standard practice of the period was to put a tube in the deck and run the mast down to a seatin the keel. Bassford rightly criticizes such an arrangement as being prone to leaks. Instead, he runs an interior brace up to the deck at the mast position, and places this mast step above it. It is made from 5/8" I.D. brass tubing, cut and bent as shown. The four ears at the base are riveted and soldered to an octagonal brass plate. The tabs are bent down to form the four partners, to which are attached the halyards for the club topsail, jib, and staysail and the jumper stay. Note the slot for the gooseneck. The "inverted L" gooseneck fitting is fixed to the mast, with an eye on the main boom. The mast fitting slidesinto that slot on the mast step, locking the mast properly in place.

Sails Sails were made from a cotton textile called "Lonsdale Cambric," now extinct. This is a very tightly woven (150 or more threads to the inch) cloth made from long staple(Egyptian or Sea Island) cotton. No truly satisfactory replacement has been found, although the "down cambric" used in down pillows and comforters is close; it is tightly woven to prevent the ends of the feathersfrom poking through. The jib and staysail are sewn to their respectivestays as shown in the bowsprit sketch, with widely spaced loops on the luff (forward edge) and spiral sewing around the jack line on the boom. We can safely surmise the

Profle, showing a possible designfor a "lead Centerboard" form of external ballast. )z

Model Yachting Magazine, Issue i,39


jib topsail was sewn to its stay in a similar way, although of courseit does not have a boom. Bassford specifically statesthat there is no halyard for the jib topsail.

Ethan F. Bassford, F. Ginter, Dawn Hanlon, David Lambert, Jack NelI, I wouldlike to thankmy wife,Judy, Sylvia Sawyer Sebelist, Kevin Spauldfor discoveringthe original articlesand ing, and Marjorie BassfordSpille.

the followingmembersof the Bassford family for respondingto my queries:

Hugh Allston's model, basedon the lines of Franklyn Bassford and called "Katrina". Photo by Andrew Charter.

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