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MAY / JUNE 2012 • VOLUME 14 / ISSUE 3

COLUMNS 6 Association Perspective

Travel the World with the National Academy Associates Diane Scanga

23 Message from our Chaplain

Resisting Temptation Honesty and integrity are tested every day in law enforcement; stay strong. Billy Gibson

24 Staying on the Yellow Brick Road



The Online Option

Online degree programs give criminal justice students the ability to take classes on their own schedule while working full time.


Rapid DNA

Investigators at a Florida police department are working with scientists to develop DNA analysis tools that can be used quickly in the field. John W. Blackledge, Roy R. Swiger, Douglas F. Muldoon

Linda J. Cook


Big Shoes to Fill

When I was appointed National Academy historian, I knew that I would have to work very hard to equal the records of my predecessors.

Combating Internal Inflammation Are bad habits damaging your arteries? It’s time to turn that around.. John G. Van Vorst

EACH ISSUE 2 Executive Board 8 Alliances 10 Chapter Chat AD INDEX IFC 2 3 4 5 7 9 12 13 17 19 21 IBC BC

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“Continuing Growth Through Training and Education�

Representative, Section I—Johnnie Adams Support Operations Commander, University of California Los Angeles Police Department (CA)









Representative, Section II—Barry Thomas Captain and Chief Deputy, Story County Sheriff’s Office (IA)


The Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates

Representative, Section III— Joey Reynolds Manager, G4S Police Department (NC)

EXECUTIVE BOARD Association President—Diane Scanga Captain/Academy Director, Director of Public Safety Services, Jefferson College (MO)

Representative, Section IV—Scott Dumas Captain, Rochester Police Department (NH)

Association Past President—Matt Raia Commander (retired), Westminster Police Department (CO)

Chaplain—William C. Gibson Director (retired), S.C. Criminal, Justice Academy (SC)

1st Vice President, Section III—Doug Muldoon Chief, Palm Bay Police Department (FL)

Historian—Terrence (Terry) Lucas Law Enforcement Coordinator, U.S. Attorne y- Central District (IL)

2nd Vice President, Section IV—Laurie Cahill Detective Lieutenant, Ocean County Sheriff’s Department (NJ)

FBI Unit Chief —Greg Cappetta National Academy Unit (VA)

3rd Vice President–Section I—Joe Gaylord Protective Services Manager, Central Arizona Project (AZ)

Executive Director–Steve Tidwell FBI NAA, Inc. Executive Office (VA)

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M AY/ J U N E 2 0 1 2 VOLUME 14 ★ NUMBER 3

The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Steve Tidwell / Executive Director/Managing Editor Ashley R. Sutton / Communications Manager © Copyright 2012, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited.

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The National Academy Associate is published bi-monthly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Executive Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135; phone: (703) 632-1990, fax: (703) 632-1993. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Editorial submissions should be e-mailed to ashley Sutton at Submissions may vary in length from 5002000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the Executive Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied. Photographs are obtained from stock for enhancement of editorial content, but do not necessarily represent the editorial content within.

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On The Cover: Intelligence-led Policing Using DNA A Florida department is part of a private-public partnership developing rapid DNA analysis technology in hopes it will expand the use of DNA to help law enforcement investigate even property crimes and drug offenses. 4 M AY / J U N E 2 01 2

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Travel the World with the National Academy Associates DEAR FELLOW FBINAA MEMBERS,


N MARCH, I was privileged to attend the

FBI National Academy’s 248th Session graduation. During his commencement address, FBI Director Robert Mueller mentioned stories of session mates visiting one another in near- and far-off states and countries. Class spokesperson Patrick Dietrich mentioned the New York and Philly trips. In talking with the Session 248 students, I heard stories about weekend trips into D.C. or weekend visits to session mates’ homes. The common themes were the unparalleled hospitality, behind-the-scenes touring opportunities, and comfortable environment hosting National Academy Association members and chapters created. After graduation we all returned to our families, our agencies, and the routine of the pre-NA life. I know when I first graduated I did not truly appreciate the value of the training provided by the individual chapter re-trainers and the Association’s National Training Conference. I am happy to report that I have seen the error of my ways and want to encourage other graduates to explore and recognize the value of NAA training opportunities. In addition to the learning aspects, taking the initiative to attend training conferences and chapter events can translate into a unique opportunity to travel the United States. Wrap the international chapter re-trainers into that and you get a chance to travel the world! Most of us are familiar with the National Training Conference, with its world-class training and great activities for spouses, guests, and children. The chapter re-trainers continue the standard of NA training. Many chapters also continue the standard of great activities for families and guests during their re-trainers. Consider the chapters’ conferences as a way to welcome your family into the NAA family, providing events for families and guests. During the daytime training hours, you actually spend your training dollars in training, all while your family and guests get to spend some time relaxing and enjoying the nearby attractions. Then at night, often more family events are offered. If not, you get some family time to make your travel dollars even more valuable. My education about this travel value started when I had the opportunity to attend my first National Training Conference. Getting to reconnect with so many graduates and feeling at home in a far-off city was an eye-opening experience. I returned home with a renewed energy, and I have been bringing family members and guests to every training conference since. When I was campaigning for the Section II Rep Executive Board position in 2003 and 2004, I traveled to section chapter meetings and training conferences. Although on a smaller scale, the training, the hospitality, the cultural enrichment

events, the events for spouses and children (where offered), and the networking kept renewing my NAA energy and commitment. The commitment to give back and the commitment to be the best are reinforced at each event. A dear friend and member of the Eastern Missouri Chapter, Jerry Schulte, Session 169, has been building his family vacation around the NAA National Training Conferences for 15 years. Traveling throughout the United States, he makes each year’s Trainer location a vacation destination with a road trip on the way to and from the event. As Jerry is so quick to point out, his kids have gotten to see the U.S. and learn history while having fun, and the accommodations are always first class at a price he could never otherwise match. Each trip includes visits to area attractions at a fraction of the usual cost, and you always get the red-carpet version. Conference events were so enjoyable that Jerry’s kids’ friends wanted to tag along. Even as a retired member, Jerry considers the trainers an unbeatable value. Add all that to the chance to reconnect with other NAA members and you have quite the package. Now that Jerry has retired, he can even expand his travels to include chapter trainers. To me, his experience is the ultimate example of what training conferences can offer to active and retired members alike. When contemplating NAA travel, you can’t overlook the four international chapter training conferences. Consider traveling abroad to visit a friend, or a hundred friends. You land in whatever country you are traveling to as a guest, not a tourist. You are met with a handshake or a hug, just like when you get home, because when you travel internationally with the NAA you are traveling to visit family. In 2012, the International Chapters Training Conferences will be held in amazing destinations: Trinidad, Cape Verde, Sydney, and Monaco. Check out all the international chapter information on The Texas Chapter has planned great training and legendary hospitality for the FBINAA 2012 National Training Conference July 28–August 1 in Grapevine, Texas. I look forward to seeing you there. For 2012, I challenge you to go to a chapter event you have never attended. I bet your experience will be even better than you expected. ■ F B I N A A Sincerely,

Diane Scanga Diane Scanga, 2012 President

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CHAPTER CHAT The intent of this column is to communicate chapter news. Announcements may include items of interest, such as member news, section activities, events, training calendar, special programs, etc. Refer to the editorial submission deadline, particularly with date-sensitive announcements. Submit chapter news and high-resolution digital jpg or tif photos with captions to: Ashley Sutton, FBINAA, Inc., at phone: (302) 644-4744 • fax (302) 644-7764

CALIFORNIA ★ Graduates of the FBI National Academy, both active and retired, gathered in Redding, Calif., to wish retiring Redding Police Chief Peter Hansen, Session 215, congratulations on his much deserved retirement. ★ Colleen Tanaka—daughter of Ken Tanaka of the San Jose Police Department, Session 228— was one of three recipients of the Josh Isaac Memorial Youth Leadership Program Graduate Scholarship. Colleen is a graduate of Session 12 of the Youth Leadership Program and attends St. Mary’s College of California. She was honored to receive this award in recognition of Josh Isaac’s contributions to the YLP and to his community; he serves as a role model for many future YLP graduates. ★ Ray Samuels, Session 207, retired chief of police for the Newark (Calif.) Police Department, recently passed away as the result of a sudden heart attack. ★ Scott Savage, Session 237, from the San Jose Police Department, was appointed as Assistant Chief of Investigations for the Santa Clara District Attorney’s Office in December. Diana Bishop, Session 219, from the Santa Clara (Calif.) Police Department, has been appointed as Chief of Police for the San Rafael (Calif.) Police Department. Peter Hansen, Session 215, has retired as Chief of Police for the Redding (Calif.) Police Department. Troy

Abney, Session 235, retired California Highway Patrol Asst Chief and current Oregon DPS Director of POST, was recently confirmed by the Governor of Nevada as Chief of the Nevada Highway Patrol. Ruben Chavez, Session 232, from the San Jose Police Department was appointed as Chief of Police for the Livingston (Calif.) Police Department. Ken Tanaka, Session 228, from the San Jose Police Department was appointed as Chief of Police for the West Valley-Mission Community College District in Saratoga, Calif.

CONNECTICUT ★ Carl Rosensweig, Session 231, retired as Assistant Chief of the West Hartford (Conn.) Police Department after 31 years of service to accept a position as Chief of the Granby (Conn.) Police Department. William Tyler, Session 231, retired as lieutenant of the Farmington (Conn.) Police Department after 30 years of service to accept a position as Captain of the Granby (Conn.) Police Department. ★ Deputy Chief Donald Hull of the Canton (Conn.) Police Department announced his retirement after 28 years with the department. Donald is a graduate of Session 239 and has accepted a new position as the Chief of Police for the Stowe (Vt.) Police Department. ★ Capt. Eric Osanitsch of the Bristol (Conn.) Police Department was promoted to Chief on July 13, 2011. Eric is a 25-year veteran of the

California: Graduates of the FBI National Academy gathered to wish retiring Chief Peter Hansen congratulations on his retirement from the Redding (Calif.) Police Department. Pictured are James Pope, Session 135, Shasta County Sheriff – Retired; Ben Reed, Session 221, Redding PD – Retired; Thomas Bosenko, Session 205, Shasta County Sheriff; Damon Minor, Session 225, Redding PD – Retired; Roger Moore, Session 240, Redding PD; Leonard Moty, Session 192, Redding PD – Retired; Peter Hansen, Session 215, Redding PD; Craig Wooden, Session 173, Redding PD – Retired; Max Santiago, Session 214, 3rd VP, FBINAA, California Chapter, California Highway Patrol – Retired; Ruben Leal, Session 219, California Highway Patrol; Todd Chadd, Session 222, California Highway Patrol; George Bierwirth, Session 211, Woodland PD

department and a graduate of Session 208. Lt. Hans Rhynhart of the UConn Police Department was promoted to Captain on September 1, 2011. Hans is a 13-year veteran of the department and is a graduate of Session 239. Lt. Pamela Gustovich of the Greenwich (Conn.) Police Department was promoted to Captain on January 26, 2012. Pamela is a 24-year veteran of the department and a graduate of Session 247. ★ Congratulations to our chapter’s recent graduates of the FBI National Academy Session 248: Lt. Francis Conroy, Connecticut State Police; Lt. William Fox, Waterbury (Conn.) Police Department; Chief John Karajanis, West Haven (Conn.) Police Department; Lt Andrew Steinbrick, Orange (Conn.) Police Department ★ The Capitol Region January luncheon was held in Bristol, Conn. President Terence Shanahan, Session 208, welcomed the more than 60 attendees and outlined the activities for the upcoming year.

FLORIDA ★ Coral Springs (Fla.) Police Department Deputy Police Chief Tony Pustizzi was promoted to Chief. Pustizzi won the job after the city did a nationwide search. Pustizzi began his career with the department in 1988 as a patrol officer. He made detective in 1993, sergeant in 1995, and captain in 2002. He has worked just about every detail, including criminal investigations, crime scene investigations, vice, intelligence, and narcotics. In 2005, Pustizzi was promoted to deputy chief. The agency said he earned a bachelor of arts degree in criminology from the University of Florida and a master’s degree in public administration from Florida Atlantic University. A graduate of the Southern Police Institute command officers course, he also completed the F.A.U. criminal justice executive leaders course. Pustizzi attended the FBI National Academy Session 221 and the FBI LEEDS #64 (Law Enforcement Executive Development Course), and is state vice president for the Florida Chapter of the FBI National Academy and a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, Florida Police Chiefs Association, Broward County Chiefs of Police Association, FBINA Associates, FBI Law Enforcement

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Executive Development Association, and the International Counter-Terrorism Officers Association.

Games in Atlanta and the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City.

★ Rick Look, Session 176, has retired as the chief deputy of the Flagler County (Fla.) Sheriff’s Department, and the new chief deputy is David O’Brien, Session 229.

INDIANA ★ It is with sadness that we report the death of Lt. Sheryl Turk of the Indianapolis Police Department. Lt. Turk was appointed February 6, 1976 and retired October 16, 1998 prior to the merger. Sheryl was a graduate of Session 138. She was 62 years old when she lost her courageous battle with cancer.

KANSAS-WESTERN MISSOURI ★ On February 8, 2012, the Kansas Western Missouri Chapter presented retirement plaques to both Kris Turnbow of the Raymore (Mo.) Police Department and Ron Hartman of the Springfield (Mo.) Police Department. We salute both Kris and Ron for their many years of public service.

Kansas-Western Missouri: SA Dave Burlew, training coordinator; Mrs. Vicki Turnbow; retiring chief Kris Turnbow of the Raymore (Mo.) Police Department; and chapter president Mark Goodloe

Kansas-Western Missouri: On March 8, 2012, Session 249 orientation was held at the Kansas City Office of the FBI. Pictured from left to right are Capt. Jeff Self, Gladstone (Mo.) Police Department; Lt. Kevin Cauley, Leawood (Kan.) Police Department; Maj. Mike Ernst, Overland Park (Kan.) Police Department; Capt. Robert Bieniecki, Johnson County (Kan.) Sheriff’s Office, and Undersheriff Marc Finley, Thomas County (Kan.) Sheriff’s Office

Standards and Training (KSCPOST). Bardezbain was appointed on Feb. 13, 2012, to fill a vacancy left when Chief Vernon Ralston of the Saint John (Kan.) Police Department resigned in December of 2011. Chief Bardezbain began his law enforcement career with the Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office on February 1, 1975 and retired at the rank of Major on September 15, 2006. He was hired as the Chief of Police for the City of Eastborough on September 14, 2009, a position he currently holds. Chief Bardezbain is a graduate of Wichita State University where he earned a Bachelor of Science in Administration of Justice and a Masters degree in Public Administration. He is also a graduate of the 182nd Session of the FBI National Academy at Quantico, Virginia. In addition, he was selected as a member of the security teams for the 1996 Summer Olympic

★ On March 26, 2012, Special Agent Dave Burlew, a 23-year veteran of the FBI and current Training/FBI NA Coordinator, Kansas City Division, was honored by the Olathe (Kan.) Police Department with its Legacy & Law Enforcement Partner Award, at the department’s 13th Annual Awards Ceremony in Olathe, Kan. SA Burlew was a uniformed police officer with the Olathe PD from December 1983 to early 1989, prior to joining the ranks of the FBI. The FBI, Kansas City Division, is represented by the Kansas/Western Missouri Chapter of the FBINAA.

EASTERN MISSOURI ★ In January the new Eastern Missouri Chapter Executive Board was sworn in to include: President: Bill Bridges, Session 195 1st Vice President: Jon Belmar, Session 228 2nd Vice President: Mark Mossotti, Session 234 Sergeant at Arms: Antoinette Filla, Session 218 Treasurer: Steve Schicker, Session 220 ★ Missouri Chapter 1st Vice President Jon Belmar and Chair of the Scholarship Committee announced the recipients of the Tom Colombell Scholarship for $1,500, Patrick Geiger, and the Deborah Hempen Memorial Scholarship for $1,500, Megan Lauer. The Hempen family was present for the scholarship award. ★ The February meeting was hosted by Commerce Bank and held as a luncheon at their St. Louis headquarters provided by Sara Foster, wife of John Foster, Session 220. The guest speaker was a lead bank investigator with Commerce. The March meeting was sponsored by AAA Missouri President and CEO Arthur W. Johnson and held at their headquarters located in Town & Country, Mo. Larry O’Toole of Session 197 was promoted to Lt. Colonel with the St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department.

MICHIGAN ★ SAC Andrew G. Arena of the FBI-Detroit Division has retired and a retirement celebration is scheduled for June 1. Congratulations.

Kansas-Western Missouri: SA Dave Burlew, training coordinator; Special Agent in Charge Brian Truchon; retiring major Ron Hartman of the Springfield (Mo.) Police Department; and chapter president Mark Goodloe

★ On March 8, 2012, Session 249 orientation was held at the Kansas City Office of the FBI. We welcome each of the new candidates and congratulate them on being selected. ★ Acting Executive Director of CPOST Gary Steed announced Kansas Governor Sam Brownback has appointed Eastborough (Kan.) Police Department Chief Daniel Bardezbain to the Kansas Commission on Peace Officers’

NEW YORK/EASTERN CANADA Kansas-Western Missouri: On March 26, 2012, Special Agent Dave Burlew was honored by the Olathe (Kan.) Police Department with its Legacy & Law Enforcement Partner Award. Pictured are SA Dave Burlew, FBI (Counseled FBI NA Sessions 185 and 242); Maj. Clark Marrow, Olathe (Kan.) PD (Session 241); Maj. Shawn Reynolds, Olathe (Kan.) PD (Session 244); Chief Steve Menke, Olathe PD (Session 225); Capt. Kathy Tytla, Olathe (Kan.) PD (Session 218); Maj. Steve James, Olathe (Kan.) PD (Session 248); SA Allan King, FBI (retired), former Training/ FBI NA Coordinator, Kansas City Division

★ Former New York Islanders hockey star and four-time Stanley Cup winner Clark Gillies. Gillies spoke at the Chapter’s Annual Luncheon hosted by Nassau Suffolk Graduates. The event was chaired by Bob Oswald, Session 190; New York Board of Governors members Bill Leahy, Session 227; and Bill Carbone, Session 217; and Past President/Chapter Historian Joe Schneider, Session 146. In attendance w w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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New York/Eastern Canada: Chapter 2nd Vice President Bob Oswald presenting a Chapter plate to former New York Islanders Hockey star and fourtime Stanley Cup winner Clark Gillies.

were senior Past President Gene Burke, Session 94; Immediate PP Joe Gannon, Session 126; and PP Richie Mueller, Session 97; as well as former Chapter and National President Joe Monteith, Session 100. Capt. Ernest Morales III was promoted from Lieutenant to Captain with the New York City Police Department on October 30, 2011.

SOUTH CAROLINA CHAPTER ★ The 2012 SCFBINAA Spring Training was held March 30–April 1 at the Marriott at

Grande Dunes in Myrtle Beach, S.C. Over 80 attendees registered for this year’s event that brought such presenters as James Rice, Special Agent with the FBI assigned to Headquarters in D.C., to discuss the FBI response to the Pentagon crime scene on September 11, 2001, and Kevin Frazier, Commander with the Montgomery County (Md.) Police Department, to discuss the response to the Discovery Channel hostage situation in September of 2010. This high-quality training opportunity was made possible through our strong partnership with our Columbia Field Office, SAC Dave Thomas, ASAC Ann Colbert, ASAC Doug Hemminghaus, SA Doug Edmonson, and Wanda Busbee—all were in attendance and very actively involved. Our 2011 Youth Leadership Program graduate, Miss Emily Butler, came to share her experiences and appreciation for our support of this program. Section III Representative Joey Reynolds was present to provide support and offer updates on the 2012 National Conference in Grapevine, Texas, Jul. 28 through Aug. 1. Chief Joe Hellebrand of the Port Canaveral (Fla.) Police Department traveled from Florida to give an excellent presentation on the National Conference scheduled for Orlando in July of 2013.

Also, our national chaplain, Billy Gibson, was in attendance and delivered a wonderful devotion message on Sunday morning. ★ Congratulations to our chapter’s recent graduates of the FBI National Academy. Session 248: John Hancock, Bureau of Protective Services; Kelvin Waites, Georgetown (S.C.) Police Department; Terrance Colclough, Sumter County (S.C.) Sheriff’s Office Session 249: Wayne Owens, Jr., Georgetown County (S.C.) Sheriff’s Office; W. Robin Freeman, Saluda County (S.C.) Sheriff’s Office; Tom Fox, Horry County (S.C.) Sheriff’s Office Session 250: David E. Nelson, Tega Cay (S.C.) Police Department; David Brabham, Berkeley County (S.C.) Sheriff’s Office; Joseph Count, North Augusta (S.C.) Department of Public Safety ★ Earl Watson (Sep. 13, 1929–Mar. 17, 2012), Session 106, retired as a captain from the Greenville City Police Department with 33 years of service, 27 years in the Detective Division, and retired as Commander of the Uniform Patrol Division. He is survived by his

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wife, Frances Alexander Watson. He was a 14-year veteran of the United States Air Force and served in the Korean War, achieving the rank of Master Sergeant. He was devoted to his community, serving his fourth six-year term as Commissioner of the Gantt District Fire, Sewer, and Police Department. He was also serving as a member and deacon at West Gantt First Baptist Church.

VIRGINIA ★ Congratulations to SAC Wayne D. Beaman, Session 115, on his retirement Sep. 30, 2011. From 1970 through 1981 he was with the Virginia State Police, Rockingham County (VA) Sheriff’s Office, and then from 1982 to 2011 he was with the U.S Department of Justice (U.S. Marshals Service, Office of the Inspector General, Investigations Division), totaling 42 years (30 years with the DOJ).

WASHINGTON ★ On March 15, 2012, the Seattle FBI office hosted the Washington Chapter candidate luncheon in Tukwila. Candidates for Session 249 (April–June 2012) were welcomed as follows: Mike St. Jean, Kirkland (Wash.) PD; Trevor White, Kennewick (Wash.) PD; Dan Temple-

Washington: Session 249: April-June 2012, Chapter Vice President George Delgado; Vancouver PD, Trevor White; Kennewick PD, Mike St. Jean; Kirkland PD, Nate Elledge; Sammamish PD, ASAC Steve Dean, Dan Templeman; Everett PD

Washington: Commander Chuck Atkins

man, Everett (Wash.) PD; and Nate Elledge, Sammamish (Wash.) PD. The annual fall conference is scheduled for September 4–7, 2012, in Lake Chelan. Members are encouraged to sign up early for another great chapter event. Chuck Atkins, Session 233, retired in March 2012 from the Clark County (Wash.) Sheriff’s Office after 35 years of service. Chuck served in all divisions and retired as Commander of Special Operations that included SWAT, Traffic, Marine Unit, Safe Streets Task Force, and the Tactical Detective Unit. Chuck served as a member of SWAT both as an officer and as commander. His previous assignments and

positions included Patrol, DARE, and eight years as a K-9 officer. Chuck plans to tour the United States during his retirement. Scott Bieber, Session 200, retired as Commander with the Vancouver (Wash.) Police Department after 27 years of service. Immediately following his retirement in March 2012, Scott was appointed Chief of Police of the Walla Walla (Wash.) Police Department. He served in all divisions at Vancouver PD, most recently as Commander of Special Operations that included K9, Traffic, SWAT, Tactical EMS, Explosive Device Unit, and Arson. Scott began his law enforcement career in April 1985 with Vancouver PD. ■ F B I N A A

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Rapid DNA

John W. Blackledge, Roy R. Swiger, Douglas F. Muldoon


O law enforcement investigative technology is more misunderstood by the public and consequently juries than DNA matching. On numerous crime procedural TV shows, DNA is gathered from the most unlikely sources, processed in minutes, and generally always yields a match. As every law enforcement officer knows, reality is quite different. It takes weeks and even months to receive the results of DNA matching and they often lead to no one. That’s why instant DNA processing is the holy grail for detectives and crime scene investigators. It is the dream of every law enforcement officer from police chiefs and sheriffs to the newest officer on the street to use an exacting science like DNA instantly at the crime scene. Due to the influences of media and television, citizens and juries of today expect it. That’s why the Palm Bay (Fla.) Police Department as part of a private-public partnership is working toward the goal of developing rapid DNA analysis technology.

DNA Processing The criminal justice system uses DNA profiles to investigate criminal activity, identify missing persons, and exonerate the wrongly accused. Samples obtained by law enforcement from people or from crime scenes are processed by labs to generate DNA profiles. Profiles result from the analysis of DNA regions called short tandem repeats (STR). A DNA profile can be developed from human tissues or bodily fluids. Samples are categorized as references from an identifiable person or as evidence collected at the crime scene. Crime scene collections can also include “touch” or “con-

tact” samples derived from skin cells deposited by an individual upon touching or rubbing an object. In order to generate a DNA profile acceptable for the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) or similar databases, forensic labs typically require about 12 hours of lab bench time and may require several days to several months to generate a usable profile working just a few items. This process requires technical instruments that cost hundreds of thousands of dollars and advanced training or expertise to operate (see diagram below). The process and the cost of DNA analysis contributes to the existing nationwide backlog and limits the use and application of DNA analysis to violent or high-profile crimes.

The Big Picture Most law enforcement across the United States would agree that: most crime is localized; property crimes comprise the bulk of criminal activity; most major crimes are committed by persons with a past history of property crimes; a small number of criminals commit most crimes. Investigating property crimes uses considerable law enforcement resources, manpower, and time. It is also problematic that often these investigations are not provided “high-powered” resources and are mostly limited to intuitive methods that can be incorrect, resulting in wasted resources following false leads. Lacking a tool like DNA analysis for investigation has resulted in a low clearance rate, about 15% nationwide. More importantly, the failure to solve more of these high-volume, nonviolent crimes earlier in an offender’s criminal career shows that the system lacks effi-

cacy, amounting to lost opportunities to interrupt crime behavior early, particularly with juveniles. Most serious criminals began as petty offenders who were never caught or effectively dealt with because of lack of substantial evidence or intelligence to identify them. One of law enforcement’s goals for the near future is to expand the use of DNA and DNA databases to the most common and prevalent crimes, property crimes and drug offenses.

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★ Applied Biosystems 7000 Real-Time PCR System

★ Tecan Genesis ★ Applied Biosystems PCR System 9700 ★ Beckman MultiMek ★ Applied Biosystems 3130 Genetic Analyzer

★ Applied Biosystems Gene Mapper ID-X 14 M A Y / J U N E 2 0 1 2

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Investigators at a Florida police department are working with scientists to develop DNA analysis tools that can be used quickly in the field.

Property Crimes Although the use of DNA has positively affected law enforcement’s ability to convict criminals and assist in the identification of missing persons, until now it has not been feasible to use DNA analysis as actionable intelligence in the early stages of an investigation, except in rare, high-profile cases. This results in an environment where DNA analysis is typically used after the fact to confirm intuitive investigative processes rather than to drive an investigation where suspect identification is a priority, a common issue in property crimes. Local and state law enforcement usually experience long delays in getting DNA results from crime labs, particularly for property crimes. Lack of control by the investigating agency has historically limited the application of DNA to higher profile violent crimes. Although DNA is not routinely collected on high-volume property

crimes, DNA analysis could have a significant impact on solving these cases.

The Palm Bay Project Located in the east central part of the state near the Kennedy Space Center, Palm Bay is Florida’s 7th largest city by area and 19th largest in population at 107,000. The city is primarily a sprawling bedroom community with a large high-tech industry base. More than 80% of the reported crime in Palm Bay is property or miscellaneous offenses. In 2006, Palm Bay experienced a crime rate of 3,870 per 100,000 population (FDLE UCR Index Crimes) and a clearance rate of 19%. In 2007, the Palm Bay PD began a pilot DNA project called the Local DNA Indexing System (LODIS) in a joint private-public partnership with DNA:SI Labs Inc. DNA:SI is accredited by ASCLD/LAB and provides DNA services for law enforcement agencies, including database and re-

porting services. During the first four years of the program from 2007–2010, Palm Bay’s crime rate was progressively reduced to 2,882 per 100,000 population, while the annual clearance rate rose to 34%. During this same period, the local economy suffered significantly and the population continued to grow. Moreover, at 1.5 officers per 1,000 population, Palm Bay PD is well under the national and Florida averages of 2.5. Palm Bay officers and crime scene technicians collect approximately 300 evidence swabs and 100 reference swabs monthly. All swabs are prioritized every two weeks by detectives and crime scene personnel based on investigative value. Currently about 150 evidence items and 20 reference items are analyzed each month. Because items are shipped in batches, the program is cost effective. All profiles generated by the lab are reviewed by exw w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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pert analysts and then searched against the Palm Bay database. The lab provides reports in numerous user-friendly formats to the agency LODIS administrator and investigative supervisors, generating investigative leads and blind hits that directly identify suspects. Easy-toread e-mail results go directly to the collecting officer for feedback. Five years of collections have resulted in roughly 3,500 reference swabs and 11,500 evidence swabs processed with 1,383 matches including duplicates. A large percentage of evidence swabs collected have been contact or touch DNA. Because DNA results are delivered within 30 days rather than multiple months, Palm Bay officers are able to not only identify suspects and combine related cases, but can also reduce the number of recurring incidents earlier, thus reducing the overall number of crimes committed. So how can we improve the Palm Bay DNA success?

The Need for Speed


Rapid DNA

unknown homicide identification, and during crime investigations. Additionally, there could be a positive impact on case assignment and resource allocation with respect to current investigations. For example, seemingly unrelated burglary cases with the same DNA profile can be connected even when a suspect’s identity is unknown. Combining the information from multiple cases may produce a suspect through other investigative methods. This is a major benefit of using DNA databases as an intelligence-

led policing tool. Another unique benefit is the ability to connect stolen property at pawnshops back to the victim, as the victim’s DNA profile is actually developed from the recovered property. The IntegenX Inc. RapidHIT 200 device advances DNA identification from a slow laboratory process to an immediate-use, DNA identification system that runs without human interaction. Palm Bay officers field tested a RapidHIT prototype system that analyzed four buccal swabs simultaneously in just under two hours. The next step in field testing was to evaluate a RapidHIT system that can run up to eight swabs simultaneously in less than 90 minutes.

Rapid DNA is a term used to describe a single device or instrument that can generate DNA results like that of a crime lab in just a few hours and without the need of a laboratory setting or much by way of hands-on technical expertise. Currently, several Rapid DNA technologies or instruments are being developed by private sector companies. All are envisioned as portable, rugged, simple to use, fully automated sample-to-answer devices. According to the FBI, the IntegenX RapidHIT is ready for evaluation by law enforcement at this time. The ultimate goal for application of DNA to intelligence-led policing is to add the capability of immediate DNA analysis either at the station or at the scene. The focus of Rapid DNA is to provide immediate DNA identification at a booking station and to create actionable DNA intelligence leads for the street officer and investigators in real time. A Rapid DNA capability can provide the law enforcement community with maximal forensic DNA information in the shortest amount of time while preserving the integrity of the data. Examples where transportable Rapid DNA capability can provide actionable information include (2005-2010) reported burglaries (top) and average on-scene screening of suspects, Year-over-year clearance rate (bottom), based on Unified Crime Reporting Statistics, victims, crime-scene processing, published by NIJ. DNA LODIS program started in 2007.

New Technology Last summer the Palm Bay PD conducted a field trial utilizing the RapidHIT 4-channel prototype system. The exercise spanned three full days without interruption. Three to four analysis runs were conducted each day, comprising 36 samples. Highlights from the exercise included successfully analyzing samples stored for up to four years by the Palm Bay PD. In these instances full profiles were generated. All reference swabs analyzed produced full CODISready DNA profiles. The exercise culminated with a mock crime scene in which the instrument was placed into the department’s Unified Mobile Command Center and transported to a residential neighborhood. The

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scenario involved two suspects committing a burglary and theft at a residence. Blood droplets and a water bottle were some of the items processed by the Palm Bay Crime Scene Unit. Partial profiles were generated from these samples, and when compared to the Palm Bay DNA database, a suspect was identified. Within five hours from the forensics team being sent to the scene, the suspect was identified using rapid DNA at the crime scene. While the Palm Bay demonstration was limited, it nevertheless showed the potential of gathering actionable intelligence from rapid DNA analysis. Previous field-based IntegenX demonstrations have also reinforced the potential high value of rapid DNA to provide actionable intelligence. Rapid DNA technologies have the potential to produce a significant leap in capability for police investigations. Their implementation for use in intelligenceled policing will be essential to cost-effective crime fighting in the future of reduced budgets. Plausible implementation scenarios include transmitting results from in-

struments securely using various remote means so that review by a qualified analyst can still be conducted while the instrument is operated by officers at the scene. Other examples of new operational uses that are enabled by Rapid DNA capability are high-priority law enforcement cases, border security and customs, paternal claims, mass catastrophes, airport security, military operations, and counter-terrorism. The speed of analysis will permit a quick screening to determine the inclusion or elimination of suspects during investigations, making investigations more efficient and effective. Because of the size and full automation, remote rural environments may also benefit from the technology where neither a laboratory nor technical staff is widely available. As Rapid DNA systems are released over the next year, validation must be conducted to ensure that these systems meet the high standards required for evidentiary application. It’s anticipated that Rapid DNA devices will become available within the next year from multiple vendors. As with any new technology, the applications will

grow, and the cost of using the systems should drop considerably. Soon Rapid DNA analysis will become commonplace. As budgets for law enforcement continue to shrink, Rapid DNA will provide police agencies with a new effective tool to combat crime. ■ F B I N A A Roy R Swiger, Ph.D., is the chief scientific officer for the Palm Bay (Fla.) Police Department and director of advanced technologies programs for IntegenX Inc. Deputy Chief John W. Blackledge began his career with the Palm Bay Police Department in 1980, and has served as commander over uniformed services and investigations divisions for 15 years. He is a graduate of Session 193 of the FBI National Academy. Chief Douglas F. Muldoon of the Palm Bay Police Department is a graduate of Session 153 of the FBI National Academy and subsequently served as an FBINAA Florida chapter president and was elected to the executive national board of directors in 2005. He is currently the 1st vice president and will serve as president in 2013.

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ONLINE OPTION Online degree programs give criminal justice students the ability to take classes on their own schedule while working full time. LINDA J. COOK EVERYONE who doesn’t want a raise or a promotion or potentially a new career, please send me an e-mail. I don’t anticipate seeing the e-mail warning “Your mailbox is full” any time soon. As the United States begins to recover from its economic slump with increased job opportunities, millions of professionals will vie not only for entry-level positions within their careers but also advanced positions with added responsibilities and rewards. This will be as true in criminal justice as it is in other professions.

A Changing Field Criminal justice is one of the broadest academic and professional disciplines. The profession now offers an incredibly diverse array of specialties, many of which did not exist during the past decade. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, criminal justice is a

career choice that will continue to grow through 2020. While criminal justice still retains its traditional three categories of law enforcement, courts, and corrections, each of these fields now includes dozens of career opportunities that require particular niche capabilities. Criminal justice is also being affected by new technology and new media. Consider the following example. Earlier this year Texas financier R. Allen Stanford, who was found guilty on 13 counts

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of fraud, filed for a new trial because the media allegedly impaired his case. Of particular note is the allegation that the social media service, Twitter, may have influenced the jury. Reporters covering the trial tweeted from the courtroom as the trial progressed. Consider the impact that this single case has on attorneys, paralegals, court attendants, judges, and investigators who, before the advent of Twitter in 2006, never faced the challenge or the implications of this social network on legal procedures inside and outside courtrooms. Similarly, law enforcement officials must remain alert to the constantly changing threat of “designer drugs,” synthetic substances created to circumvent current drug laws. Last year’s headline-maker was “bath salts,” which included synthetic stimulants packaged in colorful containers that are generally labeled “not for human consumption.” One of the newer designer drugs that law enforcement is contending with this year is “Pump It Powder,” a so-called plant vitamin that, if consumed, acts as a stimulant. The manufacture, sale, and distribution of this substance is a new global challenge for law enforcement. When you think about trends such as these that challenge and change criminal justice practices, ask these questions as you pursue your goals: ★ How do I stay current in this field, and in particular the position that I want to attain? ★ How can I become better prepared for these new opportunities? ★ How do I ensure that I am the most successful candidate for the position I seek? ★ How can I demonstrate my skill set to a potential employer who may screen dozens of other candidates? ★ How can I gather the most appropriate skill set for a new position that will allow me to prove my knowledge, apply concepts, and remain flexible as the criminal justice field undergoes almost daily transformation?


THE ONLINE OPTION of being an outstanding employee in the ever-more-professional criminal justice realm. Ultimately, you will learn how you as an individual can have an impact on public safety in general. Criminal justice classes give students an understanding of the very foundations of the U.S. criminal justice system, so that your knowledge base includes transitions not only within the profession itself but also within its latest aspects such as homeland security and identify theft and terrorism, for example. These are subjects you may study in your classes. These classes may enhance your understanding and abilities to: ★ Successfully lead a team in any public safety environment ★ Wisely apply proven criminal justice concepts to develop your own strategies and tactics ★ Authoritatively budget with fiscal responsibility to ensure public safety is the predominant focus ★ Fairly and quickly evaluate and make decisions in crisis and pending crisis situations ★ Implement ethical policies based on practical concepts

Whatever your role in public safety, the online learning environment will help make you a more critical thinker.

The Key to Advancement As you seek job positions and career advancement, you’ll most likely use digital

searches of internal job postings placed on your organization’s Website and intranet site as well as global searches in far-reaching job-search services such as If you do search for these sources, you’ll see that many criminal justice jobs—currently including such positions as park ranger, loss prevention manager, and rape victim advocate—require a “four-year degree or equivalent from an accredited college or university.” “Police professionalism requires that today’s police officers have a great deal of specialized knowledge and that they adhere to the standards and ethics set out by the profession,” says Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., author of “Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century.” Education is the key to opening the doors that lead to criminal justice advancement. Not only does a degree make you better prepared for the position you seek, but also in many instances it may be a job requirement. As you earn a bachelor’s degree, you will better understand the intricacies

The Online Classroom Considering that a degree is an important step toward achieving academic and career goals, options for students to earn a degree have undergone a transition nearly as extreme as the criminal justice profession itself. That’s because the student demographic has changed so rapidly in the past decade. Many students who seek advancement or a fresh start in a career are not the traditional college students who graduate from high school then immediately proceed to higher education. Often these degree candidates work full-time and face the challenge of juggling fami-

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ly and job demands while pursuing their Study groups via online formats such as academic goals. Skype and smartphones literally are as A U.S. Department of Education Na- close as the push of a button. tional Center for Educational Statistics Comfort: Your book bag may keep (NCES) report titled, “The Condition of its shape. In fact, it could end up with Education 2011,” says that in 2007 and a family member or friend. You not only 2008, about 4.3 million undergraduate won’t need to lug around textbooks and students, or one in five of all undergrad- notebooks, but you also won’t need to uate students, has been a student in at purchase a new wardrobe. least one “distance education” course. DisResources: When you choose to betance education includes courses with live come an online student, you will have interactive audio and/or video, recorded the resources equivalent to those at instructional videos, Webcasts, CD-ROM a “brick and mortar” university. Speor DVD, and other computer-based sys- cial seminars about time management, tems delivered over the Internet. study skills, and dealing with personal Before the development of the In- issues are regular features offered by ternet, these students often turned to many online institutions of higher edu“correspondence courses” in which as- cation. Additionally, libraries with vast signments and exams were delivered to collections of periodicals, tutoring serstudents and returned to instructors by vices, and writing assistance will be at mail. This was called “distance learning,” your fingertips. Career services will be a phrase that remains in current use but provided to you right from the beginwithin a more modern, digital context. ning, and these range from beginning Today, “online learning” is replacing the to build your résumé to securing internother forms of distance learning, as mil- ships and guidance on how to excel in lions of students have discovered the ben- interviews. efits of this educational method. According to The Sloan Consortium’s Choosing a College report, “Class Differences: Online Edu- Select an online college or university that cation in the United States, 2010,” in is accredited. One well-known accredita2009 more than one in four American tion agency is the Higher Learning Comcollege students were taking at least one mission (HLC), which is an independent online course. By 2010 online enrollment increased by another 1 million students. Here are a few reasons why you might want to contemplate taking online courses: Saving on the Cost of Travel: It is possible, through webinars, instructional videos, and computer-based sessions with live audio and participation, for students to attend school from home and even during a lunch break from their workplace. You may never need to travel to a “brick and mortar” building to earn your education. That means that you can take advantage of online libraries and other resources, too. Individualization: Perhaps you want to take your children on an outing to the zoo on a bright Tuesday afternoon. That means that you can work on your FBI0512blipsg.indd 1 assignment in the early evening or even after your family has gone to bed. Online learning gives you the luxury of working on your assignments whenever you want because you will know well in advance when projects, exams, quizzes, and other assignments are due. Participation: Real-time chat rooms, webinars, discussion boards, and social media allow students to keep in touch even more consistently than they do in regular face-to-face interaction.

corporation of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). A degree from an accredited university will carry far more weight with future employers. Talk to admissions advisors and research Websites to find out what kinds of faculty the university hires. For criminal justice majors, it’s important to learn from practitioners with experience in the field. These instructors share best practices and on-the-job expertise, from tactical thinking to moral judgment, which will not only keep you current but also help you apply concepts to real-life situations that you are likely to face. Whatever your role in public safety, the online learning environment will help make you a more critical thinker. Your own dedication, along with the support of online faculty, administrators, and learning resources, will help you gain the knowledge you need for the career step you seek. ■ F B I N A A Educator and journalist Linda Cook is the chair of the bachelor of criminal justice program at Kaplan University. She is a columnist for the Quad-City Times newspaper in its print and online editions, and has written hundreds of crimerelated stories.

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Big Shoes to Fill

★ Terry Lucas



REETINGS to my fellow National Academy brothers and sisters. As I type this memo to all of you I admit I am still somewhat in shock over my selection to be the national historian of the FBI National Academy Association. When I graduated from Session 182 of the Academy in 1995 I knew I wanted to become involved with the Association and continue the networking and education received during my stay. Since then I have served in all of the officer positions for the Illinois Chapter, both on the Rail-Splitter Division and state level. My selection occurred while I was driving home from an annual elk hunt in New Mexico last Fall when I received a call from then NA President Matt Raia asking if I was still interested in the position of historian. Fortunately I was not driving or I would have driven off of the mountain side in Colorado where I was traveling. There was little hesitation on my part to accept the position As the new kid on the executive board, I was feeling my way through the process and was finally “educated” on my responsibilities while attending the National Chapter Officers Meeting at Quantico Feb 25–29, 2012. President Diane Scanga graciously took me aside and answered my questions and provided some much needed guidance. While attending this meeting I was told several times by other members of the executive board and various chapter presidents that I would have a big job ahead of me and I had “big shoes to fill.” My predecessor was the distinguished and accomplished Richard “Dick” Amiott. Dick is a 37-year veteran of local law enforcement who served as the chief deputy of the Lake County Sheriff’s Department in Painesville, Ohio, and also as the chief of police for the city of Mentor, Ohio. Dick is a past president of the FBI National Academy Association (1986) and graduated with Session 90 of the National Academy Jun.–Sep. 1972. He became a member of the prestigious “Possible Club” for shooting a perfect score on the pistol course. (I did this also, but I’m not sure if this is a prerequisite to be the national historian.) Dick had the distinction of receiving the first diploma in the “New Academy” at Quantico. Session 90 was the first class at Quantico following the move from Room 5231 on the fifth floor of the Justice Building in Washington, D.C. The “New Academy” was so new that the elevators didn’t work, there was no PX, no boardroom, no movies, no auditorium, no cars, no chapel, no covered walkways, and no counselors. The seats were finally placed in the auditorium the night before graduation. The Association’s first national historian was Jim Cotter who was appointed in 1980. Dick Amiott was appointed the historian in 1993 and served through 2011. During his tenure as historian Dick amassed a mountain of information about the National Academy and its history.

Much of this information was shared in the 75th Anniversary Edition. Without his knowledge and dedication to the Association much of this information would have been lost. Thanks, Dick, for the super job. I will try hard to fill your shoes. The Association has changed over the years and there is soon going to be more change. Since the commencement of Session 1 on July 29, 1935, until this April there have been a number of significant changes to the organization and its operation. I don’t intend to cover all of that in this article but will cover a few of the highlights. From 1935 until 1980 the organization was pretty social in nature with few needs for rules, policies, or bylaws. By 1980 the organization had grown to the size where structure and organization was needed. In the period from 1980 until 1994 George Graves, Session 81, and his wife Shirley ran the organization out of their kitchen in Downers Grove, Ill. They collected the dues and mailed out the membership cards for all of the United States. George was also instrumental in starting the first European chapter in 1984 and this started the beginning of other chapters throughout the world. A real turning point occurred in 1994 when Les Davis was hired as the first executive director and he set up operations in the Academy at Quantico. Les was assisted by four graduates who became sections reps in the true sense of the word. Section I had Jim Weyant, Section II had Earle Conner, Section III had Billy Gibson, and Section IV had Bob Walsh. These men began collecting dues and mailing membership cards to all graduates in their respective sections. These men (and probably their wives) are owed a great deal of thanks for their efforts and dedication to the Association. Our fourth and current executive director is now facing even more change. In April the Association offices moved out of Quantico and set up operations in Stafford, Virginia. Through all of these changes over the years our Association has continued to grow in not only numbers but also in professionalism and image. We are considered the premier law enforcement association in the world and will continue to serve our members, the citizens of the United States, and those other countries of the world who have NA graduates. Much is owed to distinguished graduates who have served our organization and I hope to highlight more of them in my future articles. Thanks again to Dick Amiott for setting such a high standard for me to follow. Terry Lucas is a graduate of Session 182 and has served in all of the Illinois chapter officer positions. He retired from the Illinois State Police after 28 years spent primarily in investigations.

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AN YOU RECALL THE LAST TIME YOU YIELDED TO TEMPTATION? Was it something as simple as having a

second piece of cake or an extra scoop of ice cream? Well, we all have those moments. But unfortunately, they are not all that simple. Giving into some temptations can result in serious consequences. Fighting temptation is not an easy matter, and while you may feel you’re tempted more than most, let me set your mind at ease. Temptation is one of the most universal problems we have in the world today. It knows no boundaries, has no limitations, and is not restricted by gender, race, religion, culture, or geographical location. No matter how strong your faith and commitment might be, you are faced with temptation on a daily basis. Temptation can best be defined as being enticed or being tested. While there is nothing wrong with temptation itself, it’s whether or not you yield to it that makes the difference. Several years ago, American comedian Flip Wilson used the phrase “The devil made me do it” in his stand-up routine to escape personal responsibility for questionable conduct or activity. Many of us today follow that same pattern. When we yield to temptation we have a tendency to blame others or do whatever it takes to remove ourselves from the responsibility of those actions or deeds. After all, have you ever noticed that you are never tempted to do what is right, only what is wrong? All professions offer opportunities to yield to temptation, but I don’t think there is one that puts its members in a more vulnerable position to be faced with this problem than law enforcement. Your honesty and integrity, the anchors of your profession, are tested every day as you are constantly faced with opportunities that could ruin your career, your marriage, your future and/or the lives and careers of others. This is certainly not a new problem. These challenges have been with us since the beginning of time. The third chapter of Genesis tells how Adam and Eve yielded to the temptation of the crafty serpent and ate the fruit from the forbidden tree. Even Jesus was not immune from being tempted. Luke 4:1–13 informs us that after Jesus had been baptized by John the Baptist he was led by the spirit in the desert, where for 40 days he was tempted by the devil. He did not yield to this temptation but clearly understood the pressures of being tested. He knew it would continue to be a problem with mankind and felt so strongly about this challenge that he included it in the “Lord’s Prayer” found in the sixth chapter of Matthew where He prayed that we would not be led into temptation but delivered from evil. So, what is our problem? Why do we have such a tendency to yield to temptation? I believe the number one reason is because

it is pleasurable. When you think about it, that covers most of the temptations we yield to. I also think we convince ourselves that giving in isn’t a big deal and, following that thought, we believe falsely that because we have given in before it no longer matters. For professing Christians we may use as an excuse that we know God is ready to forgive us. Finally, we have a tendency to rationalize that “everyone else is doing it so why shouldn’t I?” There are ways you can combat this problem in your life. Matthew 26:41 states that “we should watch and pray so that we will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.” Then, James 4:7–8 advises, “Submit yourselves, then to God. Resist the devil, he will flee from you. Come near to God and He will come near to you.” I believe another important element is surrounding ourselves with good people so we won’t be put in compromising positions as often, and we need to lend support to one another. Galatians 6:1–2 puts it this way: “Brothers, if someone is caught in a sin, you who are spiritual should restore him gently. But watch yourself, or you also may be tempted. Carry each other’s burdens, and in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ.” Finally, I’ll close with a scripture that will serve both as a warning and encouragement in your quest to conquer temptation. 1 Corinthians 10:11–13 “These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come. So, if you think you are standing firm, be careful that you don’t fall. No temptation has seized you except what is common to man. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can stand up under it.” May God bless you as you seek to overcome temptation in your life. ■ F B I N A A

Surround yourself with good people so you won’t be put in compromising positions as often.

Billy Gibson

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you’ve experienced how your body generates an inf lammatory response to protect the body and promote healing. This acute response, characterized by redness and swelling, is normal and represents your body’s natural defense mechanism. But if the source of the inflammation persisted, the result would be a state of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation (think of a smoldering fire) is not normal, does not promote healing, and has now been linked to a number of major health disturbances including coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome. This article will highlight these links and detail your best dietary strategies to reduce chronic inflammation within your body.



The inflammatory response is triggered to initiate healing when your arterial lining is damaged (due to oxidized LDL cholesterol, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, etc.), creating fatty streaks and eventually plaque formations. Over time, this fatty plaque continues to grow and react. Inflammatory signals continue to be sent, weakening the fibrous cap of unstable plaque formations, leading to clots and potentially a heart attack. Not good.

METABOLIC SYNDROME Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors. Sadly, as much as 40% of the U.S. population is at risk because they have three or more of the following: Resting Blood Pressure Fasting Blood Sugar Waist Circumference (abdomen) HDL Cholesterol Triglycerides

130/85 or higher 100 or higher 35 inches (women), 40 inches (men) or higher Below 50 (women), Below 40 (men) 150 or higher

It’s now known that fat cells that are being stuffed beyond their normal limits produce and dump inflammatory signals into the bloodstream. These signals are linked to insulin resistance, which leads to diabetes. Even the fat cells stored below the skin (you know, the one’s we pinched with our skin-fold calipers) have been implicated, not just the deeper-lying visceral fat cells.

DIETARY BEHAVIORS It’s time for some good news. There are a number of dietary behaviors that can influence the markers of inflammation, but certainly achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight/ body composition is critical. According to Walter Willet, chair of the Nutrition Department at the Harvard School of Public Health, “The most powerful way to reduce your inflammatory factors is to lose excess weight.” Forget about trying to outexercise your bad diet and focus on some of these key areas: Dietary Fats—Higher intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, found in walnuts and their oil, flaxseeds and their oil, and oily fish like salmon, have been associated with reduced markers of

inf lammation. Dropping the trans-fats and saturated fats will likely magnify the effect. Dietary Carbohydrates—Reducing calories and reducing the blood sugar-raising potential of your diet is superior to reduced calorie diets with high glycemic loads. Cut the sugar and white flour/processed grains. Dietary Protein—Higher intakes of the amino acid arginine, found in meat/fish/poultry, eggs, whole grains, and nuts were associated with reduced C-reactive protein levels, a marker of inflammation. Vitamins and Minerals—Survey research continues to show that many Americans fall short of reaching the daily requirements for vitamins A, C, E, and B6. A lack of these micronutrients (and many more) is linked to diseases with inflammatory components. A “food first” approach is always your best defense (vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts). However, research has demonstrated that long-term daily multi-vitamin and mineral supplementation can reduce markers of inf lammation. Heart disease can no longer be viewed simply as clogged pipes. It’s time to put out the fire and reduce levels of chronic inflammation. ■ F B I N A A John G. Van Vorst is a health and fitness instructor within the Physical Training Unit at the FBI Academy. He holds a master’s degree in exercise physiology and is certified by the American College of Sports Medicine, the National Academy of Sports Medicine, and the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He also serves as a defensive tactics instructor for the FBI New Agents Training program. You can e-mail him at John.

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“IAMULOOKED TO A LEADER. is where experience and academics intersect.” Chief Joel Hurliman | Graduate, School of Public Service & Health AMU stands shoulder-to-shoulder with the law enforcement community. As a 32-year police veteran and retired Army National Guard Master Sergeant, Chief Hurliman knows it takes street smarts and book smarts to address today’s complex public safety challenges. He joined AMU based on academic partnerships such as the FBI National Academy, faculty who have worn the badge, and a community of like-minded peers, each dedicated to protecting and serving our nation.

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Profile for Kelly Bracken

FBI National Academy Associate May/June 2012  

Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates

FBI National Academy Associate May/June 2012  

Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates


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