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“IAMULOOKED TO A LEADER. is where experience and academics intersect.” Chief Joel Hurliman | Graduate, School of Security and Global Studies AMU stands shoulder-to-shoulder with the law enforcement community. As a 32-year police veteran and retired Army National Guard Master Sergeant, Chief Hurliman knows it takes street smarts and book smarts to address today’s complex public safety challenges. He joined AMU based on academic partnerships such as the FBI National Academy, faculty who have worn the badge, and a community of like-minded peers, each dedicated to protecting and serving our nation.

Learn More at

Stay connected with the issues facing law enforcement and public service professionals at FBI0513_Cover2.indd 992

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MAY / JUNE 2013 • VOLUME 15 / ISSUE 3

COLUMNS 4 Association Perspective

A Network of Support Doug Muldoon

22 Message from Our Chaplain

Overcome Discouragement When you get discouraged, turn it around by encouraging others. Billy Gibson

23 The Historian’s Spotlight


A Trip Down Memory Lane FBINAA presidents and conferences have helped to promote the values of the association. Terry Lucas

24 Staying on the Yellow Brick Road

Don’t Just Sit There Prolonged periods of sitting lead to major health issues, even if you exercise regularly. John G. Van Vorst

12 12 The Toll of Trauma

Law enforcement agencies are changing their attitudes toward PTSD and providing more mental health counseling for officers. Leischen Stelter

14 Bring Back Qualitative Policing

Data-driven management and the rise of CompStat have resulted in the erosion of dynamic leadership in American policing. Stephen R. Libicer

20 Hiring the

New Blue Line

Finding the next generation of officers requires us to rethink our employment practices. Mark Renkens

EACH ISSUE 2 Executive Board 6 Chapter Chat 10 Alliances AD INDEX IFC 2 3 5 17 18 19 IBC BC

American Military University Trident University Police Magazine Purdue Pharma L.P. Quantico Tactical Elbeco, Inc. GunBusters, LLC University of Phoenix Justice Federal Credit Union

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“Continuing Growth Through Training and Education”










The Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates

Association President—Doug Muldoon Chief Palm Bay Police Department (FL) Past President—Diane Scanga Captain/Academy Director Director of Public Safety Services Jefferson College (MO) 1st Vice President, Section IV—Laurie Cahill Detective Lieutenant Ocean County Sheriff’s Dpt. (NJ) 2nd Vice President, Section I—Joe Gaylord Protective Services Manager Central Arizona Porject (AZ) 3rd Vice President, Section II—Barry Thomas Chief Deputy/Captain Story County. Sheriff’s Office (IA)

Representative, Section I—Johnnie Adams Support Operations Commander UCLA Police Department (CA) Representative, Section II—Kevin Wingerson Operations Pasadena Police Department (TX) Representative, Section III—Joey Reynolds Police Chief Bluffton Police Department (SC) Representative, Section IV—Scott Dumas Deputy Chief Rochester Police Department (NH) Chaplain—William C. Gibson Director (retired) S.C. Criminal Justice Academy (SC) Historian—Terrence (Terry) Lucas Law Enforcement Coordinator U.S. Attorney - Central District (IL) Executive Director—Greg Cappetta FBI NAA, Inc. Executive Office (VA)

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M AY/ J U N E 2 0 1 3 VOLUME 15 ★ NUMBER 3

The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Greg Cappetta / Executive Director/Managing Editor Ashley R. Sutton / Communications Manager © Copyright 2013, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited. The National Academy Associate is published bi-monthly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Executive Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135; phone: (703) 632-1990, fax: (703) 632-1993. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Editorial submissions should be e-mailed to ashley Sutton at Submissions may vary in length from 500– 2000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the Executive Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied. Photographs are obtained from stock for enhancement of editorial content, but do not necessarily represent the editorial content within.

Issue Jan/Feb Mar/Apr May/Jun Jul/Aug Sep/Oct Nov/Dec

DEADLINES Editorial Deadline 12/10 2/10 4/10 6/10 8/10 10/10

Mail Date 2/28 3/30 5/30 7/30 9/30 11/30

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On The Cover: Hiring and retaining the best law enforcement employees requires a more realistic and stringent screening process prior to offering a conditional offer of employment, the Palm Bay (Fla.) PD has found. w w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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WAS RECENTLY THINKING BACK on the orientation I attended on my first day at the FBI National Academy. During that time it was stressed to us that there were three things the FBI wanted to emphasize: leadership training, physical fitness, and networking (sort of a triangle). It seems pretty simple when you think about it. We were about to be exposed to some of the best training available, including instruction in leadership, all accredited by the University of Virginia for undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1988 there was even one doctoral course offered in Futures. The physical fitness portion started with the first assessment of all students using the Cooper Fitness program. Then came the discussion of how important FBI NA graduates are to not only each other but to the FBI especially. This network is what brings huge value to each of us. This is highlighted at each and every gathering of the graduates, but more importantly during the investigation of crimes worldwide. I recently had the opportunity to see that “network” in action in a more personal way. My good friend and the current president of the Florida Chapter and Youth Leadership Program Coordinator, Gayward Hendry, and his wife Susan lost their daughter Katy to cancer after a lengthy battle. On March 9, Gayward’s “network” of National Academy graduates traveled from around Florida to be there and offer support to him and his family. As I sat there listening to the service, it dawned on me that if it were not for the FBINAA connection, I and many of us there very well may have never met Gayward and his family. This day underscored once again the true value of our association. As the year progresses I want to remind you that our association is only as strong as our membership. I encourage each of you to get your own department members to join up if they haven’t already and to also reach out to those who may have dropped out, asking them to reconsider. If there are any issues or areas of concern, please bring them to the Board’s attention so they can be addressed. Additionally, I am asking our Executive Board members to bring on one or two new business partners to our association. Without their support we cannot accomplish the many things we do now. I also want to thank the many long-time sponsors

we have had the pleasure of befriending and working with. Recently, CEO of 5.11 Tom Davin contacted me to ask about partnering in support of our Foundation. The challenge was to be made in the sales of the 5.11 Tactical Kilts being sold in the month of April. He chose the FBINAA Foundation per our discussion. His friend Scruffy Wallace of the American Celtic punk band the Dropkick Murphys challenged him to split the proceeds with the “We Salute You Veterans” group. The more kilts sold, the bigger the donation to our Foundation. Finally, I want to encourage you to join us for the Annual Retrainer this year in Orlando, Fla. Conference Chair Maj. Patty Wells and the entire Committee has been working hard to make sure this event will be one to remember. If you have not registered it is not too late. The host hotel, Rosen Shingle Creek, sold out fast for the first two nights, but Rosen Centre is being used as the overflow hotel. We expect a large turnout and I hope you and your families attend and make the most of this vacation destination. The President’s Reception will be held at Sea World and the Family Night event will be held at Universal Studios Orlando. If there is anything I can do for you I encourage you to contact me. I wish you all the best. Enjoy your summer and be safe! ■ FBINA A


Doug Muldoon Doug Muldoon, 2013 President

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To aid in the prevention of prescription drug abuse and diversion

FREE Professional Educational Programs Presented by Experienced Former Officers Forged and Altered Prescriptions

The Purdue Pharma Law Enforcement Liaison and Education Unit, which is staffed by retired law enforcement officials, provides FREE educational materials, as well as drug identification cards and placebos for “reverse-sting” undercover operations. Training – Topics include preventing and investigating prescription drug diversion; scams against physicians; pharmacy scams; investigating criminal prescribers; and pain topics and definitions related to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain. Placebos – Identical to real controlled substances manufactured by Purdue Pharma, but contain no controlled substances. Their use is restricted to criminal investigations.

Anti-Crime Program – RxPATROL® (Rx Pattern Analysis Tracking Robberies and Other Losses) is designed to assist law enforcement efforts to apprehend and prosecute pharmacy robbers and scammers, as well as to help protect pharmacies. Using a Web-based program, RxPATROL collects, collates, and analyzes information from pharmacy theft reports across the U.S. The RxPATROL Web site——has links to the National Association of Drug Diversion Investigators and to the National Community Pharmacists’ Association.

Educational Materials – Drug ID cards with full-color, actual-size photographs of the most For more information, contact John Gilbride, commonly abused prescription Director of the Law Enforcement Liaison and Education Unit, at 203-588-7220 drugs, according to the National Association of Drug Diversion Purdue Pharma L.P. One Stamford Forum, Stamford, CT 06901-3431 Investigators. Educational brochures &AX  s% on preventing prescription drug abuse for law enforcement officers to distribute to pharmacies, physicians, and hospitals, which include how to spot and deal with scammers. © 2012, Purdue Pharma L.P.

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D7709-C 4/12

All of these programs are provided at no cost. We do not promote any company’s products. Our sole objective is to provide information that supports law enforcement to help keep prescription drugs out of the hands of criminals in order to ensure that these drugs are available for patients with real medical needs.

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CHAPTER CHAT The intent of this column is to communicate chapter news. Announcements may include items of interest such as member news, section activities, events, training calendar, special programs, etc. Refer to the editorial submission deadlines, particularly with date-sensitive announcements. Submit chapter news and high-resolution digital jpg or tif photos with captions to: Ashley Sutton, FBINAA, Inc., at phone: (302) 644-4744 • fax (302) 644-7764

ALASKA ★ Terry Vrabec recently attended a funeral for a fallen state trooper during blizzard conditions. At the funeral he met a trooper who had come all the way from Arkansas to attend the ceremony and honor a fallen comrade. This is how the brotherhood of law enforcement comes together when needed.

Alaska: Terry Vrabec met an Arkansas state trooper at the recent funeral of an Alaska state trooper. The Arkansas trooper braved a blizzard to attend the ceremony for a fallen comrade.

ARIZONA ★ The Arizona Chapter Annual Membership Appreciation BBQ in March was great fun for all who attended. It is always nice to catch up with everyone over a steak. ★ The Arizona Chapter is also appreciative of all who attended the “Saving the Lives of Those Who Protect Us: Six Degrees of Health and Wellness for First Responders” training the Chapter hosted on May 9. This is a very important topic and was hopefully worthwhile for everyone. ★ Please mark your calendars for the Arizona Chapter’s Annual Fall Retrainer. This year it will be held in Sierra Vista October 3‒4. The training topics are still being finalized.

len started as a patrol officer in southwest Philadelphia in 1973. In 1989, he was promoted to lieutenant and assigned to the Juvenile Aid Division, which included the Special Victims Unit. From 1995 to Eastern Pa.: Capt. Dennis Cullen retired 1999 he was assigned from the Philadelphia PD after 40 years of to the Internal Affairs service. Division. Cullen’s last assignment was in the Criminal Intelligence Unit, which investigates all organized crime, gangs, and hate groups, as well as conducting detailed analysis of crimes, trends, and patterns for the department. He attended Penn State’s POSIT and POLEX programs, Northwest University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC53), and the FBI National Academy (Session 212).

and Scotland. There was also a presentation on the “Use of Analysis in Investigation by the Federation Against Copyright Theft.” Unfortunately, a presentation on onshore/ offshore international money laundering for criminal proceeds was canceled due to the graduate speaker being unable to make his flight because of adverse weather conditions. It is hoped that this presentation can be rescheduled for a future occasion. Delegates also received an update on current issues from the legal attaché and the European chapter secretary gave an update on issues relating to the European chapter. It is anticipated that the 2014 seminar will be held at Hindlip Hall, West Mercia Police Headquarters in England, March 11–12.

★ The 4th FBINAA UK Seminar was held at the Lancashire Police Headquarters March 12–13. In attendance were 29 delegates, including Legal Attaché Scott Cruse with colleagues from his London office and FBI NA graduates from England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The event was arranged by FBI NA graduate Kieron Sharp with the assistance of Lancashire Police FBI NA graduate Gary Dunnagan. The diverse program provided an opportunity for a number of presentations, including “Police Response to Missing Persons” by Professor Nick Fyfe of the University of Dundee and Dr. Olivia Stevenson from the University of Glasgow; and “Social Media Monitoring and Its Use in Policing.” Participating delegates gave updates on policing in England, Wales, Northern Ireland,

★ On Jan. 3 Gen. Marek Dzialoszynski, chief of The Polish Police, met with FBI Legal Attachés in Warsaw Anthony Russo and Robert Wucker and the Polish graduates of the FBI National Academy in Quantico, Va. Only 15 Polish police officers have completed the training program at the FBI National Academy in Quantico, and this prestigious program has helped to prepare them as law enforcement officers to perform management functions in law enforcement. To continue training and development, European FBI NA graduates have the opportunity to attend annually a European retraining session. In 2014 Poland will for the first time organize the European Retraining Session for European graduates of the FBI National Academy. During the first official meeting for Polish graduates the organizational aspect of the retraining session was discussed as well as strengthening cooperation between the Polish Police and other LEA with FBI.

Europe: The 4th FBINAA UK Seminar was held at the Lancashire Police Headquarters March 12–13. In attendance were 29 delegates from England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.

Europe: Gen. Marek Dzialoszynski, chief of The Polish Police, met with FBI Legal Attachés in Warsaw Anthony Russo and Robert Wucker and the Polish graduates of the FBI National Academy.


★ A big congratulations to Ron Wheeler, Session 232, who was selected as the new chief of the Pinetop-Lakeside Police Department. Ron, who recently worked for the Sedona Police Department, is also very active with the Board of the FBINAA Phoenix Chapter.

EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA ★ Congratulations to Capt. Dennis Cullen who recently retired after 40 years of service with the Philadelphia Police Department. Cul6 M AY / J U N E 2 01 3

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To continue and further develop the relationship between the Polish police and the FBI, the selection of the next candidate to attend the FBI National Academy was discussed and is being processed. ★ For almost 30 years, the European chapter of the FBINAA has been holding annual retraining meetings across Europe. These can be big affairs in fascinating cities such as Bucharest, Tblisi, and Monaco, but ensuring that individual members get professional value from attendance has always been a concern of organizers. Three years ago the chapter decided to support the creation of a seminar series in which FBI NA graduates can gain access to the most recent academic research into policing policy and practice at an international level. The first of the 2013 series recently concluded in Hitzkirch, Switzerland. Peter Wilson, a graduate of Session 167 in 1991 and former chief constable of Fife Constabulary in Scotland, is the driving force behind the seminar series. The model comes from the successful relationship between the police service in Scotland and 12 universities. The Scottish Institute for Policing Research ( was established in 2007, and one of its successes has been bringing police officers and academics together to discuss topics of mutual interest. The police officers gain an insight into the findings of objective current research into “what works,” and the academics benefit from the practical experience which police officers bring. It is this interaction that Peter Wilson has introduced through a series of seminars that are open to FBI NA graduates, who now number around 400 across 50 European countries. The first session was held in Budapest, Hungary, in 2010, with presentations of research findings on international police leadership, the management of protests, and the policing of international football competitions. The last topic was a revelation to a graduate from Poland, who was soon to be involved in the European Football Championships in 2012 and who was previously completely unaware of international research on the topic. Since 2010, seminars have been held in Scotland, Germany, Slovenia, and Brussels, with an increasing attendance from FBI NA graduates. The first session in 2013 in Switzerland featured presentations on academic research into the interviewing of children, the assessment of perpetrators of domestic violence, and the use of analysts as a police management tool. Delegates attended from Spain, Belgium, England, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, and Switzerland. Police Chief Geert Luypaert from Belgium signed up for the event while still attending Session 252 of the FBI NA. The most senior delegate was for-

mer chapter president Leon Borer, a graduate of Session 139 in 1984. The seminars run for 24 hours and feature three topics. Originally the seminars were described as “knowledge transfer sessions,” but in some policing cultures this can be interpreted as a one-way information flow. Now they are described as “professional development seminars,” which more accurately describes the experience. Peter Wilson identifies the benefits as having two main features. The first is the sharing of knowledge about the research, which has usually been conducted on an international basis. Experience shows that few police officers have access to such findings. The second, and as valuable a benefit, is the sharing of experience across European policing jurisdictions, which may not only assist a police officer commissioning an inquiry in another country but may also help inform an inquiry about a foreign national in his own country. The second session for 2013 is being planned for Poland in the autumn, with invitations to attend being published through the FBINAA Website. FBI legal attachés from European capitals have also been supportive of the chapter and the seminars, and there is invariably a LEGAT in the classroom. Peter Wilson hopes that the Chapter can continue to support this unique opportunity that membership of the FBINAA provides. “There is no other network or forum in Europe that can provide the professional learning and exchange of knowledge which this seminar series offers. Almost 100 officers have so far participated, taking up-todate knowledge back to their agencies and reaffirming the value of a European network that commenced with individual attendance at the National Academy in Quantico.”


Florida: Retired FBI Special Agent Susan A. McNulty, FBI NA Counselor, Session 171, pinned the badge on her nephew Jeffrey J. Finch.

★ At a recent swearing-in ceremony, retired FBI Special Agent Susan A. McNulty, FBI NA Counselor, Session 171, pinned the badge on her nephew Jeffrey J. Finch. Alachua County (Fla.) Sheriff Sadie J. Darnell, Session 168, presided over the ceremony. ★ Florida Department of Law Enforcement Assistant Special Agent in Charge Danny Banks has been promoted to special agent in charge.

As SAC, Banks will oversee all investigative and administrative operations for the ninecounty Orlando region. Banks joined FDLE in July 2000 after a distinguished career with the Orange County (Fla.) Sheriff’s Office. He has been the ASAC of the Orlando Regional Operations Center since October 2007 and was interim SAC of the Ft. Myers Regional Operations Center in 2012. SAC Banks was recognized as the department’s Special Agent of the Year in 2002 and received the Excellence in Leadership Award winner last year. ★ Capt. Leon Terkoski of the Palm Bay (Fla.) Police Department, Session 235, retired Feb. 8, after 26 years of service. Leon had held the position of district commander over one of three patrol districts. He was just recently moved to oversee the investigations division. Leon had an outstanding career with Palm Bay PD and the Chapter wishes him and his wife Karen all the best in retirement. ★ Lt. Diana Blackledge of the Palm Bay (Fla.)

Florida: Palm Beach Sheriff’s Office FBI NA graduates (first row left to right) Maj. Al Musco, Capt. Matt Eisenberg, Det. Craig Hall, Col. Jim Stormes, Capt. Nancy Grimes; (Back row left to right) Lt. Dave Moss, Marty Bechtel, Capt. Paul Miles, Capt. Pat Kenny, Capt. Ron Mattino, Lt. Dave Pervenecki

Police Department, Session 244, was promoted to the rank of captain on March 23. Diana will be assigned as the commander of the investigations division. She has served in many roles in the agency. Her most recent post was in the support services division where she oversaw training, hiring, and the volunteer program. ★ Duncan Young, Session 224, has retired from the Bay Harbor Islands (Fla.) Police Department effective Feb. 14. He has been with Bay Harbor Islands since June 1987 and was promoted to sergeant in March 1990, to assistant chief in October 2002, and chief in July 2007.

IDAHO ★ In March, Lt. Col. Ked Wills, Session 232, was selected as the second in command of the Idaho State Police. Wills began his career with the State Police as a trooper in Burley. He was quickly promoted and worked in several different districts prior to his assignment at headquarters. w w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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CHAPTER CHAT ★ Congratulations to Ralph Powell, Session 191. In March, he was selected by Gov. C.L. “Butch” Otter as the new colonel for the Idaho State Police. Powell began as a trooper in Pocatello and quickly rose through the ranks to the position of lieutenant colonel.

ILLINOIS ★ Chief David Hayes of the Alton (Ill.) Police Department retired on Dec. 31. Capt. Scott Waldrup, Session 229, has assumed command of the department.

KANSAS/WESTERN MISSOURI ★ The Chapter congratulates Maj. Bryon Price, Session 246, and a 27-year veteran of the Kansas City (Mo.) Police Department, on being named as the new chief of the Oak Grove (Mo.) Police Department. Kansas/Western Missouri: Bryon Price, Session 246, was named chief of the Oak Grove (Mo.) Police Department.

LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN ★ On April 4 a commission was selected by Gustavo Montalvo, minister of the president of the Dominican Republic, to reform the National Police. The head of the committee coordinating the reform is retired Col. Julio H. Gautreaux of the National Police, Session 216, who formerly served with the Metropolitan Nashville (Tenn.) Police Department.

Latin America/Caribbean: Retired Col. Julio Gautreaux of the Dominican Republic National Police with the committee members. He is the fifth member pictured at the table.

LOUISIANA ★ The Louisiana Chapter held its 2013 Annual State Re-trainer in Lafayette March 11–13. President Keith Latiola, Session 214; assisted by Karen Breaux Matthews, Session 223; Sheriff Wayne Melancon, Session 142; and all the members from the Acadia Parish Sheriff’s Office hosted the event. The conference was highlighted by valuable training, constructive networking, and great food. The event started with a keynote address by Jay Suire who performed “The Kingfish,” a humorous presentation depicting the life and times of Huey P. Long, U.S. Senator from the State of Louisiana during the 1930s. During this function the following members of the Louisiana Chapter were recognized and presented with their 25-year FBINAA Service

pins: Joseph “Pete” Stout, Session 80; Sheriff Ken Goss, Session 84; Rudy Guillory, Session 90; Chief Felix Loicano, Session 115; Sig Silvie, Session 131; Thomas Powell, Session 136; John Rook, Session 137; George Armbruster, Session 143; Sheriff Wayne Melancon, Session 142; and Donald Sharp, Session 149. The following members were recognized and presented their 20-year FBINAA pins: Sam Zinnia, Session 156; Sue Graham, Session 166; Paul Robert, Session 166; Allen Venable, Session 167; and William “Bill” Boudreaux, Session 172. The training program on the next day included a presentation by Anthony Griggs of the Southern Poverty Law Center on hate and extremist groups. A lunch consisting of spicy jambalaya and salad was served to all of the attendees. The next morning the annual memorial breakfast was held honoring Louisiana FBI NA graduates who have passed on. Following the memorial, additional training was presented by Assistant U.S. Attorney Robert Gillespie. He spoke about strategic ways to combat the harassment and threatening tactics by hate and extremist groups and radical individuals against members of the courts and law enforcement. The retrainer concluded with a business meeting. Prior to the close of business the door prize of a Smith & Wesson M&P 9mm Pistol was won by Allen Venable, Session 167. The pistol was donated to the chapter by David Hensely of Quantico Tactical. The Chapter had the pleasure of Section II Representative Kevin Wingerson from the neighboring state of Texas attending the retrainer. Kevin gave the guys from Louisiana quite a run for their money at the golf tournament on Monday morning. The Louisiana Chapter extends a special thanks to three of the FBINAA partners for their support: • David Hensley of Quantico Tactical • Jeffrey Favitta of Verizon Wireless • John Currie of American Military University

NEW MEXICO ★ Bob Uebelacker, husband of Sally Uebelacker, Session 117, passed away Feb. 15. ★ Bob Duncan, Session 249, has been named chief of the Alamogordo (N.M.) Police Department. The chapter knows he will be successful simply by watching the enthusiasm he brought to his FBINAA attendance.

NEW YORK/EASTERN CANADA ★ Gerald E. McCarthy, Session 107, passed away after a long battle with cancer. Jerry’s camaraderie, friendship, and counsel will be missed by the Chapter. He was the first detec-

tive from the New York City Police Department to attend the National Academy.

OHIO ★ Paul Hartinger, Session 244, was promoted to chief of the Blue Ash Police Department on May 1. ★ Older grads who are still very active in Ohio law enforcement and the Ohio Chapter include: • Charlie Caldwell, Session 98, former chief of the Hunting Valley Police Department is now working at the Lake County Sheriff’s Office. • Chuck Lobello, Session 119, former chief of the Gates Mills Police Department, is now executive director of the non-profit Bluecoats Inc., which supports law enforcement persons in need. • Dwight “Dee” Holcomb, Session 163, former chief of the Upper Arlington Police Department, is now vice president of corporate security at the Columbus Dispatch plus present Ohio Website administrator. • Chris Robertson, Session 163, former captain with the Cincinnati Police Department, is now working with NHTSA Ohio Department of Public Safety. • Rocky Nelson, Session 223, former Union County Sheriff, is now director of the Ohio Organized Crime Investigation Commission. • Richard Greer, Session 156, former chief of the Hamilton County Park Rangers and Steve Vollmar, Session 112, former chief of the Forest Park Police Department are now serving with Tony Dwyer, Session 224, chief deputy of the Butler County Sheriff’s Office and current Ohio Chapter president. • Dave Easthon, Session 131, past National Academy president is the current chief of the Cleveland Clinic Police Department. • John Cresie Jr., Session 197, retired more than a year ago from the Indian Hill Rangers Department and moved to South Carolina. Recently, John realized both these moves were mistakes so he has moved back to Ohio and accepted the chief position for the Butler Township Police Department.

OREGON ★ After 25 years of great service, Commander Marie Tyler, Session 219, will retire on Oct. 1. Marie was an Oregon Chapter past president.

SOUTH CAROLINA ★ Chris Watts, Session 206, has been promoted from captain to chief of the Rock Hill (S.C.) Police Department. ★ Steve Parker, Session 242, has been promoted from patrol captain to major of the field services unit of the Rock Hill (S.C.) Police Department.

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★ Cartha “Deke” DeLoach, who served as deputy director of the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover, passed away March 13. He was a very colorful gentleman who retained his good wit and had so many good stories to tell about his years with the Bureau. He was 92 years old and had moved to Hilton Head Island after retiring.

were Session 251 graduates Steve Lynch of the Bellevue Police Department, Deanna Nollette of the Seattle Police Department, Terry Quintrall of the Arlington Police Department, and Kristi Wilson of the Redmond Police Department.

WASHINGTON ★ The Washington Chapter’s annual holiday luncheon and training session was held on Dec. 6 in Renton. This year’s topic was “Lessons Learned: Covert Gang Investigations” presented by members of the Gilroy (Calif.) Police Department. The Chapter extends its thanks and appreciation to Chief Denise Turner, Session 199; King County Sheriff’s Office ret., Capt. Kurt Svardal; and Sgt. Joseph Deras. The chapter recognized members who recently retired with the presentation of the “Tooke” retirement coin. This year’s recipients were Roger Baker, Session 156; Mitch Barker, Session 200; Jim Collyer, Session 208; Mark Couey, Session 232; Anne Kirkpatrick, Session 203; and Mike Painter, Session 196. Also recognized at the event was the 2012 Youth Leadership Program Delegate, Nicole Miller, who received a chapter plaque and spoke about her experiences at Quantico. Outgoing Chapter President Dale Miller, Session 208, introduced the 2013 Chapter President, George Delgado, Session 227.

Washington: Chapter Vice President Tim Braniff posed with (left to right) Session 253 candidates Jon Law, Dan Hansberry, Scott Szoke, Joe Upton, and Assistant Special Agent in Charge Steve Dean at the Washington Chapter candidate luncheon.

★ Nancy McAllister, Session 243, retired from her position as deputy chief of the patrol bureau for the Port of Seattle Police Department on Jan. 1. Nancy began her law enforcement career with the Port of Seattle PD in 1986, serving as the department’s first female K-9 handler. She was promoted to the criminal Washington: investigations division and Nancy McAllister was assigned to the Green River Homicide Unit. She was promoted to sergeant in 2006, lieutenant in the office of professional accountability in 2007, and deputy chief in 2008.

★ The chapter candidate luncheon was held on March 14, introducing the Session 253 candidates: Dan Hansberry of the Ellensburg Police Department, Jon Law of the Benton County Sheriff’s Office, Joe Upton of the Lacey Police Department, and Scott Szoke of the Spokane County Sheriff’s Office. Also present

★ Dominic Rizzi, Session 238, was appointed chief of the Yakima (Wash.) Police Department last May. Dominic previously served with the Chicago Police Department and retired as district station supervisor. Washington: He also served in the U.S. Chief Dominic Army Military Police in HoRizzi nolulu. Dominic has more than 28 years of law enforcement experience and is one of 17 law enforcement officers in his family.

Washington: Washington Chapter Session 251 graduates (left to right) Deana Nollette, Steve Lynch, Terry Quintrall, and Kristi Wilson attended the chapter candidate luncheon March 14.

★ Steve Sutton, Session 239, was appointed chief of the Lake Forest Park Police Department in March. Steve began his law enforcement career with the Washington State Patrol in 1988 and was promoted to sergeant in 1995. As a sergeant, he supervised the South Seattle

Washington: Youth Leadership Program delegate Nicole Miller received a Washington Chapter plaque and spoke about her experiences at Quantico.

Washington: Chief Steve Sutton

detachment and the commercial vehicle division. He was promoted to lieutenant in 2001 while serving in southeastern Washington, and promoted to captain in 2005 and assigned to create the State Patrol’s new Homeland Security Division in Seattle. His other assignments included district commander for the Olympic Peninsula and the investigative assistance Division. Steve retired from the State Patrol in March 2013. ★ John Turley, Session 233, was appointed chief of the Mattawa (Wash.) Police Department on Jan. 5. John previously retired as undersheriff from the Grant County Sheriff’s Office in 2010. He has extensive law enforcement experience, including 13 years with Grant County and three years with Adams County. John began his law enforcement career in San Bernardino, Calif., in 1989. ★ The Washington Chapter sends condolences and sympathy to the families of Marlo Foster and Keith Haines. • Marlo Foster, Session 90, former chief of the Edmonds (Wash.) Police Department, passed away on Feb. 11 after a 26-year battle with Parkinson’s disease. Marlo began his law enforcement career with Edmonds PD in 1963 and retired in 1984. He took a special interest in working with the state legislature in the drafting and passage of the bill creating the state’s first Law Enforcement Officers and Fire Fighters Retirement System (LEOFFI). Marlo was a past president of the Washington State Law Enforcement Officers Association (WSLEA) and an active member of the Washington State Chiefs of Police and Sheriffs Association, helped create the South Snohomish County central emergency dispatch center, and served as Snohomish County’s first coordinator of emergency services upon retirement from the Edmonds PD. • Keith Haines, Session 176, former chief of the Tukwila (Wash.) Police Department, passed away at his home in Silverdale on March 4. Keith previously served seven years in the U.S. Army as a military police officer and investigator and was later hired by the Ada County Sheriff’s Department in Boise, Idaho. He began his career with Tukwila PD in 1984, rose through the ranks, and retired as chief in 2004. Upon retiring from Tukwila PD, Keith served as regional program manager for the Law Enforcement Defense Data Exchange (DDEX) and the Law Enforcement Information Exchange (LINX). His community service included serving on the board of directors for Special Olympics and working through his church to address homelessness and hunger. Keith also led volunteer teams responding to disasters in the Congo, New Orleans, and Haiti. ■ F B I N A A w w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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MORE THAN A MONTH after the mass murder at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn., seven of the first responding officers to that scene shared their experiences in an article in the New York Times. The horror they witnessed inside those classrooms where 20 children were mercilessly slaughtered is unimaginable even by the standards of police officers who are trained to respond to gruesome scenes ranging from traffic accidents to homicides. “One look and your life was absolutely changed,” Officer Michael McGowan of the Newtown Police Department told the Times. LEISCHEN The officers interviewed for the Times article were very clear that they did not want their personal suffering to be in any way compared to that of the parents of these murdered children, but their pain and indicators of long-term trauma were evident based on their description of the event. Most law enforcement officers would agree that all the training in the world cannot prepare an officer to deal with terrible mental trauma. But are agencies doing enough to address this issue, whether it’s from the routine mayhem and violence that officers witness or from something as horrific as Sandy Hook? Are the mental health services, education, and resources available sufficient and accessible to officers? And are today’s police officers more comfortable seeking such assistance, whether their issues stem from a trauma or simply the daily stress of being a police officer?



However, all the veteran officers interviewed for this article agreed that the availability of mental health services is far better today than it has ever been before.

Shifting Attitudes

CHIEF JOEL HURLIMAN is a graduate of Session 203 of the FBI National Academy and has been with the Shelton (Conn.) Police Department for 35 years, chief for seven. Shelton is a neighboring town to Newtown, so one of Hurliman’s officers responded to the scene at Sandy Hook Elementary. This officer, along with the other responding officers, went through a mandatory debriefing and will S T E LT E R continue to undergo evaluation. Receiving this kind of immediate attention and evaluation after a traumatic incident is a relatively new development in law enforcement. Ronald Hampton, president of the East Coast Gang Investigators Association and graduate of Session 241 of the FBI NA in 2010, has been in law enforcement for 19 years and said that he has seen a dramatic shift in how departments deal with their officers’ psychological and overall health. “I think departments are becoming much more proactive with officers who are involved in traumatic incidents, and they are automatically sending them to go talk to someone,” he says. Chief Hurliman agrees and adds it’s important for chiefs and supervisors to monitor their officers’ behavior closely to identify changes. “If they start exhibiting behaviors—and it doesn’t have to be glaring behaviors, just things that are not normal for that person—it’s the job of the supervisor to notice,” he says. “This could include someone who starts excessively drinking or if there is a change in their demeanor, like they were once easygoing and now they’re tense and short-tempered.” This proactive approach by police agencies is not just isolated to traumatic incidents, either. Issues in officers’ personal lives can impact their health and performance as well. Officer Hampton says that fellow officers are being much more proactive in identifying issues in others. “You are seeing commanders and peers being a lot more vigilant about recognizing those situations,” he says. This shift can be partially attributed to the fact that there is less fear that notifying superiors can jeopardize an officer’s career. While negative career impact certainly remains a factor—as indicated in the results of the Yale University study—seeking mental health or psychological help is much less stigmatized for today’s officer than in the past. In addition, Hampton has noticed that individual officers are doing a better job recognizing their own psychological

Law enforcement agencies are changing their attitudes toward PTSD and providing more mental health counseling for officers.

Police and PTSD A FEW MONTHS BEFORE THE SANDY HOOK SHOOTING, several researchers from the Yale University School of Medicine partnered with the New Haven Police Union, the New Haven Police Department, and local healthcare providers to study mental health issues in law enforcement. Last October they released a report evaluating the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol abuse in police officers as well as the subsequent impact on their productivity. In addition, the study looked at the availability and use of mental health services by law enforcement officers. Among 150 officers who responded to the survey, 24% of them reported PTSD, 9% depression, and 19% of them alcohol abuse. Of those respondents, only 46.7% had ever sought mental health services. The most cited reason for not accessing these services was concern regarding confidentiality and the potential “negative career impact,” according to the report.

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THE TOLL OF TRAUMA symptoms. “In this profession, what you’re seeing on a regular basis from car accidents to homicides hasn’t changed,” Hampton explains. “But officers today are more cognizant that they can’t take these things and put them in the back of their wallets and park them there for a day or a year or a career. They need to be addressed earlier and cops are becoming more perceptive of their own environment.”

Stress Management M ANY OFFICERS TODAY are taking steps to educate themselves on the psychological and mental health issues that they’re likely to face on the job. Mark Bond spent 20 years in law enforcement, with his highest rank being detective sergeant. He is currently an assistant professor of criminal justice at American Military University, a position he’s held for 13 years. One of the courses he teaches is “Stress Management in Law Enforcement,” which covers many of the different incidents that officers are likely to experience including use of deadly force. The course also covers the legal situations officers are likely to be involved in after such an incident as well as the personal stress management techniques they could use to recover after such an incident. Bond begins the class by sharing his experience of being involved in three shooting incidents as a police officer. “When I was involved in my first shooting, I was cleared right away and I wasn’t given any administrative time off. Basically they bought you a beer and told you you were a hero. You had to deal with it all on your own, and there weren’t any department resources, not even a chaplain to talk to,” Bond says. Sharing this with students helps them open up about their experiences as well as prepare them for what to expect as an officer. One of the most important elements of the class is an indepth discussion about the legal process officers can expect to face after an officer-involved shooting. “We talk about the departmental and legal processes they’re likely to face,” Bond says. “When you’re caught up in a lawsuit how do you proceed through that minefield and come out fine?” Unfortunately, officers do not get much training in this area, he says. The stress management course also covers the different phases of grief. Officers need to understand that they are going to experience a roller coaster of emotions including anger and fear, Bond explains. “For everyone the process is different and the techniques they need to get back to their baseline are also different,” he says. Officers need to figure out what stress management techniques work for them and what they need to do to return to their “normal,” he says. Bond believes the relevance and importance of this type of course has proved itself time and time again. He has had several former students contact him years after the class, telling him they were involved in a shooting and so grateful they knew the process and they knew what to expect emotionally after the incident. “They used the techniques and theories we had talked about in class, and they were able to put those into practice to help them work through their issues,” Bond says. “Many reported they were back working after an incident and believed they had recovered faster because they understood what was happening and what resources to seek out.” In the classroom, many students share their stress management techniques with one another. Bond recalls one officer who said every day when he came home from work, before he walked into his house, he would stop at a tree in his front yard and pretend to take off his gun and hang it on the “trouble tree.” By going through these physical motions he was able to

tell himself he was off the job and could transform his mindset to that of husband and father. When he left for work the next day, he would go through the reverse motions by going to the tree, pretending to grab his gun and strap it on, thus putting himself back in the mindset of being a police officer. One thing that comes up often in the classroom is the closed culture of law enforcement, Bond says. Police tend to only be friends with other police officers. However, Bond emphasizes that it’s important for officers not to lose all their civilian friends. “Go fishing with your old school buddy and get away from law enforcement. It can help you learn to turn it off,” he says.

Mental Health Training AS

EAST COAST GANG INVESTIGATORS ASSOCIAHampton presents at many gang conferences throughout the country. He says that he’s been surprised how many attendees are requesting courses and presentations on stress management issues and peer-to-peer counseling courses. Hampton attributes the renewed interest in mental health topics to several factors. The rise in police suicides has forced law enforcement officers and agencies to address this issue and figure out ways to proactively identify officers who may be exhibiting troubling signs. Also, the recent rash of mass shootings by mentally deranged people has triggered a national conversation about mental health, bringing it to light on a larger scale. “It is not possible to prepare officers for everything they might see out there and most departments do the best job they can to address mental health and stress,” Hampton says. PRESIDENT OF THE


Departments Stepping Up M AJ. SCOT HOPKINS of the Frederick County (Md.) Sheriff’s Office is responsible for human resources issues, programs, and policies. He has spent 23 years in law enforcement, graduat-

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ors were not qualified to address law-enforcement trauma. As a result, the department reached out to the military and asked what counseling services they used and ended up contracting with a specialist trained specifically in officer-related trauma. Not all agencies have their own EAPs. The Shelton PD, for example, is a medium-sized department with 54 full-time officers, but like many small and medium departments it does not have a dedicated EAP provider, says Chief Hurliman. While Shelton officers still have access to EAP services, it just may take more time and a few more steps to connect an officer to the necessary resource.


A Continuing Battle

ing from Session 210 of the FBI NA in 2002. Hopkins has been part of managing an early warning system as part of the human resources department. The system notifies supervisors of potential issues based on paperwork submissions. For example, if an officer fills out a crash report and a worker’s compensation form, and the attendance records show he or she is regularly late for work, these three forms, submitted within a certain time frame, trigger a warning alert in the system. Once the alert is triggered, a supervisor will then be notified that there needs to be a discussion with this officer to determine the cause. These three incidents may or may not be related, says Hopkins, but it’s important to have safeguards built into the department. Because these three issues are handled by different internal departments, no one person would be aware that an officer may need additional attention without this kind of system in place. If it is determined that an officer needs additional services, Frederick County has an employee assistance program (EAP) with a team of medical and counseling staff. These services can help officers deal with stress, depression, financial issues, marital troubles, and other issues, and it is free and confidential. When asked how often this service is used, Hopkins says he will never know since the department is not contacted when officers seek these services. While Frederick County officers do not face the same volume of daily traumatic incidents as large, metropolitan forces, they do experience their fair share of traumatic incidents. For example, in 2009 a man in Frederick killed his wife and three young children. After that incident, the department sent responding officers to the county EAP to be evaluated and cleared. However, what they discovered was that while EAP services were extremely helpful for officers going through tough life situations like divorce or financial issues, counsel-

M ANY DEPARTMENTS AND INDIVIDUAL OFFICERS have acknowledged the need to address mental health and psychological issues in law enforcement. For today’s officers, there are many more resources available to help them cope with an array of issues and there’s also less stigma associated with seeking that assistance. Departments must continue offering training opportunities, guidance and awareness about mental health issues, stress management techniques, and available resources. Also, more research needs to be done about this subject. Reports like the one from Yale University provide insight and information about mental health issues in law enforcement and keep the issue on everyone’s radar. While those interviewed for this article agreed with the majority of the report, some did contest part of its findings. The report concludes that mental health conditions are prevalent among police officers. However, Officer Hampton says he disagrees with the use of the word “prevalent,” which he defines as being extremely common and widespread and is too strong of a word to describe mental health issues in law enforcement. “I do not believe mental health conditions are prevalent,” he says. “Such conditions are certainly existent, but I would disagree that they are ‘prevalent.’” Chief Hurliman believes the report’s findings of alcohol abuse in law enforcement are likely too low. The Yale University report found that alcohol abuse is very high among police officers (19%). Based on Hurliman’s experience in both the military and law enforcement, he knows many of his peers have turned to alcohol as a way to deal with their stress. He also knows that alcohol abuse is not something people willingly report. And above all, departments, police leaders, and individual officers must continue reaching out to each other. They must remain vigilant about looking for signs and symptoms in one another that may indicate stress or trauma. “I think we do still take care of our own and we recognize that we only hurt them if we don’t help them,” says Hampton. For an informative, at-a-glance resource on recognizing symptoms of officer stress, request American Military University’s Officer Stress Management Visor Card at https://degrees., available free of charge to law enforcement agencies. ■ F B I N A A Leischen Stelter is a senior coordinator of social media integration for the public safety team at American Military University who is pursuing a master’s degree in emergency and disaster management from AMU. She writes articles about issues and trends relevant to professionals in law enforcement, fire services, emergency management, and national security. Visit Leischen’s blog, In Public Safety, to read columns and commentary of interest to public safety professionals. You can also follow her on Twitter @AMUPoliceEd and on Facebook.

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I BECAME A POLICE OFFICER IN 1993. The academy I applied for and was accepted into was stringent—one of the last of the hard-line schools designed by World War II vets in the late 1940s and continued in that fashion by Vietnam vets. My academy was set up to be basically identical to a military boot camp, which had developed by then into an effective psychological preparation for combat. Early mornings, late nights, exposure to the often unpleasant realities of policing, it was demanding and testing. You were broken down and built back up. The training we received created future officers that were for the greater part very comfortable in a paramilitary environment, very disciplined, very proud. It produced dedicated, loyal, and capable personnel to staff an agency whose personnel had traditionally covered a great deal of territory alone. It also engendered and reinforced a work ethic and a self-sufficiency that would be necessary for a successful career in the field. Historically, successful police officers are men and women of a different skein—they may or may not want to “make a difference,” but they certainly want to do something different, something that matters. They are fully prepared to put their lives on the line each day, every day, for their communities and their country. This is no joke, nor is it hyperbole. They are willing to do this every single day. For more than 20 years until retirement. This is not a four-year active duty hitch, which might involve two to three tours in a combat zone. In the police service, every day is spent in a potential combat zone, and we do it for 20 to 25 years consecutively, with no break for the reserves. We are obligated by virtue of our calling to deal with things, see things, smell things, and touch things that no one else in our society is willing to deal with, see, smell, or touch for as long or as routinely as we do. On average there are between 150 and 200 officers killed in the line of duty every year, and this has been the case for decades. The “KIA” rate in American policing exceeds that of the armed services during our 10-year-plus Global War on Terror that began in 2001. But the average American is not aware of this, or more likely views it as exaggeration. For those of us who are called to this career, it is no exaggeration. It is our reality, and it takes a real toll on our lives, our families, and our health. Our neighbors and acquaintances and society are completely fascinated by our profession. People may not have what it takes to be a cop, but they love to read about it or live it vicariously through TV or the movies. And of course they love to criticize it. In America, police work simultaneously arouses admiration, fascination, and a very deep suspicion that borders on, and can cross into, outright animosity. The point I am getting at is there was a time when it was enough to be a man or woman willing to sacrifice so much,

maybe everything, any day at any time, including one’s life or health, for a middle class salary and a decent pension to do a job that no one else was willing to do for the best part of your life. There was a time when it was enough to expect police officers to do their duty, to handle calls and resolve crises professionally, to investigate thoroughly, to be fair, to use good judgment, to be honest, and to be brave. In short, you could expect an officer to have a work ethic, to abide by it, and to be effective in spite of liability- and legality-driven obstacles or challenges. Officers were not expected to prevent crime completely. That was the role of schools and parents, of programs designed to develop functional members of society and to establish the rules. The police officers were the big sticks of deterrence, and were expected to respond to and resolve problems. An officer enforced the rules and made sure things stayed in hand. All of this changed somewhere between 1993 and today. In the intervening 20 years there has been a paradigm shift in what’s expected of police officers as well as a major impact on the management and leadership philosophies within agencies to accommodate those changes. Passed into history are the or-

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ganizations that rewarded beat or patrol cops who knew everyone, knew everything, and understood that their role was a precarious one that balanced law and order with deterrence and societal expectations, and who took that role seriously and earnestly. Gone are the days where street-level officers could take the time to develop relationships in the community and establish themselves as positive community leaders and mentors to help make effective change. Though the 1990s saw a brief rebirth of this concept through “community policing,” which was very effective in its application, even that notion has become over-bureaucratized and now lacks the real strength and effectiveness it was intended. “Community policing” is now more of a conference room buzzword than a true street-level strategy to effect real change in crime ridden areas.

Crime Accountants THE TRUTH IS most police agencies today are more comparable to big business than to the military or anything else in regards to functionality and management. We have begun to deny our


Data-driven management and the rise of CompStat have resulted in the erosion of dynamic leadership in American policing.

eminently successful and more effective community, paramilitary, and apolitical roots in favor of big business CEO paradigms and leadership training because it makes us appear to be more “professional” and somehow legitimate. The truth is that quantitative analysis and attempts at sterile empiricism have become the modern approach to law enforcement, replacing dynamism and qualitative policing, and this model is failing. We have become crime accountants and statisticians in a world that needs its crusaders back badly. I recently saw a quote from a chief of a “progressive” midsized police department in my state who made a remarkable statement to a local reporter, and did it without any trace of embarrassment or regret whatsoever. “Working for our agency is just like working at WalMart” is basically what he said. The context was the issue of accountability, but the point was made, and therein lies the real issue. Here in black and white is the paradigm of the “new” police manager or leader, and the blueprint for success in the police world. Everything can be measured and everything can be controlled. Empirical output and statistical analysis defines w w w.f b i n a a.o r g

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Quid pro Quo IF YOU DOUBT THIS, realize that there are a number of police agencies in the United States that operate on a “performancebased” budget. This is basically a “quid pro quo” financial arrangement where whoever holds the purse strings for a law enforcement agency—whether it is a city council, a county commission, or a state legislature—has a list of performance expectations (“numbers”) correlated to budgetary allocations. Come budget consideration time, the agency is graded (“budgeted”) largely based upon performance in comparison with this list. If the agency meets these activity expectations, there is generally no problem with the budget as long as it is fiscally viable. If they do not meet these numerical expectations, the executive managers of the agency begin “the dance.” The “dance” is a jerky ballet of excuses, explanations, and the placing of blame and “accountability” for failure. Generally, like all things in this type of ineffective management design, the accountability does not stop with an executive. It rolls downhill and woe to those in its path. Everyone becomes a tin siding salesman, trying to convince corporate that things may not look good right now, but a big sale is just over the horizon. “Expectations” and “performance” in this context are comprised of numbers. Numbers of arrests, numbers of citations, numbers of crashes, numbers of burglaries, numbers of homicides, numbers of rapes. Numbers. There is very little concern given to the qualitative results of police work, and in my experience generally this topic is not one that is encouraged in these discussions. Gone seem 16 M A Y / J U N E

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to be the days when police agencies were simply budgeted as required because every human society needs effective police agencies and effective police agencies need sufficient operating budgets to serve their communities.

CompStat Rules All MODERN POLICE BUDGETING AND MANAGEMENT has become an exercise in statistical analysis, manipulation of data, CompStat presentations, and control. It is about numbers. In essence, police departments in this kind of setting receive no different treatment in budgeting consideration than the motor vehicle division or state parks. It is not about public safety or what the men and women of the agency actually put on the line for their society. It is about the numbers they produce. But what about street-level police work? What has the dayto-day police officer’s job become because of this? Police work, always an emotionally, physically, and psychologically challenging field of endeavor, has now become inundated with numbers. Numbers mean everything, and they define everything. It could be a simple data sheet showing what an officer “produced” during a tour on a shift, or perhaps it is a complex “points system” designed to evaluate an officer’s “productivity” for a given period. Of course, we avoid the term “quota” at all costs, but we all know there is no functional difference. One just sounds more professional and therefore more palatable to the public. Regardless, you can be certain that there is a minimum threshold of acceptability, a level of activity developed by a mid-level manager that every officer must achieve in order to ensure compliance with a “performance standard” that was also developed by a mid-level manager under pressure from executive levels to keep everyone working and accountable. The common term for this is quota. The sterilized management term has become “performance standards.” In either case, not achieving it results in progressively severe discipline. All of this is bureaucratic wheel spinning at its finest. It is management behind numbers, which is for the inept and the unimaginative. Data-driven performance standards, quotas, progressive discipline, and an overall fear of punishment for lack of performance and output have taken the place of the dynamic and innovative police work that was once the hallmark of American policing. PHOTO: ©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM

the value of the employee, the project, the initiative, the effort, and the agency. Law enforcement has become a product. And like all products, it requires significant management. This begs the question, how can one measure a police officer’s work product? Is police work inherently empirical or is it intangible and unable to be neatly quantified? Can a police officer’s activity data or project data be seen as the true measure of effectiveness in our communities? There is a real gray area here and there is probably some combination of approaches that would be more successful. But the reality is that it does not matter because the dogs are out of the gate. Police work is big business now; it is no longer just a simple, honorable, and incredibly dangerous public service. It is quantification. It is data extrapolation. It is analysis and, more frequently, inertia of impact. It is inestimably more complicated, stressful, and time consuming to be a police manager today than even 20 years ago due to the herculean responsibilities of bureaucratic notions of availability, motivation, accountability, morale, and where the buck stops for each. We are much more similar today to bank managers than to combat leaders, more like a department store division director than we are to Capt. Frank Furillo on the 1980’s TV show “Hill Street Blues.” Our success and prowess is dependent on our ability to manage or produce numbers, not on an honest evaluation of our agency’s impact in its community. We have lost our focus on our mission and our calling.

Working the Assembly Line I LIKE TO COMPARE POLICE WORK over the past 15 years to an assembly line, which is what in reality it has become. Each of our officers is required to screw a certain number and type of nut on a certain number of bolts as the contraption passes by. All the officers know that if they do not screw on a certain number of nuts, they will be in trouble. If they cannot keep up with their quotas, they will be disciplined progressively until their jobs may be in jeopardy. So they screw on the nuts as fast and as best they can because that is the job and they are always aware that their bosses are behind them, frowning and counting the nuts as they go. Those officers that consistently screw on more nuts than re-


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quired get plaques and are recognized as exceptional employees and become the “example” for the others. Those that do not meet expectations are eventually transferred or even fired. So the majority of officers, watching all of this, settle in for the long haul. They lose their enthusiasm quickly and learn to become anonymous. They learn to do the bare minimum required to keep their jobs and nothing more; doing more generates expectations and doing less generates punishment. So, they just show up and screw nuts on bolts. The kicker is that like workers on an endless assembly line none of these officers have any idea what they are actually building.

All About the Numbers WHAT IS MISSING HERE seems to be any emphasis whatsoever on qualitative efforts or results on productivity and on a fundamental respect for the willingness of these men and women to serve our country in such a dangerous way. Our only concern is activity, and activity for activity’s sake just to produce numbers to put on a data sheet is not policing. It is not leadership. It does not control crime, traffic, or any other law enforcement issue in our communities. It is a stultifying paradigm and it is not working. This is the criminal justice version of outcomebased education. Modern police work is about producing numbers and not about producing results. It is all about activity, as opposed to productivity. Like all ineffective management models, it is defined by demands and expectations of control where none exists. The police business is no longer about the individual police

officer trying to make a difference in his or her community or about real and effective police work, except incidentally as it occurs as a means to an end. It is no longer about the intangible and powerful effect of a good police officer in a struggling community doing good things, presenting a positive example of authority and personal responsibility, or getting out there and creating change. It is about numbers. It is about the appearance of productivity. It is a politicized process, a professionally corrupt model of data and statistical manipulation and ineffectual leadership, and ladies and gentlemen it is failing miserably. One of the most frustrating aspects of this entire paradigm for mid-level police managers—or perhaps any level of police management save executive levels—is the stubborn demand for “leadership.” Executive levels of police agencies that operate under this new paradigm will still clamor for “dynamic leaders” or for “dynamic leadership” in the field. The paramilitary character of law enforcement has always put a premium on the ideal leaders—the combat leaders, the field leaders, the operational leaders that people will follow because they are confident, they have the ability, they have charisma. The problem is there is no room for any kind of dynamic leadership in an empirical and statistically driven endeavor. A truly dynamic leader is smothered there in an environment that is saturated with bureaucracy, statistics, forms, data manipulation, and the slippery notion of “accountability.” What executives in this kind of environment require are pedantic taskmasters. They need managers. Managers will always do the thing right and hold the correct people accountable in the correct way with the correct form and the correct

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documentation. That is what they do. The unfortunate reality is that in this kind of environment—in an organization that operates in this new paradigm—the real and effective leaders inside the organization will either separate and never attempt to reach higher levels of management, or they will work to achieve promotion to try to make effective change, where they are more than likely only to be bureaucratically punished for their efforts. Leaders in this kind of organization are identified simply as those who are able to consistently get their subordinates to screw the most nuts on the most bolts in lieu of punishment. Police management in many of these kinds of organizational cultures has basically become based on fear or punishment for not complying. There is no dynamism or leadership in punishment. An obvious culprit here is CompStat and the organizational culture it has engendered in so many agencies. CompStat was developed as an operational tool to assist law enforcement agencies in identifying problem trends and to evaluate the strategies and tactics used to impact them. CompStat is the process of collecting data and information regarding the number of calls for a particular service in an area, the number of arrests associated with that crime in that area, and a comparison of the effects of police operations in that area. The problem with CompStat is not its efficacy as an operational tool, but rather in its application and the evolution of its role in police management and the organizational cultures it has produced. It has worked so well and is so universally accepted that it grew from an innovative operational concept to



a management philosophy and finally to a virtually inflexible management maxim. CompStat is no longer a tool. It is the tool. The critical issue here that impacts us today is that CompStat is not a management tool. It is an operational concept. But its usage gave law enforcement an air of legitimacy and professionalism, using data and analysis to enforce the law and combat crime. There is a fundamental and significant difference between the two, but the difference has been lost somewhere in the layers upon layers of bureaucracy that have been built up around the concept of CompStat as a management philosophy—policing by data.

The Banker’s Mindset THE OVERARCHING ISSUE is that the CompStat management philosophy has inadvertently created and continuously reinforces our current bureaucratically attractive but operationally illusive notion of control through data. Numbers became the measure of police effectiveness. Police executives and manag-


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ers—as well as the public in general, including legislatures, city councils, county commissions, and budgetary entities everywhere— have come, through the implementation of CompStat and its offspring management theory, to believe the impossible: namely that the police can actually somehow control criminal trends, and this control is somehow reflected in data output. Data analysis, numerical output, activity, productivity, all reflected in performance standards soon became the new managerial paradigm in American policing. Before CompStat and the “banker’s mindset” approach to policing, law enforcement was just that—enforcement—which is, as it implies, a mainly reactive but historically very effective role of reaction, response, investigation, and apprehension of offenders to keep society’s gears turning with a sense of accountability for wrongdoing and a sense of justice. Police departments formed an active and capable deterrent. Officers were evaluated based on their impact in their communities, their professionalism with handling calls and investigations, and their effectiveness in dealing with crises and the public. However, with CompStat and data-driven analytical policing, this is simply no longer the case. Officers exist to generate numbers in order to justify their existence and to justify their agency’s operating budget. When activity meets executive expectations, there are no issues; when activity lags, there is accountability. That is the reality of police work today. This notion of performance-based standards or evaluative measures based almost exclusively on statistical data is a failure. It has replaced innovation, desire, passion, and dedication with automatons that screw nuts on bolts. It is police man-

agement by numbers and statistics and there is no emphasis on effective mid-level or executive leadership. There is also no emphasis on real community impact or fundamental issues of job satisfaction in a career that is more fraught with dangers, health concerns, or longevity than any other known to man. We are well on our way to forgetting that behind every set of numbers and data is a person who decided he or she would strap on a bullet-resistant vest and pin on a badge and put his or her life on the line that day. There is simply no reward for being a police officer in this kind of environment. It creates a stultification of effort, a smothering of innovative and effective police work. It puts a premium only on empirical data in quantity as opposed to quality effort, commitment to communities, and real change. It is a management shell game. This needs to change. We need to bring back dynamic leadership and a fundamental faith and belief in what we are doing in our communities. The answer is not work quotas for performance standards or evaluations or progressive discipline that smothers morale and creates automatons. The answer is not the bureaucratic data shell game. The answer lies in recapturing those organizational cultures and bringing back and encouraging those working environments where officers can flourish and innovate and make a difference. The answer lies in creating a work environment where officers choose to motivate themselves. It is time we shut down the assembly line and start building something better. ■ F B I N A A Stephen R. Libicer is a graduate of FBI NA Session 236.

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Updating an antiquated hiring process to find better candidates who complete the field training program has allowed the Palm Beach (Fla.) Police Department De D Dep ep part arrrttm a men me en e nt to to save sa ave av vve e the the city th ciity itty t y thousands tho thous th ous ou uss a and an nd n d dss of of dollars d do o time and equipment. iin n ttim ti im e a im nd eq nd e equ quipm qu ip pm p me ent en ntt. n

Hiring the


In 2012 the Palm Bay (Fla.) Police Department began to see a trend in which newly hired police officers were not successfully completing the field training program. Initially, the field training officer (FTO) program itself was examined to determine if this was the cause. Although the FTO program was in a transition of leadership and several of the field training officers had minimal experience, it was determined this was not the cause. Rather, the rate of failure had more to do with the applicants who were being selected than the training they received.

Changing the Process THE PALM BAY PD had been using an antiquated hiring process that had been in place for more than 10 years. The process consisted of an old video-based screening product and an informal interview process, which led directly to a conditional offer of employment. This process left many unanswered questions that could only be addressed once the applicant was hired and immersed in the field training program. Applicants that did not successfully complete the program cost the city thousands of dollars in time and equipment. Palm Bay PD Chief Doug Muldoon challenged his staff to examine the hiring process and suggest improvements. The goal was to ensure that the applicants selected had exceptional moral character and a high probability of successfully completing the FTO program. Muldoon and his training staff determined three things needed to occur: the department needed a more contemporary testing system to initially screen applicants; the initial inter-

view needed to be formalized and rated; an additional phase was needed in which applicants’ performance could be observed, compared, and rated prior to receiving a conditional offer of employment.

A New Test THE FIRST PHASE of the process was testing qualified applicants using a contemporary validated police testing tool. The department looked at a number of products and chose the Front Line National Test for Law Enforcement from Ergometrics and Applied Personnel Research Inc. ( frontline-entry.cfm). This particular test rates applicants on a number of key law enforcement dimensions using primarily up-to-date video-based simulation. These dimensions include: ★ Observation/Assessment/Critical Thinking Ability ★ Interrogation/Investigative Communication Ability ★ Team Orientation ★ Written Communication ★ Confrontation/Initiative in Enforcement ★ Restraint in Use of Authority ★ Ethical Orientation ★ Ability to Understand and Help with Human Distress ★ Organizational Orientation ★ Customer/Community Relations Skills Another benefit of this system is the cost. The agency paid a $150 setup fee and each applicant is charged $30 to take the exam. Although the actual charge for the test and results is $28, the additional $2 helps offset the setup fee and administrative costs. The city did, however, agree to waive the charge

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for those applicants who meet certain financial requirements. One unintended benefit of this process has been that only serious applicants apply.

Hiring Time ONCE THE FIRST PHASE of updating the Palm Bay PD’s hiring practices was complete, the training staff was tasked with reviewing the results of the written tests as well as the applications and prescreeners turned in by each applicant. The purpose of this process was to look for obvious disqualifiers such as drug use or criminal history. Those applicants who move on to the second phase are interviewed by a panel of three sworn personnel. The questions used during the interview phase are consistent, open-ended, and rated on a scale of one through five. To ensure rating consistency, each panel member is required to be within one point. For example, if one interviewer scores a candidate a four and another interviewer scores the same candidate a two, both interviewers are required to discuss the reasons for their scores and determine if the two should be changed to a three or if the four should be changed to a three. The interview is not binding. If an applicant does very poorly during this phase, he or she can be eliminated from the process. The third phase is a performance-based evaluation and consists of basic firearms qualification and three realistic scenarios a police officer is likely to encounter. Prior to implementation, this phase was reviewed and approved by the city’s legal staff. During the firearms qualification, gun handling skills are assessed and rated as well as the number of rounds on target. The scenarios portion of the evaluation consists of a domestic violence situation, a suicidal subject, and a traffic stop. These scenarios are the bread and butter of this process. Raters get to observe how the applicants communicate, interact, and perform in “real life” situations. The scenarios are carefully scripted to match the capabilities of a basically trained police recruit and the role players are carefully selected. The ap-

plicants in this phase are rated one through five in the following areas: ★ Officer Safety ★ Perception/Judgment ★ Verbal Communication ★ Directing Others ★ Problem Solving/Decision Making ★ Field Performance: Stress ★ Control of Conflict: Verbal ★ Control of Conflict: Physical ★ Adaptability ★ Investigative Skills ★ Criminal Statutes ★ Traffic Laws Once the third phase is complete, the three raters decide— based on all the information, observations, and scores compiled—which applicants will receive a conditional offer of employment. Those who receive this offer are then required to successfully complete a thorough background investigation, including a polygraph exam, psychological exam, and medical exam. The final step rests with the chief, who makes a decision based on the information provided and an interview with the applicant if deemed necessary. No hiring process will guarantee that every applicant who is hired will be successful. However, the Palm Bay PD believes that using contemporary testing tools, interacting with prospective applicants, and implementing a performance-based evaluation increases the probability dramatically. ■ FBINA A

Capt. Mark Renkens has served with the Palm Bay (Fla.) Police Department since November 1989. He is currently assigned to the support services division. In 2010 he earned his master’s degree in the administration of justice and security from the University of Phoenix after winning a full scholarship through the FBINAA. He is a graduate of Session 212 of the FBI National Academy and the Senior Management Institute of Police.

Through the scenarios portion of Palm Beach (Fla.) PD’s new hiring process, raters get to observe how the applicants communicate, interact, and perform in “real life” situations.

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HERE HAVE BEEN TIMES IN MY LIFE when I became very dis-

couraged. I’m sure most of you have experienced these times. Perhaps your career isn’t advancing as quickly as you had expected. You may have exhausted all of your leads on a major case without results. Maybe your children have disappointed you in some way. You may be dealing with financial problems, health problems, or even a relationship that doesn’t seem to be working. There are so many ways that we can become discouraged. I recently read a very interesting story about a man who experienced discouragement in his life. His name is Willie Mays, a man who many baseball fans consider to be the best player of all time. Willie joined the New York Giants in 1950 as an amateur free agent. He had played well with minor league teams and it was expected that he would be great in the majors. However, in his first 26 times at bat he only had one hit. One day, after getting no hits in a game, it was reported to his coach, Leo Durocher, that Willie was in the clubhouse in tears. He had become so discouraged that he felt he should be sent back to the minors. Coach Durocher had a talk with Willie that day. He said, “Willie, you will be my center fielder as long as I am coach of the New York Giants; you are the best center fielder I have ever seen.” What an encouraging statement. The rest of the story is history. Willie went on to play 23 seasons in the major leagues, first with the New York Giants, then the San Francisco Giants, ending his career with the New York Mets when he played his last game on Sep. 9, l973. During his career Willie racked up 660 home runs, 3,283 hits, 2,000 runs scored, 7,000 outfield putouts, and 300 stolen bases. He also played in 24 all-star games, and received two MVP awards and 12 golden glove awards. In 1979 he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. What a difference a little encouragement can make. Willie Mays’ talent was always there. His ability was never doubted, except by he himself, and all he needed was the positive encouragement of his good coach to get him back on track. Proverbs 12:25 puts it this way: “An anxious heart wears a man down, but a kind word cheers him up.” A similar statement is found in Proverbs 15:23 “A man finds joy in giving an apt reply—and how good is a timely word!” So, what should you do when you get discouraged? My personal answer and experience has been to get involved in some-

thing that will benefit others; to shift my way of thinking and become more involved in the world around me. The best way to remove discouragement in your life is to become an encourager to others. The word “encourage” means to put courage into, to inspire with courage, spirit, and hope, and to spur on. There are so many ways you can be an encourager. It may be providing comfort and support in someone’s time of need. It may be something as simple as providing assurance or humility. When you start encouraging and serving others, it has a way of removing discouragement from your life. The apostle Paul put it in this context in 1 Corinthians 14:3: “But everyone who prophesies speaks to men for their strengthening, encouragement, and comfort.” So, let me encourage you to become an encourager. You will be amazed at what an impact it will have on the lives of others, but even more amazed at the impact it will have on your personal life. I don’t know who the author of this statement is but it certainly has merit: “Flatter me and I may not believe you. Criticize me and I may not like you. Ignore me and I may not forgive you. Encourage me and I will not forget you.” May God bless you in a special way as you remove discouragement from your life and become an encourager to others. ■ FBINA A

Billy Gibson

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EAR COLLEAGUES, please take the time to view the below

list of dedicated fellow FBI National Academy graduates who have devoted years of their lives (and their families’ lives) to ensure the mission of the FBINAA as association presidents. Please advise if you note any discrepancies in this

information. If you have any interesting memories from the various national conferences that you would like to share, please contact me so I might include them in future issues of the FBINAA Associate. Note that national conferences have not always been held.


National President

Conference Location


National President

Conference Location


Diane Scanga (Mo.)

Grapevine, Texas


Dan Linza (Mo.)

Chicago, Ill.


Matt Raia (Colo.)

Long Beach, Calif.


Stephen Lagomarsino (N.M.) Los Angeles, Calif.


John Kerrigan (Conn.)

Atlantic City, N.J.


Kim Derry (Canada)

Boston, Mass.


Art Baylor (Ala.)

Louisville, Ky.


Sid Mitchell (Kan.)

Milwaukee, Wis.


Grant Harden (Fla.)

Hampton, Va.


Timothy Overton (Ariz.)

Phoenix, Ariz.


George Halverson (Mich.)

Oklahoma City, Okla.


Dave Easthon (Ohio)

Toronto, Canada


Clyde Kaulmann (Calif.)

Salt Lake City, Utah


Mark Willingham (Fla.)

Orlando, Fla.


William Bracke (Ohio)

Cincinnati, Ohio


Ken Ramsey (Ill.)

Kansas City, Mo.


Charles Grant (Va.)

Louisville, Ky.


Nile Carson (Nev.)

Colorado Springs, Colo.


Clarence Hoffman (Mo.)

Milwaukee, Wis.


Walt Corter (N.J.)

Baltimore, Md.


Guy Van Cleave (Colo.)

Denver, Colo.


Marty Keely (Ala.)

Charlotte, N.C.


John Howland (Mass.)



Randy Ely (Texas)

El Paso, Texas


Claude Armour (Tenn.)

No conference held


Chuck Burke (Calif.)

Seattle, Wash.


Bryan Clemmons (La.)

No conference held


Joe Monteith (N.Y.)

Columbus, Ohio


Thomas Redden (Calif.)

No conference held


Robert Hamrick (Ga.)

Atlanta, Ga.


Willie Bauer (Texas)

Kansas City, Mo. Sec I


Bill O'Sullivan (Ill.)

St. Paul, Minn.


Lyle Hesalroad (Colo.)

Las Vegas, N.V.


Paul Olson (Conn.)

Pittsburgh, Pa.


James Keesling (Tenn.)

Birmingham, Ala.

1964-62 Vincent Hurlbut (Conn.)


Al Wagner (Texas)

Ft. Worth, Texas

1962-60 Marvin Lane (Mich.)


Ray Rivera (N.M.)

San Diego, Calif. (Coronado)

1960-57 Harold Dowd (N.J.)


Charles Klafka (N.Y.)

Buffalo, N.Y.

1957-49 Newman Kimbrough (Ala.)


Pat Minetti (Va.)

Norfolk, Va.

1949-47 Clifford Peterson (Calif.)


Julien Gallet (Ill.)

St. Louis, Mo.

1947-41 Walter Anderson (N.C.)


Bill Burke (Calif.)

Colorado Springs, Colo.



Dick Amiott (Ohio)

Cincinnati, Ohio


Edward Hansen (Minn.)


Eugene Barksdale (Tenn.)

Tampa, Fla.


George Callan (N.J.)


J. Warner Wiley (Ind.)

Houston, Texas


Daniel Murphy (Mass.)


Roland Renshaw (Calif.)

Albuquerque, N.M.


James Nolan (N.Y.)


F. Dean Kimmel (N.J.)

Niagara Falls, N.Y.


James Sheehan (Mass.)


I. Byrd Parnell (S.C.)

Nashville, TN

(Canceled by Director Webster)

New York, N.Y. Sec IV 1965-64 J. Preston Strom (S.C.)

Newport Beach, Calif. Sec I Atlanta, Ga. Sec III

William Raney (Tenn.)

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OU DON’T HAVE TO BE A SUPER SLEUTH to notice the growing mountain of evidence linking the amount of time we spend sitting down with major health disturbances such as low back pain and cardio-metabolic diseases. How many of you spend 10 or more hours a day sitting, often for long stretches without interruption? You’re not alone. Think about how physical exertion has been engineered out of your job and possibly your leisure time. Even if you get regular cardiovascular exercise, that may not be enough to protect your heart. This article will highlight some of the unique dangers of sitting as well as evidence-based strategies for reducing your susceptibility to this emerging risk factor. A recent study of adults (average age 65) found that the more time subjects reported sitting, the higher their measured level of fat stored around the heart (pericardial fat). Of all the

places you want to avoid storing fat, it’s around your heart. Additional research has linked pericardial fat with coronary artery blockages, particularly in non-obese individuals. More surprisingly, subjects in this study who exercised regularly but also sat excessively still had higher levels of this troubling pericardial fat. Sitting time, or the absence of whole body movement, has also been linked to unfavorable changes in HDL cholesterol (the good one) and C-reactive protein (an indicator of systemic inflammation). The bottom line is that huffing and puffing three times a week on the treadmill may still not be enough to counteract long sitting times. If you know you’ll be sitting for long periods of time, but you have the ability to stand up and move around, please do so. Employ the “180-degree principle” by doing the opposite actions of what you had been doing. At a minimum, for every hour you spend sitting, reverse it for five minutes by standing up tall and moving around. Stretch out the muscles in the neck, chest, shoulders and hips that are vulnerable to getting tight when seated. None of this requires breaking a sweat or changing into PT gear. When the job calls for you to be seated for extended periods, without opportunities for reversal, your posture becomes your best low-back pain prevention strategy. Seated posture is simply your positioning against gravity, and your focus should be minimizing the strain placed on muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Your goal should be to find a neutral spinal alignment, then maintain that position. Consider using a rolled-up towel behind your lower back to keep proper spacing. It’s also beneficial to keep your feet flat on the Figure 1 – Position yourself at the end of your chair and pretend you’re in a slouching contest. Figure 2 – Now reverse this position, over-emphasizing the normal curvatures of the spine. floor with knees bent at right angles. Keeping your knees at a level even with or higher than your hips assists with lower back positioning. Whenever possible, use the arm rests or the sides of your seat to occasionally extend your arms fully. Also periodically allow your spine to decompress as you spread your chest open and draw your shoulder blades slightly down and together, as demonstrated in Figure 4. Lydia Pozzato, one of our beloved instructors here at the FBI Academy, may have summed up the health concerns related to sitting best during a recent discussion of this topic when she stated that “sitting is the new smoking.” Public health experts are questioning aloud whether there should be specific guidelines to limit sitting and other sedentary behaviors. Let’s get ahead of the curve on this one.






Figure 3 – Ease off from this by about 10 degrees, maintaining these normal curves. This is good seated posture. Periodically, you’ll need to reset this position during extended periods of sitting. Figure 4 – Push downward with your arms to unload the spine as you spread your chest open and retract your shoulder blades. Feels good, huh?

John G. Van Vorst is a health and fitness instructor within the Physical Training Unit at the FBI Academy. He also serves as a defensive tactics instructor for the FBI New Agents Training program. You can e-mail him at

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The Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Administration, Bachelor of Science in Organizational Security and Management, and Master of Science Administration of Justice and Security programs are educational degree programs and do not guarantee that a student will meet the particular requirements or qualifications to become a law enforcement, corrections, or peace officer at the state, national, or international level. Students who are interested in pursuing such professions are encouraged to check with the applicable agencies for a list of requirements. Maryland residents completing undergraduate degree programs will earn an emphasis rather than a concentration in a particular area of study (for example, Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice with an emphasis in Cybercrimes). While widely available, not all programs are available in all locations or in both online and on-campus formats. Please check with a University Enrollment Advisor. Š 2013 University of Phoenix, Inc. All rights reserved. | CJS01885_LE_E_RV1_FBI

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FBI National Academy Associate May/June 2013  
FBI National Academy Associate May/June 2013  

Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates