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RESPONSIVE GEOMETRIES Karachi Circular Railway (KCR) Revival

2 0 1 2 . U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o . M a s t e r o f A r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e s i s ‘Responsive Geometries’ aims to revisit advances in computation and fabrication as a cultural project within the context of Karachi, Pakistan; in an effort to produce formal and tectonic design logic that instill ‘civic memory’, therefore enhancing urban citizenship. It addresses the challenges of design and construction in the construction environments where skilled labor has become a rarity. The project suggests to utilize the surplus workforce of information technology sector into the construction industry. It would enable production of parametric architectural systems that could pay homage to Karachi’s architectural heritage as well as enable unskilled workforce to construct complex structures. This project proposes metro stations at three unique sites, while employing a single architectural system to create complex and performative architectural geometries with an ease of construction.


SALB Station Entrance


KARACHI

KCR + PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION NETWORK KCR Track Current Public Transport Routes

TRACK TYPOLOGIES KCR has 3 different track typologies Intervention Sites KCR Stations Ground Ground Elevated Elevated Trench Trench Proposed AirportLine Connection Airport N Intervention Site KCR Station

Rail Line Typology

2 NNS | North Nazimabad Station

3 GEJ | Gulistan-e-Johar Station

1 SALB | Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai Station

8

KCR Station Ground Elevated 6,5

Design proposal for site 1 is produced in greater detail, while site 2 and 3 are quick design studies.

Intervention Site

12,3

Three different sites (KCR Stations) have been chosen due to their unique track typology. These typologies include an elevated track, a ground level track and an underground track. This difference in sites will test the flexibility of proposed building system.

6

5

Karachi Circular Railway + 3 Sites

Karachi Circular Railway (KCR) came under operation in1969 but was discontinued in 1999 due to administrative mis-management and government negligence. As of 2009 a plan to revive KCR was put forward. Responsive Geometries builds upon the 2009 KCR Revival Plan, using it as a framework for new architectural exploration. As part of a public infrastructure, KCR stations are the perfect site to conduct cultural and architectural design experiments.

Rail Typology Site 1:Line Elevated

BB

21,6

Trench

Site 2: Ground

Site SectionSite 3: Trench

Proposed Airport Connection 8

N

1:200


Building System

A

B

G

H

C

D

I

E

J

K

F

12m x 3m

l

6m x 3m

BUILDING COMPLEXITY IN UNSKILLED ENVIRONMENT Over the past three decades Karachi has seen poor economic development, scretarian violence and increase in crimes. This has led to flight of human capital to Arab and European countries. The shortage of skilled labour as well as trained design professionals has partly resulted into stagnation of architectural development.

A-C

Precast beams are stacked, rotated (on z-axis) and mirrored (on y-axis)

D-F

How does decline in skilled labour - due to lack of skill training and export of labour - effects architectural design practices

A cross shaped male/female plug allow the beams to snap in place for vertical stack. The female plug is rotated at a constant degree increment to create ruled surface. Rebar is added further to reinforce the beam stack.

G-J

How can advancement in digital computation and fabrication help address issues of architectural design, construction and urban citizenship?

A circular plug system allow the beams to be stacked and rotated at a variable degree increment which helps create hyperbolic geometry. A guide line can be etched on each beam for ease of construction.

K-L

The precast beams are transported to construction site, limiting the beam dimensions to standard truck bed size.


1. SALB | Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai Station

SITE CONTEXT

PROGRAM + SITE DESCRIPTION Currently a ground level track runs through the narrow railway corridor sandwiched between the industrial units. The 2009 KCR Revival Plan has proposed to elevate the track for road traffic mitigation. The current light and heavy industrial landuse is transitioning to light industrial and residential. Therefore the program and station design anticipates increase in local population and possible building-use demands. SALB Station is designed to have a market area on the ground floor that extends out into a linear park area. The upper floor holds the railway platform and mechanical rooms. Station entrance is located on either side of the street with various entrances/exits from the ground floor market.

SALB Station KCR Stations KCR Line Bus Stops Car Route

200m


SALB Station Bird’s-eye View

SITE PHOTOS


Record

Temperature

One & 1/2 Bay

22.2 Average

SALB Beam Design

30

0

Solar Orientation

N

Roof Beams

Roof Beams

a The 600mm beams are shaped to help articulate sunlight; protect from heat and attenuate noise.

Platform

Platform

Track Beams

Track Beams

b The outside face of the beam is cut away to better modulate light, this allows for the interior to get brighter without direct sunlight.

Structural Arches - Built using variable rotation method

Track Beams

Structural Wall - Built using constant rotation method

Structural Wall

c The Inside face of the beam is shaped to help attenuate excessive interior noise.


SALB Platform


Plans & Sections

Section A 1:200

SALB metro station bridges over a major street while connecting both ends of the railway corridor. The building is configured to have station entrances from the street and market entrances from the sides. The market opens into a proposed linear park strategy that covers the length of the railway corridor. Section C Short Sections

Section B

Elevation

Long Section

A 1:200

2nd Floor Mechanical Room

Mechanical Room

Mechanical Room

Mechanical Room

First Floor Plan

First Floor Plan

1st Floor

Kiosks

Concession Stand

Tickets

Concession Stand

Tickets

Kiosks

Office

Office

Office Office

Service

Office Tickets

Office

Market

Service

Storage Market

A

Storage

Storage Market

Kiosks

Office

Office Service

Kiosks Tickets

A

Storage

Concession Stand

Service

Concession Stand

B

C

B

C

Market


SALB Entrance


Section Model


Section Model


2. NNS | North Nazimabad Station

SITE CONTEXT

PROGRAM + SITE DESCRIPTION This site is located in mid-town Karachi, where a ground level track runs through the railway corridor. The land-use consists of residential bungalows with high density residential towers along the major arterial roads. These towers also include commercial units on the ground floor. This site is also adjacent to pockets of high-density un-planned housing. Since North Nazimabad station is designed to be a quick study, no additional building program has been included.

SALB Station KCR Stations KCR Line Bus Stops Car Route

100m


NNS Entrance

32

33


am

NNS Beam Design

Beam Aggregation 5

4

3

2

1

RECURSIVE GEOMETRY + PERFORMANCE NNS station contains five types of beam that are designed to have triangular openings. These openings sub-divide themselves into finer triangles as the beam type progresses towards the top. These five different beams are aggregated to have a gradient from top to bottom - going finer to coarser grain respectively. The finer grain of openings at the top allow for the structure to act as a rain screen and give shelter from hot sun. The coarser/larger openings at the bottom allow for daylight to come through during the morning and evening, as well as enables better ventilation. Inside the waffled structure acts to attenuate excessive noise from the trains.


NNS Platform


Plans & Sections

Short Sections

Long Section

Elevation

a Roof Plan

c

b


Section Model


3. GEJ | Gulistan-e-Johar Station

SITE CONTEXT

PROGRAM + SITE DESCRIPTION This site is located in on the periphery of Karachi, where a subterranean track runs through Gulistan-e-Johar providing access to 3 stations. The land-use consists of residential bungalows with high density residential towers along the major arterial roads. These towers also include commercial units on the ground floor. Since Gulistan-e-Johar station is designed to be a quick study, no additional building program has been included.

SALB Station KCR Stations KCR Line Bus Stops Car Route


GEJ Platform


GEJ Exterior

Site 3 Beam

GEJ Beam Design

GEOMETRY + PERFORMANCE A single beam design has been used that is carved on the inside and it remains bare on the outside. The beams are stacked with an offset position on every other beam. This helps attenuate excessive noise inside the station. The lack of exterior openings helps avoid automobile pollution from adjacent streets that otherwise would settle down in the trench.


Plans & Sections

Short Section

Long Section

Roof Plan


Section Model


Other Explorations


Steel Cables

Concrete Frame

Concrete Structure

Structural Strategy

Light Modulator Noise Baffle Rain Screen

Panel Layers

Structural Frame

Panels


Panel Strategy


Thesis - Responsive Geometries