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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

Presented by Group ‘tho’ MSS, 2nd Semester Session- 2010-2011

Institute of Social Welfare and Research University of Dhaka October, 2012 1


Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

Supervised by Dr. M. Rezaul Islam Associate Professor Institute of Social Welfare and Research University of Dhaka

Institute of Social Welfare and Research University of Dhaka October, 2012 2


Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

Presented by Group ‘tho’ MSS, 2nd Semester Session- 2010-2011 Course no- 03

Name list of the group members Name Class Roll Exam Roll Shorif Ahmed 518 1749 Swaraj 589 1756 Chakraborty Nahida Afroz 575 1770 Farzana Akhter 543 1790 Mallick Sadiquar 592 1801 Rahman

Institute of Social Welfare and Research University of Dhaka October, 2012 3


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Acknowledgements We want to show our humble gratitude and gratefulness to our supervisor Dr. M Rezaul Islam, honorable Associate Professor of ISWR, University of Dhaka, without whose supervision and guidance it was quiet impossible for us to complete the entire research without his help. We want to remember the respondents of the research who has showed interest in this regard and provided required information. We are grateful to them for their cooperation and valuable time. We have taken help from various books; we have also used our library and computer lab as well. We are grateful to the librarians and other stuff members. We have taken help from various journals, books and periodicals during the research. We are showing our humble gratitude to author of those.

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Abstract Today’s child is the future citizen of a country. Physical, mental and psychological developments are very important for the future of a child. Thus child care deserves great importance as it is the key for the entire growth of any child. Child care is very important from the states point of view as well, as the development of any country depends largely on the children of a country. On the other hand, globalization is a very important and significant topic. It is influencing the entire child care system. Particularly the changes are very acutely seen in the urban area. This research attempts to identify the changes that are occurred due to globalization in the urban areas particularly in Dhaka city. The objective of the study was to identify the change and its impact on the child care due to globalization. This study used FGD method for data collection to acquire the qualitative data. The findings show that the nature of child care in urban areas is highly influenced by the globalization.

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Contents Subject

Page number

Acknowledgements

1

Abstract

2

Chapter One 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Introduction Significance of the Study Research Objectives Methodology of the Study Limitations of the Study Organization of the Paper

Chapter Two Conceptual Framework: Literature Review 2.1 Globalization 2.2 Child care 2.3 Child care in urban areas

Chapter Three 3.1 Findings and analysis of data

Chapter Four Case studies 4.1 Case-1 4.2 Case-2 4.3 Case-3 4.4 Case-4

Chapter Five

3-8 3-5 5-6 6 6-7 7-8 8 9-12 9-11 11-12 12 13-22 23-32 23-25 26-28 28-30 30-32

5.1 Conclusions and recommendations

33-35

References

36-37

Appendix-1

38

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Chapter One

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1.1 Introduction: At the present, the word “Globalization” is one of the most discussed topics in the world. The new technology plays most important role in this regard. There are some positive impacts of globalization as well as it have some negative impacts. It influences on human behavior and life styles in different ways. Globalization helps toward rapid and significant human changes. The shifting of people from rural to urban areas has accelerated by globalization, and the growth of cities in the developing world especially is linked to substandard living for many (Pais, 2006). The family is the fundamental institution where child development occurs. The future of a child depends on the caring by the family in childhood. Proper caring is necessary for developing an educated and good life of a child. That’s why the concept of child care has taken very importantly at present time, but in the developed countries, the state takes major role for child care. Child care is one type of system, where a child gets proper caring and enough time to develop his or herself. Different types of problems are also noticed and must take proper measures to overcome those problems which help the child to develop properly. The international policy and research recognized that childcare is about “children” and any proposed model of childcare must ensure that the core of all services enable children’s development in an effective and supportive manner (NWCI, 2005). Usually, the mother plays an important role in case of child care. But now father’s role in this regard is going to be recognized importantly. The literature and research findings claim that this time child care is very much affected by globalization because women are now much more careful about their own employment. In the era of globalization, most of the educated women are much more concentrated to get a job sector. Now a day, more women are joining in the workforce which helps to increase their family income. This process discourages to play their traditional/domestic roles such as child care, along with responsibilities for the care of family and elderly people (International Anglican Family Networks, 2007). Again in the highly competitive and in need for standard living, both husband and wife need to take part in some income earning activity. For this reason, most mothers are investing their time in the work places rather than domestic work. In addition, globalization is now related with modern technologies, and many of them are spending time with those. For this reason, child

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care is not being treated as much importance as it really needs. Most of the cases, the house maids play the main role for caring a child. And in every case, child care is taken by unskilled and uneducated domestic worker. And in some cases the other family members usually do this child care task. A research conducted in Ireland shows that, 27% of children aged between 0 and 4 whose mother works full time, do not access paid childcare, these children are being looked after by unpaid members (Collins, 2001). Absence of an effective child care system can put a bad effect on child development process, which also affecting the society in long term. Most children are getting involved with television, computer, internet, video games which make the situation so drastic, which detain them within a short boundary, and affecting their healthy socialization process. Again, children are in a threat of being affected in drugs and in juvenile delinquency. For protecting and preventing from these problems, we should formulate an effective child care system which is really important for child’s overall development. That’s why for example, the National Women Council of Ireland articulates a vision of childcare in 2001-2002, where the “rights of children should be recognized and supported by the state” (NWCI, 2005). Here the word “right” used to mention that the parents should be enabled to choose the most appropriate childcare to meet the needs of their children. As a result, means (parents) should choose an appropriated childcare system, which will be perfect for the betterment of their child, alongside with this, every state should create good quality and affordable childcare. The correlation of family friendly workplaces, and social welfare supports would lead to a better balance in for children in all families (NWCI, 2005). The state has an important role to formulate a good childcare system for working parents. It is found that many states in the world are using different models and system to ensure female participation in work, and to ensure standard of living. For example, Denmark invests its 2.1% of its GDP in their “childcare provision”. Childcare system in Denmark ensures that childcare is accessible, affordable. It facilitates female employment and reduces the risks of child poverty (NWCI, 2005). That’s why high level of female participation in the labor market in Denmark is available

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where 78.5% of all mothers with two or more children are in employment, (OECD, 2002, 2004). In Bangladesh, the working mothers are enjoying six months leave with wage facilities, like many other countries. In addition, a balanced and well planned childcare system can ensure the development of child and also women participation in workforce. A mother is responsible for the care and wellbeing of their children, access to reliable and affordable children is imperative to the realization of women's right to freely choose employment and children's right to enjoy healthy and happiness (Sadasivam, 2000).

1.2 Significance of the study: The children are the future of a nation. Child care plays a great role for growing-up in their mind; its responsibility goes to the parents who should take care of their children. As a human being every child has rights to getting the facilities of bringing up. It’s a concern issue for every parents how they can ensure best development facilities for their children. At present parents are strongly emphasized on child development because in the competitive world, a child used to live with huge struggling. No parent wants their child care is hampered by any kind of shortages i.e. lack of care. For this reason child care is getting very important phenomena in present days. Everywhere the mother can play a vital role in child care. Children are also dependent on mother because mother take care their child continuously after birth. Especially in the city area parents are educated, that’s why they give more importance on child care than rural areas. Mothers, who are not involved in job, can spend most of their time to look after their child, such as- education, feeding, take and pick up from the school. But many mothers are now involved in job and they cannot take care of their children properly. Due to lack of proper care of the mother, the children feel isolation from family. Many families used to engage domestic worker who cannot fulfill the demand of their mother. In addition they create a lot of problems. Child started to follow the values norms and attitude of the domestic worker. According to above circumstances, it can be said that if we can focus the existing present situation of child care impact through research then the policy

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maker, social worker, civil society, NGO worker would be known about it and they will be able to realize the matter and give necessary recommendations.

1.3 Research objectives: General objective: To look what are the changes in child care due to globalization.

Specific research objectives: To fulfill the general objectives, there are some specific objectives.  To find out the changes occurred in child care due to globalization.  To identify the nature of child care in the family.  To know the changes in roles of family in terms of child care.  To know the influential factors of the changes.  To find out the problems associated with the changes.

1.3 Research methodology: Qualitative research approach has been used to conduct this study. Because, qualitative data were the main thrust for achieving the research objectives. In this regard, a focus group guide line was prepared to collect information from the mothers who have school going children in their families. Data were collected from the mothers in Dhanmondi area who usually wait at Robindra Sarobar area in Dhanmondi. This was an opinion based qualitative data by which this study attempts to know the nature of the child care id mother go to the workplace. There were held two FGDs in two sessions. This group of women was invited to participate in this FGD discussion. A prior consent was taken and motivated them through informal discussion while the research objectives were explained to them properly. A tape recorder was used to store the data for preserving

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the actual information as well as a note taker took the necessary information. After getting all the information, descriptive analysis was used to analyze data.

1.4 Problems and limitations of the Study: Research is a complex, complicated and scrutinizing activity based on scientific knowledge and competence. The study investigates the role of micro-credit in development sector of Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, at present this issue is very much talked about and the investigators are very new in the investigation field. So, some problems and limitations are therefore, inevitable in the way of conducting such a mammoth task. The researchers are however, tried their best to conduct the study being free from personal bias. The problems and limitations, which have been perceived during the course of conducting the investigation, are briefly listed below1. Experience and skill is very much important for a creative research, there were some problems as the investigators are apprentice in the investigation field. 2. As to find out the impact of micro-credit service of NGOs were the main focus of this study, so working on may not be included properly in this study. 3. Time is an important factor for successful completion of any research work. But the time of conducting this study was limited. As a course the investigators has to complete it within a short spell on time. Therefore, some problems are very inevitable due to time constrains. 4. The researchers had to bear entire cost of research related to the Monograph, such typing and printing, transportation to the field sites and binding the Monograph. 5. The investigators had to carry on the research activity with another work, such as field practicum, preparing seminar paper etc. So it was very difficult to complete such complex task.

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6. In this research case study and literature review have been used as the means of data collection. The case was selected by random sampling technique. So it may do not represent all the parents of Bangladesh and the literatures may will not reveals the exact present situation also. After all, research Monograph is an excellent system of learning research for student of final semester of M.S.S. Being enrolled for doing Monograph in any field. The student gets an opportunity to learn how to field work select sample and to collect data from the community administration, to face an unusual situation. At the end the student also trained for data analysis for organizing results, analyzing data for interpretation. Undoubtedly this research is helpful for the student to conduct research independently.

1.5 Organization of the Paper: The paper is organized as followsChapter one has already given the introduction of the paper, rationale and the justification of the study, research methods and sources of information, and research objectives and limitations of study. Chapter two discusses some related concepts for the study, such asglobalization, child care and child care urban area. Chapter three presents the discussion of findings and analysis. Chapter four presents the case studies, and Chapter five provides summary of the results, recommendations and conclusion.

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Chapter Two

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Conceptual Framework: Literature Review 2.1 Concept of Globalization: Globalization is not a single concept that can be defined and encompassed within a set time frame, nor is it a process that can be defined clearly with a beginning and an end. Furthermore, it cannot be expounded upon with certainty and be applicable to all people and in all situations. Globalization involves economic integration; the transfer of policies across borders; the transmission of knowledge; cultural stability; the reproduction, relations, and discourses of power; it is a global process, a concept, a revolution, and “an establishment of the global market free from sociopolitical control.” Globalization encompasses all of these things. It is a concept that has been defined variously over the years, with some connotations referring to progress, development and stability, integration and cooperation, and others referring to regression, colonialism, and destabilization. Despite these challenges, this term brings with it a multitude of hidden agendas. An individual’s political ideology, geographic location, social status, cultural background, and ethnic and religious affiliation provide the background that determines how globalization is interpreted. In 1995, Martin Khor, President of the Third World Network in Malaysia, referred to globalization as colonization. Concurrently, Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization (2001), states that globalization… “Is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer? It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world.”

These two different interpretations reflect different perspectives rooted in different world positions. By its nature, globalization spans a multitude of disciplines, communities, and

cultures. This, of course, allows for a variety of viewpoints, be they economic, social, or political. In reviewing current definitions, it is at once apparent that some are rather narrow and exclusive, while others are broad and inclusive. Each approach has its strengths and

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weaknesses: more-general definitions tend to be all-encompassing but more abstract, while more-specific definitions are better justified but narrower in scope. For example, Kenichi Ohmae stated in 1992 that “globalization means the onset of the borderless world.” This definition does not have positive or negative connotations but is vague and inclusive. This definition could be used as a basis for a working paper on a number of subjects, including technology, trade agreements, and just about any other issue that deals with overcoming traditional boundaries. This definition is a bit too vague, however, for discussions on the detailed implications of globalization. Alternatively, a detailed definition would be suited to this type of discussion. Robert Cox provides a good example of this approach: “the characteristics of the globalization trend include the internationalizing of production, the new international division of labor, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalizing of the state… making states into agencies of the globalizing world.” This definition is more detailed and contributes more to the discussion. Despite this benefit, this can also be limiting, as it may only be applicable to those that agree with this definition. As mentioned earlier, this can also stall the debate about the implications of this type of globalization because a discussion about negative and positive connotations could lend itself to a paper and subsequent discussion all on its own without delving into deeper ramifications. Globalization is complex and multifaceted. Any definition comes close to reflecting the reality of globalization must also be complex and multifaceted. Dr.Nayef R.F Al-Rodhan proposed a definition that “Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities.” (Rodhan, 2006).

Globalization is not an endpoint to be discussed and then forgotten. Rather, it is a process, a current that has been impacting communities, cultures, and economies for hundreds of years. It is a result of the transnational and transcultural integrations that have occurred globally throughout human history. It encompasses the causes, the course, and the consequences of these integrations. This intermingling has transpired through activities that are both human and non-human in nature. Human activities encompass the linguistic, cultural, economic, and political aspects of human life (along

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with many others) that are a part of the human and social sphere. It is also important to include non-human activities, which incorporate, but are not limited to, the spread of bacteria and non-human diseases such as bird flu, as well as natural disasters such as tornadoes, tsunamis, earthquakes and hurricanes. As all this issue impact human and global security, In addition, it is important to recognize that globalization is not a force that needs to be stopped; rather, it is a process that influences each of us in a number of ways, both to our benefit and also to our detriment. Globalization can be understood in a way that allows for a greater appreciation of, and, consequently, movement towards furthering, individual, as well as global, security and stability.

2.2 Child Care: Child care means caring for and supervising a child or children usually from newborn to age thirteen. Child care is a broad topic covering a wide spectrum of contexts, activities, social and cultural conversations and institutions. It is traditional for parents to be taken care of their children who are their legal guardians. In families where children live with one or both of their parents the child care role may also be taken by their extended family. If a parent or extended family is not available or not able enough to take care of the children then day care or foster homes are a way of providing for children’s care, housing and schooling. Common types of child care: Two major types of child care can be classified in two ways- formal type of child care and informal type of child care. In informal type of child care, care is typically provided by parents, family members or friends. The child is wretched inside their own home or the care givers home. Depending on the number of children in the home, the children utilizing the home care and enjoy the greatest amount of interaction with their caregiver which will build a close bond. It is informal in the sense that no required licensing or background checking for child care, making parental vigilance is essential in choosing an appropriate caregiver. Parents especially mothers are spending a significant amount of time for growing their children. These mothers nurture and develop their children to build a functional member of the society through hard work which is not motivated by monetary gain. This

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is the most common and usual pattern of child care in Bangladesh. On the other hand, formal child care includes day care, preschools, babysitting, nursery schools, kindergarten etc. This type of modern child care system is getting popularity in this country particularly in urban areas. Where parents are both employed, this type of child care system is very important. This is called formal type of child care because it is motivated by monetary gain and the agencies or institutions providing this type of service have to ensure proper care under some legal procedure and rules. They are accountable to the guardians for their service. Both govt. and non govt. initiatives are seen to provide child care under this type of child care system. Children who are mainly parentless and have no way to taken care of are living in the orphanage. These types of children are mainly destitute and hopeless. Though different baby home, day care center, nursery schools kindergarten etc. are providing child care services which are directing by both in government and non-government levels but these are mostly motivated for monitory gain.

2.3 Child Care in Urban Areas: Childcare means the caring and supervising children from born to age 13. Child care is not confined in the family, it becomes a social phenomenon. But in the urban area child care is now typically changed in some ways, at the past child care was limited within the family members only but now parents are going outside for his extra income. So they have to depend on informal child care in some extend. At present in an urban area mothers are always try to give best facilities to her child. Such as- at the past, mothers were playing the prime role for educating their child. But at the present, mothers are giving priority to give education to her child through house tutor or outside coaching. In modern life, new technologies are becoming a part of our life. Now parents are using new technologies for their child’s development. It is happened especially in urban areas. In this regard parents were not always conscious about the bad impact of the new technology. That’s why proper guidance is necessary for using it. In Urban area, child care is not only limited for the mothers role, it becomes a major role of the fathers to develop their child.

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Chapter Three

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Findings and analysis of data:  Opinion about the changes occurred due to globalization in child care: At present, lots of changes are occurring in our daily life. Child care is one of the major areas of these changes. It is becoming a social phenomenon in the world that has great significant to every family. All of the respondents from two FGDs are agreed about the changes have occurred in child care due to globalization. One respondent said, “At present we are aware enough to take care our child, but earlier our parents were not so much conscious about as it was needed.” But they also answered the reason behind these changes. In this case, one respondent said from FGD-1, “In my childhood, I was bringing up by siblings because I had many. That’s why my mother could not pay extra attention to all of the children. But now parents are very much conscious about family planning and they have small family and that’s why they can look after their child very easily.” But another respondent showed the changes negatively. She said, “Due to globalization, the system of our lifestyles is changing day by day which is creating security problem for our children. It changes the system of child care, such as- we are coming here to drop and pick our children because of the lack of security, if the strong security system could be ensured, we will not come here. This is happening because of globalization.” So, it is obvious that the women in urban areas are agreed about the changes in child care because of globalization which are positive and negative also.  Changes occurred in child care due to globalization: Different changes have occurred in child care due to globalization. All the respondents agreed about the changes which are occurring due to globalization. Some respondents showed these changes positively, but some were expressed negatively. One of the major changes in child care is growing awareness among women about child care, especially in food habit of their children. The women literacy rate is increasing day by day. Consequently, they give their children such kind of food which is helpful for their children’s physical and intellectual development. One respondent from FGD-2 said,

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“Now I am giving Horlicks to my son and it is very effective for his proper development, but when I was baby, I did not get it”. They also said that they are maintaining certain time for feeding their children which was not happened before. Most of the respondents said about the changes on education system. Today’s education system is much more competitive than before. At past, mother or another member of the family played the major role in child’s education. But now tutor or coaching is one of the most obligatory factors for education system. Rather than this, respondents were also said that new technology like- internet is also helpful for the intellectual development of our children. But one respondent from FGD-1 said, “New technology is not good. It is destroying the children totally”. But they said this change could be good if it can use properly. They also notified about the female participation in workforce. They said, “At present women are getting educated and they conscious about their self-dependency, that’s why they are getting involve in workforce. But it is affecting the child, because it may lack in child care”. Sometime proper child care can’t possible whenever the mother is living outside the home for job purpose. So her child is looked after by domestic worker or other family members, which is not always good for child development. It may effect on child care. One respondent from FGD-2 talked about the role of father in child care. She said, “At present fathers are more conscious and careful about their role and they give much more time than before”. But another respondent said, “My husband is always busy with his work and I have all responsibility to look after our child”. They also agreed about the business of their husbands for earning money, because it is also important for living in a good manner. But they wanted balance life of their husband which is necessary for their children take care. These are the major changes which are occurring due to globalization.

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 The types of changes happened in family roles in child care: Child care is evolving and most care provider and parents agree the changes. Child care is changing due to the demand of age. According to the respondents of both FGD there are a lot of changes in family roles happened in child care. They said that in the past the roles of family were sufficient but at present time various supporting system build up like baby home, day care center etc. to take care of the child. Now number of single family is increasing as a result responsibility of parents is also increasing day by day. A working mother cannot get enough time to take care of her baby; in this case they take help from the domestic worker. But there is some positive change also happened in the role of family in child care. Now family ensures more emphasize in child care than before. Parents can learn lot of things regarding childcare through computer, internet, and television. Now they can know how to take care child, nutrition, development of child, demand of child in different stage of development etc. and can apply it in practical life. One respondent said that she is more conscious about child care than her mother because she is educated and know lots of issues related with child care. Now a mother goes to the school every day with her child. They managed supported elements for children studies. Not only mother but today’s father are more conscious and active in child care, they spent more time with their child, helps their child in studies. Now parents are more careful about their child future. They want their child would become more talent than them, because the present world is very much competitive than that of before, that’s why the roles of parents has increased. So, it is said that a revolutionary change in family roles happened in child care.  The reasons are available behind these changes: There are a lot of reasons available behind these changes according to the opinion of the respondent of FGD. They have given importance on the education for positive changes. They said that at present the literacy rate has increased. Most of the parents are educated so the parents are more careful about bringing up their child. Some change which is considered negative for proper childcare is happening due to demand

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of time. For example joint family broken down and number of single family increase day by day. One respondent from FGD-1 explain why broken down of joint family create negative impacts on child care. In a joint family everyone take care a child, parents can do other works without concerning child security, mother can do a job outside of home, child can learn norms, value from elder person, get helps from elder for study etc. but in a single family working mother and father cannot do these things properly. Even jobless mother alone cannot do these because she needs to do other household work. Another respondent of FGD-2 said that present social system is responsible for change in child care. Now security is a concerning issue to everyone. Even children are not safe because reported child kidnapping happened every day for ransom and other reason. That is why a guardian waits outside the school for safety of their child.  Opinion about the time to take care the child: All respondent of FGD-1 think that they get enough time to take care of their child. One respondent from FGD -1 said, it is difficult to get enough time to take care of their child because they have to maintain other household work. She said that they try their level best to ensure enough time for their child. On the other hand, we see different opinion in FGD -1 regarding this issue. One respondent said that she get enough time to take care her son because her husband is very helpful. Another respondent said that she uses almost 80% time to take care of her child. One respondent of FGD -2 think she did not get enough time to take care of her child. One respondent said, ‘I never really thought about how much time I spend to take care of my children’.  Influences of mother’s job on child care: At present the entrance of mother in profession is increasing day by day because of their growing attitude of self-dependency and economic sufficiency for their family. Simultaneously, this entrancement is negatively influencing child care. We found from two FGD that mothers were not engaging in job field due to proper caring of their children. They urged healthy food, proper caring and security are very important for their child’s development, but it will hamper if they carry job. Entrance of the mother into job will be adversely affected child education, balanced diet, learning good

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behavior. One respondent from FGD-1 said, “If I do job, who will look after my child’s diet”. Single families are mostly appreciated in this time and if the mother from single family engaged in job most of the time their children’s are look after by domestic worker. In this case, child could be negatively demonstrated by them. They can learn different type of bad culture, such as- slang word. Side by side domestic worker are not careful about balanced diet and education of the child. But it is also true that they are not knowledgeable and aware about these things. Most often they are careless about childcare. Against these, mothers are always careful and serious of their child’s education and food. Sometimes children are influenced by the bad norms in absence of their mother or guardians all the time. Hence, children feel alone whenever their mothers are staying outside their home. It influenced adversely on their psychological development and also on sociological development. One respondent from FGD-2 said, “I wanted to do job, but lacking of security of my child impose me to not to do job. My son is not secured in domestic worker’s hand”. It proves main influence of mothers job on child care is insecurity of children. But they also agree that proper caring from known one or faithful educated caretaker is possible than they can do job. One respondent from FGD-2 said, “If good day care centers are available in Bangladesh, that will be helpful for educated mother to do job and that will also be good for our children to develop securely and in a good manner”. So, it is proved that there have different effects of mother’s job on child care, such aschild’s education, diet system, socialization, psychological development, security which are very important for child development.  Caring of child whenever husband and wife are in job: In many families, husband and wife both is job holder. They are unable to look after their children during working hours. On that time, other family member or domestic worker plays the main role for caring a child. Caring by domestic worker is not always safe, but parents are sometime helpless without doing this. On the same time, they are

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imposing to do job in need of family, but they have no other option for caring their children. So they have to keep faith on domestic worker and they have to be careful to handle them. Sometimes grand mothers are taking care of their grandchildren. It is one of the safest places of caring the child. At a time, they took care of their children, now they are taking care of their grandson or daughter in case of need. One respondent from FGD-1 said, “In the past I took care of my daughter, now I am taking care of my grandson. I can’t do job despite of my educational qualification. But I want that my daughter must do job and be established which will make me proud.” Non-relative care can occur in the caregiver’s home (e.g., family child care homes) or in the child’s home. Parents typically pay for such care. Some such child care homes are licensed, certified, or registered; some receive training and technical assistance, but many do not. Relative care is provided by grandparents, siblings, or other relatives in the child’s home or in their own homes. Parents often pay for such care, but pay levels tend to be below market rates and payment procedures often are flexible (Anderson, Ramsburg, & Scott, 2005). Sometimes other family members also take the responsibility of child care. A research conducted in Ireland shows that, 27% of children aged between (0 – 4) whose mother works full time, do not access paid childcare, these children are being looked after by unpaid members (Collins, 2001). So, it is possible to engage job for both the parents if alternative support from family member or skilled and faithful domestic worker is available.  Fathers’ role in child care: Family roles continue to change, especially in today's over-scheduled, stressful environment. An USA based Studies show that about two-thirds of mothers of young children have outside employment. Currently, about 40 percent of fathers work over 50 hours per week at work. The conflict between career and family continues, and child care from dad is especially needed in a two-career family.

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With all that said, dads, in most cases, do no longer want the role of "breadwinner." Fathers are trying to spend more quality time with their kids. According to the article, "Promote Father Participation in Early Child Care Programs," from Parents, while more fathers are becoming more involved in their children's lives, over half of all fathers in two-parent families have no significant involvement at their child's school (including child care). That number increases to 82 percent when discussing fathers who do not live with their children. Every respondent of both FGD mentioned that today’s fathers are more conscious about their role to take care child. One respondent of FGD-2 mentioned that in past fathers was not so conscious about child education, study, mother take care study but now father helps children studies. Another respondent of same FGD said that both father and mother roles are important for child development. She and her husband both support each other on child support. Another respondent FGD-2 thinks that still today mother give 85% time to take care of their child and father give only 15%. One respondent of FGD-1 said now fathers are more active to take care of child then the past. Working fathers are struggling to juggle the competing demands of family and career, according to a report that shows that they are just as uneasy with their work life balance as mothers. The report by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) suggests that the longrunning debate over the pressures experienced by working mothers, who strive to "have it all" – children and careers – is just as relevant to working fathers(Amelia, 2009).  Impact of new technologies for the change on child care: Almost all respondent of FGD-1 think technology play important positive role on child care. They can learn lots of thing from television, computer, internet about child care, nutrition, education etc. One respondent from FGD-2 said technology has negative impact on child care, because now child are spent lots of time with modern technology. They want to act like the character of television show games, cartoon. Another respondent of FGD-2 think technology has positive impacts on child care. Now through new technology children can know modern thinks, new information. So they can adjust with modern era. Parents can also learn lots of new think from modern technology.

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2012

Today, however, many families, especially those who have moved to a new community, rely on the internet to find quality child care. Many websites offer free listings of child care; most states have a child care site for review as well. Web-based babysitting and child care services are on the increase, and parents can type in a zip code and find providers who meet the specifications designated. Entrepreneurs are increasingly advertising availability for child care as well. Of course, nothing replaces reference check.  Family relationship and its influences on child’s upbringing: All the respondents agreed that family relationship is very important for child upbringing. One respondent from FGD-2 said, “Family relationship especially husband wife relationship is very important for child development”. Family relationship is one of the vital factors for proper development of children. Peaceful relation builds sound mind of the child because childhood is the best time for building children’s mentality. Sometimes he or she faces lots of difficulties in terms of socialization which are the result of bad relationship of their parents. The child will be the future father or mother. Today’s problem may create difficulties in their future life. They might be felt anxious to make any type of relation and they could lose their faith on relation. A child learns affection and love from his parents and, together they make a happy family unit (Dhammananda, 2008). One respondent said, “We have to give proper knowledge for their future life and future relation through our present relations”. They also mentioned that bad family relationship may hamper their psychological development. Some child’s have faced psychological problem because the absence of good relationship between their parents. Consequently it is very important for the psychological development of children. As husband and wife, they may not have enough time together and this may even lead to broken marriages. There should be increased awareness that strong family ties can contribute to the healthy growth of a child (Dhammananda, 2008). On the other side, relationship with other family members is also important for children to learn different norms and values and for proper socialization. One respondent from

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

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FGD-1 said, “My grandson is learning lots of things from me. If our family bondage had poor, he could not get this chance to learn.” So, the family plays an important role in the development of its members. The best of Asian and Western cultures teach and practice respect for elders, compassion for the sick and needy, care for elderly parents and consideration for the young (Dhammananda, 2008) Family relationship is helpful for parents to give proper knowledge to their child to build them a good human being. Side by side, it is also helpful for working parents, because other family members can take care of the child when they are busy with work. It is also helpful for the intellectual development of their children. If parents are conscious about their child’s development, they should be conscious about their duty, which can also build good relation and understanding between them. In the era of globalization, family relationships are hampered many reasons, which may affect adversely to their children. So, parents have to be conscious about their relationship.

 The way of affecting the children due to globalization: In response of this aspect, most of the mothers agreed about the fact that some positive qualitative changes occurred in the field of child care with the change of time. Now parents are much more conscious about the health, education, nutrition of the child. Parents particularly mother is passing most of her time for taking care of the children. They are developing through proper channel both physically and mentally. In one question one respondent mentioned that she had enough education to get a job, but she sacrificed it for the development of her baby. She really indicates the sincerity of modern mothers in case of child care. Use of information technology is a modern day addition in the field of child care. Most of the mothers were positive in the sense of providing modern technologies to their children. They think that it is beneficial for their children. But one respondent denied that. She said, “Modern technology is affecting the children badly rather helping them”.

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 The management problem facing for child care: In response of this aspect, most of the respondents showed their dissatisfaction and annoyance. They are really annoyed about the problem. Now they have to spend most of the time in child care which are minimizing to chance to care for others family jobs. They had mentioned that they feel sorry for the other family members that they can’t take sufficient care of them. They also struggle to manage the family as we know that women are the spreadsheet of every family. The respondents agreed the fact that as they have to spend a lot of time behind their children. They can’t look after properly the other important tasks of the family like cooking, shopping etc.

 Suggestions to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development: The respondents have given some suggestions to provide proper child care in urban areas. Most of the mothers thought the main problem is insecurity of their children. Communication is a big problem in Dhaka city. They can’t let their children to go to school alone. The Government is not capable enough to ensure the safety of the children. They suggested that strong child security system is very necessary. They also told that day care centers are the good solution for the working mothers. If there are sufficient and good day care centers in the country then they will feel much comfortable to work outside home. Some respondents also showed anger to the policy makers of the country. They also think the corruption is the problem which is the root cause of many other problems. A respondent said, “The laws regarding child care should be modified and that should be taken by the Government to ensure proper child care initiatives”.

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2012

Chapter Four

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2012

Case Studies Case-1 Name: Jesmin Akhter Husband’s name: Selim Ahmed Age: 40 years Educational status: graduate Profession: House-wife

Mrs Jesmin is a mother of two children. Her two sons are the students of a renowned English medium school in Dhaka city.  Opinion about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization: She showed positive response about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization. She mentioned that probably the main change is the awareness among the parents. Today’s parents are more careful and responsible to their child. They know what is right and what is wrong for their child. And this has become possible because of education. Educated parents can take right decisions about their Children food, nutrition, education, schooling etc. which is very important. She believes that globalization has made education very much essential for the people.  Change occurred in child care due to globalization: Jesmin believes that there is a massive difference between an educated and an illiterate mother. An educated parent can create difference in many sectors of child care. She also told that Changes has occurred in almost every sector. Now the children are enjoying better education facilities, better environment which is very friendly for their development, a very essential thing is they are enjoying nutritious food as their parents are more conscious now. That means a tremendous change has occurred in all corner of child care.

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 The types of changes happened in family roles in child care: She strongly believes that some changes have occurred in family role. And this is due to the change of family system which is the result of globalization. In response of that question she said that, now the responsibility of parents has increased a lot. Because at past it was joint family system, so all the members of the family took part in child care. But now whole responsibilities are on parents as globalization has broken down the trends of joint family system. That means now the whole function of child care is dependent to the parents only.  The reasons are available behind these changes: Mrs. Jesmin said that many reasons are responsible for these changes. The trend of family care has changed with the passage of time. The society has changed a lot as well. Education is responsible particularly for the positive changes. She said as the parents are now more educated now they can take care of their child well. She also thought that some changes were the demand of the time. Mrs Jesmin also thought that, the present social system is also responsible for some changes like today she is waiting outside the school of her child due to lack of safety. And this is due to the change of society. At past that problem was not very acute. But now they are suffering a lot in this problem which is also an impact of globalization.  Father's role in child care: Mrs Jesmin also believes that fathers role in child care or family care is very important. It was important in the past but now it has increased a lot in today’s perspective. As now a child is growing up, and his development in a nuclear family depends on the role of father. She also believes that, the father of her baby is earning money which is very important for the child as well. Money is an important thing in respect of child care. She believes besides earning a father also plays a vital role in child care.

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 Influences of mother's job on child care: Jesmin said that she believes education is a must for every mother if she wants to care her child properly, but she has a strong believe that a working mother can’t really take care of her child properly. She said that in modern family system a working mother suffer a lot in taking proper care of her child. It would have been possible if she had a joint family. But in nuclear family it is very difficult for a mother to work outside keeping her baby alone in the home. So in that sense mother’s job can create problem for taking proper care of the child. But on the other hand Jesmin said that, if the government can ensure enough child care provisions then it will not be a problem in future.  The management problem facing for child care: She mentioned that she is suffering some problem as she has to perform many responsibilities. She has taken care of her baby, she has to cook, she has to do shopping, keeping contract with relatives, attend social function etc in one hand along with other household chores. Sometimes she is so frustrated that she thought if she were in a joint family.  Suggestion to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development: Mrs Jesmin seemed to be very frustrated about the state security system. Because of insecurity she cannot let her child go outside along with friends or alone. Mrs. Jesmin said globalization is a chance for us to be developed, but we can’t enjoy the ultimate benefits of it due to lack proper initiatives and efforts from the policy makers of the country.

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Case-2 Name: Sarmin Sayeed Husband’s name: Abdul Hakim Age: 35 Educational status: masters Profession: House-wife  Opinion about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization: In response to that question, Mrs Sayeed seems very confused. But she agreed that various qualitative changes have occurred with the change of time due to globalization. According to Mrs Sayeed today’s parents are more careful and aware. They can take proper decision for the wellbeing of their baby. Mrs. Sayeed mentioned that when she was baby, her mother was not able to understand what should be the right food for her, but being a mother now she can understand because of frequent knowledge and education. And she thinks these are the consequences of globalization. It has made people aware of education which can boost many other changes.  Change occurred in child care due to globalization: Changes have occurred in almost every sector. Now the children are enjoying better education facilities, better environment which is very friendly for their development, a very essential thing they are enjoying nutritious food as their parents are more conscious now. That means in all the sectors related to child care a tremendous change has occurred.  The types of changes happened in family roles in child care: Globalization has brought great change in the role of family in child care. In response of that question the respondent said that, now the responsibility of parents has increased a lot. Because at past it was joint family system, so all the members of the family took part in family care. But now whole responsibilities are on parents as globalization has broken down the trends of joint family system. That means now the whole functions of

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

child care is dependent to just the parents.  The reasons are available behind these changes: According to Mrs. Sharmin many reasons are responsible behind that. She thought, education is mainly responsible particularly for the positive changes. She said as the parents are now more educated now they can take care of their child well. She also thought that some changes were the demand of the time. She also thought that, the present social system is also responsible for some changes like today she is waiting outside the school of her child because of lack of safety. And this is due to the change of society. At past that problem was not very acute. But now they are suffering a lot in this problem which is also an impact of globalization.  Influences of mother's job on child care: She said that she had completed her master’s degree from a reputed university but still she is not employed as her husband and the other family members thought that her job may be a problem for the proper care of her child. She also agreed the fact that in modern family system a working mother suffer a lot in taking proper care of her child. It would have been possible if she had a joint family. But in nuclear family it is very difficult for a mother to work outside keeping her baby alone in the home. So in that sense mother’s job can create problem for taking proper care of the child.  The management problem facing for child care: She was speaking with frustration because her husband is always busy; he can’t give enough time in family affairs. She has to manage everything in her own hand. This is very difficult for her. Sometimes she can’t maintain everything as she has to do everything alone so most of the time she fails to do things right.  Suggestion to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development: She thinks that the main problem is security, and it’s the responsibility of the state to ensure the security of the child who is the future citizen of the state. Transportation is a great problem for the children. They can’t let their child to go to school alone as travel is

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

hazardous and risky for the children in Dhaka city. The concerned authority should take care about this problem. She suggests that the govt. can introduce transport vehicle for every school to solve the problem. Really this problem regarding child care should be solved to enjoy the sweet fruit of globalization.

Case-3 Name: Lili Islam Husband Name: Lincon Islam Age: 40 years Educational status: Graduate Occupation: House-wife  Opinion about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization: She said that she is more conscious about child care than her mother though her mother is a working woman. By various mass media she learns lot of things about child development. It happened because of education.  Change occurred in child care due to globalization: She mentioned the area of change such as-health, nutrition, education, development, changing behavior oh child etc. Another change is that now parent-child relation is very open, child share their problem, wish, demand with parent but it was not possible in the past.  The types of changes happened in family roles in child care: Now fathers are more conscious about child care. Another change is that mother now needs to wait outside the school of her child. As a nuclear family both father and mother role’s is important for proper development of a child.  The reasons are available behind these changes: She thinks that education is the main reason behind the changes of child care. After her

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

marriage she failed to continue her education. And because of education she learns various issue related with child care. Another reason is technology, which create impact on every sector.  Opinion about the time to take care the child: She said that as a house wife she gets enough time to take care of her child. Her husband is a businessman and can give enough time to take care child but he is not conscious enough for child care. As a result she has to do all activity related child care.  Influences of mother's job on child care: She is a graduate but she cannot manage time for job because she has to take care of her child, maintain house hold chores, daily shopping etc. She feels sad for this.  Father's role in child care: She said that her husband is not helpful enough to her in childcare. He manages outside issue related with their child.  Impact of new technologies for the change on child care: She said that technology played an important role on childcare. She learns lot of things of child development from television. Now through the use of new technology children become acquainted with modern societies, new information.  Family relationship and its influences on child's upbringing: She said that, our family bondage is very strong. Consequently my children behave positively with other people. It is helpful for us to give proper knowledge to our child to build them in expected way and under proper guidance.  The way of affecting due to the globalization: Globalization is influencing children from both positive and negative point of view. In terms of positive side; they benefited from sound development. On the other hand they learn negative things from internet, computer and television. She mentioned that her

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

son always want to play video games but she want to give priority on study.  The management problem facing for child care: She spend most of time in child care which is minimizing the chance to care others family works. Sometime it creates hazards; family conflict.  Suggestion to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development: Security is the main concern to her. She cannot let her children go outside alone. That is why she has to stay with her children all the time. If school can arrange bus service than her time and energy may save.

Case: 4 Name: Shibly mannan Husband Name: M.A. Mannan Age: 40 Educational status: H.S.C Occupation: House-wife  Opinion about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization: She said herself being an educated mother as more conscious in her child care than her mother because .Through observing and enjoying various mass-media she learn lot of things about child development. It is the consequences of because of globalization.  Change occurred in child care due to globalization: She mentioned the area of changes such as health, nutrition, education, development, changing behavior of child etc. Another change is now parent-child relation is very frank and spontaneous. Childs share their problem, wish, demand, joys with parent but it was

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

not possible before. According to Mrs. Shibly changes happened in human mind and parents are now friendlier with their child.  The types of changes happened in family roles in child care: Now fathers are more conscious about child care. Another change is mothers now a day’s needs to wait outside the school of their Childs. In nuclear family both father and mother roles are important for proper development of a child.  The reasons are available behind these changes: She thinks that education is the main reason behind the changes of child care. After her marriage her husband helps a lot to continue her education. Education helps her to learn various issue related to child care. Another reason is tecnology, which create impact on every sector. She learns lot of things from television constrictive programmes which is helpful for proper child care.  Opinion about the time to take care the child: She said that as a house wife she gets enough time to take care of her child. Husband being a businessman cannot give enough time to take care of child but he tried his level best to manage enough time for his child.  Influences of mother's job on child care: She belongs to a post in her husband office but she cannot manage time for office because she has to take care of her child, maintain household chores, daily shopping etc.  Father's role in child care: Her husband is very helpful to her in childcare. He helps child in their study and conscious about child development. He manages outside issue related with their child. Always want to keep their child happy, teach those good values, religious value etc.

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

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 Impact of new technologies for the change on child care: She said that technology played an important role on childcare. She learns lot of things of child development from television. Now through the use of new technology children become acquainted with modern societies, new information.  Family relationship and its influences on child's upbringing: She said that, our family bondage is very strong. Consequently my children behave positively with other people. It is helpful for us to give proper knowledge to our child to build them in expected way and under proper guidance.  The way of affecting due to the globalization: Globalization is influencing children from both positive and negative point of view. In terms of positive side; they benefited from sound development. On the other hand they learn negative things from internet, computer and television. She mentioned that her son always want to play video games but she want to give priority on study.  The management problem facing for child care: She spend most of time in child care which is minimizing the chance to care others family works. Sometime it creates hazards; family conflict.  Suggestion to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development: Security is the main concern to her. She cannot let her children go outside alone. That is why she has to stay with her children all the time. If school can arrange bus service than her time and energy may save.

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

Chapter Five

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh

2012

Conclusions and Policy Recommendations: Globalization is a process which significantly influencing our society, culture and economy a lot. It has influenced on different issues which are highly related with our society. Child care is becoming a social phenomenon in our society. The system is highly influenced by the globalization due to different factors of our society have been changing day by day. At present, our society is not limited within our culture. Now different factors, such as- western culture, technology, developed infrastructure to move one country to other country etc. have been influencing our society which compelled us to change our ideas, views, norms, values, attitudes etc. The main objective of this study was to find out the changes of the nature of child care due to globalization. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was used to collect the data. We faced some problems while conducting research work, such as- shortage of time, financial limitations etc. This study attempts to find out the nature of the change of child care in urban areas especially in Dhaka city. The system of child care is much more different than it was before. People are more careful about their children development. Different reasons are available behind these changes. Mothers are giving more attention to their children to develop them properly. This era is a competitive era where every parent wants that their child do the best in every sphere in their life. That’s why they are giving much more concerns to their education. Rather than this, they are also giving more importance on their children’s’ food. They are trying to give healthy food which will be helpful for their children development. At present the family roles are changed by globalization. Number of single family is increasing day by day. It increases the responsibility of the parents. But at past, grandparents or other family members were playing importance role to take care of the children, where in today’s life most of the times domestic servants are playing the important role to take care of those roles which were performed by the family members before. Lots of reasons are available behind these changes in family roles in child care. Raising awareness among the parents is one of the main reasons behind these changes. Most of the cases parents are more educated than their parents were. They also don’t want to do any activity which will affect their children adversely.

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2012

Most of the mothers in urban areas are trying to give enough time to take care of their children. Sometimes they can’t keep balance between the household works and take care of their children. In this case, they take help of the domestic worker. This study finds out that the women have positive attitude in doing job, but they also think about their children’s development what could be hampered by their job. Urban women think there is lack of services for the mother to do job. They expect the development and reasonable day care centers for their children whenever they will stay in workplace. Mothers have no trust on domestic worker for giving them chance to take care of their children. It could be harmful for their child development. Fathers’ role is very important to develop their child properly. Most of the fathers keep busy outside of the home for official work. But at present they also try to give enough time to take care of their children. They can play role in education, recreation of their children. Using new technology in our daily life is the by-product of globalization. In urban areas, people are using new technologies to increase the easiness of their life. Parents are using different technologies, such as- computer, internet, television etc. they are using these technologies to educate them and these are the most demandable recreation means for the children. Most of the mothers are taking these technologies positively and they think it will be helpful for their children’s intellectual development. But it also affected the child negatively when it has used negatively by the children. Child care is a system. Proper support is necessary for the mother to take care of their child properly. Now mothers have to waste huge time to drop and pick of their children from the school. If proper security system were available they could not come to school with their children. That’s why proper security system is necessary for free movement of the children. It will be helpful for the mother to concentrate on family works. It proves that globalization is influencing the nature of child care, but proper management could play positive role to develop a child in a good manner. This research finds out different aspects of child care which are influenced by the globalization. Some suggestions have given to make the changes positive and these will be helpful for policy maker to make a policy which is related with child care. These are given below-

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2012

i.

Proper transport facilities should be arranged by the Government for the school going children. It will decrease the insecurity problem of the mother, as well as it will decrease traffic jam in Dhaka city.

ii.

Government should develop the security system in our country and proper security system is obligatory for child development.

iii.

Government should provide day care facilities at reasonable cost for the working mother and it can increase the rate of female participation in work force.

iv.

Arrange motivation campaign to increase awareness about the child by the father.

v.

Mass media can play important role to create awareness among general people. The print media and electronic media should come forward to this responsibility.

vi.

We need to create child friendly environment and set positive example among the parents.

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References: Anderson, S. G., Ramsburg, D. M., & Scott, J. (2005). Illinois study of license-exempt child care: Final report (Washington, D.C., U. S. Department of Health and Human Services). Amelia,G. (2009) “Working fathers want more time with their children too, says report”, The Guardian. Collins, G.& Wickham, J. (2001) What childcare crisis?-Irish mothers entering the labor force(Dublin, Employment Research Center). Dhamananda,R. (2008) Parental responsibilities children(Kualalampur, Buddhist Missionary Society).

in

the

upbringing

of

their

International Family Network (2007) Violence and family globalization and changes in family life (Seoul). Kenichi, O. (1992) The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Global Marketplace (London, HarperCollins), as cited in, RAWOO Netherlands Development Assistance Research Council (2000) Coping with Globalization: The Need for Research Concerning the Local Response to Globalization in Developing Countries, Publication No. 20(Netherlands, RAWOO Netherlands Development Assistance Research Council). Larsson,T. (2001) The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization (U.S., Cato Institute) . Nationals Women’s Council of Ireland (2005), An accessible Child care model (Dublin). OECD (2002) Babies and Bosses, Reconciling work and family life, Australia, Denmark, and the Netherlands, Vol-1, (Paris, OECD). OECD (2004), The matric review of Early Childhood Education and Care policy in Ireland (Dublin, Stationary office). Pais, S. (2006) Globalization and its impact on families ( Vienna). Palanyi, Hayek and Keynes (2000) Freedom and the Market : An Analysis of the Antiglobalisation Movement from the Perspective of the Theoretical Foundation of the

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Evaluation of the Dynamics of Capitalism, “The Forum for Social Economics”, as cited in, Gaburro.G and O’Boyle, E.(2003) Norms for Evaluating Economic Globalization, “International Journal of Social Economics”, Vol. 30, No. 1/2. Rodhan, DR.N. (2006) Definition of globalization: A comprehensive overview and a proposed definition ( Geneva, Avenue de la paisvis). Sadasivam, B. (2000) Widening Women's Choice: The case for childcare in the era of globalization, “Harnessing globalization for children: A Report to UNICEF” (International Council for Research on Women).

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Appendix-1

Institute of Social Welfare and Research University of Dhaka

Globalization and the change of child care in urban area in Dhaka City.

Focus Group Discussion Guideline [Collected information will be used only for research purpose and its confidentiality will be maintained] 1. What do you think about the changes occurred in child care due to globalization? 2. What type of changes occurred in child care due to globalization? 3. What types of changes in family roles happened in child care? 4. What are the reasons available behind these changes? 5. Could you get enough time to take care your children? 6. How the mothers’ job can influence child care? 7. (If it is applicable) who take care of your child if your husband/wife is in job? 8. What do you think about the fathers’ role in child care? 9. What is the impact of new technologies for the changes on child care? 10. Do you think family relationship influences child’s upbringing? How? 11. How children are affecting due to the changes of child care? 12. What type of management problem you are facing for child care? 13. What are your suggestions to provide proper child care in urban life for their proper development?

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Globalization and the Change of the Nature of Child Care in Urban Areas in Bangladesh  

Now a day, globalization is a very common phenomenon in this world. It also influences our daily life. One of the major changes which occurr...

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