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Table of Contents Who Was Muhammad? (pbuh) ........................................................................................ 2 The Biography of the Muhammad (pbuh) ........................................................................ 3 Muhammad’s (pbuh) Childhood .................................................................................. 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Muhammad’s (pbuh) Marriage and Family Life .......................................................... 4 Muhammad (pbuh) Receives Revelation ..................................................................... 4 Muhammad’s (pbuh) Marriage and Family Life .................................................... 5 Muhammad (pbuh) Receives Revelation ............................................................... 5 Preaching the Message ................................................................................................. 5 The Migration ............................................................................................................... 6 Leadership of Yathrib ................................................................................................... 6 Some of the Important Battles ...................................................................................... 6 The Battle of Badr .................................................................................................... 6 The Battle of Uhud ................................................................................................... 6 The Battle of Khundaq (the Trench) ........................................................................ 6 The Pilgrimage to Mecca.............................................................................................. 6

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Who Was Muhammad? (pbuh) Muslims pray to one God who they call The letters ‘pbuh’ stand for ‘peace be upon him’ and are used by Muslims whenever they mention Muhammad’s name and any other prophets names. Muslims do this to show their respect for them.

Allah. They believe that Allah sent an angel

called

Jibril

to

reveal

to

Muhammad (pbuh) that Allah had chosen him as a prophet. It was now Muhammad’s job to teach people how to worship God and how to live their lives. People who follow the message given to Muhammad (pbuh) are called Muslims.

Muslims believe that whenever Jibril visited Muhammad (pbuh) he would reveal to him new verses of the Quran. These revelations were later compiled to form the Quran which is the Muslims religious book. Muslims also believe that sayings of Muhammad (pbuh) were also recorded; these sayings are known as hadiths. The Quran and Hadiths of Muhammad continue to be used as sources of guidance in the daily lives of many Muslims today.

A copy of the Quran

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The Biography of the Muhammad (pbuh) Muhammad’s (pbuh) Childhood Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) was born in 571 C.E in the Arabian city of Makkah, now referred to as Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Muhammad (pbuh) was born into a tribe called Quraish. Not long after his birth Muhammad (pbuh) was taken to be raised in the desert by a Bedouin woman named Halima. He stayed with Halima until he was four or five years old and was then returned to his mother.

It was a custom amongst the Arabs to send their children to be raised in the desert so that they could grow up in a healthy environment away from diseases in Mecca.

It is believed by Muslims that Muhammad (pbuh) father had died before he was born and his mother died when he was only six years old. He was now an orphan who was taken in and cared for by his grandfather, Abdul – Mutallib.

However when Muhammad (pbuh) was only eight years old his grandfather also died. Muhammad (pbuh) was then taken care of by his uncle Abu Talib.

The Meccan desert where Muhammad (pbuh) was raised

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Muhammad’s (pbuh) Marriage and Family Life When Muhammad (pbuh) was twenty five years old a wealthy Meccan widow named Khadijah employed Muhammad to sell her goods in Syria. Muslims believe that Khadijah was so pleased with his honesty that she asked him to marry her. They married and had two sons who died in infancy and four daughters who lived to be adults.

Muhammad (pbuh) Receives Revelation Muhammad (pbuh) was saddened by the cruel treatment of women, the poor and slaves in Arabian society. He would often go and reflect and pray in a cave on Jabal al-Nur (the Mountain of Light.) Muslims believe that it was here, when Muhammad (pbuh) was forty years old that the Angel Jibril came to him with the first words revealed to him from God. It is believed by Muslims that Muhammad (pbuh) was commanded to recite or read, however he replied that he could not read. Gabriel then revealed to Muhammad (pbuh) the first verses of the Quran. Muslims believe that these first verses were: "Read (or recite) in the name of your Lord who created, created man

from

a

clinging

clot."

(Qur’an, 95:1-2)

The cave were the angel Jibril spoke to Muhammad (pbuh)

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Preaching the Message Muhammad’s (pbuh) Marriage and Family Life After a short time, Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) began receiving When Muhammad (pbuh) was twenty five years old a wealthy widow named more revelations and was then told to preach to his family, many became Khadijah employed Muhammad (pbuh) to sell her goods in Syria. She was so Muslims. The earliest Muslims were mostly poor people, slaves and women pleased with his honesty that she asked him to marry her. They had two sons who and some important members of Meccan society. The leaders of the Quraysh died while still infants and four daughters. however continued to reject the message.

Muhammad (pbuh) Receives Revelation

It is believed by Muslims that Muhammad’s (pbuh) growing influence in society Muslims believe of that would become upsetpower. by theMuslims ill treatment made the leaders theMuhammad Quraish fear(pbuh) that they would lose their of women, and to thebribe poor him and with by the idol worship heand saw power, in Meccan believe that slaves they tried offers of wealth but society. he him astopeople idols and treated the poor; the slaves and women very refused give upworshiped his mission. Muslims say that Muhammad (pbuh) would often spent time in thought and prayer in a cave, outside Mecca on Mount Hira known as Jabal al-Nur ( the Mountain of Light.) The Shahadah: The Declaration of Faith

Muslims claim that Muhammad (pbuh) was visited by the Angel Jibril who told him to recite or read. Muhammad (pbuh) was said to have replied that he could not read. The angel Jibril is then said to have revealed the first verses of the Qur’an, The Valley of Mecca

"Read (or recite) in the name of your Lord who created,

The Quraish arefrom believed to have continued to persecute the Muslims before created man a clinging banishing them95:1-2) to a dry valley. They prevented people from trading with clot." (Qur’an, Muhammad (pbuh) supporters. These events lead to the deaths of Khadijah and Abu Talib.

Gold coin from Arabia

Camels would be used for carrying goods

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The Migration Muslims believe that Negus, the King of Abbysinnia now known as Ethiopia, gave protection to the new Muslims. Muhammad (pbuh) sent a small group to live there. However the Quraish still feared that Muhammad’s message would influence the visiting pilgrims. They feared that this would stop them from visiting the idols in the Ka’bah.

The Muslims that had stayed behind in Mecca were still being persecuted. Some visitors from a city called Yathrib (now known as Medina) saw the suffering of of the Muslims. They asked Muhammad (pbuh) to come to live in Yathrib so that they could protect them and so that Muhammad (pbuh) could bring peace to their city. Gradually, the Muslims left Mecca. Muhammad (pbuh) and his close companion Abu Bakr left Mecca later in the year 622 C.E. They left in secret to join the Muslims in Yathrib after the Quraish plotted to kill Muhammad. (pbuh) The arrival of Muhammad (pbuh) brought much needed peace to Yathrib. The city was then renamed Madinat an-Nabi, or ‘City of the Prophet.’

Madinat an Nabi: The City of the Prophet

Muhammad’s journey in 622 C.E.is called the Hijrah and marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. 6


Leadership of Yathrib Muhammad (pbuh) drew up an agreement of cooperation among the Muslims and the tribes of the city. Muhammad (pbuh) then joined each migrant from Mecca (Muhajirun) in brotherhood with a Muslim from Madinah (Ansar). This policy helped the refugees to begin new lives, and helped the new Muslims of Medina to learn Islam from the experienced Muslims from Mecca. The Meccan leaders feared that Muhammad’s growing influence among the tribes of Arabia would replace their leadership. The Quraish therefore continued persecuting the Muslims. Muhammad (pbuh) had not fought against the Quraish’s

persecution

whilst

in

Mecca

however Muslim’s believe that, a Qur’anic verse was then revealed that told the Muslims to defend themselves. The people of Yathrib shared their homes

Stone Idols once worshiped by the Pagan Arabs

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Some of the Important Battles The Battle of Badr Muslims call the first Battle which they took part in the Battle of Badr. Muslims believe that this battle took place in the second year after the Hijrah (migration to Medina) near the well of Badr, which lies between Mecca and Medina. It is believed by Muslims that Muhammad (pbuh) ordered the Muslims to take over the Quraish tribes goods which were being taken to be sold, to make up for what the Quraish tribe had taken from the Muslims in Mecca. The Muslims believed that by preventing the Quraish from trading, the Muslims could weaken them. Muslims believe that although Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers were greatly outnumbered, they defeated the Quraish.

The Site of the Battle of Badr

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The Battle of Uhud Muslims believe that the Battle of Uhud took place in the third year after Hijrah. The Muslim description of events states that the Quraish with support from their allies decided to take revenge for those who were killed at the Battle of Badr. When Muhammad (pbuh) heard about this he got an army together. Muhammad (pbuh) believed that they should remain inside the city of Medina and only fight the eney if they invaded. However the majority of the Muslims believed that they should go to Mount Uhud and meet the enemy so this is what they did. The Muslims believe that because the archers disobeyed Muhammad’s (pbuh) command and left their posts it allowed for the enemy to take advantage of the situation and attack. This took the Muslims by surprise and as a result seventy one Muslims were killed and Muhammad (pbuh) himself was injured.

Site of the Battle of Uhud

Mount Uhud

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The Battle of Khundaq (the Trench)

The site of the Battle of Khandaq (The Trench)

Battle of Khandaq took place in the fifth year after Hijrah. Muslims believe that in an attempt to stop Muhammad (pbuh) from spreading his message the Quraish joined forces with three other tribes to fight the Muslims. When they arrived at Medina they were surprised to find that the Muslims had dug a trench. After a long siege the Quraish tribe and their supporters are said to have left due to

the harsh conditions. Muslims believe this event was important for Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims as showed that their enemies were no longer strong enough to attack them.

The Arabs were not used to the idea of trench war fare. Arabs usually fought hand to hand combat

Masjid Al Fatha built on the battle site

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The Pilgrimage to Mecca Muslims believe that after the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad (pbuh) decided to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Quraish stopped the Muslims at a place called Hudaybiyyah, denying them the right to visit the Ka’ba.

The Ka'ba

Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) signed a ten year peace treaty with the tribe of Quraish .The agreement was that the Muslims would return the following year to make pilgrimage. Muhammad (pbuh) agreed to this treaty to prevent any fighting from taking place. Muslims believe that a short time later, the tribe of Quraish broke this treaty so Muhammad (pbuh) marched an army of thousands towards Mecca however the tribe of Quraish surrendered the city without a fight. Muhammad (pbuh) is believed to have granted amnesty, or safety, toevery person who stayed inside their home. After Muhammad (pbuh) had taken control of Mecca he removed the idols from the Ka’bah, and gave instructions for the Islamic call to prayer to be sounded from its roof. This practice still continues in Saudi Arabia today. Muslims believe that

after Muhammad (pbuh) took over the leadership of Mecca many people began to accept Islam.

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Muhammad (pbuh) Marries Again During this time, Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) got married again. He is believed to have married the daughters of two important companions. He married Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr, and Hafsa, the daughter of ‘Umar. Muhammad (pbuh) other wives were mainly older widows, or women who he married to help strengthen relations with their tribes. All agreed to the marriages and it is believed by Muslims that his wives spoke of him as a fair and affectionate husband. Muslims believe that Muhammad (pbuh) wives have helped to record and pass on his words and deeds to later to Muslims after his death. It is this sunnah or example of Muhammad (pbuh) which is the second most important source of Islamic guidance after the Qur’an.

The words and advice of Muhammad (pbuh) were recorded as Hadith. The word Hadith is commonly translated as sayings.

A hadith of Muhammad (pbuh)

The Final Moments of Muhammad (pbuh) Life Muslims believe that the revelation of the Qur’an continued for 23 years, until shortly before Muhammad’s death in 632 CE. He is believed to have recited the final verse during a sermon on his farewell pilgrimage. By that time, the Qur’an had already been memorized by many of Muhammad’s followers, recited in his presence, and written down by secretaries. It is this complete Quran which is the most important source of guidance for Muslim.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arsT2yOzWMg

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