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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm Our Shared Spaces as Disseminators of Knowledge By: Fawad Nadir Osman - 8023 Internal Advisor: Tariq Khalidi External Advisor: Sadia Shirazi External Advisor: Rabia Ezdi

This Thesis report has been submitted to the Dept. of Architecture, National College of Arts, Lahore in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of: Bachelors of Architecture (B.Arch - 2012)


ABSTRACT

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The thesis aims to investigate the structural changes brought upon the physical landscape of our cities by the emergence of the internet as the key medium for information dissemination. In a developing context like Pakistan, where nearly half of the population due to poverty and illiteracy are not exposed to the emerging new concepts of knowledge dissemination, we see a stark digital divide intensifying between the information-rich and the information-poor. By proving that knowledge sharing is a cultural construct, we look at the role of shared spaces encompassing both ends of the socio-economic spectrum in terms of knowledge sharing and critically analyze the role of “space” as an interface for mediating information between people.

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The project realization is a de-institutionalized library set in a diverse socio-economic context having a symbiotic relationship with its surrounding setting. The aim is to stich the disjointed urban fabric by the multiplicity of program pertinent for an extremely pluralistic society. Finally, the thesis proposes a new building type that acts as a host organism proliferated by its programmatic parasites. The “Knowledge Factory” mediates information and people who are in constant flux and recognizes the importance of in-between spaces as primary spaces for knowledgeacquisition.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report is a humble attempt to harness all of those insightful trajectories that have crossed my path up till now; some who helped me construe the complexity of my set premise while others who have simply just been there for me when I have needed them most. I would like to thank my parents; my mother, whose love, has been central for my resolve to do well. To Tariq Khalidi, my advisor, my mentor over the course of this year, who never doubted my ability to deliver and with his infinite wisdom made this journey a lot less difficult. To Sadia Shirazi, who provided me with her valuable insight on how socio-cultural factors transformed space and inspired me to venture into this unexplored territory for this particular thesis.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

And in the end, I would like to thank Maha Ahmed, for absolutely everything.

Fawad Nadir Osman

To my friends, who have helped and sustained me through my obsession in unfolding the difficulties in the apparent simplicities of architecture and bear with me as my life started to revolve around it and helped me adapt to this new phase in my life.

National College of Arts, Lahore

To Rabia Ezdi, my teacher and my friend, whose support and encouragement over these past three years has transformed me as a student and a human being. She taught me how architects have the abiliy to make fundamental subjective change on a societal level by probing specific objective realities through empirical evidence.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS • • • • •

Title Page ....................................................................................................................................01 Abstract .......................................................................................................................................02 Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................. 03 Table of Contents ..................................................................................................................... 04 List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... 06

Chapter 1:

Introduction

Chapter 2:

The Public Realm and the Post-Digital Age

..........................................10

2.1 - The Commoner and the Public Realm ................................................................. 13 2.2 - The Formation/Transformation of the Public Realm ........................................14 2.2.1 – Historical roots of the Public Realm ...................................................15 2.2.2 – A Theoretical Perspective .......................................................................16 2.3 – The New Public Agora and the Internet ..............................................................17 2.3.1 – The Public Space as a Network .............................................................18 2.3.2 – Of Rhizomatics and Matrices .................................................................19 2.3.3 – Conclusions and Visualizations .............................................................20

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

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Chapter 3:

Cities and the Dissemination of Knowledge

3.1 – Intro/Society of the Spectacle .................................................................................24 3.2 – A Space for Action and Speech ..............................................................................25 3.3 – How Knowledge is shared in the city ...................................................................27 3.3.1 - The Digital Divide ...................................................................................... 29 3.3.2 - Precedent Study - Hole in the Wall ......................................................31 3.3.3 - Addressing the Digital Divide ...............................................................32 3.4 - Knowledge sharing as a Cultural Construct ...................................................... 33 3.4.1 - Research Study ........................................................................................... 34 3.4.2 - Conclusions ................................................................................................. 42 3.5 – The Future Library in the Age of New Media ................................................... 43 3.5.1 – Precedent Study – Seattle Public Library ......................................... 46 3.5.2 – Precedent Study – Sendai Mediatheque ..........................................50 3.6 – Re-thinking the Library Paradigm ...................................................................54 3.6.1 - Conclusions ...................................................................................56

Chapter 4:

Design

4.1 – Design Brief ................................................................................................................. 59 4.2 – Site .................................................................................................................................. 60 4.2.1 – Site Selection Criteria .............................................................................. 60 4.2.2 - Site Context ................................................................................................ 61 4.2.3 - Physical/Spatial Context of Site .......................................................... 64 4.2.4 - Site Analysis ................................................................................................ 65 4.2.5 - Socio-Cultural Context ........................................................................... 66 4.2.6 - User Activity ............................................................................................... 68 4.2.7 - Conclusions ................................................................................................. 70


4.3 – The Program 72 4.4.1 – Program Consolidation ............................................................................ 74 4.4.2 – Program Connections ............................................................................... 76 4.4.3 – Building Configuration ............................................................................. 78 4.4.4 – Masterplan .................................................................................................... 80 4.4.5 – Architectural Drawings ............................................................................. 82 4.4.6 – Exploded Axon .............................................................................................83

• •

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................... 84 Annexture ....................................................................................................................................86 Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS Chapter 2:

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

6

The Public Realm and the Post-Digital Age

Fig 1.1 - Arendt’s spirtual seance by Fawad Nadir Fig 1.2 - Tracing Historical Roots by Fawad Nadir Fig 1.3 – Elements of the Public Sphere by Fawad Nadir Fig 1.4 – Internet a Topology of Autonomous Systems. Edited and Adapted by Fawad Nadir. Original Source: http://visual.ly/internet-topology-autonomous-systems Fig 1.5 – Networked Public Sphere by Fawad Nadir Fig 1.6 – Rhizomatic Structure Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir Original Source: http://formativecomplexity.blogspot.com/2012/02/aranda-lasch-seattle-public-library.html Fig 1.7 – Formation of the Post-Digital Sphere by Fawad Nadir Fig 1.8 – Hybrid Visualizations on Site by Fawad Nadir

Chapter 3:

Cities and the Dissemination of Knowledge

Fig 2.1 – Society of Spectacle Collage by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.2 – Data - Information - Knowledge Illustration by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.3 – Interfaces of Knowledge Transfer for the Privileged User by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.4 – Interfaces of Knowledge Transfer for the Un-privileged User by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.5 – Knowledge Disseminating Nodes in the Metropolis by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.6 – Isometric View - Spider Net Café by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.7 – Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Spider Net Cafe by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.8 - Isometric View – Roadside Barber by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.9 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Roadside Barber by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.10 - Isometric View – Jaidi Pan Shop by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.11 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Jaidi Pan Shop by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.12 - Isometric View – Roadside Bookstore by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.13 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Roadside Bookstore by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.14 - Isometric View – Multimedia Lecture Theaters by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.15 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Multimedia Lecture Theaters by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.16 - Isometric View – Coffee Planet by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.17 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Coffee Planet by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.18 - Isometric View – Nikon Net Cafe by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.19 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Nikon Net Cafe by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.20 - Isometric View – Readings by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.21 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Readings Bookstore by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.22 - Isometric View – Data Darbar by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.23 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Data Darbar by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.24 - Isometric View – Oxford Mobile bookshop by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.25 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Oxford Mobile bookshop by Fawad Nadir


Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Chapter 4: Design Fig 3.1 – Wordcloud showing Knowledge and its inter-related terms by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.2 – Institutional Library. Adapted and Re-drawn by Fawad Nadir. Origi nal Source: Everywhere Is Here. Architecture and a Developing Information Society, Graduation Thesis by Ailion Fig 3.3 – Transparent Library. Adapted and Re-drawn by Fawad Nadir. Origi nal Source: Everywhere Is Here. Architecture and a Developing Information Society, Graduation Thesis by Ailion. Fig 3.4 – Ramped Library. Adapted and Re-drawn by Fawad Nadir. Original Source: Everywhere Is Here. Architecture and a Developing Information Soci ety, Graduation Thesis by Ailion. Fig 3.5.A – De-Institutionalized Library. Adapted and Re-drawn by Fawad Na dir. Original Source: Everywhere Is Here. Architecture and a Developing Infor mation Society, Graduation Thesis by Ailion. Fig 3.5.B – De-Centralized Library by Fawad Nadir. Fig 3.6 – Map of Pakistan with Punjab highlighted drawn by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.7 – Map of Lahore with the Gulberg Town Highlighted by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.8 – Satellite Image of Site. Source: Google Earth Fig 3.9 – Base Map of Site by Fawad Nadir

National College of Arts, Lahore

Fig 2.26 - Isometric View – The Nation Bulletin board by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.27 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – The Nation Bulletin board by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.28 - Isometric View – Quaid-e-Azam Library by Usman Sami and Fawad Nadir Fig 2.29 - Time/Intensity Frequency Graph – Quaid-e-Azam Library by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.291 - User/technology interface over time - Drawn by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.30 – Program Analysis Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir Original Source - OMA Fig 2.31 – Spatial Organization Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir Original Source - OMA Fig 2.32 – Old Thinking/OMA Thinking by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.33 – Compartmentalization of Sections Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir. Original Source - OMA Fig 2.34 – Re-Organized Dewey Decimal System Original Source - OMA Fig 2.35 – The Spiral Transformations Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir Original Source - OMA Fig 2.36 – Various Movements in Space by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.37 – Second Floor Plan Adapted and Redrawn by Fawad Nadir Original Source - http://dlarch.xanga.com/702462886/toyo-ito-sendai-mediatheque Fig 2.38 – Fluidity in Space by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.39 – Flow of Information and People by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.40 – Overlapping of Information and Combining Nodes by Fawad Nadir Fig 2.41 – Overlapped Nodal Link by Fawad Nadir

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LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS contd.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

Fig 3.10 – Site Analysis by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.11 – 3d- Isometric of Site by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.12 – User Activity sketches by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.13 – 3d- Isometric of Site by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.14 – Programmatic Nodes by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.15 – Intimate to public zone thresholds by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.16 – Program Connections by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.17 – Program Affinities/Relationships by Fawad Nadir Fig 3.18 – Building Configurations by Fawad Nadir

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Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

“When everything is connected to everything else, for better or for worse, everything matters.� - Bruce Mau

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

1.

10

INTRODUCTION

“Our millieu in its entirety is a reflection of human actions and intentions. Our public sphere, a democratic forum for the people, today stands deserted and bruised; yearning to be brought back to life by its people again.�


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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

[7] - Sadler, Simon. (1998). Situationist City, The MIT Press. pg 145.

Fawad Nadir Osman

The city that I live in has completely transformed during the last ten years due to the onset of terrorism. Our institutional buildings have been encroached upon by security measures; isolating themselves from the public sphere. Our ruling elite live in fortified houses with extended walls and visual blockades carrying those ubiquitous notions of security and protection while the common man just lingers on, contemplating on how the sacredness of his own life is inconsequential to the life of his superiors. The physical public realm as we can now see is diminishing to a mere blur in its surrounding context. “Public life has succumbed to closed blocks and Surveilled societies which result in the automatic resignation of the individual.” 7 Civic engagement which is diminishing in the physical realm can be seen conjuring a sense of convivial urbanism in the virtual realm through the internet and social networking sites. Recent global events like the Egyptian Revolution in Tahrir Square(2011) and downfall of the Indonesian government(1998) clearly indicate the role of the internet in the mobilization of the people. This essential link had gone missing as our cities continued to fragmentize based on social levels and were broken down into ultra-privatized s ections as a result of the postmodern era. The internet has transformed our urban environment; increasing its complexity and flexibility of the creation of spaces for political activism. The internet is acting like a medium which disseminates mass information much faster as it very effectively deconstructs design innovation of its well established hierarchy and democratizes the circle of accessibility. This kind of activism now calls for an enthused change in the physical landscape of the city; there is a dire need of spaces which encourage political and cultural continuity of our environment.

National College of Arts, Lahore

“The physical public realm as we can now see is diminishing to a mere blur in its surrounding context. Public life has succumbed to closed blocks and Surveilled societies which result in the automatic resignation of the individual.”

INTRODUCTION

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

2.

12

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

“The greatest forces of intimate life; passions of the heart, the thoughts of the mind, the delights of the senses lead an uneasy kind of existence unless they are retransformed, de-privatized, deindividualized into a shape that is fit for public appearance.� Hannah Arendt


Before

? Fig 1.1 Arendt’s seance visualization

concerned about the same object but being distinct at the same time having a different viewpoint of the world. Reality for us is not guaranteed by the common nature of all men who constitute it Arendt says, rather by the fact that, despite the differences of position and differences in perspective ultimately everyone

foundations rooted in the act of ‘appearance’ which is something that can be ‘seen’ and ‘heard’ by others as well as ourselves. So everything that is seen and heard in public has the widest possible publicity. Arendt goes on to clarify that “the greatest forces of intimate life; passions of the heart, the thoughts of the mind, the delights of the senses lead an uneasy kind of existence unless they are re-transformed, de-privatized, de-individualized into a shape that is fit for public appearance.”8 In Arendt’s Book ‘The Human Condition’ she draws examples from history to endorse her argument that what the public realm considers irrelevant can have such an extraordinary and infectious charm that the whole society at large will eventually end up adopting it as their way of life. Public realm at its most basic is what we know as the common world, and it gathers us together and yet prevents us from falling over one another but unfortunately today’s common world has lost its power of being ‘pluralistic’ which is to be simultaneously the same, being

is concerned for the same object which in our case is the society or the world at large. Arendt gives an insightful analogy in her book where she compares the concept of the public sphere with a spiritual séance (Fig 1.1) where a group of people are sitting around a table and she says that once the table vanishes from their midst it is like saying that those people are separated and now have now no connection whatsoever, unrelated to each other by anything tangible. The failure of the public realm for us lies in the failure of men who have become entirely private, that they have been deprived of seeing and hearing of others, and of being seen and heard by them. Increased individualism due to the consumer culture has resulted in a lack of concern of the public realm in the today’s contemporary society. They are imprisoned under the “subjectivity of their own singular experience”8. With the loss of the common world our cities are comprised of events having not significant relation to one another instead of being locked into their own “self-referential.”8 logic.

[8] - Arendt, Hannah. (1958). The Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 22-73

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

“Increased individualism due to the consumer culture has resulted in a lack of concern of the public realm in the today’s contemporary society. They are imprisoned under the ‘subjectivity of their own singullar experience.”8

Fawad Nadir Osman

What we constitute as reality has its basic

After

National College of Arts, Lahore

Hannah Arendt, a German philospoher writes in ‘The Human Condition’8 that: “A man who lived only a private life, who like the slave was not permitted to enter the public realm, or like the barbarian had chosen not to establish such a realm, was not fully human.”8 Such has been the significance of the public realm throughout the history of mankind. She later on remarks on how no human life, not even the life of the hermit in nature’s wilderness, is possible without a world which directly or indirectly testifies to the presence of other human beings; precisely for the reason because man in all of his innate capacity is fundamentally a social being.

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

THE COMMONER AND THE PUBLIC REALM

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THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

14

THE FORMATION/TRANSFORMATION OF THE PUBLIC REALM

‘The public realm is a virtual or an imaginary community which does not necessarily exist in an identifiable space.’ Jurgen Habermas

Jurgen Habermas9, a German Philosopher believed that the public realm was a virtual or an imaginary community which does not necessarily exist in any identifiable space. This becomes the root of our argument when we talk about the formation of the public sphere. The public sphere to put it simply in Habermas words is a “network for communicating information and points of view… the streams of communication, are in the process, filtered and synthesized in such a way that they coalesce into bundles of topically specified public opinions.”9 The basis of our argument starts with how the public sphere has the ability to take any shape and exist anywhere as long as its conditions for sustenance are present. The Public sphere finds its place amidst the private realm which includes households etc. and the state on the other hand. It is a space where free and equal citizens come together to share information, to debate, to discuss, or to deliberate on common concerns. For Jurgen Habermas anyone who entered the public domain was considered to be among peers and was given an equal status. According to Rutherford the success of the public realm depends on: o The Extent of Access (As close to universal as possible) o The Degree of Autonomy (the citizens must be free to coercion) o The Rejection of Hierarchy (Everyone partici pates on an equal footing) o The Rule of Law (Particularly of the subordination of the state) o The Quality of Participation (Common commitment to the ways of logic)10 (Rutherford)

[9] - Habermas, Jürgen. (1962, trans. 1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: an inquiry into a category of bourgeois society, Cambridge: Polity, 33, 36, 41, 51, 171, 212 [10] - CommGAP, World Bank Report on the history of Public spheres


[10] - Information taken from CommGAP, World Bank Report on the history of Public spheres

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

this era is further elaborated. • Tribal Gatherings – Tribal Gatherings have a similar kind of function like the western citizen assemblies or the ancient agoras but they used to operate according to their own local dynamics. This was the physical manifestation of the public life of the tribal communities. • Religious Congregations – Islam and various other religions have really stressed on the importance of the communal participation and solidarity and major religious institutions were supposed to be centers of public participation where there was no discrimination of class or creed. In periods of political struggle, the Church often provided a space for members of the oppressed and the marginalized groups to gather and voice their opinions. • Today – The public sphere in today’s world has crossed all physical limitations and manifested itself into the media. The public sphere is seen in relation to the mass media because in today’s world mass media permits the circulation of opinion and offer the conditions in which a democratic forum can function. The Internet is arguably the most important development in contemporary communication where it has a produced a public sphere which in theory has granted access to every individual to the global forum.

Fawad Nadir Osman

By looking at the historical trajectory10 of how the public space evolved over history we realize how the transformation of the public sphere was dependent on the historical circumstances and the technical developments of that time. • Ancient Greece – The first recorded evidence from our understanding of the public sphere comes from the Greek Agora where the citizens (actors) directly participated in political decisions. And the Agora was considered to be the hub for all citizens to exchange and discuss opinions. • European Monarchies – In all Monarchies spread throughout the European states including their colonies the Royal court was considered to be the public sphere and at that time only the king determined what was public. • Salons – During the time of the monarchies around the 17th to 18th century’s coffeehouses in England and the same sort of places in different states became places where rich bourgeois members of the society came together and took part in rational discourse. With the advent of the printing press these same places thrived into becoming centers for other kinds of people and here the authority of the argument supplanted the authority of the title so social status slowly started taking a back seat giving us the roots of what we call the public sphere in today’s day and age. The whole transformation of the public sphere in

National College of Arts, Lahore

Fig 1.2 Historical Timeline of Public Spheres

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE

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This diagram represents how with inclusion of corporations and the free market, citizens are being pushed out of the public sphere and turning them into consumers with a lack of regard for their environment

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE TRANSFORMATION

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 1.3 Elements of the Public Sphere

Long before the advent of mass communications, citizens used to come together in a physical space, a coffeehouse for instance, in the monarch periods of the 17th and 18th centuries to exchange thoughts and were free to coerce on common concerns. This was after the changes made in Europe’s political structure in the 18th century, largely attributed to the capitalist modes of production and the enlightenment philosophy culminated in the collapse of feudalism, heralding the entry of the bourgeois into center stage. This was the first time where critical reasoning occurred in public in the 17th century, before that it was in the monarch’s domain to state which space was public and which wasn’t. Even though those spaces can’t be considered ‘public’9 in Habermas’ sense of the word since it comprised only of bourgeois males – nonetheless, it represented a certain breakdown of feudal powers and the creation of a new form of ‘public-ness’ through the coming together of these private males. There was this newfound significance on critical dialogue to combat ‘dogmatism’. In this newly established debate forum people strived to achieve ‘truths’ through

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[8] - Arendt, Hannah. (1958). The Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 22-73 [9] - Habermas, Jürgen. (1962, trans. 1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: an inquiry into a category of bourgeois society, Cambridge: Polity, 33, 36, 41, 51, 171, 212

rational discourse and this opened up Arendt’s public realm where everyone was “concerned with the same object.”8 However this bourgeois public sphere was eventually seen to erode once again through economic and structural changes paving the way what Habermas9 called the modern mass society of the social welfare state. This was a phase where rational/critical discourse was replaced which was the core of the public sphere and was replaced by leisure and consumerism. The emergence of this cultural notion of consumerism is remarked by Horkheimer and Adorno9 a direct result of the mass produced, mechanically reproduced culture. Culture in itself was treated as a commodity and mass media was a product designed and packaged for consumers based on market statistics. Horkheimer and Adorno argued the culture that was now being manufactured by these so called “cultural manufacturers”9 were limiting the possibility for any critical thought and has reduced the citizen to the status of the spectator and expert opinion by these social commentators had taken place of the ‘true’ public opinion.


[10] - Baer, Walter, (2008.) et al. Networked Publics. Edited by Kazys Varnelis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Pg 15-42, 77-107 [11] - Ubayasiri, Kasun. Internet and The Public Sphere. Source: Internet

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

With the development of the printing press it completely revolutionized the nature of the public sphere within the communication structure. In today’s world communication is easier than it ever was. We can get in touch through the internet, telephone and are connected to multitudes of other concerned citizens who are interested in what other people think by the circulating global events. Today’s digital public sphere has defied all physical barriers and extended its realm through alternate dimensions of space and encompasses all mediums of communications through which citizens can send and receive information. The internet is the product of the convergence of communication technologies. It is the only network available that allows a variety of media to flow without any specific requirements. The “internet emulates traditional media such as radio, telephony, print, television etc. It also allows for various new forms of interaction that give the user a more active role in the process.”10 Having said that, our contemporary society has been subjected to commercial imperatives of advertising, entertainment and mass media; our social relations are devoid of ‘interactive practice’ which was considered to be at the core of the public sphere. Physical spaces like coffeehouses, dhabas (local form of a tavern), parks, union halls

The internet promising to be an anti-thesis of heavily commercialized mass communication came as a predominantly open source medium where the access was principally open to all. Habermas said the “use of the Internet has both broadened and fragmented the contexts of communication. This is why the Internet can have a subversive effect on intellectual life in authoritarian regimes. But at the same time, the less formal, horizontal cross-linking of communication channels weakens the achievements of traditional media…”.11 The internet very effectively mirrors the fragmented nature of the post-modern society. The environment the internet has provided can be termed as a precursor to the formation of the public sphere in the post-digital age as it promises to bring together dispersed intelligence from all corners of the world to converge in cyberspace to engage in critical/rational discourse. The complexity and the flexibility in web-based communal interaction are endless; both one-way and two-way but still mediated. Scholar Mark Poster10 argues that since internet users can appear with abstract identities and the root of the public sphere is comprised of the identity, the internet cannot completely replace the physical public sphere. Because in the midst of it all we still need inter-personal relations to sustain the ‘imagined’.

Fawad Nadir Osman

Fig 1.4 – Internet a Topology of Autonomous Systems

National College of Arts, Lahore

or the street still maintain their primary function but fail to act as organizing centers as they used to in the past.

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

THE NEW PUBLIC AGORA AND THE INTERNET

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THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

THE PUBLIC SPACE AS A NETWORK

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Fig 1.5 - Representing the Public Sphere in the shape of a Network through connections

With the interaction in the virtual realm, most people argue that the internet cannot qualify as successor to the physical public sphere even though it has the ability to host conversations with multitudes of participants at a time. Face to face interaction still is paramount especially when consensus depends on the interpersonal trust. Jane Jacobs12 linked the decline of the city and the collapse of the public sphere, arguing that our sense of civitas and our zeal with urbanity depend ultimately on the built infrastructure that allows frequent, face to face interaction within the society. It is without a doubt that online mobilization has its own advantages that is impossible to replicate offline but having said that face to face gatherings are imperative to sustain viable political movements over time. What we envisage to do in the future is to talk about hybrid forms of online and offline participation of people in the public sphere. The internet effectively allows multiple, overlapped and diverse networked public spheres to emerge and to somehow incorporate these new models in our urban milieu. These convivial spheres allow individuals to have a greater ability to participate in the democratic process of engagement. As Ivan Illich10 says what are needed are new networks, readily available to the public and designed to spread equal opportunity of knowledge and learning. These ‘hybrids’ could possibly satisfy Habermas’s10 ideas of the emancipatory potential of the public sphere which were based on open models of communication and participation. The public space as a network should be able to ascertain what Ivan Illich sought a postindustrial society would do; to “maximize individual creativity, imagination and energy.” Behavior in the Networked Public Spaces would be composed of autonomous and creative interaction among individuals and their environment. Individual freedom Illich remarked could only be realized through interdependence a convivial environment would favour the “freedom, autonomy, equality, and creative collaboration conducive to democracy”. [10] - Baer, Walter, (2008.) et al. Networked Publics. Edited by Kazys Varnelis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Pg 15-42, 77-107 [12] - Jacobs, Jane. (1992). the Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York, New York: Vintage Books


THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

OF RHIZOMATICS AND MATRICES

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

Felix guattari and Giles Deleuze promoted a network structure called the rhizome. This particular structure worked on the principles of non-hierarchy; “a plant structure that can bifurcate and send out a new shoot at any point.”13 Rhizomes grew and spread without any need for a centralizedhub. The post-modern structure had rejected the centralized system of authority. “The connections between things have become paramount; engine and the engineer, workers in the distributed office network.”13 Now we are using connections for all of our tasks today and their importance should not be undermined. Deleuze said that “It is through these connections that new identities and bodies are formed” If we look at fragmented nature of cities today, we need to envision public spaces that defy the centralized arborescent hub and constructs its identity through the connections it forms with people and their activites. Electronic networks all over the world are perceived as having emancipatory powers helping citizens at the local level. Deleuze and Guattari believed to connect these large-scale networks with the networks of the body, and between bodies, so that “we start to see things like temperament and identity as emergent properties that are products of the machines immanent in the initial conditions.“13 [13] -Ballantyne, Andrew. (2007). Deleuze and Guattari for Architects, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Pg. 25-

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 1.6 Representing the Public Sphere in the shape of a Network through connections

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o There is a dire need of spaces that provide physical interaction in the city that reintroduce the individual to the concern for the ‘communal’ object. o Public spaces that re-empower the full public, gather them together despite divergent viewpoints. o The transformation of public spheres has been dependent on historical circumstances and technical developments. With the decentralized structure of Lahore and its morphology it would only make sense to choose different sites in Lahore which express their character according to their own immediate context. These conceived public spheres would in turn form a matrix which would give rise to a multi-pluralistic post-modern structure aspiring to be more fruitful in furthering the democratic progress. o When choosing the selected nodes, it’ll be imperative to see what ‘fragments’ of society that space basically caters to. By doing that, we can determine how successful that public sphere is eventually going to be. o By the advent of the internet and the rise of the digital public sphere it is imperative to realize the significance of face-face interaction to sustain the ‘imagined’ personalities of the cyberspace. o This matrix will give rise to public spheres with fluid and overlapping boundaries becoming loci of critical and rational discourse, the basic necessity in forming Habermas’s Public Sphere.

FORMATION OF THE POST-DIGITAL PUBLIC SPHERE

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

20

CONCLUSIONS AND CONCEPT VISUALIZATIONS

Volumes of same size depicting the new ‘networked’ public space is molded according to to site and zoning restrictions

Social and Programmatic Iterations mould the Volume according to its context

Fig 1.7 - Micro Connections and Macro Connections make up the hybrid for the Post-Digital


Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 1.8 – Hybrid Visualizations on SiteSource:

National College of Arts, Lahore

The hybrid public spheres become meeting places for online and offline interaction and become more relevant to the new post-modern condition of cities where social differentiation and economic exclusion are exluding citizens from the public domain. These hybrids will form a new typology of public spaces relevant to site and all of its constituents (people, architectural infrastructure, environment, mobile and static elements from the surroundings).

THE PUBLIC REALM AND THE POST DIGITAL AGE

CONCLUSIONS AND CONCEPT VISUALIZATIONS

21


The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

3.

22

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

“The citizen is exploited by the capitalist and consumes to ease her anxiety from the exploitation”

Guy Debord


CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

INTRODUCTION/SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE

Fawad Nadir Osman National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 2.1 – Society of Spectacle Collage

23


CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

INTRODUCTION/SOCIETY OF THE SPECTACLE “In societies where modern conditions of production prevail, life is presented as an immense accumulation of spectacles. Everything that was directly lived is now merely represented in the distance.” Guy Debord14 Our present day society can succinctly be categorized, under the phenomenon of Debord’s Society of the Spectacle14. We adhere to the mechanisms of a system that expounds more so on the ‘appearance’ of ‘having’, than to having in actuality. We have become silent ‘spectators’ to the domineering mechanisms of control enforced on us by the influences of the late capitalistic structure. In the society of the spectacle life as we know it is represented as an “immense accumulation of spectacles”14, where everything that was directly lived, now remains as series of representations through images. These “images” Debord claims are synonymous to the image of the ‘capital’ and he mentions “that the spectacle is capital accumulated to the point that it becomes images.”14 The commodity that becomes the brunt of most of Debord’s critiques is responsible for colonizing the major aspects of our lives. To us our perception of anything real or tangible comes under the influence of the commodity. Jean Baudrillard15 talked about a similar concept originating from the late capitalistic traditions and termed it as hyper-reality. He explained the concept of the hyper-real where reality itself was sold a commodity in the name of authenticity. He claimed that our society is going through a phase where the “substance is nothing and the image is everything”. In this post-modern society our thirst for the mass produced industrial objects has been replaced by this pseudo-authenticity and our demand for a more authentic experience from the objects that we consume. Symbolic values for objects have become more important than material utility values. He said that in the Late Capitalism society we as a collective entity defined ourselves more by what we consume than what we produce. Reality shows,

are examples of hyper-real commodities where the idea of reality itself is sold as mere simulation of realism. The citizen is trapped under the confines of the system, “the citizen is exploited by the capitalist and consumes to ease her anxiety from the exploitation.”14

[14] - Debord Guy, (2002) the Society of the Spectacle, Treason Press.

24


Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

[7] - Sadler, Simon. (1998). Situationist City, The MIT Press. pg 145. [8] - Arendt, Hannah. (1958). The Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 22-73 [14] - Debord Guy, (2002) the Society of the Spectacle, Treason Press.

National College of Arts, Lahore

In this whole debate I feel that Arendt’s8 insight tion of a mental and artistic evolution, because on the human condition in today’s day age is it is the materialization of an economic stage7 more pertinent than ever because what she fun- He argued that the divide between the ruling damentally talks about is how two distinct beings class and the working class was more apparcan only be distinguished through their ability to ent than ever and Debord claimed that an exdemonstrate ‘action’ and ‘speech’8. If men were isting society which ‘bears the spectacle’ does not distinct, they would neither need speech or not dominate the under-developed regions just action to differentiate them, or to make them- by its economic hegemony but also by its acselves understood. The whole aspect of human cumulation of spectacles; offering false hopes plurality revolves around the basic conditions of and promises for the proletarian worker. Le Coraction and speech, and they are implicit in deter- busier was often critiqued on this regard for his mining equality and distinction amongst men. aspirations to suppress the street, to partition ‘Otherness’8 one of the fundamental aspects of life in closed blocks and in ‘surveilled’ socieplurality gives us insight of the dynamics of hu- ties which would ultimately bring an end to any man behavior, it explains to us why we are un- chances of insurrection and lead to the autoable to say anything without distinguishing it matic resignation of the individual to the society from something else of the spectacle. and this is one of the To destroy the spectacle, to end its We live in a society primary reasons why ‘spectacles’ supremacy over the larger society it where all our definitions are increasingly takare majorly distinc- is imperative for citizens in their own ing over various tions. Arendt claims capacities to “set a practical force spheres of our lives. that “Man’s capacity surrendered into motion at the scale of society.” 14 We’ve to act, and especially ourselves to the to act in concert, is “ecstasies of comextremely useful for munication”14 to the purposes of self-defense or of pursuit of inter- over-whelming power of mass-communication ests”14. This attribute that Arendt claims is a con- through the internet, televisions, ads, films, structive force but looking back at history and magazines, hyper-real political demonstrations, the present circumstances I would diverge from vulgarized pseudo-festivals. These festivals Deher point of view and claim that it also has had bord claimed were “parodies of real dialogue some very destructive ramifications on our so- and gift-giving.”14 Enormous expenditures on ciety. The fact that we are governed by the dic- these recurring festivities lead to nothing but tates of the society of the spectacle has left us in ‘disillusionment’ which is further compensated a crippled state. by more disillusionment to come. “To destroy the society of the spectacle, to end According to Lewis Mumford14 with the advent its supremacy over the larger society it is imof long distance communication, the individu- perative for citizens in their own capacities to alization of the larger public came within the set a ‘practical force into motion”14. This force confines of the society of the spectacle as an must not only negate the spectacles dominion effective means of ascendency. Any potential but to also critique the society of the spectastruggles of coming together were conveniently cle. The critical concept of the spectacle as Detackled by manipulating urbanism as their fields bord said could most probably be turned into of operation. Jorn a celebrated Neo-Marxist said another obscure socio-political rhetoric ‘used that “Architecture is always the ultimate realiza- to denounce everything into the abstract’ thus

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

A SPACE FOR ACTION AND SPEECH

25


CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

26

reinforcing the spectacular system. So to make this endeavor to be a successful one Debord claimed that “the obscure and difficult path of critical theory must also be the fate of the practical movement acting on the scale of society.”14 Another way to curb the spectacle was through the practice of ‘detournement’ which involved taking various forms of these spectacular images and turning them around against the capitalist/spectacular system. Debord in the sixties and the seventies employed film-making as tool to counter the spectacle.

Our ability to resort to action and speech, to distinguish ourselves from the society of the spectacle has clearly been inhibited by the power of the spectacle. And I personally think institutions have played an equal part in this subversion. We have failed to emancipate our institutions which predominantly serve to protect and reinforce our rights for action and speech.

Our ability to resort to action and speech, to distinguish ourselves from the society of the spectacle has clearly been inhibited by the power of the spectacle. And I personally think institutions have played an equal part in this subversion. We have failed to emancipate our institutions which predominantly serve to protect and reinforce our rights for action and speech. Institutions in any society are supposed to grant the citizens; freedom of speech, access and participation but in reality the situation seems otherwise. In his essay ‘Of Other Spaces’ Michel Foucault introduces the term “heterotopias”15 to describe a site which is absolutely different from ‘all the sites it reflects and speaks about’ and also “sites that have the curious property of being in relation with all the other sites, but in such a way as to suspect, neutralize, or invert the set of relations that they happen to designate, mirror, or reflect.”15 These heterotopias manifest themselves in our institutions and our civic spaces. They have this distinct system of accessibility/inaccessibility that both isolates them and makes them penetrable. The criterion of access varies according to society created and culturally in-

[14] - Debord Guy, (2002) the Society of the Spectacle, Treason Press. [15] - Foucault, Michel. (1997), Of Other Spaces, Utopias and Heterotopias


To disembark this struggle on the level of so¬ciety there are a few primary things that we have to take into consideration first. We live in the Information Age where increasingly new technical developments enable us to immerse ourselves into knowledge through the most exhilarating media. We should be aware of the sources of knowledge that surround us and how they assimilate in our environment.

KNOWLEDGE

[13] -Ballantyne, Andrew. (2007). Deleuze and Guattari for Architects, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Pg. 25[14] - Debord Guy, (2002) the Society of the Spectacle, Treason Press. [15] - Foucault, Michel. (1997), Of Other Spaces, Utopias and Heterotopias [21] - Teledensity - The number of communication devices in use for every 100 individuals living within an area [22] - PTA Telecom Indicators - www.pta.gov.pk/index.php?Itemid=599

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Pakistan has gone from a 3.29% teledensity21 To completely grasp the present paradigm of in 2003-4 to a staggering 68.2% teledensity in knowledge-sharing it is imperative for us to disMarch 201222. That means for every 100 people, tinguish data, information and knowledge. Data 68 people are connected to each other through is a collection of facts or content. Information cellphones. These kind of figures are staggeris organized data, and Knowledge is built upon ing considering we live in a country where the information. We can still encapsulate raw data poverty level is around 25%.22 In just these ten into a form of tangible material such as paper, years the number of cellphone subscribers has stack it on a shelf and ultimately store it in the plummeted to 119 million users. This level of building. Formal institutes such as libraries have played their Data is a collection of acceptance for this technology roles as stores for multitudes facts or content. Informa- is unprecedented and stands testament to the fact that unof information in the form of tion is organized data, and der the right conditions, society books; a one-way channel from the author to the reader, its Knowledge is built upon does adapt to various technical developments no matter how outreach is limited to the physi- information. alien they seem to be in the cal proximity of the person with start. Compared to this internet the source. With new technical users only comprise of 1.6% teledensity. We live developments information is placeless, fluid and in a country where the literacy level is 58% out of in constant flux with the body of knowledge exthe total population and in this developing conpanding on a daily basis. text, majority of the population is stigmatized The new forms of knowledge are highly rhizoby the internet perceiving it as an ‘alien’ entity matic13 and can be found through a process of which cannot be used to their advantage. Globdiscovery and relationships between its parts. ally however, internet is expanding our capacity What I’ve personally encountered in our society to access information and knowledge by being is our general acceptance towards knowledge an endless production of information, comwhich is interactive and free-flowing. Throughmunication and feedback. Feedback being the out history we see our primary transference of most integral as it constitutes as the root for all

Fawad Nadir Osman

INFORMATION

National College of Arts, Lahore

DATA

knowledge was primarily through oral traditions unlike western societies where history is formally recorded through literature; our folk stories, music have been carried down to many generations orally. Thus I believe the potential for our society to accept these newer technologies is exponentially high. An evidence for this is the cell phone connectivity. Due to lower tariff plans and across the board connectivity over the region

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

HOW KNOWLEDGE IS SHARED IN THE CITY

27


National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

creativity, economic productivity, cultural creativity and political power-making. What we understand from Arendt’s ability to demonstrate action and speech is somewhat similar as it provides emancipatory powers to the people to voice their opinion regardless of any external pressures. In this globalized and networked world “every social structure has its own origins, dependent on spatio-temporal contexts. In the Network society within a network age, the social structure is global but, “most human experience is local, both in territorial and cultural terms.”23

[23] - Wilson, E.J. (2004), The Information Age and Developing Countries, MIT Press.

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THE DIGITAL DIVIDE “In the twenty-first century, the capacity to communicate will almost certainly be a key human right. Eliminating the distinction between information-rich and information-poor is also critical to eliminating economic and other inequalities …. improving the life of all humanity.”

– Nelson Mandela, Telecom ’95, October 3, 1995

Cell-phones/ Smart phones

Colleagues

Religion

Social Networking Services Chat IRC Services

Video-Conferencing Services

Fig 2.3 - Mediums of Knowledge sharing for the privileged user Our present society is fragmented from the global network through illiteracy and economic segregation. Parts of society which can afford internet services make their global presence felt but a larger chunk of the society as the statistics cited earlier are isolated from this global network culture. This is because the

global in its entirety overwhelms the local unless the local becomes an alternative node in the global networks23. To open the channels of the network culture to be connected to the non-connected fragments of society will liberate historically under-priviledged individuals to promote knowledge, innovation and organiza-

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Family/Local Community

Instituitions

Fawad Nadir Osman

Print or Digital Resources

Digital Photo Sharing(e.g.Flickr)

National College of Arts, Lahore

Popular Media Microblogging (e.g.Twitter)

[23] - Wilson, E.J. (2004), The Information Age and Developing Countries, MIT Press.

29


The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

tion; the primary constituents to promote action and speech. We need to envisage our institutions to be in the forefront in introducing a new culture of use that reduces the divide in society. Living in this existing developing context, there is a stark polarization of the “information-rich” and the “information-poor”. The socio-spatial segmentation of Lahore has marginalized “information-poor” fragments from the dynamic systems of wealth, power, knowledge, culture and information access. By providing wireless connectivity routed from a central point of a physical infrastructure, it can transcend space and expand “access” piercing through the massing of walls and into the public realm. So in a way it essentially defies the afore-

30

?

?

mentioned “stark polarization” and in a way democratizes speech and freedom to information. Here I would like to include a very intriguing local episode of a mobile library started in the 1970’s in Lahore called the ‘Alif Laila’ Library which was a library appropriated in a double decker bus and drove to schools all over Lahore and became a subject of children’s fascination as they went to schools belonging to all economic classifications and spread information and knowledge through books without discrimination and made it accessible for all children.

Colleagues

Cell-phones/ Smart phones

Popular Media

??

?

?

?

Family/Local Community

Religion

?

?

?

?

?

Fig 2.4 - Mediums of Knowledge sharing for the unprivileged user


PRECEDENT STUDY - HOLE IN THE WALL (INDIA)

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

In India, a New Delhi PhD physicist Sugata Mitra set upon an experiment called “Hole in the wall” to take his country’s next generation into the Information Age. Mitra’s passion for computerbased education propelled him into thinking of new ways to introduce India’s poor communities to the possibilities of computer technology and the incredible information stored in the Internet. Just like Pakistan, India’s internet and computer user is almost entirely restricted to more affluent metropolitan areas. From his small IT office that borders on one of Delhi’s most poor neighborhoods, Mitra and his team decided to literally cut a hole into the building’s perimeter wall and place a very basic computer and finger-pad that was connected to the internet. They decided not to intervene, advertise or offer any help to passers-by and they just observed what interaction took place. Most of the adults and elderly understood what this screen was and had made little attempt to engage with it. The first participators were curious young children. Mitra describes particularly the

first young boy he saw placed his hands on the screen and after nothing happened he touched the finger-pad and observed the mouse-cursor move. The young boy investigated the computer for hours and began to teach other children that were curious as to what he was up to. These groups of kids taught others and the popularity of the hole-in the wall grew rapidly. The children within this community taught themselves how to browse the internet, interact with online Disney games, check the news, and draw pictures that they stored into their personal folders. The ‘Hole-in-the-wall’ experiment then moved on to other poor and rural communities across India’s landscape providing community nodes or “street libraries” that connected them to the world of digital technology that they had previously never seen or engaged with.*

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Children from rural villages deeply engrossed by the embedded PC - INDIA Source: Web

[*] - Case Study adapted from Ailion, Guy (2009), Everywhere is Here, University of Witwatersrand Graduation Thesis.

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ADDRESSING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The public library archetype as a relevant platform or an in-between application in order to decrease the divide needs to find its acceptance at the heart of society as a suitable way for people to immerse themselves in the knowledge experience. In our present society, historical socio-economic segregation led to massive internal structural and economic exclusions, during the years in which the developing world absorbed and innovated new technologies, hence throwing us in deep ‘digital divide’; absence of digital infrastructure and an up to date integration of information communication technologies(ICTs) with the society. What we really require to create a more solid information society is to come up with a contextually appropriate formula for developing a culture of use, where people are provided with opportunities to participate and engage with newest possibilities and challenges. We need to keep in mind factors like affordability, access and interfaces (media) but most importantly what we require is the awareness of its potential for use, collaboration, creation, exploration, connection and innovation so the user could benefit them and their community.

provide the structure of expansion and education for innovation. But by being accessible to the underprivileged they do promise a way of overcoming the stigma that’s involved with the newer technologies. The public library archetype as a relevant platform or an in-between application in order to decrease the divide needs to find its acceptance at the heart of society as a suitable way for people to immerse themselves in the knowledge experience. To achieve that an important step in curtailing this divide would be to understand our cultural disseminators of information. How is knowledge shared in the city of Lahore? We have to understand that knowledge transference is still a very cultural construct and in a developing context our intervention should aim more on being adaptable rather than being adoptable. Architecture has always been a discipline that is crafted by the material culture, and hence it is imperative for us to understand the present typologies of knowledge dissemination in our local context. The next topic is a summary of the very diverse spatial and programmatic qualities of knowledge dissemination that are present in the metropolitan city of Lahore.

“Like the strands of DNA traditional habits, rituals and specific methods must be understood and intertwined with the modern so that they may penetrate and re-shape each other”23. First step in stimulating a culture of information is identifying an awareness of the growing information ether, and the technology associated with information, creation, learning, networking, communicating, and sharing and how one can use these functions in one’s daily life. “ Examples like the alif laila library and the hole in the wall become successful in providing the first step of awareness even if they do not [23] - Wilson, E.J. (2004), The Information Age and Developing Countries, MIT Press.

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3.4 KNOWLEDGE-SHARING AS A CULTURAL CONSTRUCT

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

A local Cart being used to transport books in Anarkali, Lahore

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34

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

RESEARCH STUDY Roadside Bookshop

National College of Arts

Quaid-e-Azam Library

Spider Net Cafe

Oxford Mobile Bookshop


Data Darbar

The Nation Bulletin Board

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Nikon Internet Cafe

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

Readings

Coffee Planet Barber Shop

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Jaidi Pan Shop

Fig 2.5 – Knowledge Disseminating Nodes in the Metropolis

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CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

HOW KNOWLEDGE IS SHARED IN THE CITY Access to Information

Primary Road

Offices

Solitary

Low-income Housing Flats

Interface Restaurants

Car Mechanics

62'-0"

Mixed-Use Buildings

Construction Site Primary Road

Fig 2.6

Spider Net Cafe

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Barkat Market, Garden Town

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morning rush

afternoon laze

closing rush

M T W T F 6

8'-0"

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

S

Fig 2.7 Time/Intensity Frequency Graph

Average Time Exposure/Person = 1-2 hour No. of visitors/day = 100-150

Roadside Barber Faisal Town

lunch break

Fig 2.8

Local advertisments

post-working hours

M T W T F 6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

S

7'-10"

Uneven surface not fit for use

9'-11"

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 20 min No. of visitors/day = 15-20

Access to Information in

Paved surface to provide a flat platform for effecient use

Interface Groups


TV screen facing towards the street

Car Parking

Groups

Interface 13'-00" Restaurants

4'-00"

Fawad Nadir Osman

H block Comm Market, DHA

National College of Arts, Lahore

Jaidi Pan Shop

18'-00" Partial Partioning Glass

Fig 2.10

after college hours

M T W T F 6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Weekend rush

Punjab University

S

Roadside Bookstore

New Anarkali, Outside PU Old Campus

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 10 - 50 min No. of visitors/day = 2500-3000 Fig 2.11 Nasir Park

Fig 2.12 after college hours M T W T F 6

Iron Fence blocked by corrugated iron sheet for security reasons outside the campus.

Towards K.E Medical College

Access to Information 7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 family shopping hours

Interface

S

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Fig 2.13 Average Time Exposure/Person = 10 - 15 min No. of visitors/day = 12-15

Solitary

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Books displayed on the floor

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Access to Information in

37


Fig 2.14

Multimedia Lecture Theaters National College of Arts, Mall Road

evening classes morning classes post college hours

M T W T F 6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

S

Fig 2.15

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 1-2 hour No. of visitors/day = 200-250 Town Hall

Campus Area

National College of Arts, Lahore

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Multimedia Screen

Fawad Nadir Osman

Access to Information

Groups

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Interface

38

Mcdonalds

Park

Access to Information

Restaurants

Groups

Interface

+ Solitary 10'-0"

Coffee Planet Z Block, DHA

24'-5"

morning classes evening classes post college hours M T W T F 6

7

8

Fig 2.16

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

S

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 1-2 hour No. of visitors/day = 100-150 Fig 2.17

Apple Accessories

Charging slot for laptops


Universities

Individually used Computers

Sacred Verses Pasted on the Wall Solitary

Interface

Entrance

8'-0"

Nikon Net Cafe

8'-0"

New Anarkali

morning classes evening classes post college hours

6

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

S

Staircase leading to the cafe

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 1-2 hour No. of visitors/day = 25-30

Fig 2.19

3'-0" banks Main Boulevard

Residential Area

8 Shipment Containers make up the periphery of the bookshop

Readings

Main Boulevard, Gulberg school hours

afternoon laze

post school hours

40'-0"

M T W T F 6

Fig 2.20 7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 afternoon laze weekend rush

S

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 30 min - 2 hour No. of visitors/day = 25-30 Fig 2.21

8'-0"

Solitary

Interface

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Residential Area

7

Fawad Nadir Osman

Fig 2.18

Neela Gumbad Stationary Shops

National College of Arts, Lahore

M T W T F

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Access to Information

Access to Information

39


Access to Information

Z Block, DHA

morning classes evening classes post college hours M T W T F 6

7

8

Groups Solitary shrine room

S

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 30 min - 2 hour No. of visitors/day = 3500-10000 Fig 2.23 Dense Residential Area

65'-0"

Fig 2.22

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

40

Verandah for devotees

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

National College of Arts, Lahore

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Data Darbar

Interface

Commercial Area

loudspeakers

Commercial Centre Allama Iqbal town

Bookshelves appropriated in the bus interior

Fig 2.24

15'-0"

Oxford Mobile Bookshop

Access to Information

Main Commercial Centres, Lahore school hours

afternoon laze

Shopping hours

M T W T F 6

Groups 7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 afternoon laze weekend rush

Solitary

S

Entrance Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 5 min - 15 min No. of visitors/day = 5 - 35 Fig 2.25

8'-0" Cash Counter

Interface


Interface

18'-0" Solitary

LED screen projecting daily headlines

Traffic Signal for the Main Boulevard, Gulberg

23'-0"

Fig 2.25

office rush hours afternoon laze office rush hours M T W T F 6

Fawad Nadir Osman

Main Boulevard

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Nation Bulletin Board

Access to Information 7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Groups S

Interface Fig 2.26

Quaid-e-Azam Library Mall Road, Lahore school hours

afternoon laze

Solitary

108'-0"

post school hours

M T W T F 6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 afternoon laze weekend rush

S

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 30 min - 2 hour No. of visitors/day = 150-200

A colonial period constructed Ball Room retrofitted into a library.

Fig 2.29

Fig 2.28

46'-6"

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Time/Intensity Frequency Graph Average Time Exposure/Person = 1-2 hour

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Access to Information

41


3.4.2

CONCLUSIONS

• Internet Cafes like the ones cited in the research fulfill their purpose in providing access in the form of scattered nodes of connection netted periodically in the urban fabric of Lahore. But unfortunately from the gathered empirical data they mostly appeal to the aware public user. These cafes are not places of learning or interaction as they are conceived to be spatially individualized. Privatized cubicles render the spatial environment rather static. They do not indulge in an immersive knowledge gaining experience because of their introverted appearance. The fragments on the other side of the divide are stigmatized by these spaces and consider them un-engaging.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The spatial environments of access must stimulate a culture of knowledge and motivate them to learn and develop the right kind of skills to see what benefits the internet can offer.

42

• The Public Library as a civic structure is rich in cultural heritage and historic significance, and has always represented a culture of information access in the more pronounced Western Society. The existing public library in Lahore tells a different story however. A colonial structure built by the British as a Ballroom for the Lahore Gymkhana was ultimately retrofitted as a library post- independence. Since its conception it suffers from an unceasing paradox; being a public library, its membership is limited to the post-graduate students as the facility is not equipped to cater to a larger population. Spatially it fails to incite curiosity for the unaware user as only people with pre-determined paths make use of the facilities. It fails considerably in acting as a culturally understood social interface and platform for public discourse. The new civic library needs to nurture and educate a particular culture of use as a parent to a new information society. • Bookstores seen in posh areas like Gulberg (Readings) or the ones aiming for more underpriviledged classes (Anarkali) are seen to face the dilemma of the relevance of the book in the age of new media and internet and are stuck in a rut where their progress seems to be stagnant. • The spaces that stood out and seemed more relevant to a more effective means of knowledge sharing were the ones that never really tried to do it in the first place. These were informal spaces that were accessible to the common man with no apparent spatial barriers. Roadside corners used by barbers become interesting little nodes that produce a congenial environment as an intersection for information in flux in the form of human individuals who come and share their opinions about everyday things. The Jaidi Pan shop with its TV screen opening up to the street often airs cricket matches, political talk shows and religious sermons all catering to the street demand. They overcome the main obstacle, which is the right to access to the information.


THE FUTURE LIBRARY IN THE AGE OF NEW MEDIA

With the boom of electronic media in early 2000’s and the installation of cable television connections a whole new wave of channels swarmed to each one of our television sets. With the frail and volatile political conditions of our country, local news channels have made a fortune keeping the common man in an incessant state of anxiety. Every night local tea/pan shops, over-night trucker motels even high-end cafes turn into these interesting communal spaces for people to come together watch these political talk shows and see their favourite politicians bawl and sneer at each other, all part of the grand spectacle. The contemporary library is already in its first evolutionary steps with architects and librarians rethinking models of information spaces. In the developing context where access alone is a short sighted solution and low-income communities not only can’t afford internet access but would most likely not know what to do with the technol-

[15] - Foucault, Michel. (1997), Of Other Spaces, Utopias and Heterotopias [16] - Seattle Central Library: Civic Architecture in the Age of Media - Amy Murphy [20] - Castells, M. (2004), «The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Developed countries don’t have the required finances to fully sustain public libraries and their expenditures. Another aspect to look into is how to make libraries accessible to a wider public. We live in a country where by law a person is qualified to be literate if he can read and write his own name; despite that even then the illiteracy figures are staggering. Henceforth we see a consequent demise of the library’s status as a center for mass dissemination of knowledge.

Fawad Nadir Osman

the other bodies transformed into information are not phenomenological bodies. Although it could be argued that at the moment society’s public forum is indeed the information highway, and the encounters in its nodes are fruitful, such a highway should not be construed as a substitute for the space of real dialogue and erotic exchange, the space for architecture of resistance. The goal is hardly to pursue the dream of our dissolution into networks of digitized information; it is rather to construe and build spaces that resist such a collapse.” 20

National College of Arts, Lahore

Institutions like the Public Library; one of the last bastions of interiorized civic spaces needs to reclaim its fundamental right as the last communal monument in this pluralistic society. Foucault asserts that libraries exist also as heterotopias and allow individuals to be brought to an “absolute break from their traditional time”15. These places are vessels of the accumulation of time. The purpose of these places is to encapsulate in one place ‘all epochs, all forms, tastes and ideas.’15 The whole concept is to give a space where all times are constituted in a place that itself is outside of time and its perils. I sincerely believe that the right to intellectual prowess breaks all barriers of class and creed. The library stands today “exposed at its most outdated and moralistic at the moment that it has become the last repository of the free and the public”16. However the Public Library in today’s day and age is under siege on various stratums. The paradigm shift from the mechanical discourse to the electronic/digital discourse has put the library’s survival in jeopardy. With the de-materialization of media and knowledge in general, the need for libraries as archival spaces has also diminished. The relatively newly constructed libraries do not reinvent the traditional institution but merely act as a new packaging for an older model. As Rem Koolhaas pointed out about the new role of the library “The anticipation of a looming conflict between the real and the virtual is moot at the moment where the two can be made to coincide, become each other’s mirror image. The virtual can become the distributed presence of the library that users find confirmed in the actual site in the city.”16 Alberto Gomez-Perez and Louis Pelletier have argued: “It may be true that the accessibility of electronic “space”15 add a new di-mension to the old dialectic of public and private realms, suggesting possible new forms of human interaction. Nevertheless we should not be naïve about the so-called public nature of cyberspace. True public space, the space of architecture, is the space of “appearance” where the facing of

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CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

44

ogy, the library as the public centre of information must become a theatre of knowledge or an open information campus. Participation and engagement with digital information is the best way of tackline the issue of the digital divide. Confucius said “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” With the advent of new technologies there are so many creative ways of interacting with virtual and physical interfaces. We can create endless new environments in the same space by using interfaces and screens. “The architecture of the knowledge theatre must play with the vitality and colouring of the market place to stimulate our urge to consume knowledge, while transparency and openness must motivate an engagement and curiosity.”18 The spatial experience of the nodal facility must stimulate a process of debate and questioning, that encourages community and peer particpation. Our common realm becomes an urban playground that provides a dynamic environment in which people have the opportunity to engage and observe various types of installations. In the low-income developing world, the digital divide presents a prejudice towards this cultural evolution, access to hardware, and the infrastructures of resource. To have a stringent government policy to address these concerns of “access” alone is not sufficient. The whole dynamics of the evolution of information is in constant flux and keeps developing so the more important step would be to nurture a culture of use that becomes second nature to the public at large. The main emphasis should be on the spatial environments as we need to remove pre-conceived stigmas surrounding the use of internet cafes which don’t entice participation. Programs like Hole in the wall, the Oxford mobile bookshop in the rural and marginalized areas show how important a public interface is in providing a dynamic environment in which people have the opportunity to engage and observe various types of installations.

The library or the modern information center needs to reshape its function and programs according to our local developing context. It needs to manifest the same qualities that we saw in the successful informal nodes scattered around the city. It must draw on concepts of hybrid public functions, creating awareness, social transparency, public space, social functions and virtual interfaces as design generators for expressing new ways of thinking about information. We need to de-institutionalize the existing structure of the library which does little to entice the unfamiliar public, eventually disrupting the contextual scale. It needs to de-stigmatize yet triumph as many contemporary libraries do. The modern information center must be as comfortable and social as a market place while still being a place of retreat from urban density living and a quite space of introspection. We should not forget that these shared spaces as disseminators of knowledge need to embed themselves in our rich context and history so that the people at large can create a sense of loyalty and ownership with these spaces. They should have both qualities of the public and private as to reach to a larger outreach of people. The role of the modern information center is now parent and playground for an information culture. For lowincome communities within a developing context the library is more than a point of access, it is a point of departure.

[15] - Foucault, Michel. (1997), Of Other Spaces, Utopias and Heterotopias [16] - Seattle Central Library: Civic Architecture in the Age of Media - Amy Murphy [18] - Ailion, Guy (2009), Everywhere is Here, University of Witwatersrand Graduation Thesis.


CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

PRECEDENT STUDY Our present typologies of libraries in the present typology of Lahore are insufficient to tackle with the issues pertaining to new media and technologies. As a result, I studied and analyzed two particular projects which dealt with the dissemination of knowledge in the new technologically globalised world. One was the Seattle Public Library by OMA/LMN Architects in Seattle, America and the other was the Sendai Mediatheque in Sendai by Toyo Ito Architects. These projects were revolutionary in their own capacities as they tried to address unresolved debates of how new media could be harnessed by new architecture of the day. The fact that these two projects are poles apart due to their geographical position it was interesting to see the level of similarity they have when it comes to the nature of public spaces and the interaction of people and their built environment. These studies are integral to the project i’m conceiving as they resolve many of my objectives that were coming in way of my architectural concern such as the role of the public sphere in the society, the debate between the real and the virual, the hybridization of architectural between physical, spatial and temporal realms.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 2.29-1 – The user/technology interface over time

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Seattle Public Library, Seattle, USA Architect: OMA/LMN

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY

46

become a terminal activity of the human race, The Seattle Public Library in an era of skeptiits ever expanding infrastructure relentessly cism over the status of public space in the contransforming the character of the urban conditemporary (American) city, the Seattle Public tion itself.”17 The essence of the Public is that it Library is a powerful statement of the library’s fundamental role as the original, and perhaps is free. Increasingly, it is replaced by accumulaonly, truly public building type. Since its opentions of library stands exposed at its most outing in May 2004. it dated and moralis“Shopping has become a terminal activhas already had protic at the momentt found effects in Se- ity of the human rac, its ever expanding that it has bcome attle and beyond, as the last repository infrastructure relentessly transforming an urban catalyst that of the free and the activates and rede- the character of the urban condition public. fines its downtown itself.” The Seattle Public context, and as an arLibrary is success16 Amy Murphy chitectural prototype ful on many fronts; whose structural and most of them are programmatic innovations offer new possibithe flexibility of use, deals with the oft-seen lites for creating public space in the city. dillema of compression of spaces in libraries, The last decade has shown significant shrinkRe-defining the new social role of the library in age if not shriveling, the Public Domain, reour urban fabric. The most important question placed by increasingly sophisticated and enit deals with is providing equality status of the tertaining forms of the Private. “Shopping has books with the other media of potent performance and attraction. [16] - Seattle Central Library: Civic Architecture in the Age of Media - Amy Murphy [17] - Ferré, Albert, et al, (2004). Verb Connection. Edited by Albert Ferré, et al. Translated by Elaine Fradley. Barcelona:


420,000 sqft

420,000 sqft

420,000 sqft

420,000 sqft

administration operations

hq reading room

32 %

spiral

public service reading

=

Program Reshuffle

Program Consolidation

Blue = Books

support

mixing chamber

meeting

living room

Fawad Nadir Osman

68 %

non-print

National College of Arts, Lahore

Original Program

books

Re-examining the library’s program (above), OMA and LMN assigned each form of media and activity a color and reorganized them into boxes, which became the five architectural platforms that they shifted to establish the overall form.18

staff

research collective

kids

arrival

parking

parking

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hq

hq

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+

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staff

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=

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spiral

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The First operation was to combine and conoslidate the ungovernable proliferation of program and medium. By combining like with like, they identified five platforms that are each dedicated to a specific cluster. Each platform is a programmatic entity that is architecturally defined and equipped for maximum, dedicated performance. Because each platform is designed for a different purpose, they are different in size, density, opacity.

Merging the two varied forms

By genetically modifying the superposition of floors in the typical amercian high-rise, a building emerges that is at the same time sensitive (the slops will admit ununsual quantities of daylight where desirable), contextual (each side can react differently to specific urban conditions), iconic. ITs angular facets form, with the fold of Gehry’s Experience building, a plausible bracketing of Seattle’s new Modernity.

Fig 2.31 – Spatial Organization

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 2.30 – Program Analysis

spiral

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Program Analysis

[18] - Steen, Karen, (2004) Metropolis, the Making of a library. Metropolis magazine

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CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

48

The Spiral More

More

Less

Same

Old Thinking

OMA Thinking

Fig 2.32

Growing book collections typically encroach on public spaces over time, but in OMA’s model they are contained in a flexible compartment that expands internally without crowding other functions. 900

999

700

899

500

699

000

499

A

B Fig 2.33

C

E

Compartmentalization of Sections and OMA’s solution

Traditionally libraries are organized by subject and floor according to the Dewey decimal system (A). But as the collection grows, some sections expand and must be relocated to other floors (B), resulting in disorderly compartmentalization (C). OMA’S SOLUTION By establishing a continuous Dewey decimal run (D) and wrapping it around a four-story spiral (E), the architects were able to achieve a rational organization with ultimate flexibility—in that no single section can outgrow its space.18

D

Fig 2.34 The re-organized Dewey Decimal System Source: OMA architects

[18] - Steen, Karen, (2004) Metropolis, the Making of a library. Metropolis magazine


2004

2010 Fig 2.35 Reference Books

500-699 700-899 900-999

The Diagram above estimates the potential growh of Seattle’s existing Collection. By 2010, some sections have expanded while others have contracted. And in 2025 the spiral will be able to accomodate the new subject actegories that are likely to form by then.18

[18] - Steen, Karen, (2004) Metropolis, the Making of a library. Metropolis magazine

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

New Subject Entries

Fawad Nadir Osman

2025

National College of Arts, Lahore

000-499

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

The Spiral Transformations

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CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE

50

Toyo Ito’s Sendai Mediatheque is an example of a building that embraces the “multidimensionality, diversity, and uncertainty of living in a computerized world” 19 by acting as a nodal link that enables an oscillating relationship between people and information. Ito describes his idea of architecture as a type of fluidity, an expression of the general instability of the universe and of the transient nature of beings and things19 . This perception of the universe as transitory, is one of the cultural factors of Japan’s affinity for the virtual world with its floating and ephemeral entities24. It is in the Sendai Mediatheque, where Ito concentrates on three specific elements of plates (floors), tubes (columns), and skin (facade and exterior) to bring forth his cultural and architectural ideals. The Sendai Mediatheque reflects this blurring by recognizing that the “phenomenon of architecture must be conditioned by the unstable, fluctuating society of the information age.”19. In physicality, the facade is comprised of a double-paned glass screen with horizontal stripes, which create a subtle visual effect between the exterior and interior spaces. The Sendai Mediatheque is a unique response to this in-between space because of its nature as a nodal link for trafficking information. Rather than provide a form that represented a prescribed identifier, such as a library, Ito wanted a building that could be a facilitator in any transient moment of sharing information.25

[19] - Witte, R. (2002). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Germany, Prestel Verlag. [24] - Sakamoto, T.; Ferre, A. (2003). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Barcelona, Actar [25]- Ho, Josephine, Sendai Mediatheque, Space, form, body and technique.

27


Children’s Section

Closed Exterior Walls with opening in Interiors

General Reading Section

Admin

Closed Exterior Walls with seamless interiors

Fig 2.36

Architecture should evolve to blend interior and exterior space’s as a joint relationship rather than seperating the two. The Sendai Mediatheque reflects this blurring by recognizing that the “phenomenon of architecture must be conditioned by the unstable, fluctuating society of the information age.”19 In physicality, the facade is comprised of a double-paned glass screen with horizontal stripes, which create a subtle visual effect between the exterior and interior spaces. “Since the building faces Jozenji-dori avenue, the transparency of the facade allows for viewers to recall the tubes within the building as a homage to the Zelkova trees, which line the avenue.”25

[7] - Sadler, Simon. (1998). Situationist City, The MIT Press. pg 145. [19] - Witte, R. (2002). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Germany, Prestel Verlag. [24] - Sakamoto, T.; Ferre, A. (2003). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Barcelona, Actar [25]- Ho, Josephine, Sendai Mediatheque, Space, form, body and technique.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

No Walls

The Sendai Mediatheque has four distinct working zones, the public gallery, library, film and media center, and an information center. Ito eliminates the barriers which culturally and physically encase these four activities by firstly acknowledging that information is, and cannot be contained, therefore it is impossible to place it within a spatial barriers. “Each person’s desires shapes their relationship with the Sendai Mediatheque, therefore the building itself has no particular role other than being the space where the sharing, learning and transfering of information takes place. In this nodal facility, collection becomes connection.”25 Without any particular walls to delineate particular activities within the space, each person is compelled to venture where they desire to go, destroying the traditional Cartesian grid for spaces and sequencing of events and experiences. Like the Naked city map7, of the Situationists each persons trajectory and their desire to discover in this partiuclar space is completely cariable and dependent on each user, resulting in a very particular and unique experience. The presend of trees creates different spaces among which people can choose where to do whatever.

Fawad Nadir Osman

Fig 2.37

National College of Arts, Lahore

Demonstrating variable qualities in movement of space

Closed Exterior Walls

CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Second Floor Plan

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CITIES AND THE DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

56

CONCLUSIONS • The library stands testament to the fact that it is perhaps the only truly public building type as it does not restrain anyone either by economic or social differentiation. • We need to re-imagine of what we perceive as ‘knowledge’. Libraries should provide equality status to other media which share and disseminate knowledge along with books. • We need to to think of a program for the new-age library following the rhizomatic model of non-heirarchy giving freedom to the users to determine what the user wants for themselves. In the Seattle public library pushes the simultaneity of experience through multi-visual exposure of different programmatic elements. This goes in line with the internet’s ability to provide autonomy to user to act sovereignly. • In the Sendai Mediatheque, the architect realizes the ‘multi-dimensionality, diversity and uncertainty’ of the computerized world and strives in providing a nodal link the citizens of Sendai where they can be in constant contact with information and knowledge. What I found intriguing about this project was due to the unstable, fluctuating society the architect went beyond providing a form that could be preconceived to be a library of some sort, he wanted his building to be a facilitator in any transient motion of sharing information. Instead of treating my project as a library it would be more effective to bring in all media and all kinds of people to provide a platform where the program could be accessible to everyone. • Sendai Mediatheque acts as a nodal facility with no prescribed paths or programs. The user determines their own program and paths in control of their own trajectory. A sign that shares some insight about how a citizen can be made autonomous at the scale of society. Each person’s path of experiences is strictly dependent on their desire or need. • The project that we envision would follow footsteps of these two projects but act sovereignly according to our local conditions and dynamics. The post digital matrix in our common realm with be multitudes of hybrids sitting symbiotically on their sites; they can be mobile when they want to and become stagnant and stationary when the need arises. Their proportions and program will vary according to the immediate surroundings and will act as nodal facilities where knowledge is shared with the people and will also act as a “space for appearance”


4. Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Power is what keeps the public realm, the potential space of appearance between action and speaking men in existence.... Power springs up between men when they act together and vanishes the moment they disperese. The only dispensible material factor in the generation of power is the living together of people. Only where men live so closely together that the potentialities of action are always present can power remain with them. - Hannah Arendt

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fig 3.1 - Wordcloud showing Knowledge and its inter-related terms

National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman


DESIGN BRIEF

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

The “Knowledge Factory�, constructs a new public identity where emphasis is given on knowledge, experience, access and exploration. It acts as a meeting place for both scheduled encounters and chance meetings. As architects reassemble the functions of a library for an information age, spaces and functions of a library must become hybrids of virtual, real and social experiences. Just like the traditional agora or public square hosted performances, public protests and debates and places of communication the role of the library today needs to simultaneously assert itself as a symbol of access and as a centre for exploration, activity and community.

Fawad Nadir Osman

Architecture, restricted by modern rationality and determinism, must be liberated from the constraints of older typologies and be inspired by the transient qualities of the internet presenting new ways of thinking about our growing knowledge culture. By exploiting notions like; shared identity, appropriation and monumentality, we explore different architectural programs and spatial systems that would accommodate the diversity of the pluralistic society in a singular site.

National College of Arts, Lahore

Just like the traditional agora or public square hosted performances, public protests and debates, urban relief-space and places of communication the role of the library today needs to simultaneously assert itself as a symbol of access and as a knowledge theatre of exploration, activity and community.

The urban fabric needs to be injected with culturally appropriate interventions that find the acceptance and willingness of the local people to participate openly. A knowledge disseminating junction in this part of the world should deinstitutionalize the process of learning and rethink how knowledge should be projected in a more culturally appropriate way.

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

THE SITE

60

Punjab La ho re

M.T Extension

Fig 3.6 Pakistan

Fig 3.7

Power is what keeps the public realm, the potential space of appearance between action and speaking men in existence.... Power springs up between men when they act together and vanishes the moment they disperese. The only dispensible material factor in the generation of power is the living together of people. Only where men live so closely together that the potentialities of action are always present can power remain with them. - Hannah Arendt

Site Selection Criteria The site finds itself situated in a diverse mix of urban morphologies representing an even more disparate set of income classes belonging to numerous occupations. This piece of information succinctly manifests itself into Arendt’s notions of a pluralistic society. Moving around these different neighborhoods rouses a stark reminder of how only the postmodern metropolis can accommodate the juxtaposition of such incoherent urban patterns and still function like the way it does. The motive for the selection of this site is to stich these separate parts of the context and join them together while allowing them their right to be distinct. The different manifolds of human activities, the distinct communicational cultures and the uniqueness of the contextual urbanity are meant to converge in the proposed site to a display an exhibition of “formed distinction.”


SITE CONTEXT 10 Min W alki ng

Di sta n

ce .05

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

ce an st

.08

.02

DESIGN

5 min Walkin gD .04 i .03

.01

.10

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.01 Kotha Pind

.04 Model Town Extension

.08 Commercial Strip

A patch of informal settlement sandwiched between different kinds of housing suburbs.

A Residential area initiated by the LDA. Inhabited by middle class families.

.02 Faisal Town

.05 Model Town

A triangular commercial strip which conceals the informal settlement of Kothapind from access the Isfahani Road.

Residential Area administered by LDA catering to the middle-class/affluent sector.

.03 Central Flats Low-income Residential Flats each comprising 5 stories. The Ground floor comprises mostly commercial shops, eateries, restaurants catering to the residential areas in the vicinity. Some eateries have gained popularity and have people coming over from all parts of Lahore.

A Private suburb comprising of mainly affluent and Middle class families.

.06 Nespak Office An internation consultancy organization which primarily deals with Construction, infrastructure and engineering.

.07 Muhammadpura Another informal settlement which is squeezed between expanding suburbs, comprising the labor force that works in Industrial Area.

.09 Construction Site

An ongoing construction project of a multi-story Office building by another premier consultancy building.

.10 Bus Stop

A make shift bus stop which can only be recognized by the two placed benches over the running sewer.

Fig 3.8

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

.06

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Balcony of Central Flats Overlooking the Site

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

SITE CONTEXT

62

Area of Site - 220’ x 400’ = 88000 sqft Address - 3-C Abul Hasan Isfahani Road, Model Town Extension, Lahore, Pakistan


Nespak Building

Ongoing Construction

A Panorama of the site taken from the Central Flats

Brick Room encroached by families

A 270 deg Panoramic View from within the site

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

A Panorama of the site Taken from the Central Flats

Fawad Nadir Osman

South West Entrance

National College of Arts, Lahore

Abul Isfahani Road 70’ Metalled Road

DESIGN

Tuition Academy

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

SPATIAL/PHYSICAL CONTEXT

64

Fig 3.9 Scale:

500’

1000’

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Central Flats Facade Wall on the left of the Main Entrance

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SITE ANALYSIS LEGEND: Built Area Streets/Alleys

220’

Site 50’

DESIGN

Food/Eateries Car Mechanics NESPAK Building Residential (Low-income)

25’

Ongoing Constuction On Site

Site

Fawad Nadir Osman

Open Areas

National College of Arts, Lahore

Residential (Middle Class/Affluent)

410’

Area = 90200 sqft

Area after Setbacks = 51000 sqft

The bus stop becomes a very important node in luring the people towards the site and with the lack of a physical shelter above, it comes forth as a potential connection between the library and the people commuting by bus.

Setback Boundaries

50’

Scale = 1/128” - 1’-0”

The Heights of the central flats give them the advantage of being visually accessible to the residents at all times from their balconies and windows. This gives way for potential visual attractions for the people and to create awareness.

35’

20’ 35’

Metalled Road

Flow of Traffic Bus Stop 23

16

The issue with previous instituitions were that they weren’t accessible to the people visually and physically. The current bylaws pose a hindrance as they push back the site 50’. Measures must be taken to fulfill our objectives despite these obstacles.

Fig 3.10 Kinds of Traffic

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

The two entrances carry great significance in their own capacities as they cater to two diffenent segments of people. The front entrance is accessible to cars while the N-E entrance opens up to the Central Flats neighbourhood who mainly commute on foot.

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Socio/Cultural Context

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

Model Town Ext.

66

Central Flats

Kotha Pind

Faisal Town Fig 3.10 3-D Isometric of the site

The site accomodates a diverse mix of the socio-economic spectrum. As a result of that within a 0.8 km radius we are able to experience a diversity of activities and a variety of differnt environments in their subsequent residential areas. For someone commuting by an automobile, would never get a chance to witness the charged atmosphere of outdoor activities in the neighbourhoods of Kothapind and the central Flats where nearly all of the family members with the exception of some women in households are out on the street indulging in disparate activities. You can see these multiple activi

ties by looking at the images on the next page. People living in Kothapind and most of Muhammadpura usually commute their way towards Kot lakhpat(Industrial Area) as the majority of the men form some part of the workforce there. While in relatively affluent areas such as model town and faisal town we see a typical kind of suburban culture with single unit houses with their introverted environments with all of their residential activities concentrated in the interiors of the house. However we see pockets of open spaces in Faisal town that are used by the younger population for recreational activities.


DESIGN

Fawad Nadir Osman National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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USER-ACTIVITY .01

Teenager listening to Ipod

DESIGN National College of Arts, Lahore

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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.02

Cold Drinks Vendor

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Child playing Videogames Commuting by Car

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People from the Local Community playing Cards

Local Mechanic

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Students in a NetCafe

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Roadside Barber

Commuters standings at the bus stop

Children Playing Foosball Fig 3.11 - User Activity


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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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Fawad Nadir Osman

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National College of Arts, Lahore

.04 03

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Fig 3.12 - 3-D Isometric model of Site

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SITE CONSIDERATIONS Shops/Workshops

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e Sit

Tuition Academy

Residential

Bus stop Permeability Central Flats

The Bus Stop provides a clear visual access to the building from the opposite side of the road and is used frequently by majority of the residents living in Kotha Pind and adjoining areas.

Parking Exit

Pedestrian Access

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

Construction Site

Parking and Entrances Underground Parking Entry

Due to the limited area for the site and no external parking facilities nearby, an underground parking facility would have to be provided whose circulation should not interfere with the pedestrian influx.

External Open Space Connections The open spaces in central flats and Nespak can have an interesting symbiotic relationship with the Knowledge Factory by physically and visually luring unassuming visitors.


Dead Zones/Solid Walls

DESIGN

Open Courtyards

Shaded Areas

The summer sunpath corresponds with the unwanted views of the site which are of residential areas in Model Town so the facades of the N-W and N-E part of the building will be provided with the maximum amount of openings. Due to lack of shade from adjacent buildings open courtyards will be provided to filter in natural light and and to provided convivial playground for children. Openings channelized Wind Direction

by

Wind Chanelling The Strong draft of air propelled towards the the building from central flats should be utilized in the design along with the S-W wind in the summer season

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Perforated Openings

Fawad Nadir Osman

Active and Dead Zones

Public activity is concentrated on the N-W and S-W side of the site so public centered active zones(perforated walls) would be placed towards this side of the site and the dead zones(solid walls) would be positioned on the S-E and N-E for permeability and accessibility.

National College of Arts, Lahore

Active Zones/Perforated Walls

71


The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

DESIGN

THE PROGRAM

72


PROGRAM CONSOLIDATION By looking at user activity at site there are three major programmatic nodes that can be identified;

STUDY

LEISURE

SOCIAL

ACCIDENTAL

The program is consolidated by creating linkages between the nodes and seeking their relevance functionally.

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The diagram shows how the accidental space is seperated from the business and buffered by leisure. The social corridor transitions from the bustiling accidental spaces, filtering noise and activity and leading into the leisure spaces. The leisure spaces are then filtered through the study corridor and spaces further reduced and compartmentalized. The business spaces are consolidated in the centre and link to the study corridor.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

List of programmatic nodes projected in no particular order.

Fawad Nadir Osman

BUSINESS

National College of Arts, Lahore

The Accidental Node is found to lure otherwise unassuming commuters for unplanned encounters with the space as they incite curiosity. This space would share the public space with the Social node and cater to the commercial sector with eye-catching digital interfaces that deal with a diverse range of users depending on the temporality of the display. The access to information can be experienced solitary and in groups so it is important to distinguish the relationships that the public/private zones will maintain.

DESIGN

Commercial, Educational and Recreation/Leisure. In addition to that, we must also refer to the knowledge sharing nodes in our city. Successful spaces like the barber shops, tea dhabas become interesting social nodes as they become successful in providing a platform for peer participation and enhance the ability for people to help each other. With the increase in the social program we produce spaces that bring the diverse socio-economic fragmentation of the site under one roof to generate a more convivial and a cohesive environment. Another category that was identified during the research was the accidental space that gave way to chanced/unplanned encounters of people

73


PROGRAM CONSOLIDATION

Covered Area

DESIGN National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

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ach e to e the v l i l t la fa e o r s s, ram e e g n ro on zo p z c d ng li te i e b i a d r i u v v e. p va c o Pri r e i n t h p rie ul c & ect t er e i l m n p ub an ex he nn P t l m o a c ate hical ati nto will l i i p s c im ed p r e s a d h s i m a a iv eir nt R i d d h l n is a n ity cia o s e e r o n e n S a or Co lta A c n u i h c Ea sim *The Summary of Areas can be found in the “Annexture� section of the report.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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75


PROGRAM RELATIONSHIPS Reading Room

Digital Playgrou

Children’s Section

Fawad Nadir Osman

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

76

SOLE Center

Library Core

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

Collection

P.A.C Workstations

forum

Social Forum

Reading Room

Auditorium

forum Lecture Halls Info Center

Study core

Training Studios

forum

Auditoriu Conference Halls

Business core

Lecture Halls


Mobile Media Dept.

Service Core

Technical Workshops

Creative Center

Services & Logistics

Fawad Nadir Osman

Parking Facility

National College of Arts, Lahore

TKF HQ HQ Core

Leisure Core Cricket ‘& Futsal Courts forum

TradeMart

Relationships: Primary

Public

Secondary Exhibit

Shared Core

Food Courts

Tertiary

Semi-Public Private

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

um

DESIGN

und

77


78

Since there is no fundamental typology of libraries built for a developing context like Pakistan the Knowledge Factory seeks to create a new public identity by combining varied interests of the community by carefully inculcating known spatial typologies that exist in the surrounding context to create a synchronicity of emotions and activities. The building acts as a host organism which is proliferated by its programmatic parasites. The programmatic parasites animate the shared spaces inside /outside the facility. Different behaviours from the users overlap to create different synergies which exist beyond the built form in the shape of subjective behaviour. The building mass is then morphed according to site-zoning and programmatic iterations, eventually emerging as a highly rational unit which acts as a connective tissue, transcending its physical boundaries by letting its surrounding context seep into the building. The zoning of the building allows contingencies to dominate the spatial sphere as the diversity of programs minimize the spatial barriers for the unaware user.

E R C O B

N O

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The Knowledge Factory exists relative to its external factors. The ownership of the public dominates and transforms the space according to their deliberative concerns.

D Y U ST

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LA Y G

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

BUILDING CONFIGURATION

The Knowledge Factory acts a host organism overwhelmed by its parasites


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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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Fawad Nadir Osman

5

n ow m d u . it ingoptimiews s r b to the od v view t d o , e ste nd to urh red ark s u j o u m d a b g es e-a laws eigh onfi cent acc r f is n -c ja ht te by the g re e ad ght o g i i r e ia o in h s ild nd t the g h ropr ity f u n i l b p a hin s e ild pp ibi Bu he a cess of th s sto wit dent t s i u c to al a scale by b or y i res d u t vis the near Fac rs an ge te ith e W th led mu m w m fro Kno y co e b th ear n of

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DESIGN

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Ac t ac ual s co ca are rdi le as. ng of t to he its bu ca ild lcu in lat g ed

79


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DESIGN National College of Arts, Lahore

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Fawad Nadir Osman

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Pr o an gram d tow log s tha i to ards stic c t req en th ha uir su e re de nges e da an ad ar ily eff sid e p ser ec e o os vic ien f itio e t w the ne or bu d kin ild g f ing low SE RV .. IC ES HQ

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

L IA C M U SO R

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80

Th e the Soc i a r buil al fo d a r S the mp ing um FO OCI RU AL t bu o m mas is di M ild ak s i sse ing e n t cte SO as the he f d f FO CI a t use orm rom RU AL ho r e M ro xp of ug er hfa ien re. ce

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The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

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Fawad Nadir Osman

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National College of Arts, Lahore

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81


The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm National College of Arts, Lahore

Fawad Nadir Osman

DESIGN

MASTERPLAN

80


DESIGN

Fawad Nadir Osman National College of Arts, Lahore

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

81


ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS A’

A’

Business Core

Children’s Section

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

DESIGN

Up

82

FOODCOURT 2’-6”

Level One - Plan Cut at 5’-0”

Level One Plan Cut at 5’-0”

Section A-A’

Level Two - Plan Cut at 15’-0”

Level Two Plan Cut at 15’-0”

A


EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC

DESIGN Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

Serious aware user exploresthe area and collection. Takes him/her time exploring.

Are out on a religious mission, sermonsare in the air.

ELEVATORS

12 Year old school dropout

ESCALATORS

ESCALATORS

Middle-aged men

Works at nearby mechanic, takes a long lunch break to see the TKF play ground facility.

Knowledge Acquirer Pushes towards the business core for a meeting that is going to start in the next five minutes.

Corporate Visitor Looks for efficient and easy access to information with a predetermined path.

Suburban Housewife Middle class housewife who visits the facility for social events and fundraisers.

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Information Gatherer

83


BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

Preface/Abstract

82

- Frampton, Kenneth. Anti-tectonics: The Poetics of Virtuality. In Beckmann, John. (1998) The Virtual Dimension, Princeton Architectural Press. - Finizo, Gino. (2006) Architecture and Mobility, Skira. - Papadakis, Andreas. (1997) Reaching for the future, Papadakis Publishers. - Papadakis, Andreas. (2000) Radicality and Beyond, Papadakis Publishers. - Virilio, Paul. (1993) Architecture in the age of virtual disappearance. In Beckmann, John. (1998) The Virtual Dimension, Princeton Architectural Press. - McClure, Bruce. Between the Seen and the Said. Deleuze-Guattari’s Pragmatics of the Order-Word. www.cinestatic.com/trans-mat/McClure/intro.htm - Lefebve, Henri. (1974) The Production of Space. - Virilio, Paul. The Overexposed City. In Leach, Neal. (1997) Rethinking Architecture, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. - Stone, Allucquere Roseanne. (1992) Virtual Systems. Online Lecture/Interviews -

Pahlka, Jennifer. (2012) Coding a better Environment. TED talks. Ratti, Carlo. (2011) Architecture that senses and responds. TED talks. Rosedale, Philip. (2008) Second Life, TED talks. Kunstler, James (2004) The Tragedy of suburbia. TED Talks. Prince-Ramus, Joshua (2006) Seattle’s Library. Ted Talks Tufecki, Zeynup. (2011) Social Media: Tools of Dissent? The Agenda, Paikin, Steve. Casaleggio Associati (2008) Gaia: Politics of The Future, Source: Youtube.

Chapter 2 – The Internet and the new Public Sphere - Arendt, Hannah. (1958). The Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. - Ubayasiri, Kasun. Internet and the Public Sphere. ejournalist.com.au/v6n2/ubayasiri622.pdf - Lim, Merlyna. Cyber-Urban Activism and the Political Change in Indonesia. eastbound.eu/site_media/pdf/060101LIM.pdf - Sadler, Simon. (1998). Situationist City, The MIT Press. - Quirk, Vanessa. (2011). The Multiplier Effect: How design and the internet connects us. www.archdaily.com - Bhattia, Neeraj. (2005). The Infrastructural Space of Appearance. M.Arch Graduation Thesis MIT. - Carr, Stephen. (1993). Public Space, Cambridge University Press. - Weizman, Eyal Weizman. (2007). Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation - Calhoum, Craig ed. (1992) Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge (US): MIT Press. - Habermas, Jürgen. (1962, trans. 1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: an inquiry into a category of bourgeois society, Cambridge: Polity, 33, 36, 41, 51, 171, 212 - Illich, Ivan. (1973) Tools for Conviviality, New York, Harper and Row.78—79 - Poster, Mark. (1995). CyberDemocracy: Internet and the Public Sphere. University of California,


Irvine available: www.hnet.uci.edu/mposter/writings/democ.html - Ballantyne, Andrew. (2007). Deleuze and Guattari for Architects, Routledge Taylor and Francis - Baer, Walter, (2008.) et al. Networked Publics. Edited by Kazys Varnelis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press - Jacobs, Jane. (1992). the Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York, New York: Vintage Books,

Chapter 3: Cities and the Dissemination of Knowledge

M.Arch Graduation Thesis, MIT

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

- Hall, William. (1990), The Hidden Dimension, MIT Press. Anchor Publishers - Ailion, Guy (2009), Everywhere is Here, University of Witwatersrand Graduation Thesis. - Tsukamato , Yoshiharu. (2010),The Architectures of Atelier Bow-Wow: Behaviorology, Rizzoli - Maliszewski, Ryan. (2012), Transporat Sanctuary: A Secure Public Realm within a city of violence,

Fawad Nadir Osman

Chapter 4: Design

National College of Arts, Lahore

- Ferré, Albert, et al, (2004). Verb Connection. Edited by Albert Ferré, et al. Translated by Elaine Fradley. Barcelona: Actar - McDonough, T. (2004). Situationist Space. Guy Debord and the Situationist International, 241-265. - Debord Guy, (2002) the Society of the Spectacle, Treason Press. - Eisenman, Peter. (1996). Visions Unfolding: Architecture in the Age of Electronic Media. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture - Steen, Karen, (2004) Metropolis, the Making of a library. Metropolis magazine - Arendt, Hannah. (1958). the Human Condition, The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 199 - Witte, R. (2002). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Germany, Prestel Verlag. - Sakamoto, T.; Ferre, A. (2003). Toyo Ito Sendai Mediatheque. Barcelona, Actar - Ho, Josephine, Sendai Mediatheque, Space, form, body and technique. - Benesch, Henic. INSTITUTION, ORGANISATION, SPACE - READING SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY AND SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE, henric.benesch@hdk.gu.se - Castells, M. (2004), «Space of Flows, Space of Places: Material for a Theory of Urbanism in the Information Age,» The Cybercities reader, Routledge, London. - Castells, M. (2004), «The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective». - Castells, M. (1996), The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. MA:Blackwell, Cambridge. - Wilson, E.J. (2004), The Information Age and Developing Countries, MIT Press.

83


SUMMARY OF AREAS Sr. No.

Qty. Space Reqd Sum Actual

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

ANNEXTURE

Total

84

or References

146012

0.01 Parking 100 Motorcycles occupy 16% of total cars' areas

400 6400

40000 T.S.S Ernst and peter Neufert 6400 Page (441) LDA Bylaws

46,400 0.02

An Avg. of 1000-1500 visitors/day

0.03 Library Checkout Reference Desk Reference Computer Terminals

Research Computer Terminals

eriodicals Reference tacks A ork Room Audio a

i rarian's Assistant o rk Room tore Room ous ekeeping ro ected 20 year xpansion

1 4 x 1500

6,000 open to sky 6,000

4 4 8 125 75 20 12 8 18 12 1470 2 1 75 4 1 4 1 2 4

80 80 20 20 35 20 12 20 12 21 21 200 400 12 80 150 80 400 450 80

320 320 160 2500 2625 400 144 160 216 126 16000 400 400 00 320 150 320 400 00 320 10000 0 1

1 1 4

800 750 500

800 These halls are designed for 750 2000 arious impromptu e ents 0 and T programs

1 1 1 2 2 2

400 120 160 225 675 60

400 Whole building Design 120 Guide - onference ooms 160 450 1350 120 2600

T.S.S Ernst and peter Neufert Page (683) Interim standards for public library ALA Library

Whole building Design Guide - Library 06-02-2009

0.04 lexi le allery space

0.05

onference Rooms

reak ounge capacity 15


Sr. No.

Qty. Space Reqd Sum Actual

1

10000

10000 Architects data; Ernst Peter Neufert Pg. 478

10000 0.07 Cricket and Futsal Courts 1

Court + Stands

12000

12000 Same Court used for Short court cricket and a Futsal

12000 Court 0.08 Food Courts Restaurant - Type A (Kitchen + Storage + Counter)

4869

4869

1

1764

1764

2

144

288

National College of Arts, Lahore

Restaurant - Type B (Kitchen + Storage + Counter)

1

20 0.09 S

Center

i ital lay round 50 8 1 1

Ser er Room

20 100 180 176 2600+

1000 800 180 21 0

0.1

0.11

rade art Cell p one Shop - Type A Shop - Type B

ec

arket

5 10

00 180

1500 1800 00

1 4 15 1

180 120 80 80

180 480 1200 80

1 2 4 1 1 1

120 150 80 150 240 176

120 00 20 150 240 176 2

e no led e Factory Q hole uildin

Support Spaces Conference Small nformal Breaout Centers Supply Center o cuments Room Ser er Room

P-T-

esi

n

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

S E ( Self- rga ni ed earning En ironment)

ANNEXTURE Fawad Nadir Osman

0.06 Auditoriums Auditorium for 500 people Audience + stage + backstage

or References

85


SUMMARY OF AREAS

The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm

Fawad Nadir Osman

National College of Arts, Lahore

ANNEXTURE

0.12

86

Stairways + Toilets + Elevators + Escalators + Air Ducts + HVAC

121677

20 % of total built area

24335


The Post Digital Matrix and our Common Realm