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GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND  CURRENT PRACTICE Kemal Gürüz

Workshop on Doctoral Education in Architecture İstanbul Technical University 28,29 November 2011


ETYMOLOGY   The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach", shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, meaning "license to teach."      The authority to grant that license was the sole criterion that defined the medieval university as a corporate body.


THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY LOWER FACULTY: Faculty of Liberal Arts    Trivium: Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic    Quadrivium: Arithmetic, Geometry,  Astronomy and Music  HIGHER FACULTIES (Graduate Schools)    Theology    Law    Medicine 


ACADEMIC TITLES IN THE MEDIEVAL  UNIVERSITY 

Before the university, titles such as magister  (master), doctor and professor, which all meant  teacher in Latin, were acquired titles. Baccalariatus: A student who has followed the  : A compulsory (ordinary) lectures, discussions  (disputae) and the summations (summa) by the  teacher. A student with this title was somewhat like  today’s teaching assistant, and was allowed to answer  some questions during discussions and teach some of  the noncompulsory (extraordinary) courses.


ACADEMIC TITLES IN THE MEDIEVAL  UNIVERSITY 

  

Baccalaureatus Formatus: A baccalaureatus  deemed ready by his teacher to take the graduation  examinations. Master: Graduates of the faculty of liberal arts Doctor: Graduates of the higher faculties Licentia Docendi: Conferred separately by the  Chancellor after a succesful public lecture by adding  the additional title of regens, actu regens or regent to  the already received title of master or doctor


MEETING OF DOCTORS UNIVERSITY OF PARIS ca. 14th Century


THE GERMAN RESEARCH UNIVERSITY Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767­1835)     * Wissenschaft als Beruf, reine Wissenschaft     * Lernfreiheit und Lehrfreiheit     * Unity of Teaching and Research        (Einheit der lehre und forschung) 

 

University of Berlin (1816): Ordentliche Professoren,  Ausserordentliche Professoren, Privatdozenden The German Doctorate: Master­Apprentice relationship


THE AMERICAN ACADEMIC PILGRIMAGE TO  GERMANY

(peregrinatio academica)

    Of the international academic mobility that took place in the  nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, none had more  far­reaching consequences than that which involved American  students who went to study in German universities. Benjamin  Franklin (1706­1790) was the first American to visit a German  university, Gottingen in 1766. Between 1815 and 1914, there  was an extraordinary migration of about 10,000 American  students to Germany. Students from Harvard, Yale, and other  universities on the East Coast started to go to Germany in  increasing numbers. Gottingen, Berlin and Heidelberg were  favorite destinations. In the year 1890, American students  accounted for 21.9 percent of the enrollment at Gottingen.  Thus, from about the middle of the nineteenth century on, the  German research university model permeated American higher  education, effectively diminishing British influences.


THE AMERICAN ACADEMIC PILGRIMAGE TO  GERMANY 

Daniel Coit Gilman (1813­1908) was the first president of Johns Hopkins. Before  becoming president, he toured German universities to recruit staff and learn about  their organization. William Rainey Harper (1856­1906), the first president of the  University of Chicago, designed the new institution with an English­style  undergraduate college and a German­style research institute. Granville Stanley  Hall (1844­1924), the first president of Clark University, had studied psychology  in Germany. He set up the first psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins before he  moved on to Clark where he pioneered the quarter system and introduced extension  programs. Charles William Eliot (1834­1926) served as the president of Harvard  between 1869 and 1909. He had studied chemistry in Germany for two years,  beginning in 1863. During his term as Harvard’s president, he initiated the elective  system, founded the graduate school, and instituted strict requirements for  admission and graduation. Thus, by the beginning of the twentieth century, American universities had  transferred and adapted the German research university model to build what would  grow into the largest (until recently overtaken by China) and, by any measure, the  best higher education system in the world today.


THE AMERICAN Ph.D.

First academic units for research and  graduate studies:    ­ The Lawrence School at Harvard, 1840s    ­ The Sheffield School at Yale, first  American       Ph.D. in 1861    ­The first graduate school, Cornell 1868 


THE AMERICAN Ph.D. 

The earliest doctoral degrees (theology­  Divinitatis Doctor (DD),  The earliest doctoral degrees  philosophy­ Philosophiae Doctor (Ph.D.) and medicine ­ Medicinæ  Doctor (MD) reflected the historical separation of all university  study into these three fields. Studies outside of medicine and  theology were then called "philosophy", natural philosophy and  moral philosophy, but are now classified as natural sciences and  social sciences and humanities. However this usage survives in the  degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The American Ph.D. now comprises advanced coursework,  qualifying examinations, preliminary research proposal, and a  dissertation based on original research work.  Professional doctoral degrees are those outside the Ph.D., and now  include DD, MD, JD, Ed.D., and others. Such degrees usually  include coursework and research training with a professional  emphasis and are similar in structure to Ph.D. programs . 


THE AMERICAN Ph.D.

Altbach, P.G. 2006. Doctoral education: Present realities and future trends. In  International handbook of higher education pt.1 (2 pts.), ed. J. J. F. Forest and P.  G. Altbach, 121­39 (2 parts). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.

In the United States,  in 2010, 430,569 students were  working at the doctoral level (Ph.D.) in all fields. In  2010, 59,472 doctoral (Ph.D.) degrees were awarded. Russia has/had a two­tiered structure: Kandidat Nauk  and Doktor Nauk. The first one was considered  equivalent to the Ph.D., and the second was a sort of  “higher doctorate” awarded by the Akademia Nauk.  In 2002, 136,242 students were enrolled in doctoral  programs. Russia is now a signatory to the Bologna  Process, and as such she has to transform her degree  system into the American BS/MS/Ph.D. System  together with all other European countries.


THE U.S. GRADUATE­LEVEL ENROLLMENT 2010 

           

                                                 Total           Doctoral *             Master’s

Total                                 1,746,628           430,569               1,310,063  Arts and Humanities             105,503             41,383                   64,120   Bio. and Agricul. Sci.              78,771             46,027                    32,744   Business                                266,471            13,805                   252 666   Education                              335,867           57,047                   278 687  Engineering                           124,312           50,250                     74,062   Health Sciences                     160,338            36,099                   124,239  Math. and Comp. Sci.              65,871            21,736                     44,135  Phys. and Earth Sci..                48,579            34,781                    13,798  Pub. Adm. and Ser v.               65,423              4,913                    60,510 Soc. and Behav. Sci.              137,344             55,402                    81,942  Other Fi elds**                        99,169            14,147                    84,626

* Excludes M.D and JD ** Includes architecture, environmental design and city and regional planning (Source: www.cgsnet.org)


GRADUATE­LEVEL PROFESSIONAL DEGREES IN THE  UNITED STATES MEDICINE 2010      * 70,070 students enrolled in MD programs      * 16,838 graduates      * 4,963 students enrolled in MD/Ph.D. programs      * 534 graduates in 2009 

(Source: www.aamc.org)

LAW 2010      * 117, 451 students enrolled in JD programs      * 32.597 graduates      * LL.B. (lex, legis baccalaureus) is not offered in the      United States 

(Source: www.americanbar.org)


DOCTORAL­LEVEL DEGREES IN  ARCHITECTURE  

Ph. D. in architecture: is a research degree  appropriate for those seeking careers in teaching  and scholarship in architecture and its related  areas, or in roles in government or professional  consultation that require depth in specialization  and experience in research­ usually  interdisciplinary. Doctor of architecture (D. Arch.): There is an  ongoing debate to consolidate all architecture  degrees to one, professional D.Arch, similar to  Law curriculum's LL.B to JD upgrade. 


DOCTORAL­LEVEL DEGREES IN ARTS Ph.D. in arts education is the standard requirement to be an assistant  professor of art education.  Ph. D. in arts is currently replacing Master of Fine Arts (MFA) as a  requisite to enter academia. For example: in the Slade School of Fine Arts  part of University College London, three options are offered:       * Practice­led: a thesis of studio practice that makes an original  contribution to knowledge plus a written report of 15,000­40,000 words (or  10,000­20,000 words for the MPhil).         * Practice­related: a written thesis of 60,000­80,000 words with studio  practice that together make an original contribution to knowledge (or  35,000­45,000 words for the MPhil).        * Written thesis only: a written thesis of 80,000­100,000 words that makes  an original contribution to knowledge (or 50,000­60,000 words for the  MPhil).  Doctor of Fine Arts is usually an honorary degree, but is also offered in  some institutions to holders of MFA.  Doctor of Music (D.Mus.) students complete advanced studies in one of  typically three musical areas: performance (including conducting); musical  composition or musicology.  


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN  TURKEY


HISTORICAL NOTES 

  

First Ottomans with doctoral degrees: Joseph Zanni  (1876, Germany); Halil Edhem Eldem (1885,  Switzerland); Mehmet Arif Beylikçi (1891,  Germany); all in chemistry French, German, Austrian and English professors in  Darülfünun and other schools German professors especially from 1915, and French  professors from 1919 on 1928: Law No.1416 to send students abroad;  first 13  doctoral degrees in natural sciences,  mostly in  Germany, some in France 1934: Law No. 2557; and 1944: Law No. 4635: to  employ foreign faculty members


HISTORICAL NOTES 

   

1934: Doctoral degree or two bachelor degrees in different  areas required for appointment as an associate professor  in İstanbul University;  46 doctoral degrees supervised by Germans in 1933­1946 First doctoral degree in Turkey, 1937: Nüzhet Toydemir,  astronomy; supervised by E. F. Freundlich 1946, Law No. 4936: faculty members required to engage  in research supervision First doctoral degree in ITU, 1949: Talat Erben,  chemistry; supervised by Prof. İ. Cıvaoğlu


HISTORICAL NOTES 

First doctoral degree in Architecture: E. Altan  Öke, 1961, ITU, supervised by Prof. Kemali  Söylemezoğlu Prior to that, 3 “equivalency” awarded for  appointment as associate professor, based on  published books/pamphlets; first one in 1949  to Gazanfer Beken under Prof. P. Bonatz


126,378

2010-2011 2009-2010 2008-2009

1994-1995 1993-1994 1992-1993 1991-1992 1990-1991 1989-1990 1988-1989 1987-1988 1986-1987 1985-1986 1984-1985 1983-1984 1982-1983

82,484

16,433

2001-2002

1995-1996

90,333

21,850

2002-2003

1996-1997

92,862

24,009

2003-2004

1997-1998

112,089

27,734

2004-2005

1998-1999

108,998

31,871

2005-2006

GRADUATE  LEVEL  STUDIES IN  TURKEY  MASTER  LEVEL

104,097

28,758

2006-2007

1999-2000

109,845

33,589

2007-2008

2000-2001

140,043

47,419

73,533

13,719

65,076

9,556

53,553

7,943

50,986

8,518

49,179

8,329

51,335

7,548

49,887

8,070

41,064

5,415

35,820

5,056

33,463

4,620

30,632

4,326 4,191 3,847 3,332 3,405

25,017 22,469 18,186 16,919

14,078 3,450 12,285 2,184 11,215 1,831 9,059 1,473 1,099

Enrollment Graduates


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN TURKEY MASTER­LEVEL

                                      ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES      2011                126,368                        47,419     1984                    9.059                          1.473                            


42,760

2010-2011 2009-2010 2008-2009

1999-2000

GRADUATE  LEVEL  STUDIES IN  TURKEY  DOCTORAL  LEVEL

1998-1999 1997-1998 1996-1997 1995-1996 1994-1995 1993-1994 1992-1993 1991-1992 1990-1991 1989-1990 1988-1989 1987-1988 1986-1987 1985-1986 1984-1985 1983-1984 1982-1983

32,575

2,594 27,393

2,838

24,891

2,680

2002-2003

2000-2001

33,834

3,357

2004-2005

2001-2002

34,916

3,757

2006-2007

2003-2004

35,946

4,361

2007-2008

2005-2006

44,768

4,684

23,228

2,815

22,565

2,472

21,789

1,985

19,587

2,124

20,412

2,577

20,038

2,364

19,473

1,880

19,718

2,114

16,066

1,620

14,791

1,466

13,987

1,368

12,883

1,365

11,748

1,446

10,630

1,008

8,921

793

7,749

631 812 504 522 805 676

6,702 5,443 5,577 4,336

Enrollment Graduates


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN TURKEY DOCTORAL­LEVEL

                 ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES      2011             43,405                        4,684      1984               6.185                            996


20,671

2010-2011

21,964

2009-2010

5,101 20,662

2008-2009

3,921 20,943

2007-2008

3,223 19,070

2006-2007

2,283 17,017

2005-2006

2,448 17,010

2004-2005

3,588 15,892

2003-2004

GRADUATE  LEVEL  STUDIES IN  TURKEY  MEDICAL  SPECIALTY  TRAINING

2,939 14,148

2002-2003

2,408 13,454

2001-2002

2,558 12,318

2000-2001

2,588 10,914

1999-2000

2,263 11,193

1998-1999

2,116 10,211

1997-1998

2,323 11,012

1996-1997

2,302 6,693

1995-1996 1994-1995 1993-1994 1992-1993 1991-1992 1990-1991 1989-1990 1988-1989 1987-1988 1986-1987

Enrollment

2,073 9,869 905 9,409 1,460 8,831 1,433 8,219 1,595 7,747 1,825 7,566 1,437 7,109 1,299 6,185 996 1,002

Graduates


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN TURKEY MEDICAL SPECIALTY TRAINING

                                ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES      2011            20,671                          5,101      1988              6.185                             996


THE TURKISH. GRADUATE­LEVEL ENROLLMENT 2011 

                

                                                  Total             Doctoral            Master’s

Total                                  190,444              64,076               126,368 Humanities                           15,852                4,757                15,862  Arts                                         6,357                1,585                 4,772 Agricul. & Vet. Med.               6,461                2,163                 4,298   Bus. & Adm.                         36,362                5,307                31,055 Journ. & Inf.                           1,044                   337                    707 Law                                         6,097                1,346                 4,751 Education                              19,949                4,101               15,848  Engineering                            23,310               6,441                16,869  Arch. & Ct. Pl.                          3,730                 992                  2,738 Health & Welfare                      6,513              3,192                   3,321  Sci., Math. & Comp.                27,585              8,652                 18,933 Soc. & Behav. Sci.                   14,160              3,774                 10,386 Services                                        604                329                      275 Other Fields                              1,145                467                      678 Total Ph.D. & Art. Prf.                 ­­­­            43,405                    ­­­­                                  Medical Sp. Trg.                            ­­­­            20,671                    ­­­­


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN TURKEY ARCHITECTURE

MASTER’S ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES

     2011            2,862                       530      1984               460                         98 DOCTORAL

 ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES       2011              1,052                     96      1984                 325                     16


GRADUATE­LEVEL STUDIES IN TURKEY ARTS

MASTER’S ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES

     2011            3,088                       870      1984               101                           4 DOCTORAL

 ENROLLMENT     GRADUATES       2011              1,052                     96      1984                   39                    109


SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS

2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974

24,916 22,995 21,961 18,928 16,718 14,371 12,751 9,664 7,889 6,359 4,742 4,119 3,530 3,108 2,471 1,902 1,587 1,464 1,169 1,015 882 720 636 550 532 415 439 401 378 449 344 371 332 267 226 249

All publications in SCI, SSCI and AHCI


UNESCO Science Report 2005     “The number of scientific articles published by Turkish  scientists in world­renowned journals trebled between  1997 and 2002, as scanned by the SCI, SSCI and AHCI.  By 2002, there were 148 scientific publications per  million population, representing a spectacular growth  rate of more than 500% over the decade. As a result,  Turkey moved from 37th place in 1992 in world rankings  of the most productive nations for scientific publications  to 22nd place in 2002.” 


INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS


GROSS GRADUATION RATES, % OF THE AGE COHORT, 2005  (OECD EAG 2007, Table A3.1, p. 67) Switzerland

3.1

Portugal

2.6 2.4

Germany Sweden

2.2

UK

2.0

Finland

2.0

Austria

2.0

Russia

1.9

Australia

1.7

EU 19 Avg.

1.5

Netherlands

1.5

Israel

1.3

Brazil

1.3

OECD Avg.

1.3

USA

1.3

Slovak Rep.

1.3

Slovenia

1.2

Ireland

1.2

Denmark

1.2

Czech Rep.

1.2

Belgium

1.2

New Zealand

1.1

Korea

1.1

Spain

1.0

Norway

1.0

Italy

1.0

Poland

0.9

Japan

0.9

Estonia

0.7

Hungary

0.7

Greece

0.7

Iceland

0.3

Turkey

0.2

Chile

0.1

Mexico

0.1


DOCTORAL  LEVEL  GROSS  GRADUATION  RATES,  % OF THE AGE  COHORT, 2009  (OECD EAG  2011, TABLE  A3.3)

Switzerland Sweden Portugal Finland Germany Slovak Rep. UK Austria Australia Norway Denmark USA Netherlands France Slovenia OECD Avg. New Zealand Czech Rep. Ireland Russia Belgium Israel Canada Korea Japan Italy Spain Hungary Estonia Poland Iceland Greece Turkey Brazil Mexico Chile Indonesia Argentina

3.4 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1


EUROPEAN INNOVATION SCOREBOARD, SUMMARY INNIVATION INDEX (SII) 2007 Comparative Analysis of Innovation Performance, Maastricht Economic and Social Research Training  Center on Innovation and Technology (UNU­MERIT), February 2008, Figure 1, p.5 0.73

Sweden 0.64

Finland Israel

0.62

Denmark

0.61

Japan

0.6

Germany

0.59 0.57

UK

0.55

USA Luxembourg

0.53

Ireland

0.49

Ntherlands

0.48

Austria

0.48 0.47

France

0.47

Belgium EU27 Avg.

0.45

Canada

0.44

Estonia

0.37

Czech Republic

0.36 0.36

Australia

0.35

Slovenia Italy

0.33

Cyprus

0.33

Spain

0.31 0.29

Malta

0.27

Lithuania

0.26

Hungary Greece

0.26

Slovak Rep.

0.25

Portugal

0.25 0.24

Poland

0.23

Croatia

0.23

Bulgaria Latvia

0.19

Romania Turkey

0.18 0.09


REINVENTING THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE 21st  CENTURY.  Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), January 2006,  p.5

 “Related to this change of expectations in the 

workplace, the demand for workers with  postsecondary degrees and certifications has  been growing. Jobs that require an associate’s  degree are growing the fastest during the first  decade of the 21st century, and those requiring  Ph.D.’s at the second fastest rate.”


GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS REPORT 2007­2008 TURKEY’S SCORE CARD http://www.gcr.weforum.org:80   GLOBAL COMPETIVENESS INDEX                         Rank 53/131  Score 4.25/7.00 * Subindex A: Basic Requirements                                             63                      4.44    ­ Institutions                                                                                 55                      4.13    ­ Infrastructure                                                                             59                      3.68    ­ Macroeconomic Stability                                                            83                      4.66    ­ Health and Primary Education                                              77                      5.31 * Subindex B: Efficiency Enhancers                                                51                      4.36    ­ Higher Education and Training                                            60                      4.05    ­ Goods and Markets Efficiency                                                   43                      4.54    ­ Labor Market Efficiency                                                           126                      3.60    ­ Financial Market Sophistication                                                  61                      4.40    ­ Technological Readiness                                                        53                       3.39    ­ Market Size                                                                                18                       4.97 * Innovation and Sophistication Factors                                    48                       3.90    ­ Business Sohistication                                                                41                       4.45    ­ Innovation                                                                                53                       3.36


END OF PRESENTATION Thank you for your attention.


K.Guruz