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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

Breast Cancer in Oman Research Paper Fatma Alhinai Sultan Qaboos University

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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

Introduction There are many diseases occurs in a strange way like breast cancer. Breast cancer became one of the main topics discussed these days because it is related to people`s health. That is why it needs much attention as soon as possible. Tumors are collections of cells that are growing without control. Tumors which don’t have the ability to spread throughout the body may be referred to as “benign” and are not thought of as cancerous. Whereas Tumors which have the ability to grow into other tissues or spread to distant parts of the body are referred to as “malignant”. Malignant tumors within the breast are called “breast cancer”. The Sultanate of Oman is a developing Asian Arabic country where breast cancer is the most common female cancer. It is rated to be the third country of higher number of breast cancer in the world. There are around 200 women who are diagnosed with this disease every year. The researcher found that breast cancer is discovered at a younger age with advanced-stage disease and this news make the doctors worried about Omani women future. These rationales push strongly to work on this topic. We should all work hard and quickly in order to reduce that number before the issue grows more complicated. Mass media is used to bridge the gap in knowledge of breast cancer between people who live in the rural and urban settings and remind people about the importance of seeking doctors` consultation for any noticeable change of their breast. For example, In T.V, we see the Ministry of Health offering some advice for people to protect themselves from this cancer. Also, there are a lot of magazines, books and websites that are exclusively for breast cancer and show research, videos and news about doctors’ advices and treatment for this cancer.

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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

Types of Breast Cancer There are two main types of breast cancer which are: lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma. The cells of lobular carcinoma grow in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they do not grow through the wall of the lobules while cells of ductal carcinoma are changed to be look like cancer cells and they are considered a pre cancer because some cases can go on to become invasive cancers. Symptoms of Breast Cancer There are many symptoms of breast cancer that can be noticed through selfexamination and could help to take treatment early before the breast cancer develops into advanced stages. For example, it is possible to notice change in the appearance of nipples such as becoming sunken into breast. Sometimes also, nipples may be streaked with blood. Add to that, woman might find pitting of the skin over her breast like the skin of an orange. Further, there is a lump or area of thickened tissue in breast that women can feel it clearly. Moreover, women might feel pain either breasts or armpits not related to the period. It should be known that most of (90%) lumps are not cancerous, but it is always best to have them checked by the doctor so self-examination should be done monthly. Causes of Breast Cancer Doctors are not sure about the causes of breast cancer. Though it is hard to say why one person develops the disease while another does not, some risk factors can impact on a woman's likelihood of developing breast cancer in Oman. Researcher found that women aged over 50 years old suffer from this disease more than others because some breast cells change to lumps and produce cell in random and uncontrolled. Also, family history is another risk 3


Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

factor of breast cancer. If a woman's mother or sister had the disease before menopause, this is occasionally associated with one of two genes linked to breast cancer. Moreover, a personal history of breast cancer is a responsible factor for that disease. On other word, if woman had breast cancer in one breast, she has an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast. Certain gene mutations of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children and this risk is the main causes of breast cancer in Oman because our families encourage inbreeding. If women exposure to radiation in her breast, radiation directly will impact on growing of breast cells. A lot of women don’t care about this point although it is a greater risk factor of breast cancer. The incidence of any cancer increases with age but unfortunately it seems that breast cancer starts to appear at younger age. This can be explained by environmental conditions especially dietary factors such as decreased intake of fibers and diet rich in antioxidants. Omani people do not eat food that includes fibers nor does it include nutrition that could prevent from breast cancer. These factors work with genetic and family history. Omani families encourage inbreeding and that idea makes the issue more complicated. Also birth control might be another factor that is responsible of breast cancer because Omani people still encourage the idea about having more than 10 children. This idea negatively influences the health and nutrition of mothers which can protect them from this issue. This cancer has developed quickly in Oman so there are other causes of this problem related to the Omani environment but doctors still are not fully aware about them. Treatment for Breast Cancer Doctors determine breast cancer treatment options based on the type of breast cancer, its stage and grade. They also determine whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones, 4


Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

woman overall health and her own preference. Most women undergo surgery for breast cancer and also receive additional treatment, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiation. Sometimes, doctors do surgery removing both breasts and that is depending on the level of situation. If it is very complicated and the disease is spreading quickly in both of them they discuss to remove both of breasts. A lot of doctors encourage this way of treatment instead of using Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy requires treating people at least 5 years. Some doctors think that chemotherapy may treat breast cancer but it damages the whole power of a person through treatment period. Generally, in Oman the treatment starts with chemotherapy and if doctor find it is not effective they do surgery. Radiation therapy is another way to treat breast cancer. This way is not used in Omani hospitals, but if doctors find this way will be more effective than the others, they will send people to German to take this treatment. Doctors use X-ray to kill cancer cell. However doctors in Oman use X-ray after doing surgery to ensure that all cancer cells are removed. Breast cancer in education There are many advantages that are achieved by applying breast cancer in education. If Ministry of Education put a section in subject of science that discuss all things related breast cancer, students will be aware about it. Moreover, they will be more cautious about the risk factors of breast cancer and they avoid behaving the behaviors that may cause it. At a result, the percentage of breast cancer might decrease.

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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

Conclusion In conclusion, there is an urgent need to review the current approach of both diagnosing and treating cancer in Oman and breast cancer care in particular. Oman set in a dangerous stage of breast cancer so it needs to be treated as soon as we can. It is the third highest percentage of breast cancer on the world. This research paper had explained the types of breast cancer, risk factors that related to genetic and lifestyle and its treatment. This cancer has developed in an amazing way in Oman so there are many other causes of this problem related to the Omani environment but doctors still do not know much about them. The number of people who suffer from this issue might decrease in the future because of higher education and people might become more aware about it. The medical equipment might be more effective and doctors find a treatment for this issue instead of using chemotherapy. Doctors will be professional about this cancer and they will diagnose the stage of cancer of women quickly and this will help women to take treatment early before the cancer become complicated. It is recommended that all people who suffer from breast cancer or not to be aware about risk factors of breast cancer in order to protect themselves from it. Also, woman should check herself every month and if she feels any change in her breast, she should ask doctors for help. Moreover, women age 40 and older should have a screening mammogram every year and should continue to do so as long as they are in good health because this issue increases with older age All people should eat different foods everyday especially foods that include fibers to protect themselves from cancer. It is recommended to change the idea of inbreeding

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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

espically if the history of family had cancer cells. Moreover, Ministry of Health should work hard to train women about self-examination and find treatment instead of using chemotherapy. References Al-Moundhri, M., Al-Bahrani, B., Pervez, I., Ganguly, S. S., Nirmala, V., Al-Madhani, A., .Grant, C. (2004). The outcome of treatment of breast cancer in a developing countryOman. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland), 13(2), 139-145. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/71759585?accountid=27575 Kumar, S., Burney, I. A., Al-Ajmi, A., & Al-Moundhri, M. (2011). Changing trends of breast cancer survival in sultanate of Oman. Journal of Oncology, 2011, 316243. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/316243 Number of breast cancer cases rising in sultanate. (2011, Feb 13). Times of Oman. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/851428809?accountid=27575 Unknown. (2011, Feb 13). Opening Oman international conference on breast cancer. Info - Prod Research (Middle East). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/851415248?accountid=27575 Prabhu, C. (2001, Dec 02). Stomach, breast cancers on the rise in Oman. Middle East News Online. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203111190? accountid=27575 200 women in Oman diagnosed with breast cancer every year. (2013 Mar 16). Muscat Daily, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1371348105? accountid=27575

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Breast Cancer In Oman Research Paper

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Fatma's breast cancer research paper