Ship Efficiency Review - Issue #10 (September 2016)

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ISSUE 10.2016

Searching for Shipping’s Elon Musk


Examining Alternative Fuels & Financial Benefits


The Electric Propulsion Boom



marine | energy | environment

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A Paperless Future for Shipbuilding?


Who’s Doing What?


Welcome From The Editor


News Round-Up


Who’s Doing What?


Feature Focus

• The Global Sulphur Cap- Examining The Options For Compliance • What Is ‘Prime Performance’?

Environmental Technology • The News Bulletin • The Power Of Waste Heat • Maintaining Compliance - The Ongoing Upkeep Of Ballast Water Treatment Systems • Unique Anti-Fouling Ingredient Passes Multiple Major Milestones • In The Spotlight: U.S. Coast Guard Ballast Water Compliance Extension Requests • Turning Plastic Waste Into Low-Sulphur Fuel

Electronics & Software

• The News Bulletin • Big Data (Autologging) And Ship Performance Analysis • Optimising Ship Engines With Virtual Sensors • The Norwegian Trend Setters • 50% Drag Reduction Verified For Fin Stabiliser Technology

Power & Propulsion

The Last Word Blog



• The News Bulletin • The Age Of Turbocharger Technology • Why The Most Advanced Vessels In The World Are Using Electric Propulsion • Fuel Sulphur: Future Proofing Cylinder Oil Lubricants • Improving Propulsion Shaft Monitoring

Ship Design • • • • •

The News Bulletin The (Virtual Reality) Future Of Ship Design Fuel Efficient Trawler Design Unveiled A Paperless Future for Ship Building? Examining the Impact Of Ship Widening & Lengthening • Green Ferry To Debut Wärtsilä Hybrid Propulsion Technology

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Fuels & Emissions

• The News Bulletin • Finding Fuel Savings On The Right Frequency • Examining Alternative Fuels And Financial Benefits • Cruise Sector Interest In Air Lubrication Tech Swells • Global Average Bunker Price History • Demystifying The EU MRV Regulation


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• The News Bulletin • ISO Hull Performance Standard Edges Closer To Finalisation • No ROI For Shipowners Favouring Efficiency Despite Fuel-Payers Saving Millions • Consortium To Drive Ship Efficiency And Safe Navigation Research • DNV GL Issues First “Clean Lay-up” Declaration

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The Social Scene


The Last Word Blog


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Global Average Bunker Price History JOIN US

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marine | energy | environment

Editor: Catherine Austin Assistant Editor: Fiona Macdonald Graphic Design: Ben Watkins Advertising Sales: Alison Jarabo Subscriptions Manager: Mandy Harris Publisher registered address: 27 Sheet Street , Windsor, UK - SL4 1BN Subscription to this magazine is free. Subscribe online via: Subscribe by phone: +44 (0) 1753 853 791 For content enquiries, email: Twitter: @fathommaritime

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WELCOME FROM THE EDITOR The industry will gather this month for the SMM trade fair in the maritime nucleus that is Hamburg Green propulsion and digital solutions will take the centre stage at SMM, in fact the organisers have opened a new hall dedicated to all things green propulsion. I have no doubt that the numerous halls at this gargantuan trade fair will be awash with a dominant ratio of green technology solutions as the industry continues its quest to be leaner and greener while battling to maintain buoyancy under current market conditions and regulatory pressures. SMM will also play host to the inaugural Wind Propulsion Innovation Awards, for which I proudly took a seat on the judging panel. Wind propulsion is gaining some serious momentum in the industry. What was once considered to be a ‘blue skies’ technology is rapidly being deployed on ocean-going vessels. Monitoring software-certified fuel savings attained through the use of wind-assisted propulsion technologies are further proving that this technology option is a serious contender amongst its ship efficiency technology peers. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is expected to decide on the implementation timeframe of the global 0.50% sulphur cap for marine fuels in October this year, based on the recommendations of an extensive low sulphur fuel availability study. The industry awaits with baited breath; the verdict will have a huge impact on the industry. In this issue of Ship Efficiency Review magazine, we put the technology and fuel options under the spotlight and hopefully provide some insight into what ship owners and operators can turn to when making plans for regulatory compliance. The core theme of this issue is Prime Performance. Therefore, this issue hosts power and propulsion features aplenty. We tackle a vast array of hot topics and technology happenings from battery power, to alternative fuels and all that resides in between. If you are interested in bunker fuel trends, head to the Fuels & Emissions section where you will find the Global Average Bunker Price History feature, powered by Ship & Bunker. This in addition to our usual technology-centric content, makes Issue 10 a prime news hub for all things ship efficiency. I look forward to welcoming you to Issue 11. Catherine Austin Editor

Š2016 Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine can be reproduced, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written consent of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. Applications for written permission should be sent to the Editor via Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent the views of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited or its affiliates. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information contained in this publication at the time of going to press, Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited assume no responsibility as to any inaccuracies that occur or their consequences and to the extent of the law, shall not be liable for any errors or omissions or any loss, damage or expenses incurred by reliance on information or any statement contained in this publication.


Ship Efficiency Review News Round-Up



The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has launched an online portal that builds on the work undertaken by their Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) to promote technical cooperation and technology transfer relating to improving the energy efficiency of ships.

Damen Green Solutions’ InvaSave technology is nearing International Maritime Organization (IMO) Type Approval.   Results thus far have shown that it can provide IMO Type Approved backup in the event of a ship’s onboard ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) failing to uptake or discharge ballast water.   The InvaSave technology, which uses UV filtration without any chemicals, can also serve as a port-based alternative for ship owners that have not retrofitted their ships with an on-board BWTS or in the case a ship is deployed in a port with a sudden outbreak of marine invasive species.   The system can be delivered in a self-sufficient mobile container for flexible placement in a service barge or for movement around the port on a trailer or a pontoon.   The series of shipboard tests included high sediment waters of the River Hull and River Thames, UK. The results of the InvaSave testing shows that the technology can meet the IMO’s D2 standard. IMO Type Approval is expected to be obtained later in 2016. ∎

A key feature of the site is the information portal on energy efficiency technologies that cover areas such as machinery, propulsion and hull improvements, and energy recovery.   The website also provides important information and updates on the Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships (GloMEEP) project – a GEF-UNDP-IMO initiative that supports the uptake and implementation of energy efficiency measures for shipping, thereby helping to reduce the industry’s greenhouse gas emissions. ∎

WÄRTSILÄ ACQUIRES ENIRAM Wärtsilä has signed an agreement to acquire fellow Finnish innovators Eniram Oy, a move that will enable the power and propulsion giant to strengthen its digital offerings, energy management and analytics for performance optimisation.   The acquisition will also enable Wärtsilä to offer its customers more in terms of marine digitalisation solutions for optimising trim, speed and engine performance and to give comprehensive fleet analysis.

Currently, Eniram’s solutions are installed in over 270 vessels. They are headquartered in Helsinki, Finland with subsidiaries in the UK, the USA, Germany and Singapore and in 2015 Eniram’s turnover exceeded EUR 10 million.   Eniram will initially continue as an independent business entity supported by Wärtsilä. The transaction is valued at EUR 43 million (enterprise value). Ownership of the company will be transferred to Wärtsilä with effect from July 1, 2016. ∎

Ship Efficiency Review News Round-Up



SHIP EFFICIENCY ELECTED AS PREDOMINANT THEME OF 2017 WORLD MARITIME DAY The International Maritime Organization (IMO) World Maritime Day theme for 2017 is to be based around shipping efficiency, global stability and sustainable development as part of efforts to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).   When announcing the 2017 theme, ‘Connecting Ships, Ports and People’ at the IMO Council’s 116th session at IMO Headquarters in London, The IMO Secretary-General

NEW THRUSTER AND RUDDER FILLER COATING LAUNCHED Subsea Industries have launched a filler coating product, EcoFix, that repairs most pitting or corrosion damage on rudders, stabiliser fins, thrusters and other underwater gear.   When a rudder or other piece of underwater gear has not been properly protected, the surface will become corroded.   Cavitation damage can cause severe pitting and the steel needs to be restored to its original shape with a smooth surface prior to recoating.   According to the executive director of Subsea Industries, they are seeing an increasing number of propulsion and steering equipment suppliers apply tough hard coatings to their equipment for maximum protection against cavitation and abrasion damage, both of which can lead to widespread corrosion if conventional coatings fail. ∎

Kitack Lim said the theme aims to improve cooperation between ports and ships, and develop a closer partnership between the two sectors in order to raise global standards and set norms for the safety, security and efficiency of ports, and for port and coastal State authorities. It also aims to improve the standardisation of port procedures through identifying and developing best practice guidance and training materials. ∎


Following the success of the LNGreen concept, a joint industry development project designed to create a state-of-the-art next generation liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier, DNV GL has announced a follow-up project will commence, that will build on the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the initial project.

The new project seeks to bring a ready-to-build concept to the market to realise the potential savings in actual operation using new technologies, improved integrated systems and machinery configurations. The new project will involve GTT, GasLog, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) and DNV GL, who were all original partners in the project. The follow up project is due for completion by the end of 2016.∎

TRANSAS COMMITS TO SAFETY & MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION WITH NAMEPA Transas has joined the North American Marine Environment Protection Association (NAMEPA) to support and participate with other marine industry organisations in NAMEPA’s efforts to “Save Our Seas”.   NAMEPA say that by joining, Transas is demonstrating their

commitment to safety at sea and marine environment protection.   Transas CEO Frank Coles stated that Transas being a member of NAMEPA will give the company an opportunity to voice their concerns to the global maritime community and contribute to ocean protection. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review News Round-Up

NEWS ROUND-UP WORLD’S LARGEST ELECTRIC FERRIES TO BE POWERED BY ABB TECHNOLOGY HH Ferries Group has chosen ABB’s battery power and propulsion package, inclusive of an automated shore-side charging station, for two of its ferries.  The Tycho Brahe and Aurora ferries, which are set to become the largest electric ferries in the world, will operate fully on battery power between Helsingør, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden.   Using battery power on these two ferries will help lower total emissions across the fleet by more than 50% from the current diesel operated vessels, say ABB.   The ABB power and propulsion solution, which will comprise of batteries, an energy storage control system, and onboard DC grid technology, will provide a combined battery power of 8,320 kWh for the two ferries – the equivalent of 10,700 car batteries.   The Finnish power and automation giant will also supply the first automated shore-side charging stations using an ABB industrial robot to optimise connection and charging time. The automated shore-side charging system technology works by using 3D laser scanning and wireless communication between ship and shore. As the ferry approaches the shore in its last 400m, the robot will reach

CATERPILLAR TO ESTABLISH SINGAPORE MARINE HUB Caterpillar Marine is to establish a new Marine Centre in Singapore to manufacture new technology and advance concepts and design.   The Marine Centre will house manufacturing capability for Caterpillar’s Marine Propulsion business to build the company’s range of MTA azimuth thrusters and MTT tunnel thrusters, and production of the full line of thrusters will be included.   Furthermore, the Marine Centre will allow Caterpillar to expand its medium speed engine training services for customers in the region and establish a new Caterpillar Propulsion Training centre for customers and dealers on Caterpillar propulsion thrusters and controls.   The Singapore Caterpillar Marine Centre is expected to be operational by the fourth quarter of 2016. ∎

out and pull the shore cable from the ship. The cable reel releases the cable and the robot moves the connectors to the corresponding connectors below the robot. After the connection is made, the robot moves back to the homeposition and the roll-up doors close. The robot will reside inside its own building when not in use.   This particular investment is co-financed by the Innovation and Networks Executive Agency (INEA), the EU’s executive agency for innovation and network. ∎


Terntank has received the first Port of Rotterdam liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering incentive for its new product tanker Ternsund, amounting to a discount of 10% on seaport dues.   The incentives awarded by the Port of Rotterdam were established in order to turn the port into a major European LNG bunkering hub and decrease the use of standard residual fuel. By encouraging the use of LNG, the port expects to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by up to 20% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 85%. Both sulphur oxides (SOx) emissions and particulate matter can be reduced to almost zero with the use of LNG as marine fuel. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Who’s Doing What


DOING WHAT? WWL COMMIT TO BUNKERING LOW SULPHUR FUEL AT ALL PORTS Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics (WWL) is to bunker low-sulphur fuel for all of its ships at all ports called at. Following the company’s review of its sulphur policy, there has been in a shift in emphasis to include not just the environmental considerations of shipping operations, but also the social and health ones that are directly impacted by ship sulphur oxides (SOx) emissions.   In July 2016, WWL welcomed its fourth Neo-Panamax high efficiency RoRo HERO class vessel to its fleet. Built to transit the expanded Panama Canal, the MV Themis features a specially designed hull shape, rudder and bow to reduce drag and wave resistance to improve fuel efficiency.

MATSON NAVIGATION ORDERS SEAWATERLUBRICATED SHAFT BEARINGS SYSTEM Matson Navigation Company, Inc., has signed a contract with Thordon Bearings to install COMPAC seawater lubricated propeller shaft bearings systems on two of their Jones Act containerships.   The ships, which are under construction at the Aker Philadelphia Shipyard Inc. (APSI), represent the largest commercial ship propeller shafts to be fitted with the technology to-date.   The 36,000 TEU Aloha Class ships will each feature a COMPAC system for a 930mm diameter shaft driving an 8.1m diameter fixed pitch propeller.   The order placed includes COMPAC elastomeric bearings with a tapered keyset, a Thordon Water Quality package, bronze liners and Thor-Coat shaft coating to help meet classification requirements for extended shaft withdrawal periods.

OVERSEAS SHIPHOLDING GROUP SELECTS DE NORA BWTS FOR PRODUCT TANKERS Overseas Shipholding Group (OSG) is to fit two De Nora ballast water management systems (BWMS) to 50,000 DWT product tankers, the Overseas Milos and the Overseas Athens.   The De Nora Balpure BWMS uses electrochlorination to ensure that discharged ballast water meets the environmental discharge limits set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG).   De Nora recently commenced land-based and ship-board testing of their BALPURE BWMS at the NSF Independent Laboratory at the Maritime Environmental Resource Centre (MERC) for Type Approval application to the USCG.

EURONAV CHOOSE JOTUN ANTIFOULINGS FOR TANKERS Jotun’s SeaQuantum X200 antifouling hull coating and measurement sensors have been ordered for two EURONAV Suezmax tankers; the Cap Guillaume and Cap Philippe. According to EURONAV. They opted for the Jotun antifouling product based on its proven environmental and business benefits and its good return-on-investment. Jotun’s HPs guarantee was also reportedly a contributing factor to EURONAV’s selection.

BERNHARD SCHULTE TAKES DELIVERY OF ECO-SHIP TRIO The 5,400 TEU Carl Schulte and its two sister ships; the Christa Schulte and the Clemens Schulte have been fitted with efficient engines and equipment to optimise voyage planning, measure and control carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.   The ships have also benefitted from an optimised hull design to ensure maximum efficiency and all feature ballast water treatment systems (BWTS).   Bernhard Schulte has worked alongside DNV GL to ensure that the ships were designed and built to the highest efficiency standards. This resulted in DNV GL issuing a Green Passport to all the ships.  The Carl Schulte has also been awarded a RightShip grading of A+ on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scale and has been given a five star Environmental Score rating, placing the ship in the top 20 vessels out of 76,000 ships graded by RightShip.


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Ship Efficiency Review Who’s Doing What


DOING WHAT? FINNLINES GETS EUR 50MIL LOAN FOR ENVIRO TECH RETROFIT PROGRAMME Finnlines has signed a EUR 50 million loan agreement with the European Investment Bank (EIB) to facilitate its Environmental Technology Investment programme that will help reduce ship sulphur oxides (SOx) emissions and their overall environmental footprint.   The funding will form part of a EUR 100 million investment plan that involves retrofitting Finnlines’ current fleet with marine scrubbers to reduce emissions of SOx to no more than 0.1%. Finnlines will also use optimised propellers on 11 of its ships to reduce hull friction, reduce overall fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and SOx.

ECKERÖ VESSEL FITTED WITH WÄRTSILÄ CONDITION BASED MONITORING SYSTEM A Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö vessel has been fitted with Wärtsilä’s condition based monitoring system, which provides data to enable dynamic maintenance planning.   The Finnish shipping company has also extended the maintenance agreement held with Wärtsilä for its fleet of five vessels.   Wärtsilä say that the aim with the dynamic maintenance planning solution is to extend maintenance intervals and reduce spare parts consumption. Maintenance operations are then planned based on expert analysis of the engine’s condition and the real-time data provided by the engines.

COSTA CRUISES REPORTS 2.3% REDUCTION IN CARBON FOOTPRINT Costa Cruises has published its 2015 sustainability report which states that overall a 4.8% reduction in energy consumption was achieved, 100% of waste onboard was collected and separated for disposal and recycling, and a 2.3% reduction in the company’s carbon footprint was attained.   The company also achieved a 3% decrease in fuel consumption per passenger/day; 11% reduction in sulphur oxides (SOx) and 3% in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter; installation on 46.6% of the fleet of the ECO Exhaust Gas Cleaning system to remove more than 90% of pollutants from the exhaust gases; 69% of the water required was produced directly on board.   Costa states that it aims to continue to pioneer sustainable solutions, including the current construction of the first cruise ship to be powered byliquefied natural gas (LNG), due for delivery in 2019.



Fjord1 has signed a newbuilding contract with the Tersan Shipyard to construct two new battery-powered ferries.   The battery technology will enable the ferries to run for several hours without charging, which will be carried out through fully automatic charging stations at the quayside when necessary. Fjord1 is planning for fully electric operation of both ferries. The ferries are expected to be operational from 1 January 2018 until 2027.

JHW Engineering & Contracting has chosen to install Alfa Laval’s PureNOx Prime exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems on five of its newbuild very large ethane carriers (VLEC).   The VLEC newbuilds will use EGR to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The EGR engines will use PureNOx Prime to treat the water from the EGR process. PureNOx Prime is that much smaller than the original PureNOx due to its leaner design and requires a lower investment cost, while maintaining the same performance.

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Ship Efficiency Review Feature Focus


The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is expected to decide on the implementation timeframe of the global 0.50% sulphur cap for marine bunker fuels in October this year, based on the result of a low sulphur fuel availability study.   As the industry awaits with bated breath for the delivery of the verdict in October, Ship Efficiency Review’s assistant editor Fiona Macdonald examines five options, coupled with their benefits and limitations, that ship owners and/ or operators can embrace in order to remain compliant with the new, stringent global sulphur cap rules – be their arrival in 2020 or 2025.

Low-Sulphur Fuel

Low-sulphur fuels and their viscosity can have an array of complex interactions upon engine and its components that were built for residual fuel use. The switch to using low sulphur fuels requires planning ahead. Although some industry dwellers will

have become familiar to switching fuels when entering ECAs and using lower sulphur fuel, the implementation of a global sulphur cap will require increased periods of operational time on these fuels (or alternatively the use of a marine scrubber with heavy fuel oil (HFO)). The full-time use of low sulphur fuels should be approached with some degree of caution due to their distinct behavioural differences when compared with higher more traditionally used fuels of higher sulphur content.   The fuel viscosity of a low-sulphur fuel when heated is very different to a HFO. The primary problems of using a marine gas oil (MGO) for compliance arises from the low viscosity characteristic it retains

Ship Efficiency Review Feature Focus

when used by machinery designed for traditional HFO.   Furthermore, if the viscosity of the fuel in the pumps is too low, wear and scuffing can be caused by lack of hydrodynamic lubrication of the pump which can lead to increased risk of fuel leaks. Hence maintenance and cost are exacerbated. Matching engine and component design with fuel type and its viscosity is vital, particularly when using a fuel for longer periods of time, compared with short ECA intervals.   However, one of the advantages is that distillates retain a higher thermal value, minimising engine wear and reducing maintenance, which further contributes to a reduction in fuel consumption.


Distillates have a higher energy content compared with HFO, and because of its more sophisticated quality, less sludge is generated and therefore the task of onshore sludge disposal can be reduced.

LNG Fuel

The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) would of course eliminate the need for additional emissions reducing technology and minimise the concerns around fuels and incompatibility. Removing virtually all sulphur emissions, LNG is a promising alternative fuel to meeting global sulphur cap requirements. However, conversion can cost more than USD 20 million, this is an option for newbuildings currently.   Dominating the LNG-conversion quandary is often the sheer size of the LNG tank, which can be detrimental to cargo carrying capacity. LNG’s low density means that it requires excess storage, however, its higher energy value can sufficiently compensate. The storage and handling issues that surround its adoption are also significant. Highly flammable in gaseous state, solid training and understanding of LNG behaviour is paramount.   Unable to be stored in traditional hull structural tanks like regular fuels, LNG must Continues Overleaf...


Ship Efficiency Review Feature Focus

requirements, but matching the type of fuel to the lubricant is an important decision that must not be underestimated.


be stowed away from the sides and bottom of the ship as any vibrations from collisions may result in explosion as a result of LNG’s highly flammable nature when exposed to the ambient atmosphere outside of its tank.   Furthermore, the evaporation of LNG, also known as its Boil Off Gas results in pressure build-up, which can lead to tank and other component damage if excess LNG is not drained from pipes or hoses. A Boil Off Gas Plan is therefore essential to minimise such risks, and in the case of a ship conversion, the necessary equipment and procedures must be integrated into ship design modifications.

Methanol Fuel

SOx emissions reduction to the tune of 99% can be achieved using methanol fuel and thereby its use would ensure that a ship met global sulphur cap requirements. While methanol fuels may be cheaper than LNG, they also require ship conversion. Methanol is particularly toxic and will require additional monitoring and control systems, including overfill alarms, automatic shutdown, and ventilation and gas detection monitoring.

Cylinder Oil Lubrication

As the choice of lubricant is very much dependent on the type of fuel used, it is apparent that a change in fuel will also require a consideration in the change of lubricant. Although this practise already takes place today when manoeuvring in and out of ECAs, using a lower sulphur fuel for longer periods of time as the global sulphur cap demands will necessitate more thoughtful consideration for the lubricant as some fuels will tolerate certain lubricants for only short periods of time whereas others are more suited to more permanent usage.   Corrosion and engine component wear is a common sideeffect of not matching the lubricant to the fuel type. Operation on low and very low-sulphur fuel doesn’t often generate very much sulphuric acid and therefore the alkaline components in the lubricating oil are not neutralised, generating compounds that are able to harm the engine and its components due to deposition, excessive wear and scuffing. Of course, engine design and operating parameters can also affect the cylinder oil

The use of marine scrubbers in Emission Control Areas (ECAs) is common practise. With a 2020 global sulphur their use could increase to around 3,800 ships , and with this comes higher maintenance and associated costs. Breakdown potentials must be considered and accounted for to ensure compliance, not just in ECAs but worldwide. The risk of non-compliance will therefore be much higher in case of malfunction as global waters and not just ECAs are more thoroughly regulated.   Additionally, the higher energy consumption that has been calculated when using scrubbers must be accounted for if they are to function for longer periods of time. A seawater scrubber has been estimated consume around 3% more fuel, while a freshwater consumes around 1% more .

Real-Time Ship Tracking

Although not directly related to emissions, installing real-time ship tracking software can help to enable better ship navigation, avoiding bottlenecks in ports and reduce time spent idling, which can contribute to excess emissions, especially while in port. Although this is not a direct method for compliance, it will certainly help reduce unnecessary emissions.

Future Considerations

The development of SOx scrubbing technology is continually evolving and it is inevitable that future all-in-one systems that will be able to abate SOx, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other greenhouse gases (GHG) will be developed. The installation of multiple systems for emissions control could become redundant as ship owners drive demand for the development of a multifunctional technology to combat all emissions and comply with the development of future SOx and NOx ECAs for a zero emissions future – a very feasible long-term objective.   In relation to the 2020 global sulphur cap being pushed back to 2025, the detrimental impact to technology innovation could be at a risk of decline as the pressure and demand for new complying technologies slacks. This is also a consideration for the future development of technologies and should drive technology purchasers to consider their options ahead of time.∎

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Ship Efficiency Review Feature Focus

WHAT IS ‘PRIME PERFORMANCE’? By Catherine Austin, Editor

When considering an individual ship’s performance and how it can be improved, often the term ‘efficiency’ is used. However, consider an entire business ecosystem with all its interconnections and relationships performing consistently to their prime capability. Would the buzzword for this be ‘Prime Performance’? While making sure that it is not mistaken for efficiency, prime performance, as I understand, it is very much about attaining optimal operational benefits even when faced with the most challenging conditions. Operating consistently at a whole-system level will of course bring efficiency improvements, but if you were to officially define the concept of ‘Prime Performance’ it would be more than that.   It wouldn’t just be about improving the operation of one ship or a fleet of ships and doing more for less, but rather it would focus on consistent and effective operation at a high level across an entire business ecosystem.   A business operating under the hypothetical ‘Prime Performance’ concept would ensure that any work carried out reaped the maximum benefits and results that it can. It might not simply focus on one strategic manoeuvre to make the operation of one ship more efficient, but rather consider the entire body or business operation. The interconnections, the symbiotic links and how technology, people and systems work harmoniously together would be, in my mind, all part of the ‘Prime Performance’ concept.

In order to operate at prime performance, the people involved, the other systems that are integrated into the ship’s operation and even the onshore personnel have to be taken into account. This is to ensure that the entire system, as a whole, is operating to its full potential. Prime performance may manifest as a concept under which the consideration all aspects in order to drive better operations and business decisions across the whole system takes place, avoiding the possibility that the system may run below its prime capability.   There is a risk with any technology, whether a pocket-sized smart phone or a colossal piece of ship equipment, that it is not being used to its full potential. Often the technologies and systems are in place, but the education, training opportunities and interactions with others is what sets apart the potential and the achieved reality. Prime performance would be about realising and exploiting these potentials in order to optimise operations at each and every corner and achieve what is so-readily achievable.

Ship Efficiency Review Feature Focus

The human element would be a huge part of the ‘Prime Performance’ concept and as with any aspect of streamlining or enhancing shipping operations, it must not be underestimated. New and evolving technology is very much a part of the lives of millennials and they are used to adapting their skills and mastering the functions of new technologies at rapid speed. However, the sudden implementation of such advanced technologies onboard may not be what a more traditional crew is accustomed to. Mixing experience with the enthusiasm of technically-minded younger generations is a recipe for getting the best use out of the available technology. This approach would be what I consider to be a prime performance strategy.   It is imperative that crews are not just encouraged to welcome new technical maritime developments, but are taught how to use them to their full potential to allow them to function at their individual prime performance. Enabling each technology, strategy and task to operate at prime attainment will contribute to an overall prime performing business ecosystem. The human element is crucial in attaining the Prime Performance ideology.   Although ‘Big Data’ is a popular industry buzzword the use of such data is only going to contribute towards wider operational benefits if it can be properly


analysed and used for decision-making. Data must be truly understood and applied effectively. The prime performance of shipping operations in the era into which the industry is sailing cannot be achieved if the software systems and sensors are not available to analyse to the very last detail. The analyst that deciphers what is needed to feed into decision making is imperative.   Furthermore, reporting culture is fundamental, as is shared responsibility. Ensuring consistent and best quality data is essential to actually understanding how the vessel works, where inefficiencies lie and what can be done to improve its operation. However, what is more essential is that data is extracted carefully and at consistent times to reduce the chance of human error anomalies and support the human factor.   At a time of increasing regulatory enforcements, fuel price fluctuations and the transition into the era of the smart ship, all factors of a shipping and business operation from engines to crew welfare must be considered. A prime performance mentality could show how ship owners and operators can boost capabilities, performance and capacity in order to drive a business’ effectiveness and competitive advantage.   The question is: is this a new industry buzzword on the horizon? Only time will tell. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology


BULLETIN PORT OF ROTTERDAM WELCOMES ECO-FRIENDLY HULL CLEANING TECH Traditional hull cleaning operations using divers with brushes are prohibited within Rotterdam’s port waters due to concerns about marine pollution. However, new environmentally, friendly HullWiper technology that will be introduced to the port mitigates pollution concerns through the use of adjustable water-jet cleaning and debris collection systems.   The Port of Rotterdam’s Senior Manager, Peter Mollema, recently stated that the ground-breaking technology is aligned exactly with the the port’s ambition to be the most sustainable port of its kind.   HullWiper is seeing growing interest and uptake at the ports where it operates in the Middle East, Far East and Europe. The Manufacturers of HullWiper, GAC, say that one of Northern Europe’s oldest ship owners has ordered hull cleaning in Singapore and in Rotterdam, and is implementing a policy to use HullWiper to clean

US COAST GUARD CHANGES BWTS AMS PROGRAM The United States Coast Guard’s (USCG) Ballast Water Management Program for Alternative Management Systems (AMS) has been updated in light of the fact that to-date Type Approval has not been granted to ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) by the USCG.   The USCG has confirmed that the AMS can be used for five years from the extended compliance date if the AMS is installed prior to the expiration of the vessel’s extended compliance date.   According to the Marine Safety Information (MSIB) dated 13 July 2016, the USCG states that: A vessel with an installed AMS may request an extension and operate under the terms of that extension rather than using the AMS, or it may employ other ballast water management methods available under the regulation. ∎

all its vessels. A leading scientific marine consultancy has also reportedly expressed an interest in conducting a rigorous data analysis of HullWiper with a view to putting it to their customers as an efficiency solution. ∎

NEW CONFIGURATION TOOL TO AID SCRUBBER INSTALLATION PROCESS A tool developed by scrubber manufacturer SAAKE enables the design of a scrubber to be determined in advance to increase transparency and planning reliability. The tool uses input ship and operating data to calculate details of the system design, such as dimensions, number of components, or size of the pump system. This means that the required installation space for the a scrubber can be estimated based on a visual representation, which has the potential to lead to cost savings as a smaller system requires less investment and less installation space. ∎

Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology


THE POWER OF WASTE HEAT The GadCooler technology helps turn waste heat into air conditioning and refrigeration to improve the efficiency of ship operations and reduce fuel consumption. The technology is based on absorption, steam utlisation, rest heat from engine cooling water and heat from boilers. It provides chilled water using a non-toxic absorption fluid as a transfer media.   Large cruise ships operating in tropical conditions can consume as much as 10 MW power for cooling purposes, which requires significant amounts of fuel. Conventional cooling compressors are usually used but GadCooler helps to improve efficiency of cooling by using existing heat sources. A small amount of energy is required for the transfer pumps but the savings in fuel and emissions reductions is significant.   The system, which has received system approval from DNV GL, is practically maintenance-free and can be installed during normal service docking. It features a smart control system that optimises the cooling efficiency and is available as one or several units, each with a cooling power of up to 5,000 kW.

To date the solution has been installed on Eckero Line’s new cruise ferry M/S Finlandia. The ferry, which operates between Helsinki and Tallin will be able to get much of its cooling capacity needed from GadCooler by using a unit with a capacity of approximately 500 kW.   The GadCooler has been developed by Gadlab Engineering, with patent pending. Gadlab Engineering provides the complete system including connection design with existing onboard systems.   Johan Aberg, Naval Architect at Gadlab Engineering commented: “We have developed the GadCooler to operate in a maritime environment. This requires specific design considerations to be incorporated. The result is an energy saving, efficient, quiet, and vibration free cooler with a short pay-back time for the owner.”   The development project of the GadCooler received funding from Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation. ∎

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Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology


By Don Stephen, VP product management, De Nora

After years of waiting, the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention is now within a hairs-breadth of ratification. There is no doubt that the twelve months between ratification and entry into force will be a busy period. And by retrofitting vessels now or defining a clear plan with a fit-for-purpose ballast water treatment system (BWTS) in mind for each vessel in the fleet, savvy owners are ensuring they stay ahead of the game. Shipowners and operators will be familiar with the criteria for selecting each BWTS and will have likely discussed them at length. This includes elements such as the routes it is expected to operate along, vessel size, and ballast tank volume and pumping rate. Ensuring that the system chosen has IMO Type-Approval is a universal consideration, but large, internationally trading vessels will also need a system certified under the US Coast Guard (USCG) alternate management system and one progressing well through the USCG Type-Approval process.   Something that is critical but often overlooked, however, is the requirement for and level of system maintenance required.

"SOMETHING THAT IS CRITICAL BUT OFTEN OVERLOOKED, HOWEVER, IS THE REQUIREMENT FOR AND LEVEL OF SYSTEM MAINTENANCE REQUIRED."   For larger vessels with large ballast tanks and high pumping rates, slip stream electrochlorination systems are the clear BWTS of choice. These systems offer a flexible footprint and because the chemical treatment is introduced into the ballast line, rather than treating the entire volume of water in the line, it is more effective for large ballast tanks. But, standard electrochlorination systems require ongoing maintenance to ensure effective treatment and safeguard the energy efficiency of the system.   Electrochlorination BWTS use electrolysis of seawater to produce a sodium hypochlorite solution, which is injected into the ballast line to kill the organisms in the water. Over time, mineral deposits of calcium and magnesium can accumulate on the cathodes. This fouling reduces levels of chlorine produced, compromising the efficacy of the system and therefore permission to deballast. In more serious cases, fouling can lead to a total failure of the BWTS as the electrodes become overloaded with residue and short-circuit. Or if a full blockage occurs, the electrodes are no longer cooled by the seawater and can overheat to a temperature able to ignite the plastic body of the electrolyser.   To avoid these potentially damaging situations, crews will need to be specifically trained to clean the electrodes regularly every 8-10 months using hydrochloric acid, or another similar acid. Additional training and personal protection equipment will also need to be supplied to ensure the safe handling of this acid.   In an industry where many crews are already overburdened and tasked with activities that many are ill equipped to perform, shipowners and operators are understandably nervous about potentially increasing that

burden through their choice of BWTS. It is therefore not just a matter of the type of BWTS that best suits the vessel and its operating pattern, the maintenance requirements of each solution and potential impact on crew and day-to-day operations must also be considered.   De Nora’s knowledge and experience of ‘in situ’ biocide electrolytic disinfection solutions extends beyond shipping and ballast water treatment; thereby enabling innovations that overcome this key and significant maintenance challenge. Its unique and proprietary self-cleaning system allows the polarity of the electrodes to be reversed. This means that the deposits are stripped from the cathodes as they switch, becoming anodes through the same process in which it accumulated. This is done in a fully automatic manner by the system, eliminating the need for crew intervention, ensuring that an effective and efficient BWTS is selfmaintained.   Installing an effective and typeapproved BWTS will very soon be mandatory. Although this presents an additional environmental challenge in a period of economic uncertainty, taking a short-term view could lead to additional problems further down the line. To safeguard long term compliance and efficiency, this regulation requires more than just a tick-box solution, which is why owners must contemplate the full breadth of considerations before making an informed and effective decision.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology




A unique anti-fouling ingredient that functions by temporarily stimulating barnacle larvae’s swimming behaviour in order to repel the settlement of barnacles on ship hulls is to enter into the mainstream market following a 16-year journey from concept to industrialisation. Chugoku Marine Paints (CMP) have been rigorously testing I-TECH’s Selektope following their initial interest in the product’s development almost ten years ago.   Selektope is distinguished by extremely low biocidal loading and is harmless to the marine environment. It is organic and non-metallic, with a proven efficacy of 0.1% weight/weight. This means that it can be included as a 0.1% constituent of antifouling coatings – only a fraction of the active substance for compatible to a traditional copper biocide. As only a small quantity of the ingredient is required, it has no impact on the chemical structure, colour or other cooperative biocides of a marine coating.   I-TECH say that at first, like many other paint manufacturers testing Selektope, CMP did not believe that the ingredient would work in such low concentrations. However, tests proved the efficacy at low concentrations and the remarkable performance of the ingredient and from that CMP decided to include the Selektope ingredient under both of their brands SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM and the SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM.

CMP have stated that “Selektope is proving to be spectacularly effective in the prevention of barnacle attachment and is confirming itself capable of unsurpassed antifouling performance, even when a ship is at anchorage for months.”   SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM uses zinc polymer technology that has an inservice life of more than five years and is applicable to all oceangoing vessels operating worldwide, whereas the SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM is based on silyl polymer technology and targets low activity vessels and even ships that are static for months. The SEAFLO NEO-S PREMIUM is currently being used in South Korean shipyards.   SEAFLO NEO CF PREMIUM has already been applied in full coats to vessels owned by shipping companies based in Sweden, Hong Kong, South Korea and Japan.   Initial commercial applications of marine coatings with Selektope, which is now fully approved for use by the relevant authorities in Japan, South Korea, China and Europe, took place in 2015. Its first publically-disclosed application took place at Sembcorp in Singapore, when a new copper-free product from CMP was applied to the side walls of the 2010-built, 46,000DWT chemical

carrier Calypso operated by Sweden’s Laurin Maritime.   Philip Chaabane, Chief Executive I-TECH, commented: “After a 16year journey for Selektope through research, testing, approvals and industrialisation, we are honoured to be part of CMP’s new premium antifouling range.   Earlier this year, Selektope passed another major milestone. Under the EU’s Biocidal Products Regulation, Selektope achieved an industry-first approval as a pharmacological means of combatting barnacle settlement, sparking widespread interest for antifouling coatings.   Formal EC adoption of the approval regulation was signed by EC President Jean-Claude Juncker, meaning that Selektope is permitted for use under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive in antifouling products throughout the EU from 1 January 2016.   I-TECH say that they welcomed double the orders in the first part of 2016 compared with 2015 thanks to this approval.   The increase in demand following regulatory approval may be attributed to Selektope’s ability to extend static performance of the coating. I-Tech has been able to meet this increased demand through its agreement with life sciences corporation Cambrex, enabling Selektope to be produced on an industrial scale.   In April this year, I-Tech’s Selektope was awarded with the Environmental Performance Award at the European Marine Engineering Awards 2016 which celebrates the environmental benefits of a product, process or management approach as a result of implementation for the first time in 2015.∎


Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology

IN THE SPOTLIGHT: U.S. COAST GUARD BALLAST WATER COMPLIANCE EXTENSION REQUESTS The U.S. Coast Guard ballast water management regulations are set out in Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 151, Subparts C and D. Whereas Subpart C applies only to the Great Lakes and the Hudson River, Subpart D applies more generally to waters of the United States; thus, this article will focus only on Subpart D.   Generally, Subpart D provides that by a vessel’s compliance date as specified in 33 CFR 151.2035 (referred to as the “original compliance date”), the master, owner, operator, agent, or person in charge (owner, et al) of a non-exempt vessel desiring to discharge ballast water into waters of the United States (defined as those waters out to 12 nautical miles from the baseline) must either: (1) ensure that the ballast water meets the ballast water discharge standard as defined in 33 CFR 151.2030(a); (2) use an alternate management system as described in 33 CFR 151.2025(a) (3); or (3) ballast with water from a U.S. public water system, as described in 33 CFR 151.2025(a)(2). It is envisioned that option (1) above will be achieved by installation and operation of a U.S. type approved ballast water management system (BWMS).   The original compliance date may be extended if the owner, et al, in charge of a non-exempt vessel can document that, despite all efforts, compliance with the regulations is not possible. Furthermore, the extension itself can be extended by a streamlined supplemental extension process, as discussed in CG-OES Policy Letter No. 13-01, revision 2 (16 November 2015).

Because the Coast Guard has not yet type-approved any BWMS, and because U.S. public water system sources are not generally available or practicable for vessel ballast operations, options (1) and (3) above are essentially impossible to comply with. As a result, the Coast Guard has been routinely granting vessel compliance date extension requests , with the main cause of delay or rejection being administrative or clerical errors, such as misaddressing the extension request.   This essentially pro forma extension process will get much more complex once BWMS become type approved in the U.S. No longer will the extension request be able to “document that, despite all efforts, compliance . . . is not possible” simply by referencing the non-availability of U.S. type approved systems. The justification provided in the extension request will have to become much more nuanced and fact specific. “Difficult” does not equate to “not possible;” the owner, et al, will have to demonstrate that such factors as inapplicability of the system to the vessel or its intended use, the timing of the drydocking at which the system would be installed, order backlogs of type approved systems, and other such complications individually or collectively operate to make “compliance . . . not possible.” As more systems get type approved, and initial supply and installation backlogs work themselves out, the justification required to obtain an extension or supplemental extension will get even that much more challenging. ∎ About The Author

Captain Andrew Norris, U.S. Coast Guard (retired) is a maritime attorney and consultant. He regularly speaks as an expert on the topic of ballast water regulatory compliance and acts as an expert adviser to ship owners and operators. Contact: +1 (401) 871-7482.


An overview of regulatory requirements. Key considerations - the practical implementation of ballast water treatment technology. A technical breakdown of ballast water treatment technology options. Installation considerations (newbuild and retrofit). A step-by-step guide to complying with the Convention. An independent review of all providers and systems.

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Ship Efficiency Review Environmental Technology


TURNING PLASTIC WASTE INTO LOW-SULPHUR SHIP FUEL Engineering and environmental consultancy firm Ricardo is working alongside Recycling Technologies to develop recycled low-sulphur marine bunker fuel from mixed plastic waste. Recycling Technologies has developed a machine, the RT7000, that can help convert plastic waste into a low-sulphur hydrocarbon compound, known as Plaxx. This material can then be used as a sustainable fuel substitute for traditional heavy fuel oil (HFO).   The companies will work together to assess the performance of Plaxx compared with HFO and diesel in a typical marine engine or propulsion application. Ricardo’s research and test engine, the Atlas II will evaluate the performance of the fuels in large multi-cylinder engine designs from 150-200mm bore and will represent engines between 0.5-5MW in a single power cylinder. Using this test engine will also result in a 90% decrease of test fuel consumed in a typical research project.   The Atlas II will undergo back-to-back testing with various loads using Plaxx, diesel and HFO for comparison. Combustion characterisation will be trialled based on the measured in-cylinder pressure, power,

specific fuel oil consumption and exhaust emissions. This will help to fully understand the behaviour of Plaxx in this type of engine and enable the further refinement of engine and fuel settings for maximum efficiency and low emissions.   Adrian Griffiths, CEO Recycling Technologies commented: “ Working together with Ricardo on this project, we are now taking steps to get Plaxx qualified so that it is fit for use in medium and large marine engines. Plaxx is an ultra-low sulphur feedstock and can be adapted for use in any markets where crude oil derivatives are used. Through this pilot project, we hope to qualify Plaxx as meeting the new global MARPOL requirements.”   The companies say that the generation of this fuel from plastic will help to reduce the amount of waste that goes to landfill as the plastic waste used for Plaxx is the un-recyclable plastic that would end up in the ground. ∎


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Ship Efficiency Review Electronics & Software




A group of scientists have studied ballast water exchange using a remote monitoring system that used sensors to measure turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature. The research proved that the system allowed for independent verification of information provided by the crew in the ballast water reporting form. The data collected was tagged with the geographical

position (GPS), date and time at which the ship operates its ballast system and is remotely transferred via satellite transmission to an Internet server. As an additional advantage, the information collected can be automatically transmitted to the port authorities, improving the reliability of this information and reducing, or even removing, the possibility of data tampering. ∎



Eco Marine Power (EMP) has updated the Aquarius Management & Automation System (MAS), installed on the solar power system-equipped Blue Star Delos high-speed RoRo/passenger ship, with new fuel oil consumption (FOC) and emissions monitoring software.   This updated software combined with the Aquarius MAS hardware allows for fuel consumption data from all flow meters on the ship to be displayed and logged in real-time. Data is logged every minute and via a connection to a dedicated GPS unit, the ships location and speed is displayed and logged. A trip-meter is also available so that fuel consumption can be monitored for a specific time period or voyage.   The fuel and emissions monitoring software was codeveloped with KEI System Ltd., of Osaka, Japan. ∎

DNV GL has signed a new partnership agreement with M.A.C Solutions for its ECO Insight ship efficiency tool, a partnership that will see information from M.A.C’s data collection system be incorporated into the ship performance software.   The data collection system from M.A.C, SDBnet, is a web-based soft and hardware platform that was designed to exchange data between non-stationary vessels and a centralised stationary data base at shore.   Data points are manually reported by the vessel crew and optionally collected by on-board sensors. The information is then transmitted to shore where it can be processed by the office system and displayed for further analytics, such as fuel consumption. ∎

DEAL INKED FOR SMART SHIP ECOSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to create an ecosystem for smart ships with SK Shipping, Intel, Microsoft, the Ulsan Center for Creative Economy & Innovation and the Daejeon Center for Creative Economy & Innovation.   The MoU will enable HHI and its partners to help small and medium-sized ICT companies to develop ‘17 Ship

Service Software’ to help ship owners carry out safe operations and improved crew wellbeing.   The Ship Service Software aims to enable ballast tank inspections, remote medical treatment services for crews, virtual reality training, automatic voyage information reporting and maintenance for key equipment. It is expected to be applied to ships by 2019. ∎

Ship Efficiency Review Electronics & Software



By Daniel Kane Vice President - Propulsion Dynamics

Being able to draw the right conclusions from Big Data is, and always will be, a fine art that requires expertise in hydrodynamics, practical ship operations experience skill, and the right analysis tools. In most applications, data mining itself in Big Data will not necessarily bring any conclusions that can help drive ship efficiency in the right direction. On the contrary there are numerous examples of just the opposite. For example, a common approach is to “window dress” data, so that a particular other guidance measures that are trend or point can be made. And while it is true that data shows a particular behaviour crucial for making the right decisions in the “window”, it will typically be wrong to extrapolate outside of the “window” and and implementing fact based strategies, draw any conclusions from the extrapolation. without having to number-crunch the “Big   Another mistaken approach is to somehow do “cherry picking” in the Big Data Data” themselves, or draw resources sets when you are selecting or filtering data. Just as with “window dressing” you are from technical and IT staff. likely to draw conclusions based on what you hope to see.   Big Data is most welcome in the   These are just obvious examples of errors that can be made without deep area of ship performance analysis. In hydrodynamic analysis. There are very many other examples where it is not so obvious to connection with deep hydrodynamic exactly pinpoint what the error is that is causing a faulty conclusion based on data mining analysis it becomes easy to: determine Big Data storages. Having said that, there are great opportunities and gains to be had of performance losses are attributed from Big Data and there is very little doubt that both existing and new applications based to hull OR propeller, estimate daily on Big Data will help companies to better analysis and to take the right decisions. FOC savings attributed to hull cleaning,   In shipping there are lots of applications which are good candidates to be improved propeller cleaning, full-blasting of hull, and explored by using Big Data. One of the more obvious applications is ship compare hull coating systems. In performance analysis where tools and services, such as the CASPER® Service, addition, Future Fuel Budgeting (what thrive on having access to Big Data from ships. will the daily FOC be in 3 months or 6   The analysis methods in the CASPER® Service are based on physical and months or 1 year, assuming consistent mathematical model of the ships propulsion system. These methods are in turn voyage patterns, transparency and augmented by statistically based tools and checks (such as adaptive parameter benchmarking between owner and estimations). All of these methods are well suited for exploiting the benefits of Big charterer on all matters related to FOC. Data. The use of statistical tools and checks are especially widely enhanced when   While Big Data isn’t in itself going Big Data is applied. All this generally will lead to more accurate results and make to bring a revolution, it will definitely the CASPER® Service, and other ship performance analysis tools, even better set the bar a couple of notches higher for analysing ships’ performance and in turn help shipowners, shipmanagers and for performance excellence and what charterers make better decisions in regards to maintenance strategies and actions. it achievable when coupled with   For the CASPER® Service specifically, it inherently builds on physical laws and hydrodynamic analysis. ∎ models and relatively easy to implement reality checks on the raw ship performance data without use of too much pre-filtering. This helps the CASPER® Service to avoid scenarios with e.g. “window dressing” and “cherry picking”. Also, faulty draft readings and other The CASPER® Service provides technical managers commonly occurring issues (faulty correlations between Speed, Power with the information they need to sustain highest and RPM as a result of sensor propulsion efficiency in a changing technology errors) in raw performance data are environment for drydock treatment, planned easily and often also timely identified maintenance and performance monitoring systems. and dealt with.   Service-based tools like the CASPER® Service ensures that everyone in the organisation ® always has easy access to readily available performance KPI’s and • Performance modeling

Beyond monitoring: ship performance analysis

The CASPER Service

Ship-type benchmarking • Tailored recommendations ©2016 Propulsion Dynamics, Inc. All rights reserved.


Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design

OPTIMISING SHIP ENGINES WITH VIRTUAL SENSORS Two young entrepreneurs are developing virtual testbeds designed to optimise the performance of marine diesel engines in the hope of selling their product to global shipping companies. During the course of an eight-year research period, two mechanical engineers; Christophe Barro and Panagiotis Kyrtatos, developed combustion and emission models that can be used as virtual sensors in a physical engine.   Their plan is to use these sensors in a commercial environment to simulate the performance of large ship engines. These models are then used for continuous re-tuning of the engines for specific emission limits and minimisation of fuel consumption independently from current environmental and operating conditions.   This becomes increasingly important when taking into account different fuel qualities, which can change the engine combustion behaviour and emissions significantly.   Depending on the price of fuel and transport volumes, ships can change their nominal speed in order to save fuel and reduce emissions. In some cases, ship owners swap out individual components to make the engine run more efficiently at lower speeds. This task is generally performed mostly on the basis of empirical values. “Tuning an engine can be a little hit and miss; it can require significant time which cannot be used to transport goods and can result in high fuel and other operating costs – a model-based approach produces a far more efficient result”, said Barro.   With the help of their virtual testbed, Barro and Kyrtatos are able to calculate in advance on the computer how a motor will run with certain settings and which of its components need to be modified – and how – in order to achieve the necessary savings.   The researchers use virtual sensors to “measure” the engine’s emissions, among other things. These sensors have a big advantage over their physical counterparts: they can be placed anywhere in the engine. Physical sensors, on the other hand, can only be placed in a limited number of positions.   “If you want to monitor the engine of a giant cargo ship, for example, you can’t simply stick a sensor in the exhaust pipe in order to measure emissions”, Barro stated.   The physical environment in the exhaust system of a marine engine is very harsh, and physical sensors have to be replaced sometimes after less than 100 hours of operation. The average deep-sea vessel travels around 8,000 hours a year, however. On top of that, the sensors have to be recalibrated after a short period,

The founders of Vir2sense: Panagiotis Kyrtatos (l.) and Christophe Barro (r.). (Photograph: ETH Zurich / Peter Rüegg)

which is time-consuming and expensive. The virtual test environment and its sensors therefore not only save shipping companies the task of continuously recalibrating sensors, but also having to repeatedly replace them. This saves them a lot of money, because the simulation also produces a real drop in fuel consumption.   “Even a saving in the low single-digit percentage range can make a big difference in the shipping business”, Barro emphasised.   This leaves the young entrepreneurs fairly confident that the estimated price of their product will not put off potential customers: They believe that one of their simulation units will cost between 20,000 and 30,000 Swiss francs (approx. USD 20,500 - 30,500) per ship. It could be a good investment for a ship owner or operator as the engineering duo say that the amount is recouped in savings within a year.   Barro and Kyrtatos are currently still working as senior assistants and lecturers at the Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory (LAV) under Professor Konstantinos Boulouchos.   In the future they plan to still collaborate closely with the group for the development of new products directed towards the automotive, heavy duty and marine markets.   Vir2sense is one of the newest members of the ETH family of spin-offs. Barro studied mechanical engineering at ETH, then went on to become a doctoral student and postdoc. He is now a senior assistant at the LAV, where he is head of a research group. Kyrtatos also completed his doctorate at ETH Zurich and currently leads a research group in the same laboratory. The company was legally founded in March 2016, making it one of the most recent recipients of the official label “ETH Spin-off”. ∎

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Ship Efficiency Review Electronics & Software

THE NORWEGIAN TREND SETTERS Seldom has a sight seeing vessel turned so many heads in commercial shipping as the carbon fibre Vision of the Fjords. For shipping worldwide, however, it may be the ship’s bridge technology that proves its most significant feature. Known as ‘Seasight’ through her development phase at shipyard Brødene aa, the eye-catching Vision of the Fjords began carrying tourists between Flåm and Gudvangen along Norway’s western coast in June, taking in the UNESCOprotected Nærøyfjord. Those on board are free to roam over the distinctive zigzagging exterior in pursuit of the ultimate view - a design aiming to emulate a mountainside trail.   The feature bringing the ferry to wider attention has been its propulsion, whose hybrid DC distribution and storage solution allows Vision of the Fjords to switch to silent, two emission-free 287 kWh batteries when entering conservation areas. However, the high profile pleasure cruiser is notable for a less feted

Vision of the Fjords

technical solution preferred onboard, whose impact may be more immediate in an increasingly tech-savvy commercial shipping market.   Vision of the Fjords provides a further reference for Simrad-branded bridge equipment, in a segment of the shipping market whose new business oxygen is in short supply, but where the equipment’s supplier is a fast rising force. All of the new ferry’s main bridge equipment items - from the radar to the electronic chart display information system (ECDIS), autopilot, compact gyro compass, and DGPS - are Simrad-branded solutions.   “This is a major reference for Simrad safety, navigation and control technology”, says Leif Ottosson, CEO, Navico. “The Norwegian ferry market is rightly known as a trend setter in ship technology, but it is also fiercely competitive. Securing this contract puts Simrad bridge products at the heart of innovation in the commercial maritime industry.”   In fact, Vision of the Fjords provides an early showcase for the Simrad PLECDIS E5024 system, launched last year as the latest IMO type-approved Simrad navigation system for use aboard SOLAS vessels, and distinguished by simple installation and intuitive user interface. Also onboard are two Argus 12U radars for high speed craft. Working off one 9ft and one 6ft antennas, Simrad’s X-band technology can merge two antenna images (including full ARPA and AIS) in one display.   The Simrad PLECDIS E5024 itself is a dual ECDIS station solution, featuring a wireless trackball controller, 24-inch Full-HD 16:9 widescreens with on-screen keyboards, and simplified drag-and-drop waypoint manipulation for route planning.

In addition to the main displays, the Vision of the Fjords bridge console also includes the Simrad GC85 Compact gyro system, which is fully approved for High Speed Craft - trailed as the most flexible Gyrocompass on the market in installation, configuration and cost terms.   Also onboard is the Simrad AP80 autopilot system, which features adaptive software that offers users the opportunity to select either auto or navigation modes, with settings to enable slow speed and manoeuvring quickly. The newly-designed Simrad MX612 navigation system onboard has been designed to match the AP80 autopilot, and its 5” LCD bonded screen is distinguished by a clearer and fogproof display with wide viewing angles.   Last, but not least, is the Simrad EP70 Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB), whose highintensity LED at to the top of the antenna ensures optimal visibility.   The Fjords chief executive Rolf Sandvik has already given notice that the partnership behind Vision on the Fjords intends to build more vessels of similar specification. The anticipated newbuilds will all feature “the latest technology”, according to Sandvik.   Whether that means more orders for Simrad-branded remains to be seen, but The Fjords is by no means exceptional in its class of vessels for having specified Simrad products. In May, the supplier hosted a media event in Stavanger, showcasing Helgøy Glimt, a carbon fibre fast ferry which also undertakes passenger services in the Norwegian fjords. The vessel has been fitted with Simrad ECDIS, Simrad Argus X Band, Argus S

Ship Efficiency Review Electronics & Software

Band radars, and also the Simrad HALO™ radar– the world’s first high-performance solid-state, open-array radar system with pulse compression technology.   Helgøy Skyssbat owner Kristen Helgøy was on hand to praise the sharp radar definition when moving past a series of small islands, even in poor weather. He also complimented the Simrad dual ECDIS E5024 for both ease of use and online training availability.   At 21m in length, it is worth noting that Helgøy Glimt is not obliged to carry SOLAS-compliant navigational equipment like this. However, all navigators are trained on ECDIS in Norway. Mr Helgøy told journalists that seafarers onboard expected to operate highest quality equipment as a matter of course, in order not to jeopardise future employment.   Helgøy Glimt’s V5024 AIS A, two MXGN70 GPS CDU, HS80 GPS compass, AP80 autopilot with quick stick, EPIRB EP70 and SART SA70 are also Simrad products.   Then, in June, Australian operator Manly Fast Ferries installed Simrad bridge equipment and broadband radar on four new catamarans for Sydney Harbour operations. The shipowner ordered an NSO Evo2 quad-core marine processor, a 4G broadband radar, an Autopilot AP28, and Simrad MO16T widescreen monitors.   Manly Fast Ferries managing director Will Ford said: “The broadband radar in particular has made a huge difference. The low-emissions view, target definition and separation is extremely helpful in close-quarters manoeuvring.”   Even before a recent injection of investment from Goldman Sachs, spokesmen for the Navico Commercial Marine division through which Simrad-branded products are offered had forecast consolidation in the commercial marine


Helgøy Glimt

electronics sector for the years ahead.   One of the distinguishing features of the company, in both the commercial and leisure sectors, is that it manufactures its own products. It also continues to bring new product to the commercial maritime market, most recently with the introduction of a new IMO-approved integrated radar system for use on Category 3 SOLAS vessels, workboats, tugs and coastal fishing boats. The new product aims at a space ‘in between’ the Simrad Argus IMO radar and the radar the company supplies for recreational vessels. It makes use of the multifunction display developed for the cutting edge Halo radar, launched in 2015, and the Argus scanner.   As the distinctive Vision of the Fjords continues to turn heads cruising up and down the Norwegian coast in perhaps the highest specification maritime market in the world, ambitions for Simrad-branded products will surely be done no harm at all. ∎



Between 2015 and 2016 Pinfabb carried out a smart stabiliser project on a Tallink AS ferry, M/V Isabelle, renewing the existing controls and optimising the stabilisation performance. Pinfabb has released sea trial results from the system’s performance on the ferry that prove the system can reduce 50% of stabiliser drag, improving the cruise speed of 0.25 knots without changing the engine load.   The sea trials were performed in navigation between Sweden and Latvia.   Tallink confirmed that the Pinfabb system enabled the crew to keep a good level of comfort and safety onboard without the necessity to improve the engines load and the relative fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.   For the upgrade, Pinfabb supplied new compatible hydraulic parts to bring the stabiliser plant ‘back to life’. In the wheelhouse Pinfabb installed a new, intuitive

touchscreen panel to replace the old analogic panel. This system provides analytical data about the stabilisation and also offers suggestions in order to obtain the optimal use of fins.   The engine control room’s main analogue panel unit was also replaced with a less bulky, Modern Touch-Display. New Digital Automation (FDA) was also installed instead of the obsolete local units and all connections from the local unit to the bridge now use a single Ethernet cable. START & STOP digital buttons were also added for a simple operation by the crew, when needed.   Pinfabb say that if the system is operated in ECO mode it can reduce fins drag and fuel consumption by up to 60%. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion


BULLETIN AZIPOD PROPULSION TECH BOOSTED BY SKF TECHNOLOGY The ABB azipod propulsion units will feature SKF’s custom made thrust bearing arrangements, incorporating housing and seals, and high performance self-aligning CARB toroidal roller bearings for the propeller shafts.   ABB’s Azipod propulsion units are currently being installed on LNG ice-breaking tankers of 170,000m3 for the purpose of the Yamal project that is designed to open up gas from the Yamal peninsula and transport it to Asia and Europe. ABB Marine has also worked with SKF to further develop the Azipod units for ten LNG carriers to operate in this peninsula.

MAN DIESEL & TURBO ME-GI ENGINE TO POWER WORLD’S LARGEST LNGFUELLED BULKER Ilshin Shipping’s newbuild 50,000 DWT bulk carrier will be powered by a MAN B&W 6G50ME-C9.5-GI dual-fuel engine.   The ME-GI engine is a dual-fuel low speed diesel engine that allows ship owners to use either heavy fuel oil (HFO) or natural gas to meet emissions reductions requirements for carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The engine also has a negligible, unburnt gas slip, which means that it does not contribute to the greenhouse effects of such slips. In addition, the diesel combustion principle leaves no formaldehyde emissions.   The ship is to be built by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard Co., Ltd (HMD) and chartered by POSCO to transport limestone, while the engine will be built by Hyundai Heavy Industries – Engine & Machinery Division (HHIEMD). ∎

SKF is also providing other technologies for the icebreaking tankers, including the Turbulo Bilge water separators and SKF BlueMon, an environmental monitoring system for recording and mapping ship emissions. ∎


Schottel has optimised its rudder propellers with a coating process to enhance corrosion protection and greater resistance to abrasion.   The components of the propulsion units that are underwater are coated with layers of two-component epoxy resin that gives over twice the abrasion resistance and 60% greater adhesion than conventional coatings. For the above water sections, Schottel has used a dense and durable two-component polyurethane coating.   The coatings also inhibit the adhesion of marine organisms to enhance durability and efficiency. If required, the coatings can be self-polished and an antifouling final coat applied, says Schottel.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion



TURBOCHARGER TECHNOLOGY By Fiona Macdonald, Assistant Editor

The ideology of ships having lesser environmental impact but their machinery and propulsion systems still delivering maximum power output, low fuel consumption and high energy conservation is fuelling the uptake of turbocharger technology in the marine industry. This technology has a rich history. In 1905, Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the man considered the inventor of exhaust gas turbocharging was granted a patent to undertake initial turbocharging experiments, and 50 years later the principle was finally applied to large marine two-stroke engines. Overall efficiencies are now able to reach over 70% by allowing some exhaust gas to be diverted to a power recovery turbine, supplementing the main engine’s efforts .   But how do they achieve such efficiencies? Turbocharger technology forces extra air into the combustion chamber and this increases the power output, they ‘supercharge’ the engine. This makes ships more energy efficient without adding to the engine weight. The technology can also contribute to ships producing fewer emissions and can maintain performance of the vessel.

Emissions Reduction Potential

The emission reduction capability of turbochargers is dependent upon their high compression ratio capacity and compatibility with the engine. Hence, higher turbocharger pressure ratios are being demanded than ever before in order to achieve the reduction of emissions including nitrogen oxides (NOx) that are increasingly regulated internationally by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and also on a regional basis.   Using the Miller Cycle (where the inlet valve opening time is altered during the compression stroke of a four-stroke engine) is not a new method to achieving NOx reduction in combination with a turbocharger (it was discovered in the 1940s by Ralph Miller). However, the realisation that using it in conjunction with a high compression ratio turbocharger, which helps compensate for the short inlet valve opening by forcing a greater amount of air into the cylinder, and matching the turbocharger with the engine as flawlessly as possible, has led to the demand on high turbocharger pressure ratios to facilitate maximum compatibility with such methods and hence maximum emissions reduction.   Such high-end turbocharging techniques offer dramatic improvements to engine performance, particularly by enabling suitable Miller valve timing, low fuel consumption and limited NOx emissions.   Furthermore, the ability today to seamlessly integrate turbochargers with other emissions reducing technology such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), is now possible of achieving NOx reduction by 50-60% .

Adapting for Slow Speeds

In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements, ship owners are turning to slow steaming – operating at reduced loads and speeds. By reducing speed

by 20%, the engine power can be reduced to 45% of its minimum output, lowering fuel burnt per hour by around 60%. However, for turbocharger technology this means operating outside the range they were designed for, which can lead to a reduction in scavenge air pressure, improper combustion and turbocharger fouling.   In order to combat this, turbochargers have advanced to increase stability at low speed by using turbocharger cut-out where at least two turbochargers are present, enabling the turbocharger to match the engine’s new operating conditions.   According to MAN PrimeServ , the ship operator then has the option of disabling one of the turbochargers for lowload operation, improving the performance of the remaining turbocharger and reducing specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC).   In addition to this being a popular method when slow steaming, it has also been used to successfully reduce NOx emissions.

Matching Turbochargers to Engines

A recent development in matching turbochargers with engines is the low-port design concept developed in 1997. It was discovered that less exhaust gas energy could be used to deliver the required scavenge air mass flow and therefore the height of the scavenge air ports could be reduced, thereby lengthening the working expansion stroke in the turbocharger which in turn leads to decreased SFOC.   This was developed without needing to raise the component temperatures while maintaining sufficient exhaust gas temperature, thereby allowing adequate waste heat recovery compared with previous turbochargers.   Altering turbocharger geometry to improve partload performance has also seen a breakthrough in the turbocharger sector as previously it was not practical for engines burning HFO fuel as it led to fouling on the adjustable guide vanes by unburned fuel components and cylinder lubricating oil. However, rapid advancements in lubrication leading to reduced cylinder oil feed rates has permitted geometry modifications and hence increased turbocharger efficiency at low loads.

Future Trends

Although there have been considerable advances in turbocharger development, finding the right turbocharger size for each individual case can be still be tricky. With the expansion of the Panama Canal, mammoth ships are on the rise and the demand for compatible turbochargers is mounting.   Manufacturers are fast developing new systems, using multiple connected turbochargers of different sizes in order to work at different engine speeds and overall reach the desired balance between power, fuel consumption, and emissions on an accelerating variety of ship sizes and designs. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion

WHY THE MOST ADVANCED VESSELS IN THE WORLD ARE USING ELECTRIC PROPULSION Reflecting on 25 years of development for Azipod propulsion, ABB Marine and Ports new Managing Director, Juha Koskela, says the time is ripe for shipping as a whole to reap clear cut benefits. A Korean shipyard worker stands under the gigantic hull of the most powerful LNG carrier ever constructed. Above his head are three Azipod propulsion units capable of delivering 45 MW’s of power, propelling the vessel through 2.5 meters of Siberian ice. In Italy, in the historic town of Livorno, the finishing touches are being put to a superyacht likely to spend much of its time flitting between the exclusive ports of the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. To meet the owner’s need for comfort, peace and quiet, Azipod propulsion was the only option.

These recent, but very different, orders for Azipod units highlight the extraordinary twenty-five year journey of ABB’s flagship propulsion technology. It has become the driving force behind an industry-wide growth in electric propulsion covering many of the most sophisticated vessels in the world.   “We point to Clarkson Research findings that the fleet of vessels using electrical propulsion has grown at three times the rate of the fleet overall during the last decade. Azipod propulsion has a growing constituency,” says Juha Koskela, the new Managing Director of ABB’s marine and ports business.   The growing popularity of the Azipod propulsion has been a constant during Koskela’s own rise through the ranks of ABB. Before taking up his new role at the turn of the year, he was Business Unit Manager of ABB Marine Finland and Senior Vice President of ABB’s Passenger vessel and Propulsion Products businesses.   “We have 400 Azipod units at sea and can document 12 million hours in service with a remarkable availability of 99.8%,” says Koskela. He believes

there are clear signs that shipping is changing in a way that favours its wider adoption.   Koskela recently oversaw an upgrade to the Helsinki production facility for larger Azipod propulsors (6MW and above), where a second production unit was installed to ease production bottlenecks. ABB constructs compact Azipod thruster units at a purpose-built facility outside Shanghai.   Mega crane vessels and the biggest cruise ships on the seas are a long way from the first, more humble vessel, which was fitted with Azipod propulsion a quarter of a century ago.   Owned by the Finnish Board of Navigation, Seili became the first vessel fitted with an Azipod unit. It heralded a new era of azimuthing propulsion. Within five years of the 1.5MW Azipod propulsion unit installation on Seili, far larger units were being installed; the technology’s ice-breaking performance also opened the minds of shipowners operating in particularly harsh conditions. The Finnish oil tankers Uikku and Lunni became the initial standard bearers for Azipod propulsion in 1993-1994, featuring 11.4 MW units.   The development of ‘pull’ Azipod thrusters, with the propeller mounted in front of the ‘pod’ instead of ‘pushing’ from the rear, brought further efficiency gains and the breakthrough as a mainstream solution for cruise operators.   Koskela’s direct involvement dates to his earliest days at ABB, and the first cruise project involving Azipod propulsion. Working for ABB Drives as a Commissioning Engineer, he was responsible for programming software and the control part of

Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion

frequency convertor work onboard Carnival Elation, delivered in 1998.   The subsequent rise of the Azipod propulsion as the leading cruise ship propulsion solution is also a matter for the history books. References include the majority of the main cruise ships built since 2000, with the giant cruise ships of today featuring Azipod propulsion units of more than 20MW.   In the time since these initial installations, continuous improvements have been made to the Azipod propulsion solution. Today, Koskela is focusing on cultivating the widest possible uptake.   “Combining propulsion and steering using an externally mounted pod was radical.” says Juha Koskela. In the early 2000s, ABB reaped the hydrodynamic benefits of installing a fin under the unit, refined strut designs, then introduced the contra-rotating Azipod propulsion system. Then came the Compact Azipod thruster, which introduced permanent magnet synchronous motors and further efficiency gains of 2- 10 %. Azipod propulsion units subsequently made inroads in the offshore market.   A three-year redesign program followed 2005-2008, resulting in the arrival of a new generation of Azipod propulsion units, including the Azipod XO, in 2008. The propeller hub and motor module diameters were reduced and the unit’s hull optimized with the help of CFD and model testing. Overall, the Azipod XO improved by 9% when compared to the Elation results.   First orders came in 2010, with the cruise sector again proving fertile ground. Then, last year, along came the smaller Azipod D, adopting the best technical features from existing Azipod thrusters but including a new air and water cooling system to reduce weight and direct more power toward propulsion. The solution offers higher propulsion efficiency, both at higher speeds and during dynamic positioning, where varying power is especially prized.   “Once more, we also made gains in reducing lifecycle and maintenance costs,” “In addition, we focused on lowering upfront investment costs.” says Koskela.


Even when oil prices are so low, Azipod D’s 25% less installed power requirement than propulsors of equivalent performance made the unit very competitive in power ranges between 1.6-7 MW per unit. Azipod D took 20-30% out of the cost.   In the 25th year since first installation, there is clear evidence that continuous innovation continues to pay off. For example, Azipod propulsion units are being installed on the world’s most advanced port icebreaker, to be built by Vyborg shipyard, and will feature on the Carnival project to build the world’s first LNG-powered cruise ships. Latest orders for Azipod propulsion units include the world’s largest capacity cruise ships (6,600 passengers), one of the largest mega crane vessels in Asia, and a 105-meter luxury superyacht.   Perhaps more significantly, in January 2016 the first ice-class LNG carrier for Yamal LNG was launched by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME). The vessel will feature three ice-class Azipod propulsion units and is the first of 15 specially-designed 170,000m3 vessels that will be the most powerful icebreaking LNG carriers in the world. The Yamal project is also the largest single contract ever placed by value for Azipod propulsion technology.   Koskela adds that the way shipping contracts are set up is changing in a way that makes the fuel saving Azipod propulsion confers more compelling. In general the charterer pays the fuel bill rather than the operator, so part of the market has not seen the efficiency imperative. However, this has come under more scrutiny, with charters including clauses on fuel consumption. The fall in oil prices may mean that the significance of these arrangements is not so obvious, but the point is that the precedent has been set.   ABB are always studying new improvements and before the year is out, they hope to have another surprise for the market that will bring a 5-7% performance improvement in Azipod propulsion.   Koskela says he has been consistently reminded over the past 25 years that continuous development has made Azipod propulsion a technology which, in terms of efficiency gains, keeps on giving. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion



Choosing cylinder oil lubricants for ships is becoming increasingly complex. Selecting a cylinder oil that is compatible with changing marine fuels, the use of emission reducing technologies and evolving engine designs can be a difficult process to navigate. Future proofing ships for operating demands and regulatory requirements in the future that drive down the sulphur content in fuels is difficult. When it comes to lubricants, considerations for future operating profiles, fuel selection and requirements for a ship and its engine machinery are vital. The selection of a less than suitable lubricant can be seriously detrimental to the proper functioning of a ship’s engine, not to mention costly if damages are incurred.   Regulatory demands that govern shipping emissions have namely accelerated the use of lowsulphur bunker fuels and the adoption of larger stroke-to-bore ratio engines. Strategies such as slow steaming have been welcomed by the industry, not just as a reaction to historically high fuel prices encountered but also as a means to reduce emissions for regulatory compliance.   Changes in bunker fuel use and engine operating conditions greatly impact the functionality of the cylinder oil lubricant.   Recognising and opting for cylinder oils that are designed to be compatible with and possess the ability to operate seamlessly with specific engines types, operating conditions and fuel types is paramount to avoiding machinery damage and longterm operational complexities.   The regulation of sulphur oxides (SOx) emission from ships has resulted in legislation that demands a reduction of fuel sulphur content in marine bunker fuel and also the uptake of SOx reducing technology.   Ships sailing in SOx Emission Control Areas (ECAs) or ships that come under the jurisdiction of the global sulphur cap, both of which are governed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), must use bunker fuel that meets sulphur content requirements or install exhaust gas cleaning technology.   When considering cylinder oil lubrication suitability for ships using low sulphur fuels, matching the lubricant’s base number (BN) (which represents the quantity of acid required to neutralise the alkalinity of the fuel) to the sulphur content of the fuel to

avoid engine wear and cylinder liner corrosion is paramount.   When using a low sulphur fuel, a low BN lubricant should be selected. If a high BN lubricant is used, loss of oil control and the oil lubricant between the piston rings and liner can result causing metal to metal contact and adhesive wear.   Fuel switching is a practice that is becoming increasingly common for ships sailing in and out of ECAs. Managing cylinder oil lubrication during the process of fuel switching requires much consideration as it requires the use of different cylinder oil lubricants that are matched to the different fuels being used.   Also, the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as bunker fuel is becoming an increasingly popular option that ensures regulatory compliance but also brings cylinder oil lubrication challenges of its own. This fuel does not contain sulphur and the choice of lubricant is very much dependent on the percentage of gas that is burned in the engine.   The impact of regulatory requirements that drive the reduction of sulphur content in fuel may be influencing the optimal selection of cylinder oil lubricants right now, but the complexity of choosing an all-encompassing, future proofing cylinder oil is set to continue. Future ECA designations, such as the 0.5% global sulphur cap and the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the Bohai Bay waters and the implementation of the lowered fuel sulphur content restrictions under the global sulphur cap in 2020 or 2025 will demand that more ships change their preferred fuel type or engines forcing them to review their choice of cylinder oil lubricant.   However, ship operators must not fear the regulatory landscape ahead when choosing their cylinder oil lubricants, lubricant manufacturers are always at hand to advise on the selection of suitable cylinder oils to ensure the process of future proofing ships for prime ship performance under changing conditions or requirements.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Power & Propulsion


IMPROVING PROPULSION SHAFT MONITORING An area of concern for all owners and operators is the impact of shaft bearing issues on vessel operations. If the bearing becomes unloaded during operation, the shaft line can whirl or cause overloading on neighboring shaft or engine bearings. An overloaded or misaligned bearing can become damaged or destroyed, necessitating the immobilisation of the vessel. Currently, only indirect methods of measuring for potential shaft bearing concerns exists. To help the proactive identification of potential shaft bearing issues, ABS developed a solution that uses nondestructive testing sensors installed on the bearing pedestal and housing to measure and self-display the force exerted by the main propulsion shafting system on the bearings.   The ABS Smart Bearing system effectively converts the bearing housing into a permanently installed weighing machine.This approach allows the bearing reaction load to be measured in both static and dynamic conditions and measures shaft misalignment angles inside the bearing, providing a more accurate measurement under real-time conditions.   The monitoring technology provides the earliest possible indication of a potential shaft misalignment, such as an overloaded or under loaded bearing or an excessive misalignment angle of the shaft inside the bearing. Sensor data delivery is immediate; therefore, the technology has the potential to deliver considerable benefits in shaft integrity monitoring by eliminating the need for shaft re-alignment checks.   In order to validate this approach, ABS is conducting a joint research project with Capital Ship Management, the NationalTechnical University of Athens (NTUA), and Metrisis Ltd.   The project began with ABS and NTUA conducting tests in the school’s Earthquake Engineering Laboratory. Using a high power hydraulic piston and load cell, appropriate force was exerted through a specially designed frame structure onto the shaft to simulate the force exerted onto an intermediate bearing. A 3D nonlinear finite element model was used

as a mathematical guide to determine the optimum positions for strain gauge array installation. Results from numerous tests showed significant potential for application.   The project team then installed the system on the Capital managed vessel M/T Agisilaos, a 36,700 DWT, Ice Class 1A IMO II/III Chemical/ProductTanker.   Early results from this testing has shown that proactive monitoring could help prevent full shaft and bearing failures, which have the potential to lead to catastrophic safety consequences. A more accurate and less invasive form of measurement can help reduce vessel downtime by eliminating the need for more invasive approaches and allowing for proactive maintenance to address concerns before they become larger problems.∎


Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design


BULLETIN WORLD’S FIRST LNG-POWERED ICEBREAKER DESIGN UNVEILED The design and technical aspects of the world’s first liquefied natural gas (LNG)-powered icebreaker have been revealed.   The IB Polaris icebreaker vessel has been hailed as the most environmentally friendly diesel-electric icebreaker to be built to-date. Using both low-sulphur fuel and LNG, powered

CLASSNK UPDATES PRIMESHIP-HULL (HCSR) SOFTWARE ClassNK has released the latest version of its design support software PrimeShip-HULL (HCSR) – Ver.3.5.0.   The Japanese classification society provides the tool to the industry completely free of charge, in order to make it easy for designers to carry out rule calculations in line with the CSR BC & OT and optimise their designs.   The prescriptive calculation software has reduced the time needed for calculations and improved user interface performance. Moreover, its initial design function, which is a function for quick sectional evaluation, is now capable of being used for structural arrangements in the fore and aft part of the ship, including the engine room, in addition to the cargo hold region of the ship.

An evaluation function for bottom slamming has been added to the direct strength assessment software. The new function uses FE model for hold analysis required by the rules and includes automatic creation functions for evaluation panels, slamming loads and reports. In addition, it features an upgraded manhole modelling function, batch edit for multiple opening information and registering function for screening evaluation points. ∎

by one 8-cylinder Wärtsilä 20DF, two 9-cylinder Wärtsilä 34DF, and two 12-cylinder Wärtsilä 34DF engines.   The special hull form and propulsion arrangement will also minimise ice resistance and maximise the icebreaking capacity of the vessel.   The icebreaker will enter into service next year. ∎


Independent naval architecture and marine engineering design consultancy, BMT Nigel Gee (BMT), has announced a new project to design two 70m aluminium-hull catamaran RoPax ferries for Rederij Doeksen.   BMT will be responsible for concept through to production design.   Both vessels, which will be built by Triyard Holdings subsidiary, Strategic Marine in Vung Tau, Vietnam, will serve the Friesland Islands connecting Harlingen, Terschelling and Vlieland in the Netherlands and enter service in April 2018.   The exterior and interior styling is being performed by Vripack. The vessels are single fuel LNG, with both main engines and generators powered by the LNG supply. The vessels will offer significantly lower emissions than conventional steel and diesel powered vessels, with at least a 30% reduction in CO2 and 100% reduction in NOx/SOx.   They will be the first passenger vessels to have the new MTU 4000 series gas engine installed. Bow thrusters will be run from stored power and recharged from shore power. At 70m long with a 17m beam, the vessels will also have a very low operating draft of 2.5m to facilitate operating in the Wadensee, an area of particularly shallow water. Greater manoeuvrability will be facilitated with the use of Azimuthing thrusters.   With the capacity to accommodate over 60 cars and 600 passengers, the vessels will be designed to interface with existing port facilities and boast wind generators and solar panels to reinforce its environmentally friendly credentials. ∎

Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design


THE (VIRTUAL REALITY) FUTURE OF SHIP DESIGN KNUD E HANSEN has developed a new Virtual Reality (VR) tool to aid ship designers and engineers. ShipSpacetm is a next-generation Virtual Reality (VR) Design Verification Tool that allows designers, engineers and key stakeholders to validate design ideas and communicate effectively about vessel concepts and designs.   It uses VR technology to enable users to walk around all areas of the vessel and get a better understanding of how spaces work, with a true sense of depth and scale, not possible with monitors or projectors.   The product consists of computer hardware and software on the customer’s premises and in the cloud.   Finn Wollesen Petersen, Managing Director of KNUD E HANSEN said, “ShipSpacetm is a cutting edge tool that our engineers and partners can use to design better ships, faster. KNUD E HANSEN has been an innovator in ship design since 1937 and ShipSpacetm is another step forward for us.”  “ShipSpacetm has proven to be an excellent tool for communicating and developing designs and ideas, by enabling stakeholders to walk around the vessel while it is still on the drawing board,” said Robert J Spencer, KNUD E HANSEN’s Head of Simulation Products.∎

WÄRTSILÄ UNVEILS FUEL EFFICIENT TRAWLER DESIGN Wärtsilä Ship Design has unveiled a new optimised stern trawler design that will reduce fuel consumption and increase ship efficiency. The Wärtsilä VS 6215 ST trawler design has a unique aft ship layout. It features Wärtsilä’s hybrid battery technology which offers significant energy efficiency improvement over conventional systems by running the engine at optimal load and absorbing many of the load fluctuations using batteries.   In addition to the installed machinery and propulsion system, an important element of a ship’s performance is the hull design. To ensure high efficiency, low fuel consumption, and therefore reduced environmental impact, the hull’s interaction with the propeller is of significant importance.   This particular design incorporates an optimised hull and propulsion system in addition to Wärtsilä’s 2-speed gearbox to further reduce fuel consumption and emissions   The propulsion system is based upon the Wärtsilä 31 engine, which has been recognised by Guinness World Records as being the world’s most efficient 4-stroke diesel engine.   The length of the ship is 82.30 m, the breath is 16.80 m. The design speed is 16.0 knots.   Riku-Pekka Hägg, Vice President, Ship Design, Wärtsilä Marine Solutions commented: “Stern trawlers can be out fishing for up to 350 days a year and fuel consumption is, therefore, an extremely relevant consideration. Our new design features the very latest technologies, and has been developed to offer lower fuel costs and greater possibilities for profitable operations”.   Earlier this year Wärtsilä announced that they would be designing the world’s biggest and most modern krill fishing factory vessel. The vessel will operate in the pristine waters of the Antarctic, a World Heritage site, and the

Wärtsilä design was chosen as it provides an appropriately sustainable environmental solution.   The contract, which was signed in December 2015, has been placed by Shanghai based Hansail Marine & Offshore Design and will feature Wärtsilä’s VS 6206 FT design. The vessel is to be built for Jiangsu Sunline Deep Sea Fisheries Co, based in China.   Wärtsilä has for many years invested in developing expertise in the optimisation of hull lines, and is today using advanced computer aided tools to maximise the performance of each individual ship designed. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design

A PAPERLESS FUTURE FOR SHIP BUILDING? New cutting-edge solutions for data gathering and analysis are paving the way to more efficient ship operations, but a wealth of data created during shipbuilding is not being used because the methods of data collection and verification that could enhance business decision making remain lacking. The lack of infrastructure for conducting Big Data analytics in the shipbuilding phase is mainly due to the complexity of vessel construction, with many types and formats of data being provided from multiple entities and often stored in different filing systems.   To encourage design transparency throughout the life of vessels, the new SOLAS regulation II-1/3-10 entered into force in January 2012, requiring a Ship Construction File (SCF) complying with IMO Global Based Standards (GBS) is provided by the shipyard on a new ship’s delivery and kept on board and/or ashore.   The SCF provides the vessel design and construction information needed to ensure the safety of the ship throughout its operational life. According to the guidelines for the SCF, this information must be stored on board. Other information, including the high-level intellectual property (IP) drawings belonging to the shipyards such as the yard plan, lines plan and detailed structural calculations, is kept confidential and does not need to be carried on board.   IMO’s regulations are applicable to bulk carriers and oil tankers of 150m in length and above for which the building contract is placed on or after 1 July 2016. In the absence of a building contract, the regulations apply to keels laid on or after 1 July 2017, or delivery made on or after 1 July 2020. However, IMO’s standards are expected to be expanded to other ship types and areas of safety at a later time.   In response to these developments, ClassNK established the industry’s first onshore digital archive center that fully complies with IMO-GBS requirements and the Industry Standards developed by a cross-industry group including the Shipbuilders’ Association of Japan (SAJ), BIMCO, INTERTANKO and INTERCARGO.

Developed in collaboration with SAJ, in 2011 ClassNK partnered with IBM and utilised its innovative and secure cloudbased technology to develop a new tool for the storage and management of ships’ drawings and other electronic documents. Being certified according to the Information Security Management Systems (ISMS, ISO/IEC 27001:2013), the resulting Archive was completed and became available in July 2016, when the GBS started to apply.

“Considering the vast amount of data currently being generated in a shipbuilding environment, and given the growing need for a secure onshore Center to store highly confidential information, ClassNK responded with a neutral and independent platform that enables secured access to all ship drawings”,

says Mitsuhiko Kidogawa, Director of ClassNK’s Plan Approval Division.   The Archive simplifies the storage of important files by offering a paperless, user-friendly way to manage drawings. Rather than sifting through multiple files manually, information can be quickly and easily found using the Archive Center’s search function. In addition, the Archive enables effective communication between Continues Overleaf...

Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design

shipbuilders, shipowners and ship management companies by bringing them all under one umbrella and providing a central resource through which files can be exchanged.   To ensure confidentiality of intellectual property (IP), shipbuilders can set the desired IP security levels for each drawing. High IPlevel drawings such as the lines plan are only stored ashore in the Archive Center and, as a rule, the shipowner is required to ask the Archive Center for permission to access these files. The Archive Center then notifies the IPholder (shipbuilder and/or equipment manufacturer) of the request.   All other drawings are stored on SD cards with appropriate security (ICID card authentication etc.) and provided to the shipowner for onboard use. The shipowner can also access the onboard SCF via the internet 24/7, 365 days a year. Electronic access to all SCF documents stored onboard is logged by the operating system and recorded at the end of each session for secure storage, with the access log being encrypted and accessible only by the shipowner. IBM’s Intrusion Prevention System acts as a further barrier for unauthorised access to the cloud database.   “As the first platform of its kind in the maritime industry to meet the essential requirements of IMO’s GBS, ClassNK Archive Center is expected to be very attractive to owners of newbuilding bulk carriers and tankers”, says Kidogawa. “It will


“The Archive will offer owners a pragmatic way to comply with the new SOLAS regulation, whilst protecting their own property rights as well as providing easy access to information.” offer them a pragmatic way to comply with the new SOLAS regulation, whilst protecting their own property rights as well as providing easy access to information”, he added.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Ship Design


EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF SHIP WIDENING & LENGTHENING The drive to improve operational efficiency is promoting the practice of ship widening and lengthening. The widening of containerships can make older freighters competitive in an increasingly tough market. In July 2015, the world‘s first widened existing ship, the MSC Geneva, entered into service. A year later the Korean Register (KR) has announced that they had successfully completed a feasibility study for the conversion of an 8,600 TEU containership into a 10,000 TEU vessel.   KR offered the shipping company customer two scenarios for the study. One was a traditional method, to increase the size of the ship by lengthening, while the other used a more recent approach, whereby the ship’s breadth would be expanded, a process known as widening.   Using both of these methods, KR analysed the new ship’s potential speed, fuel efficiency, stability and strength, the cost and time needed for conversion, the size-expandability, the manoeuvrability and its anchoring.   Upon examining the speed analysis, both lengthening and widening options showed a post-conversion drop of 4%. However, the length extension conversion ship was one knot faster than its width expansion counterpart. For fuel efficiency, the length extension conversion consumed 5% less than the alternative vessel.   In terms of stability and strength, the widening conversion ship showed improved stability, with almost no need for additional reinforcement to enhance the ship’s strength. However, the lengthening scenario, the ship stability was unaltered but it needed much more reinforcement on its deck and bottom parts

to maintain its strength, because of the increased hull bending movement. The study indicated that the widening conversion would increase cargo carrying capacity by up to 30%, but in the lengthening scenario, capacity would only be increased by 15%.   One vital aspect that the study brought to light was the timeframe for the conversion processes being different. It would take twice as long to make the changes to the widening conversion, compared to the time it would take to convert the ship using the lengthening scenario. KR’s study also found that there would be no difference in the cost of conversion to either option, because the lengthening conversion requires more steel work.∎

GREEN FERRY TO DEBUT WÄRTSILÄ HYBRID PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY Wight Link’s new vessel will be the first equipped with Wärtsilä hybrid battery technology. The equipment to be delivered includes four 6-cylinder Wärtsilä 20 generating sets, electrical and automation (E&A) systems, and a sanitary discharge system. Within the E&A solutions there will be an integrated automation system (AIS), a power and energy management system (PMS/EMA), and a 690-volt main switchboard.   Wärtsilä will also supply technical and project management, and solution integration engineering services.   The ferry will be able to operate on conventional fuel and battery power to enable flexible operation while maintaining high efficiency, reduced exhaust gas emissions and low noise levels. The Wärtsilä hybrid management system onboard will facilitate significant improvements in energy efficiency compared with conventional systems as the engines can be run at optimal load and the load fluctuations can be

absorbed by using batteries.   Stephan Kuhn, Vice President, Electrical & Automation at Wärtsilä commented: “This new Wightlink ferry is designed to be energy efficient and environmentally sustainable using the latest Wärtsilä technologies. In particular, the use of Wärtsilä’s hybrid system represents a state-of-the-art solution for propulsion efficiency, which in turn has a beneficial effect on exhaust emissions.”   Wightlink has stated that this new ferry will act as the flagship for the four and half million passengers their ferries transport each year.   The ferry is being built at the Cemre shipyard in Turkey and is expected to enter into service in 2018, following the delivery of the Wärtsilä technologies in spring 2017. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions




The International Association of Ports and Harbors’ (IAPH) World Ports Climate Initiative (WPCI) has developed a world map that depicts the status of bunkering activities in WPCI ports as well as non WPCI ports around the globe.   It was the ‘LNG Fuelled Vessels Working Group’, which was established under the auspices of IAPH’s WPCI, that developed the map. This working group has also developed guidelines on safe procedures for LNG bunkering operations, providing ports around the world with implementation guidelines to pursue this technology.   According to the map, LNG is currently available as a bunker fuel for deep-sea and inland shipping at the WPCI ports of Antwerp, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Zeebrugge and Stockholm. In addition, LNG can be bunkered at several Norwegian ports, at the Port of Los Angeles (United States) and the Port of Incheon (South Korea). ∎

Wärtsilä Corporation, Carnival Corporation, DNVGL, ENGIE, ENN Group, GE Marine, GTT, Lloyds Register, Mitsubishi, NYK Line, Port of Rotterdam, Qatargas, Shell Downstream and Tote have formed a coalition to drive forward the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the maritime industry.   The coalition, known as SEA/LNG aims to help break down the barriers to LNG uptake and make it easier for LNG to develop as a fuel in marine applications to enhance environmental performance of shipping. Each member involved has committed to mutually agreed human resources, data analysis and knowledge sharing in support of the SEA/ LNG initiatives and activities. The main areas of focus include supporting the development of LNG in major ports, educating stakeholders in the risks and opportunities of using LNG and developing consistent global regulations for cleaner shipping fuels.   LNG is a fuel with strong environmental opportunities for the maritime industry thanks to its advantages over traditional heavy fuel oil (HFO). It is low in harmful pollutants such as sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), with NOx emissions reduced by 85% and SOx emissions nearly completely eliminated compared with HFO. Particle production is practically non-existent due to the efficient combustion of natural gas that has no residuals.∎

DEAL SIGNED FOR EMULSIFIED FUEL TRIALS IN SAUDI ARABIA Quadrise Fuels International has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that signals the start of ‘Production to Combustion’ trials of their emulsified fuels in Saudi Arabia.   The MoU is designed to progress the trials at designated refinery and power plant facilities within

the Saudi Arabia Kingdom.   The Multiphase Superfine Atomised Residue (MSAR) emulsion fuels manufacturer and supplier, Quadrise, expects the schedule to extend beyond Spring 2017 at which point the trial would be concluded.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions


FINDING FUEL SAVINGS ON THE RIGHT FREQUENCY The ability of ABB’s new Dynamic AC (DAC) concept to optimise generator speeds will have a direct and significant effect on fuel costs for bigger ships, the leading power and automation group says. Sitting alongside Azipod propulsion and the Onboard DC Grid, ABB’s new Dynamic AC adds a further dimension to the group’s maximised energy efficiency claims for vessel owners, this time specifically aiming at vessels requiring over 20MW of power.   ABB says that the genesis of DAC can be directly traced to the group’s development of the Onboard DC Grid for smaller craft, which extends the multiple DC links that already exist in propulsion and thruster drives, combining AC components with smart DC distribution.   Many ships still run with their generators at a set speed, regardless of power requirement, creating a surplus of wasted energy. Just as variable speed drives allow electric propulsion motors to be run at their optimum working point, Onboard DC Grid allows diesel engines to run at variable speed for top fuel efficiency at each load level, also offering flexibility in combining energy sources.   Despite prevailing owner reluctance to commit to newbuilding projects across the market, ABB reports that it has secured 11 orders for vessels incorporating the Onboard DC Grid since its first installation on the offshore support vessel Dina Star in 2013. In this case, owner Myklebusthaug Offshore has confirmed Onboard DC Grid yielding fuel savings of up to 27%.   However, DC Grid is a low voltage rather than medium voltage solution, and therefore cannot be applied to ships of 20MW and above, which typically operate in the 50-60Hz range. DAC has therefore been created as a simple configuration of electrical system for larger ships that is similar to a conventional AC system but can adjust the rotational speed of diesel generating sets, allowing system frequency to vary within the specified range.   ABB points out that cruise ship itineraries, for example, may include long transits to warmer waters and island hopping once there, with speed and power demands varying substantially. Today, adjustments made for varying power demand require generators to be called online or disengaged. As the number of generators used in modern cruise ships is typically low, this translates into large increments that seldom match optimal fuel economy. Owners may even avoid certain speed ranges due to poor power plant efficiency.   ABB suggests a large cruise ship operating in a variety of speed/power conditions could shave up to 6 percent (up to 2000 tons of fuel) off its annual fuel bill by adjusting the speed at which propulsion engines operate, rather than running generator sets at constant speeds.   “DAC can liberate owners and allow them to base plans more fully on revenue opportunities rather than being inhibited by inflexibility,” says Sami Kanerva, ABB Program Manager, Electrical Systems Marine and Ports.   Kanerva says that ABB is in close consultation with cruise ship customers in pursuit of a first pilot project for DAC, but also emphasises that the approach is appropriate for any newly built ship requiring more than 20MW. Kanerva adds that, operationally, the 6% saving is a conservative claim as it covers the full engine range, from optimal loads (80-85%) to vessel in port. When underway, fuel savings could be as high as 10%.   Marine engines are notoriously slow to handle large, quick load changes. DAC controls engine speed changes in a gradual way, based on average loads over several minutes, so that dynamic response (for diesel, LNG or dual-fuel engines) is not compromised.   Kanerva notes that there are particular reasons why the adoption of DAC can be beneficial to ships running on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Being able

to control engine speed control improves the combustion process at high cylinder pressures in particular, he explains. For the same reason, methane slip is likely to “decrease dramatically” when DAC is used.   To bring DAC to reality, the medium voltage power system deployed in a typical cruise ship would need to be specially engineered for variable frequency at the newbuild stage, including component design and system integration. However, distribution for the auxiliary and hotel loads would be provided by frequency converters or directly from the variable frequency system.   This would mean that, while electromagnetic equipment must be dimensioned with special care, opting for DAC means proven ABB components adjusting diesel generating set rotational speeds to exploit energy that would otherwise be wasted. Kanerva emphasises that, while generator costs may be slightly higher to take account of dimensioning changes, installing the DAC solution would not affect availability or delivery time.   Again, controlling generator speeds is a matter only for revising algorithms, while the application of DAC would not affect costs for those parts of the electrical system continuing to work with constant frequencies (that is, hotel loads).   “For owners, perhaps the only real difference will be seen on their fuel bill,” Kanerva says. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions

EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND FINANCIALBy Catherine BENEFITS Austin, Editor DNV GL and MAN Diesel & Turbo analysed a range of scenarios for a newbuild LR1 product tanker to determine the most economically feasible type of alternative fuel for the vessel. The alternative fuels studied were liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol and others. The costs and benefits of these alternative fuels were compared with heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine gas oil (MGO) and the overall operating costs were established.

The LR1 product tanker was sailed on a fixed route between North America and northern Europe to obtain the financial analysis. A MAN B&W 6G60ME-C9.5 was selected as the main engine, available as a standard oil-fuelled diesel engine as well as dual-fuel. The machinery set up was kept the same for the different fuels apart from the fuel systems themselves. The speed of 12.5 knots was used as the fixed transit speed of the ship with 87% of the time spent in transit, 3% in approach and 10% in port.   As the global sulphur cap is likely to enter into force in 2020, a fuel with 0.5% sulphur content was used for outside of Emission Control Areas (ECAs). For comparison with alternative fuels, one alternative fuel was used for the entire round trip and compared with the use of an alternative fuel used in ECAs with a HFO/low sulphur fuel (LSF) used outside ECAs. The study assumed operations to be carried out between 2018-2030.   As the price of fuel significantly affects the financial viability of various fuel options and use of technology, fuel price scenarios were created for the purpose of the study. A high price scenario where fuel prices would be similar to those of 2014 for USD 100-110 per barrel was created as well as a low fuel price scenario where oil prices would be around USD 50 per barrel.   The study indicated that LNG and LPG can deliver huge cost savings in a high fuel price scenario whether they are used alone or mixed with others for operating in and outside of ECAs and that payback time is around 5-10 years. Payback time is likely to decrease at higher ship speeds. However, in the low price scenario, LNG and LPG were less attractive. Methanol showed that investments in equipment and engine upgrades would not be cost effective. Using a single fuel, rather than fuel variants showed shorter payback times. So the increased initial investments in LNG and LPG are compensated by the lower prices of the fuel itself compared with LSF.   Where fuels are priced lower, LNG payback time is longer. LPG is stated to be as

good as LNG based on shorter payback time, reduced sensitivity to price variations and lower initial investments.   The economic advantages of choosing one fuel over another is highly variable as it depends on fluctuating oil prices, which are embedded with uncertainty. In order to account for this uncertainty, the researchers carried out a sensitivity analysis between LSF and alternative fuels. Where fuel price differential is higher, there is more of a driving force for LNG or LPG uptake. During a high price scenario, the additional investment required for alternative fuels is paid back within 13 years.   The study assumed that the tank capacity would be enough for a half round trip, but this would mean it would need to bunker in Houston and Rotterdam. The fuel price differential between these ports means that bunkering at only the cheapest location (Houston) was also assumed as one scenario to understand how fuel price differences affect the financial paybacks.

"USING A SINGLE FUEL, RATHER THAN FUEL VARIANTS SHOWED SHORTER PAYBACK TIMES." When LNG is used for the entire trip and bunkering only carried out once, the payback time increases from 76 to 97 months. Therefore, the investment costs of the tank for this fuel is not compensated with the lower fuel price. However, if this scenario is compared with a tank capacity that is full enough for the entire trip then the payback time is reduced for LPG from 57 to 51 months. These variations are due to the high differences in tank prices for LNG compared with LPG. ∎

Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions


CRUISE SECTOR INTEREST IN AIR LUBRICATION TECH SWELLS Air lubrication technology innovators, SilverstreamTechnologies say that they are witnessing increased uptake of their technology from the cruise sector. The Silverstream™ System produces a thin layer of micro bubbles for the full flat bottom of the vessel, reducing the frictional resistance between the water and the hull, and improves the vessel’s operational efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and associated emissions.   This is confirmed by the company clinching a deal with Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL) for the installation of the technology. Silverstream have also stated that they are in discussions with a number of other cruise operators who are looking to implement the company’s air lubrication technology, the Silverstream™ System.   The CEO of Silverstream, Noah Silberschmidt has commented that the company is seeing considerable interest from cruise operators who want to offer assurances to their customers that they are proactively looking to minimise the environmental impact of their operations.   Earlier this year AIDA Cruises took delivery of the first of two large cruise ships that features Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ (MHI) Air Lubrication System (MALS). MALs also

covers the bottom of the ship’s hull with a drag-reducing carpet using a blower to generate bubbles. Therefore, like the Silverstream system, it greatly reduces frictional resistance between the ship hull and the seawater.   Data gathered from sea trials conducted with Shell on a vessel equipped with the Silverstream system and on-going testing over the past 24 months shows that the air lubrication system can deliver average net efficiency gains of 5% for tankers and 8% for larger, full bodied vessels like LNG carriers. Silverstream’s system also uses 66% less energy than other air lubrication systems to power the compressors which keep cavities filled with air at the required pressure.   According to Silverstream, comparative air lubrication systems for cruise vessels use a greater number of larger compressors and air pipes, requiring significantly more space within a vessel’s hull. The simplicity of retrofitting the Silverstream™ System means less downtime for vessels, and also reduces the cost of the technology by as much as 30%, compared to competitor products, it is claimed. ∎

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Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions

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Ship Efficiency Review Fuels & Emissions

Demystifying the EU MRV Regulation


By Julien Dufour, CEO, Verifavia Shipping

Open for public consultation until 26 August 2016, the European Commission has published draft Delegated and Implementing Acts pursuant to the ‘EU MRV’ (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) regulation 757/2015. An active member of the Commission’s working group on Verification and Accreditation, Julien Dufour, CEO, Verifavia Shipping, addresses key considerations for shipowners and operators. In just over one year’s time, owners and operators of vessels sailing in the EU and exceeding 5,000 GT must submit a Monitoring Plan (MP) describing the procedures in place to monitor and report their carbon emissions and transport work. With the Delegated and Implementing Acts almost finalised, requirements are now very clear. However, as with most new legislation, the challenge lies in effectively navigating its complexity and interpreting it to ensure compliance.   Working with shipowners and operators since the regulation came into force in July 2015, it has become clear that key questions continue to perplex many. These include how to design an MP, what is classed as a voyage, which emissions sources are included, and the differences between the four allowable monitoring methods.   According to the ‘EU MRV Regulation’, the following emission sources must be considered in order to comply with the regulation: main engines, auxiliary engines, gas turbines, boilers, and inert gas generators (tankers only). The technical description of each individual emission source as well as the potential fuel types used must be included in the MP, and must be assessed by the verifier.   Another challenge has been understanding what is classed as a voyage. To understand this, shipowners must first appreciate what is meant by a ‘port of call’ according to the EU MRV definition: “the port where a ship stops to load or unload cargo or to embark or disembark passengers”. A voyage is a trip between two ports of call, and a reportable voyage is when one of the ports of call is in the EU. The two key parameters that shipowners must take into consideration are therefore the geographical area of the port (i.e. is it in the EU?), and whether a port can be considered as a port of call (i.e. have cargo or passengers been embarked or disembarked for commercial purposes?). It is important to note that ballast voyages must also be reported in the same way as laden voyages. Lastly, the Acts now clearly indicate that time spent at sea and distance travelled shall be calculated on a ‘berth-to-berth’ basis rather than between departure and arrival.   It is important to understand that certain ports which

are not geographically within Europe are still part of the EU because they are under the administration of a European Member State, and are therefore classed as EU ports of call. These ‘outermost regions’ include the Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira, Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guyana, Saint-Martin, Mayotte and Reunion. In addition, the Shipping MRV regulation will be integrated in the environmental legislations to be adopted by the countries in the European Economic Area, which include Norway and Iceland. Therefore, if the vessel is navigating between any of the outermost regions and third countries, or between Iceland / Norway and third countries, then the regulation requires shipowners to report these voyages.   Regarding the four allowable monitoring methods, the challenge for shipping companies is to adjust their current monitoring system so that it fits within the strict definitions that have been documented in the regulation. However, it is permitted to select a different monitoring method for each emission source provided it increases the overall accuracy of the monitoring. The key advice for shipowners is to select an EU MRV monitoring methodology as close as possible to their existing monitoring system. In case two monitoring methodologies can be used (e.g. methods A or B and C), shipping companies are recommended to select the most accurate monitoring methodology and use the other monitoring methodology to cross-check, or as a back-up.   In terms of key legal deadlines that must be adhered to, shipowners should take particular notice of the 31st August 2017, when they must submit the MP to verifiers.   The draft Delegated and Implementing Acts released by the Commission have responded to various concerns voiced by the industry and clarified certain points. But ultimately, the MRV regulation is now in force and the requirements are very clear. Understanding and interpreting the nuances of the MRV regulation, as well as ensuring consistency in the MP and matching the requirements is a challenge. However independent verifiers have the indepth knowledge and expertise to help guide owners and operators through the process to compliance. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Strategies


BULLETIN IAPH JOINS IMO SHIP EFFICIENCY PROJECT AS STRATEGIC PARTNER The International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH) has joined the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) GloMEEP project as its third strategic partner.   IAPH will assist the GloMEEP Lead Pilot Countries (LPCs) in addressing air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in ports, thereby facilitating a transition to a more energy efficient and low emissions maritime transport system. In particular, IAPH will be collaborating

GREEN MARINE AND RIGHTSHIP PAIR TO DRIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY EFFORTS Green Marine and RightShip have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to collaborate on advancing environmental sustainability in the maritime industry. In addition to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions rating scheme that RightShip provides, the company will also bring its risk rating mechanism to the partnership, enabling evaluation of risk and actual performance at the individual ship level. Green Marine’s strength lies in its collaborative mechanism with environmental groups that helps to enable actions to be defined and implemented by shipping companies at the corporate level. It also helps goals to be set for the future of maritime efficiency and emissions reductions. ∎

with the GloMEEP Project on the development of tools and materials that will support GloMEEP LPCs in quantifying air pollutants and GHG emissions in ports as well as assist in the identification of measures to costeffectively reduce port related emissions.   The other strategic partners of the GloMEEP project are the Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) and the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST). ∎


The Board of Directors of the European Investment Bank have approved EUR 1 billion for investment into energy efficiency technologies and financing for both retrofit and newbuild ships as part of a new initiative intended to reduce emissions from shipping. This EUR 1 billion sum is part of a total EUR 7.4 billion that has been granted for financing 38 projects across Europe and the world. Under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) the approved loans backed by the EU budget guarantee is part of the Investment Plan for Europe that aims to mobilise EUR 315 billion in new investment to transform services and accelerate growth.∎


The official inauguration ceremony for the expanded Panama Canal took place on June 26, amongst thousands of waving Panamanian flags and fireworks galore.   The link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the canal underwent an extensive renovation to allow larger cargo ships through its locks, due to the fact that larger modern shipping vessels have literally “out-grown” the vital trade passageway.   Now that these locks are in operation, vessels carrying 3 time the current capacity are able to transit through the canal.∎

Ship Efficiency Review Strategies


ISO HULL PERFORMANCE STANDARD EDGES CLOSER TO FINALISATION ISO 19030, more commonly known by the industry as the Hull Performance Standard has taken a step closer to be being published. Following its approval by the International Organization for Standardisation’s (ISO) Draft International Standard (DIS) ballot, with 93% of members voting in its favour. This approval sets the course for final publication of the standard which is expected in Q3 of 2016. The standard prescribes practical methods for measuring changes in ship-specific hull and propeller performance.   An immense amount of work has gone into the development of this standard, project leaders Norwegian paint giant Jotun have stated that over 12,000 hours of work over a period of three years have fuelled the progression by the 53 expert stakeholders involved.   This standard will have great impact on the industry, not least to put a stop to the approximate 10% of the world fleets’ energy costs (equating to USD 30 mil) that are lost due to poor hull and propeller performance.   Geir Axel Oftedahl, Jotun’s HPS business

development director, managed the project on behalf of the ISO stated: “There are very effective solutions for improving performance but, until now, no globally recognised and standardised way for measuring this and providing return on investment for ship owners. ISO 19030 satisfies that demand, prescribing measurement methodology and defining performance indicators for hull and propeller maintenance, repair and retrofit activities.   “We believe this will provide much needed transparency for both buyers and sellers of fuel saving technologies and solutions, and, in doing so, enable the industry to operate with genuinely enhanced efficiency and environmental performance,” he said.   In response Jotun has adapted its Hull Performance Solutions (HPS) guarantee to ensure it is fully ISO/DIS19030-2 compliant. ∎


Ship Efficiency Review Strategies


In the wake of the Paris Agreement and with potential IMO regulation to support its ambitions, the shipping industry cannot afford to ignore its emissions, either commercially or in terms of compliance. New research released by Carbon War Room (CWR) and UCL Energy Institute (UCL) reveals the critical roles that shipowners, operators, financiers and regulators must play in order to incentivise and reward efficiency given current market conditions. CWR and UCL analysed fixtures data (2005-2015) and AIS data (2012-2015) to obtain a clear picture of market dynamics and operations. UCL and CWR investigated the role that energy efficiency has played in vessel competitiveness in past markets. It is the first study to use AIS data to better understand the relationship between efficient design and operation. This will inform a similar study on future carbonconstrained markets to be released later this year.   The report revealed that vessels with high design efficiency save more fuel than expected on design alone, as they were operated more slowly on average, putting millions into the pockets of fuel payers. The results were confirmed both at the annual level for VLCC and Capesize fleets and at the route-specific level for both ballast and laden voyages. For example, it was shown that the difference in fuel costs between a B-rated and F-rated Capesize vessel on the GHG

Emissions Rating was USD 6,000 per day in 2012, or nearly $1.5 million annually on average.   The net fuel savings for charterers choosing vessels with high GHG Emissions Ratings is always positive, so, all else being equal, there is a clear incentive for charterers to hire more efficient vessels. Troublingly however, the time charter market fails to reward owners of efficient vessels with premium rates or preferential hire, despite the added value of consistent fuel savings. This means that owners favouring efficiency in the time charter market are making good choices for the environment and for fuel payers, but are not seeing a return themselves.   The research also suggests that this dynamic is a relatively recent development. Prior to the market crash of 2008, the findings do show efficiency premiums in the Panamax time charter market. Those premiums disappeared with the crash,

Ship Efficiency Review Strategies despite record-high fuel costs and record-high fuel savings for owneroperators and charterers of efficient ships.   Charterers get to ‘have their cake and eat it too’ and without better information and greater transparency, it is unlikely that the market will be unable to rebalance this unfavourable dynamic. However, since it’s proven that efficient design can create very real financial rewards, owners can use this knowledge to their advantage to bolster their negotiations.   Financiers could play a critical role in incentivising efficiency, steering the industry towards successful, profitable decarbonisation. Financiers have the power to control the capital that flows towards, or away from, inefficient or efficient vessels. They can influence which vessels are built, which vessels are acquired secondhand, and which vessels are retrofitted.   Some banks have already altered their decision-making policies to reward efficiency and promote decarbonisation. Last year HSH Nordbank and KfW IPEX Bank became the first banks to announce the use of vessel efficiency data in every financing decision. CWR believes that all shipping banks and vessel financiers should follow this lead and develop investment policies that will allow the shipping industry to decarbonise effectively and reward all players for it.   The study also suggests that current market conditions present even greater challenges concerning the design of IMO regulation. The predicted emissions trajectory of the global shipping industry outlined in the Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study means that any regulation will need to be wide-ranging and comprehensive to contribute effectively to a well-below 2-degree future.   If the market does not reward shipowners for efficiency investments, policy tools that have contributed to successful


The report reveals that vessels with high design efficiency save more fuel than expected on design alone, as they were operated more slowly on average, putting millions into the pockets of fuel payers. environmental reform of other industries, such as carbon prices or fuel levies, would have a greatly decreased impact in shipping if the IMO attempted to leverage them. These policy tools work by magnifying price signals and incentivising the design of more efficient ships. An innovative approach to environmental policymaking, designed not only to reduce emissions but also to overcome the unbalanced dynamic between charterer and owner, will help the industry to avoid a ‘false start’ on the path to decarbonisation.

"THE NET FUEL SAVINGS FOR CHARTERERS CHOOSING VESSELS WITH HIGH GHG EMISSIONS RATINGS IS ALWAYS POSITIVE, SO, ALL ELSE BEING EQUAL, THERE IS A CLEAR INCENTIVE FOR CHARTERERS TO HIRE MORE EFFICIENT VESSELS."   This research has demonstrated just how far the industry must go to contribute to a well-below 2-degree future. Innovation, leadership and transparency are going to be fundamental. CWR has long worked to identify and overcome market barriers in shipping and we will continue to offer tools, information and profitable solutions to support the industry in its transition to a low-carbon future. ∎

By James Mitchell, Senior Associate Shipping Operation, Carbon War Room


Ship Efficiency Review Strategies

CONSORTIUM TO DRIVE SHIP EFFICIENCY AND SAFE NAVIGATION RESEARCH A consortium of companies has gathered with the aim of improving ship efficiency and driving safer navigation through a two-year research project called iSea. The project is to be led by Danelec Marine and will include other participants such as Vessel Performance Solutions ApS (Denmark), i-Marine Technologies and Research Inc. (Turkey) and Deniztekno Danismanlik Bilgi Teknolojileri ve Bilgisayar San. Tic. Std. Sti (Turkey).   The iSea project principal objective is to increase fuel efficiency in open waters and enable better near-shore navigation, focussing on the reduction of human error, particularly in challenging waters. The team will do this by delivering a set of low-cost and low-risk telematics Expert Decision Support Systems (EDSS) that will provide real-time data transfer of data from ship to shore to further enhance the performance and navigability of vessels.   The project has been approved for funding by the Eurostars program, which supports international innovation projects by R&D-performing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Hans Ottosen, CEO of Danelec Marine commented: “A critical element for an Expert Decision Support System for ship navigation is the availability of real-time data from

shipboard sensors and systems. As a part of the iSea initiative, Danelec Marine is investigating an alternative type of communication which would give a subscriber access to real-time data within limits set by the system administrator.”   The real-time data solution will leverage Danelec’s VDRConnect technology, which enables remote push-through and pullthrough data retrieval from shipboard systems and sensors, according to Ottosen.   The R&D program will commence in January 2017 and will run for two years and will include sea trials of the EDSS solution. ∎


Bluewater’s Munin FPSO became the first recipient of DNV GL’s new “Clean Lay-up” declaration under its newly released classification guideline. This new guideline allows ship owners to demonstrate that they have laid up their ship in an environmentally responsible manner. It takes into account noise, emission and environmental concerns, while fulfilling all safety requirements.   Ship owners and managers are increasingly facing the need to put their vessels into lay-up due to current market conditions. The demand for laying up vessels in a way that respects the local environment and the communities around these sites was the driver for the development of DNV GL’s new declaration. The classification society say that the new declaration can be obtained alongside their current lay-up declaration.   The DNV GL declaration addresses a broad spectrum of issues including noise, air emissions (NOx and SOx), onboard waste and hull cleaning. In order for a vessel to receive a “Clean Lay-up” declaration, the following aspects are to be evaluated and assessed in line with the detailed requirements illustrated in the new guideline: mooring arrangement, the safety and security of the vessel lay-up, emergency preparedness, the procedures in place to prevent pollution, air and noise pollution, as well

as the antifouling coating treatment and marine growth.   Pieter Dofferhoff, Regulatory Compliance Engineer and Project Manager Cold Lay-up for the Munin FPSO explained the process that they undertook: “We selected a DNV GL approved lay-up provider to carry out the lay-up preservations and maintenance routines during the lay-up to ensure that the integrity of the hull, machinery and other systems are maintained in the best way possible with the least impact on the environment in both normal situations and emergencies.”∎



Ship Efficiency Review Magazine is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date news on ship efficiency and clean technology developments in the maritime industry This quarterly magazine endeavours to deliver comprehensive, independent insight and reporting from the front line of technological innovation, commercial activities, academic and industry research, and regulatory developments. Distributed to over 6,000 in print (ABC audited) and available online, it is an essential periodical for anyone with a vested interest in ship efficiency and for ship owners, operators and managers looking to stay competitive in the changing market.






marine | energy | environment


Ship Efficiency Review The Social Scene


SOCIAL SCENE @shipefficiency - @cwarroom Hammonia & Intermaine win Business Green Energy Efficiency Project of the Year! @ RockyMtnInst

@Green_Award - Liberia is the first flag state in the Green Award with a 3% tonnage tax discount annually

@Norsepowerltd - First #CarbonCredits awarded for ship efficiency hull coatings by @IP_Marine - could auxiliary propulsion be next?

@JCIFinland - Eniram is optimizing cargo ship efficiency based on huge databases. When does a database turn to #bigdata? #IoT #eeef2016

@MaerskLine - A nose job! Eleonora Maersk’s original bulbous bow is being replaced with a new, fuel efficient bow! #Efficiency

@MaRRitimeShip - Ship Efficiency in Focus as IMO Announces World Maritime Day Theme for 2017

@fathommaritime#ShipEfficiencyNews Nominations Flow in for the Ship Efficiency Awards 2016

@MaritimeInsight Exponential tech growth is exposing linear, arithmetic nature of regulation #smartprocurement hears, cyber could be the inflection point.

@fathommaritime “Pragmatism” is the buzzword at the second @ukshipping Ballast Water Forum - when discussing the approach to #ballastwater Convention

@GMarine_AVerte A Canadian 1st for Desgagnés: 1st of 4 dual fuel tankers successfully launched! #efficiency

@shippingics - IMO global sulphur cap will have profound impact on shipping economics will it be 2020 or 2025?

@Transas_Marine - Taking action to provide higher level of #safety at sea and #marine #environment consciousness @ TransasCEO @NAMEPA1

Ship Efficiency Review The Last Word




SEARCHING FOR THE LAST WORD SHIPPING’S ELON MUSK By Simon Phillips, Senior Consultant, BLUE Communications

Shipping is not short of opportunities to embrace new technology and there are plenty of entrepreneurs seeking to bring their innovations to the maritime market. But with shipping facing an unprecedented number of challenges, where are the visionaries that are looking not just to improve shipping, but transform it? When it comes to securing a profitable and sustainable future for our industry, maybe the world’s leading tech pioneers would do things a little differently. So what could shipping learn from Elon Musk? This industry has a history of steady, incremental change, whether in the growing size of container ships, or step-by-step improvements in operational efficiency. In some cases, shipping appears to have perfected the art of mañana when it comes to technological progress. Look no further than the BWM Convention, 14 years on from adoption and still waiting to enter into force. After all, what was the last truly transformative moment in shipping that wasn’t driven by regulation? Perhaps the shipping container, pioneered over 60 years ago by Malcolm McLean.   None of this is about blaming the industry. There is nothing irrational in how it behaves, particularly when staring down the barrel of costly regulation, red tape and incredibly tough market conditions. The instinct to hunker down and ride it out is natural. But maybe there is another approach. An approach that involves challenging received wisdom and taking not just small steps, but a giant leap for ward. But where should we look for inspiration on how to think a little bigger?   It’s easy to assume that shipping solutions can only come from shipping people. But maybe we can learn something from the approach taken by pioneers in other fields.   After all, with respect to the challenges facing shipping, a tech entrepreneur like Elon Musk is not shy of taking on a big challenge. As well as being the co-founder of PayPal, Elon Musk is the man behind SpaceX, SolarCity and Tesla Motors. So that’s the space travel, human colonisation of the stars and curbing global warming through the production and consumption of sustainable energy boxes ticked.   But, what can we learn from the approach taken by the likes of Elon Musk and other technology leaders and visionaries who are driving progress in their fields?

No 1. Ask the Right Questions

The most impactful technology innovations not only improve on what came before it, but redefine it. This comes from asking the right questions. The iPhone wasn’t born from asking how to make a better mobile phone, it was inspired by the desire to create a phone that people would fall in love with, that was so instrumental and integrated into peoples’ lives that they’d rather leave their wallet at home than their phone.

No 2. Think Big

Musk’s goal for Tesla is not to create a luxury electric car brand, but to build a vehicle affordable to the average consumer. The ambition behind SpaceX is to lower the cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10, to establish human colonies on other planets, whilst taking on the likes of Lockheed Martin and Boeing along the way. That’s thinking big.


Ship Efficiency Review The Last Word

No 3. Have Deep Pockets

The ideas with the biggest impact don’t always need to cost a lot of money. But as many shipping innovators will be all too familiar, the R&D costs involved in bringing a solution to market can quickly become prohibitive. Spotify declared 2014 to be a ‘transformative’ year for music streaming, as its revenue exceeded $1billion for the first time, but its losses also continued to rise, exceeding $160m. As with many other technologies that struggled to achieve profitability, investor faith has been critical.

No 4. Keep Going

If you’re trying to achieve something difficult, there are likely to be plenty of setbacks along the way. SpaceX is famous for its test launch ‘failures’, but it moves forward every time. Earlier this month, at the fourth attempt, it made history by landing its reusable Falcon 9 rocket on a drone ship in the Atlantic. A technological embodiment of the famous lesson in perseverance posed by Abraham Lincoln; from failed businessman and multiple election oser, to one of the greatest U.S. Presidents of all time. For shipping, these lessons point towards the importance of challenging the assumptions that underpin our industry. Perhaps it is time to ask some radical questions about why shipping exists in the first place, the purpose we serve and whether there is a smarter way for the industry to supply products and materials around the globe. The future of shipping is intrinsically linked to the future of manufacturing, supply chain innovation, local sourcing, resource consumption patterns, and more.   Unfortunately, these lessons also suggest that a great idea is not enough. You also need to be willing and able to commit the blood, sweat, tears and finance to make it commercially viable.

"Elon… if you fancy a new challenge alongside space travel, electric vehicles and solar energy, you’re always welcome to take a look at shipping."   Against the backdrop of these challenges, let’s hear it for those that are pushing the boundaries and defining what shipping’s future could look like. The likes of Rolls Royce’s conceptual shore-based ‘bridge of the future’. The Finnish-funded Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative (AAWA). RightShip’s GHG Emissions Rating and the Carbon War Room’s A-G ship efficiency index. Silverstream’s pioneering air lubrication system. AkzoNobel’s landmark carbon credits initiative. Ecoslops’ innovative technology that can transform oil residues from shipping (slops and sludge) into new recycled marine fuels.   Rather than relying on a single ‘eureka’ moment, shipping’s future may instead lie in the cumulative impact of a flotilla of smaller-scale innovations, collectively capable of delivering transformative change.   In the same spirit, rather than hunting for shipping’s own Elon Musk, perhaps we should applaud the collaborative spirit in which many of shipping’s leading technology experts are coming together to shape the future of our industry. The AAWA Initiative is a great example, comprising research institutes, ship owners and other maritime stakeholders, including Rolls Royce, NAPA, Deltamarin, DNV GL and Inmarsat.   Perhaps this is the more fruitful route for our industry. Delivering meaningful technological advancement on a number of fronts, underpinned by intelligent forecasting on the future role of the industry and driven by collaborative partnerships, pooled resources and shared expertise.   That said Elon… if you fancy a new challenge alongside space travel, electric vehicles and solar energy, you’re always welcome to take a look at shipping. ∎ BLUE Communications is a leading global PR and communications consultancy for the shipping, marine, offshore and energy sectors.

Simon Phillips


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