ISSUE 03. 2014
INSIDE: • THE RISE OF SHIPYARD TECHNOLOGY HUBS • WIND POWER: POWERFUL POTENTIAL? • TRANSITION TO THE ERA OF ECDIS • REVOLUTIONARY RETROFITS FOR MACHINERY • ECO-SHIP: MISNOMER, MYTH OR MISUNDERSTOOD?
SOFTWARE HITS THE SEAS Breaking Boundaries
Addressing the Knowledge Gap
• Dr. Anne-Marie Warris
News Round Up
• Addressing the ‘Knowledge Gap’: The Potential of Wind Power
• ClassNK On the Frontline of Innovation
• Slow Steaming Towards Retrofitting 15 • The Efficient Transition to ECDIS 19
IN THE SPOTLIGHT
SHORE CONNECTION IS THE FUTURE
Technology In The Spotlight 24 Advisory: Ship Energy Efficiency Measures
• Fuel Efficiency of Ships Operating on Low Loads
• ECO-Ship: misnomer, misunderstood or myth? • The Rise of Shipyard Technology HUBs
• Twin Fin System Gives Vessel a New Lease of Life • AC/DC at the Crossroads • Harnessing the Winds of Change
• Gamification Software hits the Seas • Transparency in the Eyes of Charterers • Profiting from New Technology: The ECDIS Way
• Steaming Forward Sustainably • Frameworks for the Future • Throttle Up to Save Fuel
• Wind and Solar Power Close to a Commercial Reality?
Event Round Up
45 47 49
51 53 55
• Ship Efficiency Awards 2014
The Last Word JOIN US
• Shore Connection is the Future 41 • CEM - The Real-Time Complaince 43 Reporter • Sailing on Sustainability 44
The Bunker Detectives 31
Fuels & Emissions
Electronics & Software
• Social Media and Shipping
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OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Shipping truly is the heart of the global economy. It is the beating heart that facilitates intercontinental trade for the benefit of the expanding global population and its insatiable appetite for raw materials and goods.
Editor-in-Chief: Catherine Austin E: firstname.lastname@example.org Publications Editor: Isabelle Rojon E: email@example.com Advertising Sales: Advertising Sales Manager: Patricia Hubbard E: Patricia@fathomshipping.com Events: Events Manager: Cara Bainton E: firstname.lastname@example.org Events and Marketing Assistant: James Barth E: email@example.com Artwork and Design: Digital and Print Designer: Ben Watkins E: firstname.lastname@example.org Regular Contributors: Martyn Lasek, Managing Director, Ship and Bunker E: email@example.com
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he World Shipping Council estimates that “global seaborne trade” carries over $10 trillion worth of goods a year, with container ships accounting for 52 per cent of that, followed by tankers at 22 per cent, cargo at 20 per cent, and dry bulk at six per cent. These figures demonstrate that shipping is truly the lynchpin of the global economy, not only due to its vast scale and ability to shift huge volumes of commodities across the oceans, but because it does so in the most efficient manner when compared to its transportation cousins. However, although this industry boasts fuel efficiency like no other, the principal fuels that sustain the efficient heart of the global economy are those fuels that are considered to be the dirtiest, and it comes as no surprise that the bunker fuel flowing through the powerful machinery housed within the world’s shipping fleet is under scrutiny. The combustion of heavy fuel oil and resulting emissions have been under the microscope for quite some time in the industry; the regulators are becoming more fervent. Of course, improving the fuel efficiency of ships is an essential strategy for any company operating in an industry that faces heightening bunker fuel prices and transparency around environmental stewardship - but is efficiency enough?
Catherine Austin Editor-in-Chief
©2014 Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine can be reproduced, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written consent of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. Applications for written permission should be sent to the editor-in-chief, email@example.com. Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent the views of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited or its affiliates. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information contained in this publication at the time of going to press, Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited assume no responsibility as to any inaccuracies that occur or their consequences and to the extent of the law, shall not be liable for any errors or omissions or any loss, damage or expenses incurred by reliance on information or any statement contained in this publication.
ISSUE 02. 2014
BREAKING BOUNDARIES Each issue of SHIP EFFICIENCY THE INSIGHT will host an interview with an influential individual in the maritime industry who is taking great strides to break boundaries within the field of maritime efficiency and sustainability. This issue explores the award-winning path of
Dr. Anne-Marie Warris, In your eyes what are the three most pressing issues within the shipping industry? The first one has to be the challenge between an asset owner, an asset operator and a shipper. It is the difficulty of making the financial trade-off between the three and understanding which bit of the market is going where. That leads me onto the second issue which is critical to any discussion on greenhouse gas (GHG), who pays for the fuel? The answer to this question together, in some cases, with the value of fuel as a percentage of the value of the cargo presents a real challenge both for people inside and outside the industry. The third issue is the industry’s invisibility in the environmental arena. In the five years I have been in the industry, it has definitely made significant progress, but there is a long way left to go. If you could change one specific area of shipping, what would it be and why? I would like to help to change the public image of what shipping does for us all. My next challenge is to improve a presentation I did for a local business network (a non-shipping audience) on ‘what is shipping’. Why? To help to explain what shipping does. People have no idea about the impact shipping has on their daily lives. The aim is to share information, not formal education, and help the understanding of the way shipping interacts with all our daily lives. For example, if we discuss the transportation of an engine, we tend to forget that the whole engine is not just shipped, instead, all the components are shipped to and from various countries, slowly building the engine piece by piece. Due to this complexity of shipping, when you have a break in that shipping chain you do not just affect one component; it affects the end product, the car that uses the engine.
Dr. Anne-Marie Warris Dr Anne-Marie Warris has over 25 years’ experience in sustainable matters and is a leading expert in climate change and environmental issues. She was voted on to the top ten on the inaugural Environmentalist power list by readers of The Environmentalist in 2014. She was one of the drivers behind the ‘Sustainable Shipping Initiative’. Anne-Marie attends IMO MEPC as part of the ISO delegation. She holds a number of key external voluntary roles, all of them elected appointments - chair of ISO (International Organization for sTADARStandardization)July 2014.
How would you define maritime sustainability? At the broadest level, sustainability is about how we, as individuals as much as companies or countries, manage the interaction between what we want to do in terms of looking after the environment, what we want to do in terms of dealing with social issues, such as employment, social exclusion, poverty etc. and what we want to do to make sure there is sufficient money to allow us to continue the activity we are doing. Commonly this is known as sustainability’s 3 P’s: Planet, People and Profit. For me the challenge is not about understanding the three individual ‘P’s, the challenge is in how we determine whether the trade-off we use between planet and people or between planet and profit or between people and profit etc. is sensible and justifiable. For example paying our seafarers more money would be wonderful, but do we understand both the positive and negative short-term and long-term consequences and not just for seafarers and ship owners but on the wider economy and the planet? The big challenge with regard to sustainability is the need for all of us, as individuals and companies, to move on from a good understanding of what each individual element of the 3 P’s means to begin to have the conversations about how we manage and decide what the defensible trade-off between the 3 P’s is. It is a significant challenge because it is not easy or even possible to achieve everything you want in all of the 3 P’s at the same time or even ever.
“I would like to help to change the public image of what shipping does for us all.” www.fathomshipping.com
ISSUE 03. 2014
BREAKING BOUNDARIES I am currently challenging myself to put my money where my mouth is and build, as far as possible for me, a sustainable house. How are you driving sustainability and efficiency across the maritime industry? One of the learning lessons, when I joined Lloyd’s Register (LR) Marine Division and hence the shipping industry, was that on the one hand, the industry is very much like other industries and on the otherhand, completely different. I found that the knowledge of most use to me in understanding the shipping industry and its sustainability challenges is my experience of commercial property management. I am currently challenging myself to put my money where my mouth is and build, as far as possible for me, a sustainable house. This is proving a real eye opener. It provides me with a greater understanding of the challenges faced by organisations when deciding what to do with regard to sustainability. Actually it is one of the most illuminating and hardest things I have ever done. But it is useful to help me comprehend directly the challenges faced by the shipping industry in relation to sustainability. I lecture to students at the World Maritime University (WMU) on climate matters. Still within the marine arena but outside shipping I hold the position of chair for a project committee funded by Technology Strategy Board (TSB) investigating a technology package related to marine wave energy ‘CCEll’. Additionally I hold a number of key voluntary roles including chair of ISO (International Organization for S ta n d a rd i zat i o n ) s u b - co m m i tte e responsible for environmental management systems as well as UK expert to the ISO committee that is responsible for the revision of ISO GHG standards related to monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) and I also attend IMO MEPC as an ISO observer. D e s c r i b e yo u r wo r k w i t h t h e Sustainable Shipping Initiative. My main involvement with shipping started when I joined Tom Boardley’s team at LR Marine Division as Environmental Advisor in mid-2009. The following 5 years were exciting, full of ISSUE 03. 2014
learning and challenges as well as the opportunity to work with many energetic and positive people. When I was at LR, Forum for the Future approached us to become a founder member of the Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI). Following successful discussions I was fortunate enough to represent LR at the SSI. In those early years, the main focus was on putting together the case for action, i.e. why would you want to do something, and the vision of how you would go about doing it. I think we learnt a lot about the challenges faced by anybody involved in the shipping industry. So the pressures on people in the supply chain may be very different, or may not translate into pressures on the shipper or the ship owner. And vice versa, the shipper or ship owner may not be able to put pressure on other players in the supply chain. Therefore, they are unable to achieve what they would like to do because they cannot physically get resources or finances for what they would like to do. What do you believe is a positive outcome from the current debate on GHG at IMO? I think the most important outcome is to get a simple but consistent MRV approach at the international level. For me, simple is the keyword. It is an easy word to say but it is extremely difficult to achieve. Simple means that the regulators have to understand what they can live with, not what they would like to have. The shipping industry needs to understand what they have to give for it to become simple and what flexibility and/or rigidity they have to accept. If it is going to be simple for everybody, then everyone needs to compromise on issues that they would prefer not to compromise on. It is about focusing on simple.
What awards and recognitions are you most proud of? There are two ‘awards’ that I am most proud of. The first is being awarded WISTA UK Personality of the Year 2013 mainly because it is such a significant recognition for work done in the shipping industry. I could not believe it when I was told and I certainly did not expect it given I had only been in the industry for 5 years. I was allowed to make an impact with significant support and backing from LR. The second has only recently happened and it is being voted into the top ten on the inaugural environmentalist power list by readers of The Environmentalist in July 2014. The power list reveals those who are believed to be the most influential in helping organisations to better their environmental impact or who have had an influence on raising environment issues up the business and policy agendas. This later award will take some time to fully sink in. What project or accomplishment do you consider to be the most significant in your career? This is a tricky one to answer. I think the most satisfying accomplishment is being allowed to stand in front of young people at the WMU and talk to them. I am back there in September and that is something I really enjoy doing. The five years I spent at LR Marine Division as an Environmental Advisor count very high on the list. It was satisfying and stimulating to be allowed to re-establish LR’s position as an environmental innovator, a position originally established by Dr Gillian Reynolds. For me there is also great pleasure in having facilitated the shift of ISO sub-committee for environmental management systems into the 20th century and watching it evolve. The reward for supporting the development of ISO GHG MRV standards and trying to keep them as simple as possible is about striving to do what is best. ∎
"There are two ‘awards’ that I am most proud of. The first is being awarded WISTA UK Personality of the Year 2013 and being voted into the top ten on the inaugural environmentalist power list by readers of The Environmentalist in July 2014." www.fathomshipping.com
NEWS ROUND-UP KOREA EXIMBANK TO LAUNCH USD$976M ECO-SHIP FUNDING SCHEME Korea Eximbank (Kexim) is planning to launch an ‘eco-ship fund’ worth KRW1trn (USD$976m) to help domestic shipping companies fund the operation of more energy efficient ships. The scheme, which will begin by November this year, will see the South Korean state bank contribute 25 percent of the fund while institutional investors such as pension funds or insurance companies will feed in the remaining 75 percent to purchase a ship for lease to shipping companies. The aim of the eco-ship fund is to give financial help to shipping companies as
the investors take on the principle risk. Kexim will provide guarantees to the shipping companies. A Kexim official stated that “the scheme will benefit mid-sized shippers like Sinokor Marchant Marine and Polaris Shipping as well as large ones such as Hanjin Shipping and Hyundai Merchant Marine.” “G i v e n m o s t n e w s h i p o rd e rs commissioned by domestic shipping companies go to mid-sized shipbuilders, it would also impact the shipbuilding industry positively.” ∎
BALLAST WATER SAMPLING BOX RELEASED A new ballast water sampling box has recently been made available from the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) which is designed to assist ballast water treatment companies to accurately analyse the chemical and organism concentration in ballast water. NIOZ tested the “B-box” system with Hyde Marine in order to determine its efficacy for maritime use. The ballast water sampling box contains sample bottles which are filled with a mixture of the treated ballast water and the provided test chemicals. These bottles can then be sent back to NIOZ for validation by professionals who perform a number of tests on physical-chemical variables and concentrations of organisms along with analysis regarding what chemicals and organisms are present in the water. “Using the B-box system is an efficient and effective service, and will allow ship owners to receive an analysis of their ballast water samples quickly and accurately,” said John Platz, President, Hyde Marine. “We expect the NIOZ testing will further validate the high performance of our Hyde GUARDIAN Gold ballast water treatment system and help educate ship owners about the important investment they made in complying with IMO
regulations.” “The B-box does not replace shipboard tests or guarantee compliance, but lowers the risk of non-compliance and contributes to an anonymous database of water quality and ballast water treatment system performance in harbours around the world,” commented Dr. Louis Peperzak, NIOZ Project Leader at the Ballast Water Test Facility and Research Centre. ∎
SIEMENS TO PROVIDE SHORE POWER FOR HAMBURG PORT The Hamburg Port Authority (HPA) has commissioned Siemens to build an onshore power supply at the Hamburg Altona cruise terminal to provide electricity to cruise ships during their lay days. The system, which is predicted to cost around €8.5 million (USD$11.4 million), will allow cruise ships of all common sizes and electrical system design to operate cold ironing, allowing them to turn off their diesel generators and reduce their emissions whilst in port. It is reported to have a capacity of 12 megavolt amperes (MVA) with a mobile robot arm designed specifically to transport the power cable connectors and the communication link into the ship and to compensate for the varying tidal range. The system is self-propelled and can be automatically operated from the ship as needed, so that no additional specialists are needed on shore. A concrete channel along the quay wall will guide a high tide-resistant cable chain for system mobility and is designed with a length of 300 meters. The power supply will include medium and low voltage switchgears, transformers, fire safety system and the building’s air conditioning and ventilation system. Commissioning is scheduled for the spring of 2015. ∎
ISSUE 03. 2014
NEWS ROUND-UP INNOVATIVE ALUMINIUM-AIR BATTERY TO POWER ELECTRIC BOAT A collaboration project between Alcoa, Phinergy and the Swiss HEIG-VD University has successfully demonstrated a new aluminium-air battery on a zeroemissions electric boat. The aluminium-air battery has an output of about 4kW of electricity per 1kg of aluminium and uses air and water to unlock the stored energy. It is reported that the technology has a higher energy density compared to conventional batteries and the range, capital cost and life-cycle costs are said to be comparable to fossil-fuel power units. The demonstration used a battery containing 15kg aluminium, providing 25 hours of additional navigation time for a given navigation profile. Without the aluminium-air extender this range drops to only 5 hours using the same navigation profile. Previous demonstrations of the battery have taken place on land, and despite the upscaling that will be required for ship propulsion or auxiliary power, the technology does offer a good fit for proposed marine hybrid systems. “The use of aluminium as a clean energy source has the potential to help move the global marine navigation market towards electric propulsion,” “When it comes to the harsh marine environment, Alcoa has developed products in special alloys to provide the strength, workability and corrosion resistance that marine applications require.” stated Martin Briere, president of Alcoa GPP Canada, Europe and Africa. ∎
GROWTH PREDICTED FOR US MARINE BIOFUELS In a recent report by Navigation Research it has been predicted that 6.1 percent of the US marine fuels and aviation market will be made up of biofuels by 2024. “ The United States is expected to emerge as the clear leader in the construction of integrated biorefineries capable of producing bio-based jet fuel and marine distillates over the next 10 years,” says Mackinnon Lawrence, research director with Navigant Research. “New biorefinery construction in the U.S. is expected to generate USD$7.8 billion in cumulative revenue over the next 10 years, representing 66 percent of the revenue generated globally.” The report highlights that the European Union (EU) is also an active participant in the emerging aviation and marine biofuels market. However, the level of growth within the EU will largely depend on the region’s emissions trading system
progress. Recently, the US Navy has been developing the push for the nation’s biofuels industry by purchasing blends for use on its fleet of both aircrafts and ships. ∎
NEW FUEL SAVING FOIL UNVEILED AT SMM Hull Vane, a new foil produced by the Netherlands based company Hull Vane B.V. that reportedly reduces fuel consumption was unveiled at the SMM 2014 in Hamburg. During Sea trials with a 55 metre Fast Supply Intervention Vessel with and without Hull Vane delivered results of a reduction in required shaft power ranging from 10 percent at 12 knots to 15 percent at 21 knots. This confirmed results obtained through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. However the company states that the reduction in fuel consumption depends on the ship’s length, speed and hull shape although
savings will range between 5-15 percent on commercial and naval ships. The innovative foil is positioned below the hull behind the rudder and works by creating an upward flow at the stern of the vessel which allows the foil shaped appendage to generate a forward thrust, thus reducing the resistance of the ship. It also reduces the running trim and the stern wave along with dampening the pitch and heave motions of waves. Hull Vane is suitable for a wide range of ships, including ferries, passenger ships, container ships, multi-purpose vessels, roro ships, naval vessels, and motor yachts. ∎
ALFA LAVAL ANNOUNCES A “NEW GENERATION” OF SCRUBBER TECHNOLOGY Alfa Laval has announced its latest offering in the Exhaust Gas Cleaning (EGC) sphere, which was presented at the 2014 SMM international maritime trade fair in Hamburg. The company, who already has a presence in the global market for EGC products with its PureSOx scrubber, said its new generation of the system, PureSOx 2.0, had significant benefits over its predecessor making it suitable for a wider range of vessels. The new scrubber has a main body that is around 15% smaller, making it more ISSUE 03. 2014
easily integrated into vessels and less intrusive on ships’ passenger or cargo space, while design improvements aim to make it a more flexible solution for both retrofitted vessels and new designs. This flexibility, says Alfa Laval, has a host of potential benefits that include reducing operating noise, improving ship stability, and potentially reducing fuel consumption. A further difference with PureSOx 2.0 is that a powder additive like sodium bicarbonate can be used as the circulation water’s alkaline additive, instead of
the liquid additive caustic soda used at present. Acroding to Alfa Laval, the longterm advantage is the fact that powder additives are less expensive. When powder dosing is chosen, there is a reduction in operating costs that offsets the equipment investment.” Alfa Laval counts DFDS among its customers and increased its order book earlier this summer with an $11.4 million deal with a German shipowner. ∎
NEWS ROUND-UP INTEREST GROWING FOR WINGSAIL TECH Charles Moray, managing director of Oceanfoil, has commented that the company is in the final stages of negotiations with two ship owners who are offering Singapore-flagged tonnage trials of the wingsail technology. Moray told shipping news provider The Motorship that two 101,000dwt bulk carriers, another twice the size and an oil tanker are under consideration for the trials. The interest from the owners comes after CDF and tank testing have shown the technology is capable of reducing fuel consumption between 15-20 percent. Moray stated he is working alongside researchers from University College London (UCL) to develop software that will enable ship owners to determine optimal routes based on time of year and the number of days they are willing to spend on the voyage. Oceanfoil wingsails are based on proven aerofoil sail technology initially developed in the 1980s that has been further optimised today. They generate
forward thrust from the wind, thereby reducing the output required from the engine and lowering fuel consumption while still meeting the requirements of a modern commercial ship. Each Oceanfoil wingsail consists of three aerofoils attached to a tail fin or rudder, with each sail resembling the wing of an aeroplane positioned vertically. The aerofoil is said to be the ideal shape for capturing wind for
ULSTEIN SHAKE UP THE SHIP DERRIÈRE
NEW CARBON FIBRE PROPELLER TO CONTRIBUTE TO FUEL SAVINGS
Ulstein Group has released a new stern design, X-STERN, that can increase vessel operability in harsh conditions when the stern is facing towards the waves, wind and current, improving station keeping, wave response, comfort and safety. The new aft design follows the successful implementation of 100 X-BOW vessels which the company introduced in 2005. The X-Stern is a sloping and higher stern, allowing for a sharp stern shape in which the transom plate is replaced by a pointed aft. The X-Stern is a gentle displacer, resulting in lower pitch and reduced wave drift forces, and has ice operation capabilities. ∎
The development of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) propeller for use on chemical tankers has shown a 9% reduction in horsepower during sea trials, compared to conventional aluminiumbronze propellers. The CFRP propeller, designed by Nakashima Propeller and supported by ClassNK, consists of ultra-lightweight material and comprises thin but strong blades, improving efficiency and reducing fuel costs. CFRP boasts the ability to be manufactured with smaller diameters than aluminium-bronze materials, reducing both weight and subsequently fuel costs. The installation of the propeller on
Wing Maritime Service Corporation, a subsidiary of NYK Group, has been jointly awarded the 2013 Marine Engineering of the Year award for its environmentally friendly hybrid tugboat Tsubasa. Tsubasa is the first tug in Japan to be equipped with a hybrid propulsion system which allows her to achieve both fuel efficiency and lowered CO2 emissions. She
is equipped with a motor generator and high-performance rechargeable batteries along with conventional diesel engines. The design of the batteries means not only can they be charged by the onboard power generator, but there is also an option to plug into shore power. The company states that these features will mean Tsubasa emits 20 percent fewer
AWARD WINNING HYBRID TUGBOAT
propulsion as the curvature of the sail allows for the optimum generation of directional thrust. Oceanfoil’s wingsails are automatically controlled via a computer from the bridge so do not require crew resource. Once turned on, the computer will automatically optimise the position of the wingsails relevant to the wind for maximum efficacy. ∎
the Taiko Maru 499 GT chemical tanker in May 2014 was the first of its kind to be installed on a main propulsion system, and comes following the success of the technology on side thrusters two years ago. The design has been approved by ClassNK and has benefitted from research and funding as part of Joint R&D for Industry Program. Continuous investigation on the tank model is planned to ensure maximum performance potential. ClassNK have stated “Expansion of their use on merchant vessels is expected to contribute to better fuel economy and greater efficiency in operations”. ∎ CO2 emissions in port. The award which recognises superior technological developments was given during a joint awards ceremony held by three maritime institutes the Japan Institute of Marine Engineering, the Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean Engineering, and the Japan Institute of Navigation. ∎
ISSUE 03. 2014
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Addressing the ‘Knowledge Gap’: The Potential of Wind Power Wind is a renewable energy source that is generously available on the world’s oceans. As shipping faces the challenge of reducing its dependence on fossil fuels and cutting its carbon emissions, there have been a growing number of studies exploring the potential for harnessing wind power for shipping.
n this Blue Skies feature, we assess the angle of attack and provide a summary of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funded ‘Fleet Suite’ project paper authored by Michael Traut and colleagues at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. The project seeks to address the existing ‘knowledge gap’ in relation to the potential of wind power technology.
BLUE SKIES THE TECHNOLOGIES UNDER EXAMINATION Flettner Rotor
Flettner rotors are controlled via a single parameter, their rotational speed. It is assumed that the rotors are incorporated into the ship structure as – by design – large forces are at work, and to ensure the hydrostatic and dynamic stability of the ship. They take up deck space and very likely increase the overall height of the ship, presenting potential barriers to their installation, depending on the ship’s type and intended operational profile. It is noted that these assumptions and issues need to be assessed further when considering implementing Flettner rotors on a specific ship. All results were calculated for a single rotor. Choosing an optimum number of Flettner rotors would depend on many factors, such as ship specifics, which are outside the scope of the project, but assumptions about the number of rotors need to be taken into account when putting results into context.
Compared to other wind power technologies, kites have some advantages: they may operate at higher altitudes where wind speeds are often greater; they fly in front of the ship and therefore do not take up any deck space or change any of the ship’s maximum dimensions. Finally, they are in motion themselves, leading to higher apparent wind speeds, and consequently to higher thrust. The ideal case is that of cross-wind motion: in tail-wind conditions, the kite flies in a direction vertical to the true wind. At a certain kite speed, which is a function of the kite’s lift-to-drag ratio, the sum of the lift and drag force points in the direction of the rope. As the lift and the drag force go with the square of the apparent wind speed, a large thrust is generated in this ideal case. More generally, the kite flies a pattern in front of the ship. In favourable wind conditions, it is deployed and controlled to fly along its circular trajectory. If wind conditions become unfavourable, it is hauled in. Both processes are computer-controlled and fully automated. The model rests on the assumption of a towing kite that fulfils these operational criteria, without affecting the ship’s stability adversely.
THE METHODOLOGY BEHIND THE MISSION
The methodology used to calculate the potential wind power contribution towards ship propulsion is based on three different components: a numerical model of the wind power technology; trade routes; and wind data along those routes. The paper introduces an advanced numerical performance model of a Flettner rotor and one of a towing kite. The numerical performance models are combined with wind data from the Metrological Office’s Unified Model with a high spatial resolution of less than 1°. The performance model is then applied to five different shipping routes, representing different trades, served by ships of different types and size, in different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the methodology stresses simplicity and modularity, highlighting potential power savings, rather than scoping percentage savings that depend strongly on external parameters such as ship size and type. Finally, this paper affords appropriate attention to the variability in wind power contribution, which is examined in relation to the kite and Flettner rotor’s different dependence on wind velocity.
THE ROUTES CONSIDERED Five shipping routes were originally selected for analysis: Yantian to ISSUE 03. 2014
Felixstowe, Tubarao to Grimsby, Varberg to Gillingham, Dunkirk to Dover, and London to Milford Haven. All routes follow the shortest possible path, which includes passing the Strait of Malacca and the Suez Canal on the way from China to Europe. Work is now being carried out on a path-finding algorithm which will allow any route to be defined by picking an origin and destination. The algorithm is to select the geographically shortest sea route connecting the chosen origin and destination. Future work will include other criteria such as sea state and wind velocity in the algorithm that may determine a route that reduces fuel consumption other than distance.
WHAT WERE THE RESULTS?
The kite and the Flettner rotor showed very different behaviour with respect to wind direction. The kite worked well with a tail wind, in particular when the wind speed was large compared to the ship speed. The Flettner rotor, on the other hand, worked particularly well for s i d eways w i n d s , w i t h t h e o u t p u t becoming very low or even negative for a straight head or tail wind as the lift force points in the direction perpendicular to that of the ship, and the drag force dominates.
The average power contribution from the kite ranged from 127 kW to 461 kW; it is more volatile, both over time and geographic location, than that from a Flettner rotor and, in comparison, the transient power is lower than that from two or more Flettner rotors. However, it has the advantage of taking up very little deck space, and an automated kite, subject to availability and favourable economics, is certainly a low-carbon technology option worth further consideration. The average wind power contribution from a single Flettner rotor on a given route ranged between 193 kW and 373 kW. The variability of the power output from the Flettner rotor is shown to be smaller than that from the towing kite while, due to the different dependencies on wind speed and direction, the average power contribution from a Flettner rotor was higher than that from the kite on some routes and lower on others. In addition, results varied depending on the route analysed and potential savings may be viewed in relation to power requirements by the ship serving the route. To consider an example, on the route from Yantian to Felixstowe, representative of the Far East unitised cargo trade, the average power delivered by a kite would be of the order of 1–2 percent of the main engine power required by a
BLUE SKIES slow steaming container ship of 30,000 dwt, or 2–3 percent for a single Flettner rotor. If more than one Flettner rotor were installed, the contribution would be expected to increase linearly until significant interference effects set in. Considering the route from Varberg to Gillingham, for a typical slow steaming general cargo carrier of about 5,500 dwt, the average power delivered by a kite would be of the order of 20 percent (outgoing) to 45 percent (returning) of the required main engine power, or 20 percent (both directions) for a single Flettner rotor. Assuming an installation of three Flettner rotors, the average wind power contribution is then more than half of the main engine power demand.
IMPLICATIONS FOR DECARBONISATION OF THE SHIPPING SECTOR
This paper raises significant points in regards to policy development and technology road mapping. It demonstrates that even for specific technologies, the process of providing a definitive CO2 saving per technology measure should be approached with caution. After all, the findings of this project provided a range of 2–24 percent and 1–32 percent main engine fuel savings for a single Flettner rotor and a towing kite, respectively. If the shipping sector is to decarbonise commensurate with the 2°C target, there is a need to define the technology applicability and costs, both direct capital expenditure costs and more indirect costs such as reduced available deck space. The same is true for fuel and emission savings of a technology measure for a given ship and route, within appropriate timeframes and scales. While this is not possible for the costs, a rough estimate of the financial savings is instructive: Considering the route from Varberg to Gillingham, a fuel price of US$650, and a specific fuel consumption of 180g/kWh, fitting a Flettner rotor could save about US$ 600 per day at sea and the towing kite about US$ 900. On the subject of time frames, the routes and ship types that could benefit the most from wind technology in the forthcoming years – relatively slow and small ships with a potential to meet a substantial share of their power requirements with wind – should be the focus of further research.
From the analysed cases, a general cargo carrier serving the route between Varberg and Gillingham should be the type of example to be explored further to exploit wind power. The findings of this project provide a first step towards informing deeper and wider market penetration, including other routes and ship types. In terms of scale, this project demonstrates that considerable savings can be made on specific routes. Considering the climate change mitigation challenge, wind technology should be viewed as part of a wider shift towards a decarbonised shipping sector. Along with slow steaming and other incremental efficiency improvements, renewable propulsion technologies reduce the overall demand on the main engine. This in turn makes alternative fuels, such as sustainable biofuels or renewable synthetics, more attractive. From the more narrow view as a technology measure providing a reduction in emissions to the wider view as an element of a transition to a decarbonised sector, wind power has a step drop mitigation potential for shipping. From a practicality perspective, it should be noted that this analysis was completed along existing shipping routes – which are not necessarily optimal with respect to wind gain. With this in mind, there is arguably further potential to explore historic shipping routes and to optimise travel speeds along them. Finally, the combination of wind technologies requires further attention. The positioning and function of Flettner rotors and kites are not mutually exclusive and hence in unison could harness tail and sideways winds – resulting in increased propulsion power and CO2 savings.
‘Fleet Suite’ is an evolving project that seeks a more complete integration of weather models to allow predictions of wind power share of required propulsive power – anytime and anywhere. Beyond wind, waves and ocean currents also affect a ship’s power requirements and the Fleet Suite project aims to include this wider range of environmental parameters. To maximise savings from wind power technology, an optimisation module is a further objective of the project, varying
the chosen route and the speed along the route to minimise fuel consumption and ensuing carbon emissions. Wind power technology has the potential to save fuel, CO 2 emissions, and money. But to demonstrate the latter to investors, there needs to be clear evidence of expected fuel savings. The Fleet Suite project aims to make progress towards modelling expected savings in realistic conditions, following the more general goal of exploiting the wind power potential and making shipping more sustainable.
This paper demonstrated the significant opportunities for step jump emission reductions that wind technologies haveto offer. It outlined next steps towards realising the potential, highlighting a demand for more detailed studies on socio-economic and technical barriers to implementation, and providing a basis for research into step-change emissions reductions in the shipping sector. Results showed that, although the transient power contribution is too low and variable for the industry to consider wind as the sole driver of ships typically serving the selected routes, wind can in some cases provide a major share of required propulsive power. The next steps needed in order to tap into this potential are highlighted, including modelling of the implementation of a kite and a Flettner rotor on a particular ship with a specific pattern of operations. These studies will have to account for practical barriers and the complex integration of thrust contributions from both the main engine and the wind power technology to estimate fuel savings. The methodology presented through this paper provides a vital step towards closing the existing knowledge gap. It can be applied to any other route and can incorporate other wind power technologies such as fixed wing sails. It serves as a starting point for more detailed studies towards grasping the emission reduction opportunities presented by wind power, both as a technology providing a step drop in emissions and as an element of a wider transition to a decarbonised shipping sector. ∎
ISSUE 03. 2014
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On the Frontline of
For the ship owner and operator of today the ability to predict the future direction of the maritime industry accurately, and be on the frontline of innovation, goes hand-in-hand with the ability to trade profitably within the current market. However, predicting the vital, industryshaping technologies of tomorrow is far from straightforward; it requires skills that only some within the industry possess. In today’s competitive industry there are few ship owners who can afford to apply or fit technological innovations that are bad investments. ClassNK stresses its focus remains on providing classification services during difficult times for owners, but as a notfor-profit organisation it also acts as a source of insight into the technologies that will be useful in the future by funding maritime R&D, innovation, and even acquisitions. Ya s u s h i N a ka m u ra , t h e h i g h l y esteemed Representative Director and Executive Vice President of ClassNK, is a key decision maker in the research and development activities that the
Classification Society is involved in. He is well known for his expertise and passion for technological development but, make no mistake, this is not only a simple personal passion but also a shrewd business move. . He believes that ClassNK will grow through supporting and understanding what the end customer needs, i.e. the owners. Judging by the rapid growth of the Classification Society in the last decade - not just in newbuilding tonnage but notably in TOC (transfer of class) tonnage - this strategy is paying dividends.
Staying Ahead of the Curve
Over the last four years ClassNK has been putting considerable effort into projects ClassNK has been putting considerable effort over the last four years into projects that are coordinated with the Japanese government, of which eco-technology for maritime applications is the principal focus.
that are coordinated with the Japanese government, of which eco-technology for maritime applications is the principal focus. In total, ClassNK is actually heavily involved in 22 current R&D projects ranging from those that are already available through to more futuristic ones such as the NYK Super Eco Ship 2030 MALS air lubrication systems. Mr Nakamura draws particular attention to the real gains being demonstrated by projects related to hull coatings and ‘microbubble’ systems. In conversation, he is especially keen to highlight the advances attributable to the low friction Advanced Low-Friction (A-LF-Sea) coating developed by Nippon Paint Marine, whose advanced hydrogel features microscopic indentations that make the hull extremely slippery. “This is a simple solution but it is easy to prove the benefits,” says Mr Nakamura. “Nippon Paints have had some good success with their newest technology’. With the first phase drawing to completion, ClassNK started to plan what ISSUE 03. 2014
GUEST FEATURE to do next, and in Mr Nakamura’s words this is the ‘typical Japanese way’. So what is the insight into ClassNK’s next research projects? The answer – Engines. ClassNK, says its objective in any and all of its research is to find solutions that cut the cost of running ships. ClassNK is investing huge amounts of research time and investment into developing a machinery monitoring system that will reduce overhauls and save time in port and shorten maintenance time. The system is being designed to support ship owners in detecting abnormalities in every aspect of the machinery performance. This system is being developed by ClassNK itself, with Hitachi, Daihatsu and BMW having recently agreed to join the project. ClassNK has also collaborated with IBM, with ClassNK using the advanced I B M ‘A n a c o n d a ’ t e c h n o l o g y f o r performance analysis. Anaconda draws on sensors to show abnormalities within the machinery, analysing the relationship between each sensor, as well as with the overall system, in order to flag up abnormal values and offer an assessment of system performance. The data feeding into Anaconda comes courtesy of Hitachi and Daihatsu, which hold 10 year historical records of many machinery ranges. This system is still under development. Mr Nakamura believes that it will be ready for the market in around two years.
ClassNK says its objective in any and all of its research is to find solutions that cut the cost of running ships. It has made phenomenal investment in R&D having committed $28 million in Japan across 22 projects, while $12 million more is being spent in R&D outside of Japan.
Aligning ClassNK Interests
ClassNK recently announced the acquisition of Victoria, Canada-based maritime software company Helm Operations. The deal was hailed by both parties as two world-class companies joining forces to improve safety and operational efficiency in the marine ISSUE 03. 2014
industry, while greatly enhancing the success and capabilities of both organisations. Helm Operations is a leading provider of manning, maintenance, dispatch, and HSQE software to the workboat and offshore industries, particularly within the US market. Therefore, acquiring a software house that is concerned with the workboat and offshore industries is a smart strategic move for ClassNK. “We’re convinced that linking maritime companies and classification on a single, easy to use platform will be a huge contribution to the maritime industry,” said Nakamura. Ron deBruyne, CEO and Founder of Helm Operations says Helm has found a partner in ClassNK that shares its vision of providing the maritime and offshore support sectors with the best software possible. ClassNk has made phenomenal investment in research and development having committed $28 million in Japan across 22 projects, while $12 million more is being spent in research and development outside Japan. Mr Nakamura explained the acquisition as follows: "At ClassNK our mission has always been to ensure that global innovation is put to use for the benefit of the entire maritime industry. Commencing with the acquisition of NAPA earlier this year, and the acquisition of Helm now, we are bringing together a team of leading software companies from around the world in order to help achieve that goal.” The acquisition followed the $73m takeover of software firm NAPA in March of this year: “Commencing with the acquisition of NAPA earlier this year, and the acquisition of Helm now, we are bringing together a team of leading software companies from around the world in order to help achieve that goal,” said Nakamura. When asked about future acquisitions, the message was clear that ClassNK have only just acquired two companies so time is needed to develop the links before they move further. Also its journey as a Classification Society into the German market is reaping great successes so perhaps it may be a while until we see another technology provider acquired by ClassNK.
Yasushi Nakamura Executive Vice President
SLOW STEAMING TOWARDS RETROFITTING
The practice of slow steaming has received a titanic amount of press attention over the last few years. Slow steaming has heralded the questionable title of being a ‘silver bullet’ solution for ship efficiency and regulatory compliance, especially with regards to increasing environmental compliance hurdles that operators have to clear. However, it is well known that slow steaming does have a dark side, especially when it comes to the heart of the ship – the machinery. We consider what the technology sector is doing to tackle such issues and scrub away the darker side of slow steaming. The Rise of Slow Steaming in Today’s Industry The practice of slow steaming became popular across many shipping companies during the economic downturn in 2007 when fuel prices sky rocketed, freight rates dropped and CO2 emissions were under extreme scrutiny across the globe. Ship owners had to make an important decision. Should they lay up some of their fleet to save money or adopt slow steaming throughout? The latter was widely accepted because it offered greater flexibility to increase capacity again when the market situation improved. However, this decision was not straight forward. Although the adoption of slow steaming has the potential to yield many merits for ship operators, it also has negative effects that ship operators need to consider, one principle consideration being the sting of higher maintenance bills for machinery.
MAN Diesel’s retrofit solutions provide significant fuel savings, ranging from simple technologies that provide 1-2 percent fuel savings up to de-rating projects combining several technologies that provide a minimum of 12-15 percent fuel savings. In general, the greater the investment in retrofit technology, the greater the savings a customer can make.
The MAN EcoCam MAN Diesel & Turbo are to introduce the MAN EcoCam as a retrofit solution for the low-load optimisation of its lowspeed, mechanical engines with single turbochargers. Christian Ludwig, Head of Retrofit & Upgrade, MAN Diesel & Turbo stated that “slow steaming is now an established industry standard across all segments, including the tanker and bulker markets. The MAN EcoCam adjusts the exhaustvalve timing between 10 and 60 percent load, giving a 2-5 g/kW fuel saving with minimal to no interruption to a vessel’s
schedule during installation.” The MAN EcoCam introduces a flexible camshaft profile, called a virtual cam. The profile is controlled hydraulically by adjusting the amount of actuator oil in the hydraulic pushrod. Low-load tuning has an impact on torsional vibration and NOX. When a low-load tuning method is installed on an engine, the torsional vibrations’ impact and the NO X level have to be taken into account to ensure that the vibrations’ impact is not harming the engine and that the NOX level is in compliance with IMO regulations. The EcoCam’s effect on fuel reduction has been verified by two independent testbed installations and aboard a test ship in service. The earlier closing of the exhaust valve provides a higher compression pressure, thereby delivering a higher combustion pressure and a lower fuel oil consumption. Flexible exhaustvalve timing has traditionally only been available to electronically controlled engines.
Retrofitting in The Name of Slow Steaming In response to such issues, the machinery manufacturers and technological innovators have triumphed in the development of new solutions that can act to mitigate any negative sides of slow steaming. The dawn of retrofitting technology solutions that optimise machinery for slow steaming is certainly rising… To gain further insight into the realm of machinery retrofitting for slow steaming optimisation, Fathom spoke to MAN Diesel & Turbo about how they are working to combat any negative effects of slow steaming and how they are helping the market tackle the slow steaming challenge with retrofit technologies and financing solutions.
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FEATURE FOCUS Depending on an engine’s load profile, the MAN EcoCam typically generates savings in the range of 2-5 g/kWh as previously stated by Ludwig. For smaller engines, this can result in a payback period of as little as 1.5 years as is the case, for example, with a 6S50MC-C engine with 6,000 annual running hours. The company initially plans to roll out the MAN EcoCam to a number of its MAN B&W S50MC-C engines, and will eventually introduce it stepwise to its mid- and large-bore engine programme.
“The EcoNozzle packages are 100 percent produced at MAN Diesel & Turbo’s facilities in Copenhagen, enabling the company to maintain full control over the manufacturing process and, more importantly, the quality control,” said Ludwig. The expected launch of the first wave of EcoNozzles is expected in the third quarter of 2014.
MAN EcoNozzle MAN Diesel & Turbo have also announced the release of a modernised, fuel-saving combustion concept for MAN B&W MC engines called the ‘MAN EcoNozzle’. The MAN EcoNozzle is a simple, lowcost retrofit product with demonstrated fuel savings of 3-5 g/kWh, depending on engine load. With fuel savings of this magnitude, the MAN EcoNozzle provides operators with state-of-the-art combustion control and a short payback time of 3-5 months. The concept will initially be rolled out for the S50MC (super-long stroke, 500 mm bore) engine type. This technology was developed in response to the NOX issue related to slow steaming. The dilemma is that, when optimising Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC), NOX emissions tend to increase. In turn, a focus on reducing NO X results in an increased SFOC. In practice, regulations aimed at reducing NOX have a price in terms of fuel consumption. “The best thing about the EcoNozzle”, stated Ludwig, “is that we are able to provide our customers with significant fuel savings at relatively low cost, without compromising the NOX regulations laid down by the IMO.” T h e effe c t i ve n e s s o f t h e M A N EcoNozzle has been proven under controlled conditions, both at MAN Diesel & Turbo’s Two-Stroke Research Centre in Copenhagen, and on licensee testbeds. Such tests provide the necessary data on fuel consumption and emission measurements required for the classification process. Testing in such controlled environments enables the close monitoring of the compatibility of the EcoNozzle’s fuel spray with the existing combustion-chamber design.
In order to remain competitive in the shipping industry of today, ship owners and operators have two black and white options – to buy efficient newbuild ships with all the glossy mod cons or retrofit their current fleet. For the owners that are feeling financially flush, newbuilds are the way forward, however for the owners who have to watch their pockets retrofitting is a viable option. That said, retrofitting new technology onboard can still come at a considerable cost. This is why some manufacturers are offering financing packages that helps to cut the operational cost of essential modifications. MAN Diesel & Turbo introduced its own financing program five years ago named PrimeServ Trident. Since then the company has been supporting ship owners in financing particular retrofit solutions from MAN Diesel & Turbo.
FEATURE FOCUS Three key retrofit solutions that can form part of such a package For example, on a USD$ 200,000 investment in slide fuel valves offered by MAN Diesel & Turbo may, as an example, include: and the Alpha lubricator, there would be no initial payment. The first payment is only made six months later once the equipment • Alpha Lubricator – injects a specific volume of oil into a has started to generate positive cashflow for the owner or cylinder liner after a pre-set number of engine revolutions. operator. There would then be three subsequent payments at Each cylinder unit can be adjusted as required and a six-monthly intervals. computer can automatically adjust the feed-rate according A ship owner would still be expected to arrange a letter of to the engine’s power output. This solution can reduce credit with deferred payment and standard documentation cylinder-oil feed-rates by 20-30 percent. through a bank. However, MAN Diesel & Turbo have a number of banks that they work with on this arrangement and which also • Turbocharger cut-out – permits a frequent change between offer a much lower interest rate than usually. full and part load operation without manually having to “The PrimeServ Trident package represents a non-cash install and remove blinding plates. This can improve main- investment and is a standard bank product that we are convinced engine performance during low-load operation. will appeal to many ship owners,” states Otto Winkel, Senior Vice President, MAN Diesel PrimeServ, Copenhagen. • Onboard blending – allows operators to analyse lubricants “We have pinpointed essential, environmentally friendly and fuels in near real-time for fluid and engine performance, retrofits where the opportunity for reducing running expenses allowing for the fine-tuning of engine operations. This is great, and believe that it will appeal to many of the potential allows for blending of additives into system oil for use as 4-5,000 ship owners globally that can benefit from this package.” cylinder oil. MAN Diesel & Turbo has offered the Trident financing programme in order to help customer investment Slow Steaming Here to Stay? in PrimeServ retrofits. The programme aims to cut operating With slow steaming looking set to remain as a permeant fixture costs that will then help cover the investment. for the shipping industry’s foreseeable future, it makes business sense to optimise your machinery for low load operations. Offering new solutions and financing options, technology are helping the industry move forward in the retrofit revolution – financially and technically.
ISSUE 02. 2014
New - Onboard Cold Corrosion Test Kit
Do you really know whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s happening within your engineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cylinders? Recent changes in operating conditions to reduce fuel costs and modified engine designs have lead to increased issues with liner wear. Parker Kittiwake's new Cold Corrosion Test Kit allows a fast and accurate measurement of only the corroded iron content within used scrapedown oil. Combined with an online or offline measurement of the metallic content, along with residual base number (BN) testing, give the full picture of operating conditions within the cylinders, allowing informed decisions to be made on feed rates, saving costs, minimising liner wear, damage and potential down time.
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FEATURE FOCUS THE EFFICIENT TRANSITION
By Captain Paul Hailwood Captain Paul Hailwood is an internationally respected expert on ECDIS and integrated bridge operations, and leads the UKHO’s renowned ECDIS Seminar series.
The implementation of ECDIS across the international fleet will deliver significant benefits for individual shipping companies and for the shipping industry as a whole. If implemented correctly, ECDIS has the potential to significantly improve the safety and efficiency of maritime navigation, thanks to the power of the navigational tools at the disposal of the bridge team and the increased situational awareness it can offer. However, the critical phrase is ‘if implemented correctly’. The process of transitioning a single ship - let alone an entire fleet - to ECDIS is complex and time-consuming. Important decisions need to be taken in order to maximise the benefits of digital navigation and forward planning is key to every stage of the process. Fortunately, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) has developed practical, unambiguous guidelines that owners and operators can use as a guide to this process in order to minimise the risks and maximise the benefits that ECDIS can deliver. Over the past three years, the UKHO has taken its free ECDIS seminars to all corners of the shipping world and presented to over 2,600 delegates, including fleet superintendents, bridge officers, ship managers, P&I clubs, port state authorities, surveyors and classification societies. They have listened to delegates’ concerns, answered their questions and developed a step-by-step guide to help them to negotiate the transition process. The ‘ADMIRALITY Guide to ECDIS Implementation, Policy and Procedures (NP232)’, sets out nine stages that act as a roadmap for the safe, compliant and effective operation of ECDIS.
Stage 1: Legal Requirements The first consideration is to understand the legal obligations and deadlines that affect your ships. This includes not only the implementation deadlines laid down by the IMO, but also flag states, classification societies and the port state authorities for the waters where the ship is to trade. These could all have different ECDIS requirements, which they will supply upon request. The requirements that affect your ships and when they come into force (as well as any exemptions, such as taking the ship out of trade within two years of the relevant mandatory date) will dictate the timeline for implementation, which could be significantly shorter than many owners anticipate. New ships are already subject to the mandatory carriage of ECDIS, but these SOLAS rules are now coming into force for existing ships. Since July 2014, ECDIS carriage has been mandatory from the first survey of all existing passenger ships over 500 gross tonnes, notwithstanding the issue of what exactly ECDIS ‘carriage’ requires, which has been subject to varying interpretations from different authorities. Looking further forward, ECDIS carriage will be mandatory for all existing tankers over 3,000 gross tonnes from the date of their first survey after 1 July 2015. This is very significant, as the owners and operators of over 9,000 tankers now have less than 12 months until these regulations take effect. This will also mark a major expansion in the proportion of the merchant fleet required to carry ECDIS. Whether it is the physical installation of ECDIS, the delivery of type-specific training or revisions to bridge policies and procedures, this is a considerable undertaking.
Stage 2: Initial ECDIS Risk Assessment ECDIS is not just the installation of a new piece of equipment. The transition from paper charts as the primary means of navigation is a more fundamental change. A structured and comprehensive risk assessment process is therefore key to ensure that any potential problems are clearly identified and properly addressed. Accurate hazard identification and risk management is a complex process, particularly for something as technical as maritime navigation. As well as a thorough in-depth knowledge of both ECDIS hardware and software, the process will benefit from the support of someone well versed in the whole process. Informed judgements need be taken on the likelihood and severity of all risks, decisions taken on the acceptability of that level of risk and safeguards put in place to mitigate unacceptable risk levels. This must then be fed into a detailed ‘Action Plan’ on the transition to ECDIS navigation so that the change, and associated risks, can be managed to specific objectives and guidelines.
Stage 3: Training and Familiarisation It is the responsibility of the individual and the employer to ensure that bridge officers are fully trained and equipped with the necessary skills. Comprehensive training is a mandatory requirement where ECDIS is being used as the primary means of navigation. International regulations require that the Master and all Watchkeeping staff have general ECDIS training, as well as specific training and familiarisation for the particular ECDIS system onboard. Moreover, crews must be demonstrably capable and able to present documentation to that effect. Proper effective training is also a vital risk-reduction measure. It is advisable that before ECDIS is enacted as the primary method of navigation, officers are given sufficient time to put this training into practice, factoring this time into the Action Plan and transition timetable.
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FEATURE FOCUS Stage 4: Procurement, Installation and Onboard Maintenance
Stage 5: Policy and Procedures
There remain a number of issues to consider in order for the procurement and installation of ECDIS to play its part in supporting safe and compliant navigation. Thorough research is again essential before moving forward with ECDIS procurement. As always, expediency is not efficiency. Organisations should give themselves plenty of time to plan before moving ahead with procurement and installation.
The outcomes of the initial risk assessment and training requirements should have identified policies and procedures that need to be in place to facilitate a smooth and safe transition to ECDIS. Having been fully developed, these should be formally and periodically reviewed to ensure that they are effective.
SOLAS requirements, IHO standards and the ISM code should all be taken into consideration when selecting, installing and maintaining your ECDIS. Regulations 15 through 18 of SOLAS outline the principles relating to bridge layout and procedures, and the maintenance of navigational equipment. The ISM Code deals with the maintenance of navigational equipment and technical systems, and the importance of regularly inspecting the equipment. IHO ECDIS Standards are more concerned with the maintenance of software, ensuring that it is compatible with the latest IHO standards in accordance with IMO Safety of Navigation Circular 266 (Rev 1).
Each policy and procedure related to ECDIS and navigation should be clearly documented and defined. Policies should specify what will be done and why, and procedures should outline in detail who will undertake specific tasks, when they will be completed and where. Because these procedures are a key element of the safeguards put in place to manage specific risks, the completion of procedures and compliance with policies should be clearly recorded for evidentiary proof.
Stage 6: Chart Data Considerations The chosen ECDIS must be loaded with chart data that meets SOLAS carriage requirements and the ISM code, as well as including adequate coverage for the entire passage of any voyage undertaken. Chart data must also be properly maintained and the necessary tools to manage the charts must be put in place. Fundamental to the entire process is to ensure that Electronic Nautical Charts (ENCs) are used within your ECDIS. ENCs contain official data. If you use data that is unofficial it is not an ENC. Policies should also be in place for the provision of paper charts for areas where the ENCs may not yet have the sufficient level of detail for safe operations. There should also be a procedure for updating and maintaining chart data, both physically and through web or email technology. Whatever the chart formats - ENC’s, Raster Charts or paper charts - they need to be kept up to date, including all Temporary and Preliminary Notices to Mariners (T&P NMs). Shipping companies must therefore identify the appropriate tools and procedures to fulfil this requirement. The UKHO plays its part in meeting these needs by ensuring that all of its charts meet SOLAS requirements. The ADMIRALTY Vector Chart Service (AVCS) provides the most comprehensive global chart coverage, with over 13,000 ENCs, covering more than 4,000 of the world’s biggest and busiest ports, including many with unique coverage not offered by any other chart service. AVCS is SOLAS-compliant, with certification available for ships to help demonstrate compliance. AVCS operates on all makes of ECDIS, which makes it a sensible choice for shipping companies with different makes of ECDIS on the ships in their fleet. It also comes with the unique ADMIRALTY Information Overlay (AIO), a passage-planning tool that shows all T&P NMs and other navigationally significant information.
Stage 7: Individual Ship Risk Assessment
Stage 9: Onboard Implementation
As well as a company-wide risk assessment, every ship in a fleet requires an individual risk assessment. As each ship is different and travels through different waters, ship-specific risks will arise from individual circumstances, creating the need for a tailored risk assessment. Applying the principles of the initial risk assessment to each ship, as well as the particular make and model of the ECDIS system, is therefore essential.
There remain a number of issues to consider in order for the procurement and installation of ECDIS to play its part in supporting safe and compliant navigation. Thorough research is again essential before moving forward with ECDIS procurement. As always, expediency is not efficiency. Organisations should give themselves plenty of time to plan before moving ahead with procurement and installation.
Stage 8: Transition Stage
SOLAS requirements, IHO standards and the ISM code should all be taken into consideration when selecting, installing and maintaining your ECDIS. Regulations 15 through 18 of SOLAS outline the principles relating to bridge layout and procedures, and the maintenance of navigational equipment. The ISM Code deals with the maintenance of navigational equipment and technical systems, and the importance of regularly inspecting the equipment. IHO ECDIS Standards are more concerned with the maintenance of software, ensuring that it is compatible with the latest IHO standards in accordance with IMO Safety of Navigation Circular 266 (Rev 1).
Once the previous seven steps have been completed, a shipping company will be able to approach the Flag State(s) to approve the installed ECDIS as the primary means of navigation, on a ship-by-ship basis. Then the final steps towards the full use of the ECDIS can begin. The length of the transition should be dictated by the skills and confidence of the ships’ officers, which will grow over time as they become more familiar with ECDIS. Procedures should be kept under review during this period and, if necessary, updated to ensure optimal operational suitability. A rough timeline for this phase should include a ‘deadline’ date when ECDIS will become the primary means of navigation, along with regular internal audits, increasing in frequency as the deadline approaches. Shore-based support should be provided in line with the ISM Code but the presence of a senior officer with practical ECDIS experience onboard transitioning ships is highly valuable.
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The door on the transfer of invasive species is closing and with ratification of the IMO Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention nearing it looks like ship owners will have to take the plunge and purchase a BWM system, if they have not already done so. Fathom spoke to Stelios Kyriacou, Technical Director, Ballast Water Management Systems, Wärtsilä Ship Power to find out how Wärtsilä are preparing for the ratification of the BWM Convention. 1. With the next MEPC meeting due to take place this October, do you think ratification of the Convention is imminent? How is Wärtsilä preparing for the upcoming ratification of the Ballast Water Convention? The ratification of the BWM Convention is not too far away now. There is evidence that owners are already recognising that there is little room now sitting on the fence. The obstacles of ratification have been eliminated and addressed by new developments and the US rules have had a catalytic effect in favour of BWM systems. Our approach has been to ensure that we have a strong supply chain in place to ensure our ability to deliver the number of contracted units in a rapidly growing demand period following ratification. As a business we have recognised the challenges of ratification and hence have already planned the development of manufacturing facilities to accommodate the influx of orders and development of our resource capabilities to ensure that our customers’ requirements are served.
2. How do the IMO regulations on ballast water management differ to the US regulations and how is Wärtsilä addressing this? In the regulatory context both IMO and USCG rules are numerically identical with reference to a discharge standard. The USCG rule is now in force but the IMO is still awaiting formal ratification. The rule difference is the manner in which a certificate of Type Approval is issued. Also it is clear that the need for compliance to the ETV testing protocol makes it near impossible to use existing data to achieve USCG type approval as there are some differences in the IMO G8 and ETV protocol and their respective implementation. Wärtsilä is aiming to provide its customers with fully certified technological solutions and is currently planning its next round of BWM system certification this time to meet the USCG requirements and thus carries out testing in accordance to the ETV.
ISSUE 03. 2014
3. Describe why a ship owner would choose your non-active treatment system over your active treatment system and vice versa. We feel that there is no need to promote one technology against the other. Each technology has its own position in the market place. We have a choice of technologies that allow us to maximise our addressable market. Small and medium size ships would be a suitable platform for UV based systems whereas medium to large ships significantly more suited to the use of an electro-chlorination system (EC). The choice of technology is a matter of a detailed evaluation considering a number of key ship operating parameters rather than just ship or pump size only. Some ship owners/operators have specific preferences and this leads to a firm choice of one of our two available technologies. Wärtsilä is uniquely placed to offer value added services through its partnership program that allows ship owners to choose their compliance partner whilst our technology choice offers a range of technical solutions to meet the needs of a ship or fleet.
4. One of the main concerns for ship owners is a lack of reliability regarding the operational flexibility of existing BWM systems. How is the onboard reliability in different climate zones and water conditions ensured through your treatment systems? The AQUARIUS® BWM system technologies are certified to meet a broad global operating envelope. We have designed our equipment having in mind that ships operate globally where environmental conditions vary almost day to day. Specific design measures have been included to address the challenge of low salinity conditions and/or low temperatures in electro-chlorination systems for reliable operation and to ensure compliance. Systems have been tested to insure reliable operation under e.g. ship motion conditions and vibration, power fluctuations, temperature and humidity changes. The equipment has been designed for ship installation and operation and is put to market by a marine equipment supplier with a long history and pedigree in delivering marine products and solutions.
5. Does Wärtsilä offer initial planning steps to ship owners to help them invest in a BWM system and what are the first important points to consider? Wärtsilä are uniquely placed to offer the full range of services to its customers to enable them to meet their regulatory objectives through our partnership program. We offer equipment only supply and a tailored turnkey project delivery for both new build and retrofit projects. We offer BWM technology choices that enable us to meet diverse fleet requirements (ship types, capacities, trading patterns etc.). We advise that a ship owner evaluates technical offerings against ship type, ship trading patterns, geographic operation. Investigate the suitability of a solution to the ship specific ballast operations i.e. consider the impact of a BWM system on gravity ballasting, tank stripping etc. and consider the regulatory requirements in the areas of operation e.g. US vs rest of the world. All these are services that Wärtsilä is able to advise on. The ship owner should also consider CAPEX and OPEX not forgetting the pedigree of the equipment supplier, technical capability and technical support, global presence and aftersales service network and their history in the marine market.
Stelios Kyriacou, Technical Director, Ballast Water Management Systems,
Wärtsilä Ship Power ISSUE 03. 2014
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CLEAN TECHNOLOGY INTELLIGENCE FOR THE MARITIME SECTOR
IN THE SPOTLIGHT These technology profiles have been developed independently to give you information and include key facts to support the technology selection process. TecnoVeritas ...............................................25 BOEM-S Wärtsilä Water Systems Ltd. .......................26 AQUARIUS® UV SulNOx Fuel Fusions PLC .............................27 Advanced Fuel/ Water Emulsions Marorka ......................................................28 Marorka Energy Management Solutions
c mo h FATHOM INSIGHT atMARCH 2014 w.f w w
TECHNOLOGY IN THE SPOTLIGHT
About The Company
TecnoVeritas was established in 1993 and is a marine engineering consultancy company that aims to develop cutting edge technology for optimal fleet management, i.e. Marine Business Assurance offering a web service and data collection, information treatment and calculation. Other fields of engineering services are also provided, such as energy audits, shafting analysis, and troubleshooting. TecnoVeritas was awarded the GREEN PROJECTS AWARDS 2013 & SEATRADE AWARDS 2012 Winner on Clean Shipping.
About The Technology BOEM-S is the first cloud-based Marine Business Assurance tool, connecting Fleet operation with their ships’ staff and enabling CEO’s and Technical management to make decisions in realtime. BOEM-S continuously runs fleet performance audits, energy audits, emissions audits and maintenance audits that help to project earnings and identify treats before they happen. BOEM-S receives fleet operational data and transforms it into valuable information, thereby boosting the company efficiency and repairing “losses” where they are identified.
Using real-time fleet data throughout the company also boosts the overall efficiency, generating important time and financial gains.
Shipping and ship management companies rely on their information systems and processes to know how their ships operate, usually taking decisions based on their individual systems’ performance, but rarely have a holistic view on how they interact on the company decisions.
BOEM-S processes all the data collected onboard, transforming it into meaningful Key Performance Indicators and Business Assurance tools, so that real-time management decisions can be taken.
Being a cloud-based service (that can be subscribed with or without consultancy services) it can be accessed on any device with Internet connection, be it a Tablet, PC or Smartphone, therefore making all the updated relevant information available anywhere and anytime.
BOEM-S has tools that apply to: • •
• • •
Fuel and Energy Management - with proven energy cost reduction of up to 10 percent. Commercial Voyage Management Optimisation - Includes weather forecasts, actual ship fuel performance, predicted voyage earnings, comparisons of alternative routes. Fleet Performance Monitoring and Prediction & Benchmarking allowing the decision of the best ship for a freight contract or to know where the fleet is, when compared with others. Fleet Monitoring - general daily data, position, consumptions, speed, noon and voyage reports. Maintenance Management Onboard maintenance tasks connected to shore maintenance staff. Management of spare parts, costs and procedures. Condition-based Monitoring Ship Documentation Management Surveillance - Image transmission i s a l s o ava i l a b l e , fo r re m o te monitoring.
BOEM-S is easy and intuitive to operate, as the ship plant is organised as a tree branch diagram.
The BOEM-S has been onboard container ships since 2012 and VEEO has been onboard since 2009. BOEM-S has been approved by a NATO navy where it was subjected to rigorous testing in respect to data security transmissions. Together with the Portuguese Navy, TecnoVeritas developed a security data transmission system to ensure that all the data obtained is secure, impenetrable and in complete secrecy.
Applicable Ship Types?
Various versions of the system have been installed onboard more than 50 ships of all types, including naval vessels and factory trawlers.
New-build or Retro-fit? Both
The data acquisition system can be interfaced with existing data acquisition systems independently of the maker. The most desired way is to interface the system with structured data network (e.g. fibre), but it can be deployed using other technologies. To decide the most techno-economical solution, a previous assessment of the existing information network onboard is required.
BOEM-S is a ser vice that has no acquisition costs, instead it is based on a monthly fee. Costs of hardware and software licence onboard depend on the project size, return on investment is generally less than one year.
There is virtually no hardware maintenance needed. Software version updates are free and a Singapore office will be ready to deliver such support. ISSUE 03. 2014
TECHNOLOGY IN THE SPOTLIGHT
Wärtsilä Water Systems Ltd. AQUARIUS® UV
About The Company
Wärtsilä is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation and total efficiency, Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic performance of the ships and power plants of its customers. As part of its wide range of solutions offering for the maritime industry Wärtsilä has developed a choice of systems to comply with IMO’s Ballast Water Management Convention, and to meet the specific requirements of individual owners and their ships.
IMO Type Approval was granted in December 2012 USCG AMS Accepted in October 2013, including use in freshwater Ex Certification was granted in February 2014
Applicable Ship Types?
About The Technology
Wärtsilä AQUARIUS UV BWMS can be fitted to all ship types and both safe and hazardous area installations. The system is IMO approved and AMS accepted for use in fresh, brackish and marine waters.
D u r i n g b a l l a st wate r u pta ke t h e Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV ballast water management system (BWMS) uses a simple two stage treatment process. First stage is filtration through a 50micron automatic backwash filter. This removes from the water large particles, sediment and plankton. During the second stage filtered ballast water then passes through the UV chamber where a cross flow arrangement of medium pressure lamps delivers UV irradiation to achieve disinfection. At discharge the ballast water bypasses the filter and is treated a second time by the UV chamber prior to discharge to ensure compliance. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS employs an intelligent PLC controller to ensuring safe, automatic and economical operation.
New-build or Retro-fit?
Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV is suitable for both newbuild and retrofit projects. The equipment can be supplied as plug and play modules or loose components. Modules allow for flexible installation onboard ship making efficient use of available footprint.
The filter and UV modules can be located apart allowing for a flexible installation that makes use of available space. Power and control panels can be located in the vicinity of the equipment or remotely. Available system capacities from 50-1,000m3/hr and through parallel installations this can be up to 6,000m3/hr.
The Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV is the most cost-effective solution for ships with a ballast water flow capacity of less than 1,500m3/h. For greater flow rates the AQUARIUS® EC system becomes the more cost-effective solution.
The AQUARIUS® UV system has no consumables and low maintenance burden for the ship’s crew. A preventative maintenance schedule is sufficient to keep the equipment in good working order. The AQUARIUS® UV system is fitted with a self-diagnostic system that raises alarms on identifying problems related to system UV operation. ISSUE 03. 2014
TECHNOLOGY IN THE SPOTLIGHT
SulNOx Fuel Fusions PLC ADVANCED FUEL/WATER EMULSIONS About The Company
SULNOx Fuel Fusions was incorporated in March 2013 as a non-listed public company. Implementing new nano techniques and chemical formulas, the company has successfully perfected the emulsification process to make its SulNOxEco Fuels cheap to produce with guaranteed long term stability.
Can be utilised in any type of engine any type of size of vessel
Can be blended with any type of fuel
Can be blended with any % of water (dependent on what the engine can accommodate)
Can be blended with as little as 0.2% by volume of the emulsifier
Can be blended as a continuous process (not ‘batch blended’)
If required, can be blended immediately before being injected into the engine or burner
Blended by just mixing, so requires no expensive plant or machinery
Never stratifies or phase separates (to date, first tests still stable from Oct 2012)
Does not cause ‘micro explosions’ so is a positive benefit to engine or burner longevity and reduces maintenance requirements
Formulas of SulNOxEco emulsifiers can be adjusted for winter or summer use, to allow for extremes of temperature e.g. Preventing diesel freezing down to -30 degs C
Provides for MAXIMUM reduction of exhaust pollutants
Zero net cost to the users or even a potential profit
About The Technology S o o n a f te r t h e i nve nt i o n o f t h e combustion engine, it has been known that if a significant percentage of water can be introduced as a homogeneous partner with the hydrocarbon fuel used in combustion engines of all types, the oxidation process would be far more efficient and the flame temperatures reduced. It was understood that while the water would not provide any additional power in itself, the effects it invokes provides for better economy and the suppression of exhaust emission pollutants because the hydrocarbon fuel is burned efficiently. It also aids engine longevity and allows for reduced maintenance For decades, such hydrocarbon/water emulsified fuels have been known as ‘White Diesel’ because they reflect virtually the entire light spectrum, so appear milk-white. High level persistent attempts were made during World War II to utilise the potential positive qualities of White Diesel, but all methodology proved to be too expensive in production and, more importantly, very unstable. That is the fuel/water emulsion stratified soon after production and pure water was injected into the engines with catastrophic results.
production methods have proven to be too expensive and stability has remained very elusive! SulNOx Fuel Fusions Plc have perfected the physical and chemical technologies required to produce cheap and super stable hydrocarbon fuel/water emulsions, marketed under the trademarked brand SulNOxEco Fuels PLC. The SulNOx emulsified fuels can be made in a simple, continuous process, ‘on the fly’ if required. These long term stable emulsions provide enhanced economy with very significant reductions of exhaust pollutants, particularly NOx gases and Particulate Matter. The quality of our emulsions is such that their nano sized droplets allow a significant amount of light to pass through them and can appear almost translucent. Another valuable quality of the SulNOx emulsion technologies is the potential to utilise lower standards of hydrocarbon fuel such as HFO and obtain the same performance and results as higher quality fuels.
Over the past 25 years there have been renewed and continuous attempts worldwide to produce and introduce the use of White Diesel, but all known
DIESEL Stable micro emulsion
ISSUE 03. 2014
TECHNOLOGY IN THE SPOTLIGHT
Marorka Energy Management Solutions About The Company
Marorka has its headquarters in Reykjavik, Iceland and is a provider of energy management solutions for the international shipping industry. The company’s products and services enable ship owners and operators to optimise fuel consumption by maximising the energy efficiency of their ship or fleet with an overall goal to minimise harmful emissions and reduce costs.
About The Technology Marorka energy management products aim to save resources by utilising information technology. Reliable onboard data collection, decision support for the crew, reporting to the officers and shipto-shore data communication are key features of Marorka’s products. Marorka Onboard is located onboard the ships and offers energy system monitoring, electronic measurement logging, simulation-based decision support and extensive energy analysis. Key applications that are part of Marorka Onboard include: Propulsion Optimisation – supports the ship’s officers in reducing the shaft power required to move the ship through the water and in maximising the utilisation of fuel in the propulsion plant. Voyage Optimisation – identifies speed profiles that result in minimised voyage costs for given routes, making voyage planning simpler and more economical. The simulations are based on weather and sea state forecasts. Machinery Optimisation – identifies ways to improve the operation of all onboard
ISSUE 03. 2014
Marorka has a reference list of more than 300 ships installations. Marorka solutions have been installed on many types of ships, particularly container ships, tankers and bulk carriers.
Installation Considerations? machinery systems. Fuel Management – tracks and reports fuel consumption broken down by fuel type, consumer and ship operational state. Also tracks fuel quality and remaining onboard status. Report Management – provides tools for automatic reporting based on collected data. Data Management – completes recording and structuring of collected data, performs quality control of logged data and includes analysis tools for graphically trending and comparing real-time operational values over a period of time. Marorka Online is a web-based fleet management application that gathers performance data, allowing the fleet manager to track and compare energy performance and the condition of the fleet. It also guides users through the creation of the required SEEMP. Marorka’s integrated solutions offer transparency of fuel saving procedures, ensure compliance with relevant regulations and enable integration with other fleet management tools.
Marorka solutions are integrated solutions consisting of hardware and software components. Specially trained engineers oversee the installation of each Marorka solution. The system can be fitted in the shipyard at build time or installed onboard ships that are already in service. Service engineers will check the suitability of onboard equipment such as sensors (fuel flow, shaft power, etc.) and check the availability of signals from onboard equipment. They also oversee start up and final configuration of the system to make it ready for operation. The ship’s crew receives basic training in the day-to-day operation of the Marorka solution.
Marorka offers scalable solutions where costs are dependent on selected server size and modules. Financing and rental options are available upon request.
SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES In a regular series, The Insight will feature excerpts from the ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ by ABS
FUEL EFFICIENCY OF SHIPS OPERATING ON LOW LOADS
An operator’s most direct and useful tools for improving a vessel’s performance are the operational decisions made on a daily basis on how to conduct a voya ge , p e r fo r m re g u l a r maintenance and monitor fuel consumption efficiencies. Every voyage offers the opportunity to optimise speed, find the safest route through calm seas and make sure the ship is sailing at the best draft and trim and tuned to keep course efficiently. Selected maintenance cycles impact the resistance created by the hull and propeller.
ccurate and regular energy use monitoring across the fleet can highlight inefficiencies and provide a mechanism for continual improvement. Sharing the energy use data across a fleet can even spark competition among crews to better their energy performance. These efforts speak directly to the goals of the recently mandated IMO Guideline on Ships Energy Efficiency M a n a ge m e nt P l a n s , a to p - d o w n framework that captures the corporate commitment to energy conservation.
Ships Designed for Lower Speeds For any service with estimated cargo quantities per annum and a target fuel cost, the optimum design speed can be determined from an economic analysis such as a required freight rate (RFR) analysis. This analysis includes the number of ships necessary to meet the cargo demands at some speed,
capital costs and operating costs. It is a convenient way of judging the economic efficiency of a range of designs. If one is considering acquiring new vessels, performing this RFR analysis considering a range of potential fuel costs is a good way to get the most efficient speed at the outset.
Slow Steaming For existing ships and ships where the trading market has established a de facto standard or ‘expected’ design speed, sailing slower than the design speed on those legs of the voyage where the schedule allows is the only way to realise fuel savings. The focus then shifts to finding where in the schedule one can squeeze out some extra time to slow down and also how to make the machinery plant run at low load. The most successful slow steaming strategies look at all parts of the ship and cargo logistics chain, including port operations and customer demands, in order to identify the slowest possible sea speeds. For example, ship scheduling and speed control for liner and ferry services must be tightly integrated with overall service planning and cargo management. The penalties for arriving late (and the loss in service reliability or disruption in terminal schedule) may be very costly and historically have led to speed margins that are conservative and fuel inefficient. Nevertheless, even on liner and ferry services there are legs where the schedule is controlled by the shoreside operational window, such as stevedoring work schedule and slow speeds, may be comfortably utilised. For ships trading on the voyage charter market, like many tankers, there is usually a speed agreed to in the contract of
The full ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ can be accessed through www.eagle.org
affreightment along with an estimated time of arrival (ETA). The ship must travel at this speed and arrive at a given time in order to avoid penalties to the owner. If there is a delay in terminal availability, and the ship must wait to discharge the cargo, then the charterer must pay a demurrage penalty. With these terms fixed in the contract there is little flexibility to adjust for changes in terminal availability or try and reduce emissions by slowing the vessel and arriving just in time for cargo discharge. Further, since the charterer usually pays for the fuel, there is little incentive for the ship owner to slow down and risk late arrival. Tanker operators through their industry organisations, OCIMF and Intertanko, are addressing this with their virtual arrival scheme. This system includes provisions to share fuel cost savings and should give both parties suitable incentive to mutually arrange for slow steaming. This last point is the key: if slow steaming, or ‘optimum’ speed, is to gain widespread acceptance it will be necessary to give the fuel savings benefit to those who can control fuel consumption.
help, improving ship and shoreside mooring equipment and procedures, and improving terminal management for better and more efficient cargo handling can all be part of the plan for short port stays. The difficulty is that the ship owner or charter party, to whom the benefits accrue, may not be the one controlling the terminal or its investments in technologies and people. Nevertheless, any options for reducing port time should be investigated for their potential investment return from lower speeds and fuel consumption at sea. An added benefit of shortening extended port time is reduced fouling and losses from such settlements. Fouling in general occurs during stagnant periods. One of the other ways to squeeze more time out of the schedule is to use route planning services to avoid heavy weather and storms. These conditions cause the vessel to slow down but the added resistance due to waves means the power is not necessarily reduced at the lower speeds. Weather routing is discussed more fully below.
Finding Time in the Schedule
Issues for Machinery Operating on Low Load
The greatest opportunities for slow steaming can be realised by minimising the time the vessel spends in port. This can be addressed by improving the speed of cargo operations where shoreside cargo scheduling constraints are flexible. Investing in better shipboard cargo gear, faster or more numerous shoreside cranes or ramps, additional stevedoring
Slow steaming requires that the main engine and auxiliary systems operate at low loads, sometimes below standard manufacturer recommendations. This low load operation can cause accelerated wear of the engine and auxiliary components if not properly planned and executed. If loads less than 40 percent of MCR are expected
for long periods of time adjustments to the engine and controls should be made. Each engine manufacturer has recommendations for these adjustments and can provide equipment and parts as needed. Electronically controlled engines have more ‘range’ and can operate at lower loads (down to 10 percent load) than mechanically controlled engines. In any case, it is necessary that low load operations remain within the load and limits recorded on the NOX Tier emission certificate. Some of the maintenance issues that can occur as a result of long duration low load operation (say below 40 percent MCR) are: • Soot deposits in exhaust gas boiler resulting in tube burning/melting • Build-up of soot in turbochargers • Cutting in/out of auxiliary blowers • Increased heat load on components • Excessive lube oil consumption These effects can be mitigated with special fuel valves, exhaust gas boiler bypass, reductions in cylinder oil feed rate, decreasing turbocharger cleaning interval and adding cut-out valves. It can also be helpful to intermittently run at high loads in order to ‘blow out’ soot deposits. One additional consideration for very low load operation is that the specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC) of the engine actually increases at these loads. The engine can use 10 percent more fuel for each KW of power produced. This should be accounted for in the economic assessment of slow steaming options and potential fuel savings. ∎
The full ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ can be accessed through www.eagle.org
ECO-Ship: misnomer, misunderstood or myth? BY: JONATHAN ABRAHAMS, HEAD OF MARITIME ADVISORY, REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE AUSTRALIA, DNV GL
t is perhaps an unfortunate coincidence that in English ecological and economical share the same Latin root. “ECO” has become a prefix that is just as at home in describing the virtues of a car with better mileage as a biodegradable soap for your dishwasher. In shipping when we talk about “ECO” – we are almost always talking about highly efficient ships. There are features of course that are designed to solely minimise environmental impacts but it is almost impossible to imagine a ship that would be put into operation today with “ECO” features that would leave it at a competitive disadvantage in terms of its primary purpose – transporting cargo and people from one point to the next as efficiently as possible. Something that cannot be said for “ECO” products in many other areas. So what is the industry to do if it wants to more clearly differentiate between ships that use less fuel and thereby produce fewer emissions? The challenge for operators and those assisting them to improve the efficiency of their fleets is to assemble a parcel of measures that will best serve their particular ship and route. However, the pool of measures that each operator might find most suitable for each ship or each part of the fleet will vary widely based on many factors: the age of the ships, newbuild or refits, the route, cargo, required speed, operation in protected zones, and turnaround time. Further challenges lie not only in the development and deployment of technologies but in the assessment of those technologies. Classification societies have to follow guidelines for emission reductions and efficiency gains while also being out in front of those developments; to offer the maritime industry a feasible path forward that is enabling rather than prescriptive.
ISSUE 03. 2014
SHIP DESIGN In this context, being able to rely on results which have been tested and proven to work is invaluable. The following section on bulbous bow refits by Carsten Hahn and Volker Bertram (DNV GL Maritime Advisory) draws upon both theoretical and empirical evidence from many such projects conducted by DNV GL over the last few years. It shows how bulbous bow refitting can help to provide the kind of outcomes that justify giving the title of ‘ECO-ship’.
Bulbous Bow Refits – The Industry catches on Formal optimisation can be applied to complete ship hulls, but also to selected portions of a hull. The latter case makes bulbous bow refits an attractive option, especially for container ships in times of slow steaming. A case study shows yearly fuel savings of 10 percent for a large container ship, considering a current operational profile. Fuel efficiency is bound to stay the dominant topic in shipping for years to come. It is well known that hull optimisation is one of the most important levers for fuel efficiency in newbuildings. However, re-design and refit of bulbous bows is often not considered at all for ships in service. This oversight is understandable as the achievable savings were frequently underestimated even by experts. Recent studies have shown for a first time that attractive payback times of less than a year might be possible for bulbous bow refits. While obtainable fuel savings are significantly larger for complete hull optimisations, optimisation of the bulbous bow region alone offers still potentially very attractive fuel efficiency gains, especially for high-powered large container ships which now operate frequently in off-design conditions (slow steaming). State-of-the-art optimisation for a realistic operational profile rather than a single design point opens the door to significant further fuel savings, also for refits. This has been demonstrated in many projects by DNV GL Maritime Advisory (formerly known as FutureShip). The company performed 16 bow refit projects in 2013, and nine already in the first quarter of 2014.
State of the art optimisation tools The results of any optimisation project depend on the software tools employed and on the skill and experience of the project engineers. Many so-called hull optimisation projects fall short of what the best in the field can achieve. The reasons are manifold: •
False labelling: Simple improvement e.g. guided by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analyses is called “optimisation”. Wrong choice of optimisation objectives or methods: Rather than
yearly fuel consumption, a single design point is chosen; or only the resistance is minimised rather than the required power; or instead of a high-fidelity CFD code a simpler software is employed introducing errors in the hydrodynamic assessment of variants. Restricted form variation: The investigated form variations depend on the fundamental (parametric) model. Unfortunate set-up of the parametric model may then prevent finding superior designs. Good parametric modelling requires considerable experience.
Bow Refit of a 12,000 TEU container ship The owner realised the opportunities of a bulbous bow refit for his fleet of 12,000 TEU container ships. The task was then to find the best solution for the owner’s current operational profile. The ship owner supplied records of actual operational data for the ship for a whole year. The database of speeds and drafts was condensed to six representative clusters of speed-draft combinations w i t h a s s o c i ate d we i g ht s ra n g i n g between 10-25 percent. The objective was then to reduce the combined fuel consumption for these six operational states, considering their time share in yearly operation. A parametric model was set up for the bow section, employing 28 free parameters. The high number of parameters ensured that a vast number of possible bow shapes could be created. A harmonious fit with the rest of the hull was imposed by suitable constraints on the hull-bow intersection.
Original hull (port) and optimised refit (starboard)
Some 7,500 bow variants were investigated. The optimisation achieved substantial improvements for all considered operational conditions, yielding expected yearly fuel savings of ~10 percent for the actual operational profile. These savings are higher than typically for bow-only optimisation projects (4-5 percent), but not uniquely so. As for full hull optimisation projects, the numerical results have been validated many times against “numerical sea trials” (high-fidelity CFD simulations for fullscale ship) and model tests with good agreement. They can thus be considered as reliable. Depending on size of fleet, employed repair yard and assumed fuel oil price, there are variations in payback times, but all realistic scenarios show payback times between two and eight months, making refits with optimised bows a good business decision by anybody’s standards.
CFD wave pattern: original hull (bottom) and optimised refit (top)
For more information or a copy of this article, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
ISSUE 03. 2014
THE RISE OF SHIPYARD TECHNOLOGY HUBS Whilst Plato may or may not have observed that necessity is the mother of invention, it is certainly true that regulations help speed up the development of inventions into practical solutions.
owever, this is of little comfort to the ship owner when faced with a raft of new regulations, a plethora of competing technologies and an inevitable increase in both capital and operating costs. Modifying ships to meet impending legislation presents a number of challenges, both technical and financial, and every ship is different – there is not a simple ‘one size fits all’ solution.
MARPOL Annex VI There are three main routes to complying with the SO X emission limits set in MARPOL Annex VI: 1. Switching to ultra-low sulphur MGO involves the lowest capital expenditure but with eye-watering increases in bunker costs. 2. LNG is predicted to account for 15 percent of the bunker market by 2025 but has yet to establish a global distribution network. There are uncertainties over future supply and pricing for all fuel options. 3. Exhaust gas scrubbers are readily available from a number of suppliers and have a growing reference list, but are generally large and heavy with a potential impact on space and stability – although technology is improving rapidly. The solution depends on the type of ship and its age, its trading area, the time it operates within an ECA, and its operating profile.
Fa c e d w i t h t h e h u ge a m o u nt o f retrofitting needed over the next few years, there will be an inevitable strain on the availability of equipment, shipyard resources, installation and commissioning engineers. The clock is ticking and the spectre of bottlenecks looms. Those ship owners who have left their planning to the last minute will find themselves at the back of the queue when it comes to accessing resources, and possibly having to settle for less than optimum solutions. Ship operators often have difficulty in assessing the sales offerings from technology equipment suppliers, whereas technology suppliers struggle to get their products fully understood by the ship operators, particularly when the technology is relatively new and complex. Technical Consultant Andy Askham recognised that whilst shipyards are traditionally conservative, they can form an essential part of the solution. He is working with UK-based Cammell Laird Shipyard and has been tasked with the job of creating a technology hub with a proactive shipyard at its centre - a forum for the sharing of expertise, experience, and a place where a ship owner can find a ‘one-stop-shop’ for eco-efficiency installations. He explained that “the Merseyside shipyard is ideally placed for this role. It has extensive practical experience in ship conversion and equipment retrofit, including a number of ballast water treatment system installations.” Cammell Laird’s design team of engineers and naval architects have delivered projects that include fleet studies on a range of ships, providing work scope and drawings to achieve Class approvals for regulatory modifications, and feasibility studies for the installation of exhaust scrubbers. Cammell Laird hold a vital role inmaking the technology hubs a reality.
In establishing the ‘shipyard hub’ concept, Cammell Laird has forged excellent links with a wide range of eco-efficiency technology companies to provide a neutral hub where ship operators are able to draw on the cost-effective expertise and assistance of the shipyard in arriving at the optimum solution for their ships, and at the same time receive complete turnkey quotations for their projects. Askham pointed out that “careful planning can minimise downtime and capital costs plus help to improve operational efficiency.” In addition to assisting ship owners to achieve regulatory compliance, the shipyard is also able to draw on its experience and connections to offer the ship owner a wide range of fuel saving measures. Even a small percentage saving in fuel can equate to a significant cost saving and with this, return on investment can be very attractive. Eco-efficiency retrofits can range from relatively simple and inexpensive such as variable speed pump control, thermal insulation and efficient hull coatings to more esoteric and complex such as trim optimisation, propeller ducts and air lubrication. All can have a part to play in improving efficiency and reducing both emissions and fuel costs. ∎ Andy Askham has a comprehensive background in ship management. His career as a Marine Engineer included positions as an LPG Cargo Engineer and Chief Engineer before moving to shore based roles. A former Technical Director of a RoRo freight ferry company, he was responsible for setting up and delivering costeffective ship management with an emphasis on safety and reliability, assimilating ships into an expanding fleet, and building two series of RoRo vessels. With an understanding of the difficulties being faced by ship owners, operators and managers in the face of impending regulatory changes and the continuous striving for energy efficiency, he created Woodbank Marine to assist ship owners in meeting these challenges. Andy is currently working with Cammell Laird Shipyard as a Technical Consultant.
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SPECIALISING IN COMPLEX SHIP CONVERSION & UPGRADE PROJECTS FROM CONCEPT TO COMPLETION
The 3D seismic survey ship, Polarcus Naila, returned to operations in May this year after a major refit carried out at Damen’s Shipdock Amsterdam yard, during which time she became the first ship to be fitted with the pioneering new Cat Propulsion twin fin system.
eveloped in partnership with Odense Maritime Technology (OMT) and Scandinavian Marine Group (SMG), the Cat Propulsion twin fin system is a diesel electric propulsion package that is designed to save fuel, reduce emissions and enhance overall ship performance. Already the ship’s operator, Dubai-based Polarcus DMCC, has reported significant operating and cost benefits as a result of the decision to switch from the azimuth thruster arrangement that was originally on the ship to this new solution.
Delivered in 2010, Polarcus Naila is an ultra-modern seismic ship built to the Ulstein SX124 design which combines the latest developments in maritime systems with the most advanced seismic technology commercially available on the market. The ship is also amongst the most environmentally sound seismic ships in service, complying with the stringent DNV Clean Design notation, as well as the DNV Environmental and Energy Efficiency scheme, Triple E, under which the Polarcus fleet is the only one in the world to have the highest Tier 1 rating for its ships. The demands on ships of this type are particularly intense. As Mr Zickerman, Executive Vice President Polarcus, points out, “around 85 percent of the time, Polarcus Naila is operating effectively as a tug, towing a huge array of highly valuable equipment behind the ship, often in variable weather conditions. Being at high load all the time puts immense pressure on the propulsion system, so it is vitally important that its propulsion system functions with the highest degree of reliability. Stopping this vessel is simply not an option for both technical and commercial reasons. Downtime has to be avoided at all costs.”
PROPULSION The Reasons Behind the Refit
Due to the extremely high level of performance and reliability required, the operator of Polarcus Naila decided that the ship’s propulsion technology could be further enhanced. Problems had been encountered with vibration caused by gear wearing, for example, as well as other issues and so a decision was taken to look for alternatives. Discussions were held with three different design houses, which were all challenged by Polarcus to come up with an innovative solution that would meet a set of stringent criteria. These included: A 100 percent increase in redundancy; a 35 percent increase in bollard pull; 30 percent greater endurance; silent propulsion; a short conversion timeframe; and a rapid payback in terms of bottom line impact. The solution put forward by the Caterpillar Propulsion team came out on top, with its twin fin system. This arrangement protects all of the propulsion system’s mechanical parts within the hull profile, while maintaining high levels of manoeuvrability and, crucially, making gains in terms of reliability and efficiency.
Initially conceived for ships in harsh operating environments, such as the Arctic, the twin fin system comprises a compact electric motor and gearbox configuration connected via a short drive shaft. The shaft rotates a pair of controllable pitch propellers, whose performance is enhanced by two tailormade fins attached to the hull.
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The key transmission elements of the system are accessible from inside the ship, facilitating maintenance and potentially avoiding the need for the ship to enter drydock to carry out repairs. The gear and electric motors, as well as the stern tube inner sealing can be exchanged by the crew through the deck, making it ideally suited to ships operating in remote locations. As well as designed to be both robust and reliable, the Cat Propulsion twin fin system offers increased thrust and requires a lower power input as a result of having larger propellers running at lower shaft speeds, as well as minimal mechanical loss. Hydrodynamicallydesigned fins ensure homogenous water flow to the propellers, which in turn leads to lower fuel consumption, reduced emissions and less noise.
The upgrade to the ship’s propulsion system was completed in just 55 days at Shipdock Amsterdam at a cost of around US$ 12 million. While the twin tin system can be delivered to newbuildings, it is especially well suited for retrofits. In this case the fins were supplied prefabricated, fully equipped, and already tailored to the design and operating requirements of Polarcus Naila. This made the retrofit relatively simple and fast to complete. On arrival at the yard, the azimuth thrusters were removed and the ship structure, comprising the interface to the fin, nozzle and rudder, was prepared. These units were then welded in place and new equipment
inside the hull was arranged together with the necessary cable runs and pipe connections. While the investment in the retrofit was not an insignificant sum of money, Polarcus says it can already see that it makes commercial and technical sense. The ship now has increased bollard pull and reduced operating costs, with fuel consumption levels for propulsion running at 30 percent below that previously registered when operating with azimuth thrusters. “We are confident the conversion will have a payback time of less than three years,” says Mr Zickerman.
Polarcus prides itself on being a green company and there have been benefits in the environmental sense as well. For example, the Cat Propulsion twin fin arrangement uses water-based rather than oil-based lubrication, while the lower fuel consumption cuts pollution levels as well. The upgrade has already demonstrated a number of other operational benefits with the crew reporting that the ship now has more ‘power and punch’. For example, Polarcus Naila is today able to tow ultra-wide eight and ten streamer spreads thereby matching the four higher performance A-class ships in the Polarcus fleet. With this greater efficiency comes higher earning power. In many respects, Polarcus Naila has been given a new lease of life. “Since May when she returned to sea, we have seen a big shift in performance, with greater reliability, more power and improved course keeping stability,” says Mr Zickerman. “Before the refit the vessel was handicapped by the propulsion system. Now that burden has been lifted and we have a system which provides greater reliability, full fleet interchangeability, reduced operational expenses and a lower environment impact. It has overall been a win-win project for our company.” Since the ship had the twin fin conversion, there has been no technical downtime associated with the propulsion. As a result of the improved performance Mr Zickerman stated that they are already planning a similar conversion on her sister ship, Polarcus Nadia. ∎
AC/DC AT THE CROSSROADS Ships can be thought of as being analogous to small floating cities when it comes to their power demands and supporting human life, and cargo life at sea. These floating cities rely on electricity to maintain the safe transportation of people and cargo, and all without the mains-supply electricity connections that land-based cities take for granted.
raditionally, the distribution of electricity onboard ships has been facilitated through the use of alternating current (AC), a power source which is predominantly used across the world in high power applications. To date, AC has been preferred because it enables installation of more efficient electric generators, motors and power distribution systems compared to Direct Current (DC). However, strong arguments exist to suggest that a shift to using DC power onboard ships will yield fuel savings along with improved safety and reduced maintenance. ABB has recently announced the release of its Onboard DC Grid system, which during sea trials demonstrated up to 27 percent fuel savings potential. Henrique Pestana, Head of Ship Design ABB, gave Fathom key insight into how this shift from AC to DC may be a turning point for electrical power supply for ships.
Why Convert to DC? The onboard DC Grid is a distribution system that uses any existing AC grid and re-wires the ship to use DC. The onboard DC grid means that all the proven products already used in electric ships such as AC generators, inverter modules, AC motors etc. are still in use. However, the main AC switchboards and heavy transformers are no longer required, reducing space and weight considerably. All the electrical power is then fed directly or via a rectifier into a common DC bus that distributes the energy to the consumers. Typically a diesel marine engine coupled to a generator is required to operate at a fixed speed. Therefore, if the load is low then specific fuel consumption is greatly increased. By using DC it is possible to vary the speed of the generator and pursue the operating point of the engine which is the
equivalent ofthe least fuel consumption. Pestana highlighted that “by allowing the generators to operate in different combinations of power and speed it can greatly improve efficiency,” “The big advantage of the switch is being able to use generators at varying frequencies allowing them to run at variable speeds instead of fixed speed when using AC power,” emphasised Pestana. However, it must be noted that the grid itself does not save any energy; instead it allows the engines to work at a more efficient rate. For offshore support vessels or ships that require stationary positioning, this is a very attractive option. This is mainly because ships that spend a large percentage of their time holding position do not need much power, yet redundancy is still a necessity requiring more generators online for the power demand. Re d u c i n g t h e wo r k l o a d o f t h e engines has a knock-on effect on noise and vibrations - “a full 5 decibels or 30 percent less noise which the crew in the engine room will be pleased about,” Pestana confirmed. The system will also greatly reduce both the weight and the footprint of the installed electrical equipment, however this is dependent on the ship type and application. Pestana commented that “ABB would work closely with the owner during the design phase so all available space saved can be turned into a more functional vessel layout.”
A Highly Flexible Solution The Onboard DC Grid is highly flexible and capable of combining different energy sources such as engines, turbines, fuel cells, etc. According to Pestana, “the system gives owners huge potential for implementing a
real energy managementsystem and ships that require significant energy storage will benefit.” Not only will the Onboard DC Grid benefit electrical operations; it can also improve the safe running of the ship by responding to blackouts quickly and efficiently. The Onboard DC grid, as Pestana explained, is significantly quicker than conventional AC responses. “The system can recover from a full blackout in 30 seconds which is considerably quicker than several minutes for an AC grid. It can also recover any fault current in less than 500 milliseconds which is a completely different approach to safety and protection whilst at sea.” Fuses are used to protect and isolate inverter modules in case of serious module faults. Input circuits separate the inverter modules from the main DC bus which means that faults or a single consumer will not affect other consumers on the main DC distribution system. For any major faults on the distributed DC bus, the system uses a controllable thyristor rectifier to protect it from the generators. The rectifier also doubles up as a protection device for the generators. There are also isolators installed in each circuit branch that automatically isolate any faulty sections from the main board.
The Future’s Bright, The Future’s DC A new future direction for electricity generation at sea is emerging and it is a future of solutions, such as ABB’s Onboard DC that promise to provide savings, safety and lower maintenance. We shall watch with bated breath to see if the Onboard DC Grid can really offer reductions in fuel oil consumption, emissions and maintenance while providing new operational modes that improve the response of the ship system. ISSUE 03. 2014
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C O N S U LT I NG
HARNESSING THE WINDS OF CHANGE AN ECONOMIC SOLUTION FOR SMALLER SHIPS
The global fleet, indeed the global economy, was built on wind-powered ships. When we think of wind at sea we picture glorious old clippers. Take the Flying Cloud, for example. She held the world sailing speed record from 1854 – 1989 and was originally built as a commercial response to The Gold Rush between New York and San Francisco.
o s a i l i n g s h i p to u c h e d h e r p e r fo r m a n c e fo r 1 3 5 ye a rs because the evolution of sailing ships was effectively halted when the Industrial Revolution took hold. Fathom caught up with Diane Gilpin, Director of B9 Shipping, to get her insight on the development and future potential for wind power in the commercial world.
The Potential of Wind Power America’s Cup yachts are able to sail faster than the wind they use to propel them. In the same way that Formula 1 is used as a test bed for the automotive sector, in these challenging times for shipping we are now seriously considering how the knowledge of sailing technology can be transferred to the commercial sector. The unique selling point for using wind to augment propulsion is simple: there are no plans to alter the price of wind anytime soon. It is an infinite, if intermittent, free fuel supply. Sailing and wind-assist devices deployed today will use ‘fuel’ that costs exactly the same over the ship’s lifetime. Fixing a significant proportion of fuel cost gives greater long-term certainty in operating budgets allowing more room to manoeuvre in other critical operational areas. The global fleet is a complex ‘ecosystem’ made up of multiple ship types operating in a myriad of situations, both responding to, and driving the global economic system. Wind solutions such as Flettner rotors, kites and wingsails are being developed and tested for various different types of ships to seek out the
potential for fuel savings. Sailing hybrid ships are generally smaller ships, below 15,000 dwt, where, over an annual period, 50 percent or more of the propulsive power can be generated by wind. Smaller conventional ships are inherently less efficient, unable to benefit from economies of scale, and therefore more vulnerable to vagaries in bunker prices. The proportion of operating budget on small ships attributable to fuel has risen from 10 percent to 60 percent in the last decade. Sailing hybrid ships, where 50 percent of the propulsion comes from ‘free fuel’, makes economic sense. This financial price is what is driving designers and naval architects to work alongside the industry to create workable 21st century industrial sailing ships. 21st century sailing ships are reliable, designed to deliver to the same schedules as a conventional ship. If the wind does not blow, there is an engine to ensure logistics commitments are met. If the wind does blow, sailing hybrid ships increase speed to reduce overall fuel use along any given route. Smart weather routing systems devised for offshore yacht racing, and adapted for the commercial sector, support optimum course decisions to minimise fuel use whilst maintaining schedules. Modern sailing and wind-assist systems do not require extra crew members and sail systems are operated electronically from the bridge. Push button technology allows every bit of performance to be squeezed out of the available wind. Technology responds in seconds so that the sail system can dynamically respond to shifts in the wind. Future Automated Sailing Technology (FAST) rigs are the industrial response to the dynarig, created in the 1960s by German, Wilhelm Prölss, and proven
on the super-yacht The Maltese Falcon launched in 2006. She uses sail propulsion alone for more than 60 percent of her time at sea. She has crossed oceans, manoeuvred in and out of ports across the world and can be sailed straight off the dock. All this can be done with a sailing crew of just 2, one to push the buttons, the other to fetch the coffee.
Automated Sailing Rig on Maltese Falcon To industrialise this proven technology, loading and force analysis is undertaken on the various materials that will create a robust, workaday solution for a merchant ship rather than a moneyno-object system that is a necessary element of superyacht DNA. The FAST rig combines steel and composites in a novel but straightforward way to secure the optimum techno-economic balances between strength, light-weight materials and cost. The sails themselves work like roller blinds, each individually fitted into the rig system via a cassette mechanism. This offers several advantages; when all the sails are fully deployed, the propulsion effect is similar to a fixed wingsail but in varying weather conditions, where the wind behaves differently at the top and the bottom of the masts, various combinations of soft FAST rig sail can be deployed to allow maximum use of available wind. In the event that a sail blows out it is easy, safe and cheap to replace while in port. The mast is tubular and will contain, on the inside, a safety ladder developed and approved for use in wind turbines. The crew will be able to clip out the old cassette and attach the ISSUE 03. 2014
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The B9 Sailing Hybrid Design
Access to Sails Inside The Mast new one in. The FAST rig, as a consequence of automation, has no lines and rigging on deck meaning access to holds is considerably more straightforward than on the old traditional clipper ships. This does not mean that there aren’t obstacles being addressed in cargo access but none are considered insurmountable. Certain cargoes are more suited to early adoption of wind at sea and smaller dry bulk ships are proving to be most promising ISSUE 03. 2014
first movers. Commercial ship designers are working with ports and cargo owners developing solutions to work around the structures on deck, looking at loading/ discharge options, self load solutions and interfaces with existing automated computerised portside cranes. Renewable energy has been adopted by land-based systems as resilient hedging tools to address the demise of fossil fuels. The maritime sector has multiple opportunities in this area too; there is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution so the industry will have to think of smarter designs suitable to provide resilient systems for a heterogeneous global fleet. ∎
Shore connection technology has existed for decades. However, recent environmental legislation combined with a global standard for the connection has made shore connections the topic of the moment.
athom talks to Pete Selway, segment marketing manager at Schneider Electric, to find out how shore connections can benefit ship owners and why it is important they invest in the technology. In simple terms, shore power systems enable a ship to connect to the electricity grid of the country where it is berthed, rather than having to rely on the ship’s generators. These types of systems have existed for a while, with the most common use coming from Navies. The technology behind shore connections has not changed or developed very quickly and is generally a rotary of static based systems that often require newbuildings to be built and extensive infrastructure to support them. With this in mind, Schneider Electric decided to take a fresh new look at the technology and designed a new system from the ground up, using the very efficient Grid Frequency Converters and a modular design. The end result is a solution that is cheaper to run, more efficient, faster to deploy and much more flexible than existing shore connection technology. Schneider Electric’s ShoreBoX solution is a ready-to-use modular system which provides shore-side power to ships at berth via a direct connection to the port’s electrical network, allowing ships to save money and enabling both ships and ports to meet environmental directives and regulations in the most profitable way.
The ShoreBoX solution is adaptable to the different power demands and electrical frequency of the ships and due to a Static Grid Frequency Conversion system, ShoreBoX transfers just the energy needed at any given moment, no more. As well as creating a healthier environment for staff, shore connections can save ship owners a significant amount of money. Running onboard generators at berth, for example, is much more expensive than using a shore connection. In fact, a ship owner can expect a payback in as little as three years and Schneider Electric has calculated that a cruise liner could save £319k per year by using a shore connection. By 2025, it is going to be mandatory for European ports to implement shore connection systems but before that, there are significant environmental and
commercial benefits for ship and port owners to reap. Despite these benefits, there is still some apprehension amongst ship owners as they argue that it should be the ports that make the first move to set up the shore power infrastructure. This has created a ‘chicken and egg’ situation where ports will not invest until ship owners build or adapt ships that are shore connection ready, and ship owners are demanding that ports have the shore connection infrastructure in place before they invest in developing their ships. To break this cycle, it is imperative that ship owners work collaboratively with ports to implement this technology which has such considerable benefits for all of those involved. However, it is also important that ship owners look at investing outside of what the ports are doing. Ideally, ships should be built to be ISSUE 03. 2014
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lec rE id e ne ch ay ,S lw Se Pe te r
able to take a shore connection as the additional cost is negligible. Retrofitting can be done and Schneider Electric of course offers this service but it is much more expensive to do. Most new ships are now built to be shore connection ready but it is important to check that it is part of the specification for the ship from day one. Schneider Electric has been working with most major ports and owners to develop these connections. However, with this supply and demand situation, engaging with ship owners directly is equally important. As with any technology, there are many issues that need to be considered such as how much and what frequency of power is required. To help better understand the issues, Schneider Electric has been raising the profile of the technology with the industry by hosting seminars and
IS THE FUTURE
publishing articles around the world and will continue to do so until this ‘chicken and the egg’ situation is resolved.∎
CONTINUOUS EMISSIONS MONITORING THE REAL-TIME COMPLIANCE REPORTER COMMENT FROM CHRIS DAW, MANAGING DIRECTOR, PROCAL, PART OF PARKER GROUP
With the imminent arrival of Europe and North America’s Emission Control Area (ECA), sulphur emissions limit of 0.1 percent, and with a global ECA to follow, ship owners will be under significant pressure to prove compliance or else face significant fines they can ill-afford.
he Clean Shipping Coalition (CSC) has suggested to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) that continuous monitoring technologies that measure emissions directly during the entire journey should be installed on all ships. In its submission to the IMO, CSC said bunker delivery notes (BDNs), which have been “the primary instrument” for ships to verify compliance with sulphur limits, leave too much room for uncertainty. A key concern for CSC is to ensure that there are no loopholes in efforts to enforce the provisions of MARPOL Annex VI, which sets limits for emissions to air from ships. Several shipping companies, including DFDS, Maersk and Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics (WWL) have also raised concerns about inadequate monitoring of ships for compliance with the 0.10 percent sulphur limit in ECAs from 2015, when the cost of compliance will increase dramatically. A recent consultation by the UK’s Maritime and Coastguard Agency suggested that it could prove hard for port state control (PSC) authorities to check if a ship with a scrubber onboard was actually using it. This prompted Meindert Vink, senior policy advisor, Netherlands Shipping Inspectorate to state that he had faith in scrubber technology, especially if combined with tamper-proof continuous monitoring technology. He noted that this would make it straightforward for PSC to simply check the record on paper. Continuous monitoring of sulphur emissions is one of two methods that can be used to certify scrubbers, according to IMO guidelines. The most effective method for measuring emissions is insitu monitoring using a Continuous Emissions Monitoring system (CEMS). Exhaust gases from the combustion of residual and distillate fuels can be analysed so that compliance can be confirmed in port, in ECAs and in international waters. In contrast to extractive sampling where a gas sample needs to be physically extracted from the system for analysis, ‘in-situ’ monitoring provides a continuous, real-time measurement of the content of your exhaust gases, with data provided instantaneously on a screen that can be installed in the engine room and on the bridge. An in-situ continuous monitoring system will immediately flag up any problems. By contrast, a six stack extractive system will monitor any stack for only twelve minutes in any hour, causing potential delay in relaying failure.In-situ systems are also more
reliable, as they do not require any filtration or drying of the exhaust gas, and are the only real monitoring option for lowmaintenance seawater scrubbing operations. The unique nature of infra-red in-situ systems make them sensitive enough to confirm compliance, even when emission limits are very low. Emissions that are the equivalent of 0.1 percent sulphur fuel are around 22ppm of SOX in the exhaust gas. Any instrument with a range over 0-100 ppm will not be accurate enough to measure this and an inappropriate choice for operational scrubber monitoring. For example, Parker Kittiwake’s Procal 2000 - an infra-red (IR), duct or stack-mounted system, designed to provide in-stack analysis - has an SO 2 monitoring range of 0-100 ppm but can automatically switch ranges to 0-500/1,000 ppm for monitoring operations outside of an ECA on high-sulphur fuels. An instrument such as this can measure up to six exhaust gases and a typical system could comprise of up to six stackmounted analysers to measure gases such as SO2, CO2 and NOX. The analysers are connected to a data acquisition system, which displays, data logs and retransmits the monitored concentrations and SO2 and CO2 ratio - in accordance with IMO regulations - without any manual intervention. Not only is it in the interest of the operator to ensure that they are compliant with readily accessible and relevant data to back up this claim, CEMS performs a valuable operational role. Armed with accurate data about its ship’s emissions, a ship’s crew and management onshore can make ‘real-time’ adjustments to the way the ship is operated, optimising operations within regulatory limits. When it comes to controlling emissions, knowledge is power. ∎
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SAILING ON SUSTAINABILITY
In an economic climate where maritime fuel costs are set to break record highs by 2015, as a result of environmental pressures to reduce global sulphur emission from 1.0% to 0.1% under MARPOL Annex VI. Where, technological developments battle to innovate to stay ahead of compliance. Where, biofuels remain as a continuously contentious topic of debate at IMO level and steps towards a regulatory framework of “do’s and don’ts” in the carriage and blending of biofuels is exemplified through the recent IMO Resolution MSC.325(90), 2014. Greenhouse gas emissions are no longer a debate of ethics, but rather go straight to the heart of corporate cost analysis.
h e g l o b a l ra c e t o w a rd s t h e commercialisation and verification of biofuels for the maritime industry is underway and accelerating.
Growing Interest of Biofuels
Following Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention, the issue of combating sulphur emissions is no longer an eco -i n d u l gen ce reser ved fo r th e conscientious. The flip side is that, in light of stringent regulatory requirements, biofuels could be fast becoming ‘cost advantageous’ in comparison to their low-sulphur competitors. This year Jacob Sterling, Maersk’s former Environmental Manager summed it up quite simply, “We use 10 million tonnes of bunker fuel a year for our ships. Instead of buying expensive low-sulphur oil in 2015 we would equally like to buy some kind of low quality second generation biofuels, where we also get a carbon dioxide advantage.”
The ‘Game Changing’ Report
The new report, ‘Aviation and Marine Biofuels, 2014’ launched by Navigant Research holds information that could potentially be a game changer for the development of intelligence and action around biofuels within the maritime industry. Led by North America, the report suggests that installed nameplate production capacity is expected to reach 3.3 billion gallons by 2024, representing 1.5% of total aviation and marine fuel consumption. The report focuses on the need to hedge against emerging market demands, regulations, and certification pathways. The report provides an in-depth look at advanced biofuels produced from sustainable non-food sources to overcome feed-stock constraints and high investment demands.
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The Pivotal Research Efforts
A maritime industry specific project already underway in Norway is ‘ReShip’, in collaboration with Aston University (UK). The method, ingenious in design, utilises low quality wood waste left over from logging and converts it into crude pyrolysis oil, via the process of fast pyrolysis wherein material is heated without oxygen. The major barrier to mass production is its compatibility with diesel engines. Therefore the project aims to explore the idea of ‘multi-component fuel’ – put simply this looks at which fossil fuels can be added to the blend. However, Prof Bridgewater, head of research, aims to go beyond generic diesel/biofuel ratios to test concentration levels in other fossil fuels. Commercial investment into pyrolysis oil is taking off to the tone of a recent EUR€20 million investment from Fortum, Finland, in collaboration with UPM and Valmet, to develop a plant that will be the ‘first of its kind in the world on an industrial scale’ towards developing this technology for a commercial market. Onboard the voyage to revolutionise our current dependency on fossil fuels, it is speculated the European Commission will also be investing EUR €32m into a new biofuel plant, again based on forest residues technology. The trail of logic being, investment into the macroproduction of crude pyrolysis oil will completely alter the maritime industry – ensuring sustainable growth and prosperity. On trend with sustainable corporate efficiency, Maersk in partnership with Progression Industry, a division of Eindhoven University of Technology’s Department of Mechanical Engineering in the Netherlands, is developing a renewable lignin-based marine fuel called Cyc1Ox for Maersk Oil Trading, the Maersk Line Fuel supplier. If Progression
Industry can produce the fuel to meet criterion there is a formal agreement to purchase 50,000 metric tons. Though this will help to reduce emissions and costs, particularly in Emission Control Areas (ECAs), the company’s focus is to produce a cheaper substitute to their USD$7 billion annual bill on fuel. For Maersk Line, testing biofuels is a part of a wider strategy to reduce emissions by 25% by 2020 to ensure corporate sustainability.
Reliability is key to Sustainability An anecdote close to home puts this into perspective – when the price of oil goes up by USD$1 per barrel, the relayed increase to the US Navy is EUR$30 million per annum. The US Navy now says it is seeking 37 million gallons of drop-in biofuels in what it describes as a major step towards reducing its reliance on petroleum to produce reliability in overall fuel supply. This translates into the commercial maritime industry, as commercial fleets bare the brunt of fluctuation as well. To pluck out an example, in the chaos to comply with low-sulphur fuel standards under EU regulation, switching fuel type would cost Maersk Line, the world’s biggest shipping container group, an estimated USD$200 million a year.
Forecasting for the Future
Innovative development in this area is motivated largely by market demands stemming from compliance. The risk, being that some maritime firms through cost assessment analysis may find it cheaper to pay fines for non-compliance than invest in changing fuels or fitting technology. “The potential for not following the regulations is there, because you can save a lot of money” according to Mads Stensen, Global Adviser on sustainability at Maersk Line. ∎
SOFTWARE HITS THE SEAS “The first cost that many companies do not necessarily anticipate when they look for software is the cost of a failed implementation, usually due to a lack of adoption by staff, or under-usage because their people do not like using the software.”
you get out of it, which allows you to make better decisions as a company,” Banister highlighted. Canada-based Helm Operations (formerly Edoc Systems Group) has its systems installed on over 1,000 ships belonging to some of the leading global workboat companies.
This quote from Rodger Banister, Helm Operations Vice President Marketing, sums up the challenge that ship owners and operators face when looking at any new technology solution. Change can be hard to accept, especially when it means alterations to normal operations.
The plan for Helm’s newest product, Helm CONNECT, will provide the user with all the information required to perform key tasks, whether these are managing safety and compliance, preventive maintenance work, billing or jobs.
One of the key changes (or should that be challenges) is the impact of the digital era on traditional ship operations. The global push for software that aims at increasing productivity is reaching out to the shipping industry. The digital ship of the future is growing in popularity and more data is being collected by ships than ever before. Harnessing this data into a useful software solution that is intuitive and engaging for users that ensures staff and crew understand and even enjoy using it is the optimal goal of a software provider. But how easy is this in reality? This is where gamification software could be a game changer. For those of you not familiar with gamification, it is the concept of applying game mechanics and game design techniques to engage and motivate people to achieve their goals. Fathom spoke to Rodger Banister of Helm Operations to find out why their plans for a gamified operational software app for workboats (tugs, barges and offshore support vessels (OSV)) was attracting so much attention, especially after its acquisition by Japanese classification society ClassNK. You Get Out What You Put In? “The more people that engage with the software, the better data and reporting
Even though workboat companies do not need a software system to be compliant, it can make life a great deal easier for them. The software reportedly ensures that every compliance-related concern a workboat company has can be tracked down and proven that something is being done about it. This is crucial when a regulatory body requires confirmation of information. Ongoing compliance audits can bring areas of a workboat company to a standstill, states Mr Banister. “Customers or regulatory bodies conducting the audits can distract a safety and compliance manager for weeks at a time as they go through forms, emails, paper trails and more to ensure that a workboat company is operating with respect to its safety management system.” Compliance Through Game Techniques Helm CONNECT is being developed with the user in mind. It is the workboat industry’s first app-based, web-based, workflow-based software system designed through user experience principles. In order to get the crew to utilise the software, Helm is designing it in such a way that they are embedding gamification into it. This, according to Banister, means that a certain safetyoriented behaviour could be rewarded and assist in making for safer operations of their ships.
By engaging the crew with rewards or competitions within the app it maintains that the information is kept current for all users. App Development Development of software generally starts with what the users need. This is no different with the Helm CONNECT software. Banister commented that Helm convenes in-depth ‘user experience workshops’ with individual customers to explore wide-ranging industry challenges and the software solutions that can or could assist. “We get everyone involved in a workflow together in a room and discuss their role so we can map them all out.” “Once we have met, mapped, designed a n d te ste d o u r w i ref ra m e s w i t h onshore and on vessel users, we start the development process to create standardised apps that handle things like preventive maintenance, inspections or action items.” “If customers want to customize the software they will be able do it themselves or via a third party through our extensible application programming interface (API). This is basically a rules engine that allows a development team to develop in our software and gives customers the ability to connect (or integrate) Helm CONNECT apps with any other software in their system such as accounting or human resources software.” By designing the various apps to reflect user needs, Helm is pushing software boundaries. The addition of gamification in a non-gaming context is a truly powerful tool to engage employees and crew, to change behaviours, develop skills and drive innovation. Could this be the way forward for the industry? Let’s wait and see.
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TRANSPARENCY IN THE EYES OF CHARTERERS In a world that is increasingly dominated by contracts and reports it is clear to see that software solutions, in particular ship performance monitoring applications, are helping to ease the paper stream.
t is fast becoming ‘business as usual’ for the performance of every ship to be monitored. This is becoming more apparent as an increasing number of ships are being operated under charter party agreements. It is important for charteres operating ships to understand the statistics of a ship’s voyage. Fathom spoke to Peter Mantel, Managing Director, BMT Smart Ltd. to ascertain why this pioneering company sought to develop a solution based upon the demand from charterers to have increased reporting tools at their disposal – a move that has seen BMT SMART launch a brand new operational data transparency module for charterers.
Charterers: The Earliest Adopters?
this field; although ship performance monitoring can offer rife rewards, there is still a certain amount of scepticism that needs to be overcome.
Why is Data Transparency so Important? The pre-emptive nature of BMT SMART’s charterer-specific solutions is based on the fact that a charterer will require ship information to compare the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to the charter party agreement. Therefore, the charterers, in Mantel’s experience, are pushing for tools that can monitor and report on the performance of the ship under charter. Mantel also described the resonating
Peter Mantel believes that charterers are the early adopters and drivers of ship performance monitoring technology. He described that BMT SMART have received most requests and orders for their software solutions and platforms from the chartering community. This, as Mantel pointed out, is due to the fact that “charterers require greater transparency of what actually happens onboard the ships.” With an air of realism, Mantel highlighted a primary issue that is central to the uptake of solutions within
pushing for tools that can monitor and report on the performance of the ship under charter.
effect that this push will bring into the market. It will ensure performance readings are of greater accuracy and that any human error during the traditional noon reporting process will be reduced or nullified completely. This new module that BMT SMART has created evolved through consultation with the charterers, and will allow those that adopt the module and the linked ship owners to compile reports in real time.
“This new module that BMT SMART has created evolved through consultation with the charterers”
The Birth of the Module
As previously mentioned, the development of the solution was catalysed by demand from within the industry. Fathom asked Mantel to further describe this process, as it represents a key driver and movement towards increased transparency. Mantel informed Fathom that BMT SMART were approached by a relatively large charterer who sought a system to install across each of the many ships they held on active charter. More specifically, they sought a system that could not only monitor their chartered ships’ performance, but also provide a number of specific requirements for reporting. The module developed by BMT SMART to address this demand will enable charterers and owners to compile reports at the touch of a button. Aspects such as fuel usage, voyage information and total emissions can be generated by the software and such data can then be modelled with MetOcean data. Mantel stressed that “it is crucial to actually model the ship data with MetOcean data because it takes the extreme environmental conditions out of the equation. You cannot measure the performance of a ship in very high seas.” BMT SMART developed the solution following an onboard trial. This was so successful that the charterer who initially demanded such a solution now plans to roll it out across the chartered fleet.
Behind the Design The module was developed under the basic premise that charterers set Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) according to the ship-specific charter party report. Through the use of ship performance monitoring technology, automated reports can be compiled that display statistics reflecting any KPI requirements. “The automated system creates a kind of noon report that is based on 5 minute reporting intervals rather than every 24 hours. These reports are then compared
to the charter party agreement, i.e fuel consumption, speed achievements and environmental data”, Mantel commented. The data is then sent back to shore-side servers, at which point BMT SMART filters and models the data. All the ship’s performance data and charter party module are available via their web application SMART ACCESS.
The Benefits of the Solution The question that immediately sprung to Fathom’s mind was how this information is beneficial for the charter party conditions. The answer lays within the fact that through the application of this module, the charterers can set their KPIs as a baseline. The onboard dashboard displays the information in an easy-to-read colourcoded format whereby if it is: • Green – Ship performance is in line with the charter party agreement. • Amber – There is some deviations in ship performance and may need some attention. • Red – The ship is exceeding certain KPIs set by charter party agreement and needs action. The colour-coded system allows the owner and crew to quickly ascertain if the voyage is following the agreement and make any adjustments in order to meet the requirements. By clicking on the different KPIs the crew are able to see a detailed run down of where the ship is not performing and carry out the required action.
The Catalyst for Negotiation “The rapid evolution of ship performance monitoring solutions within the shipping industry highlights how important ship efficiency is when it comes to the competitive battle between charterers and owners”, Mantel reflected. An owner with an efficient ship is more likely to reap higher premiums if he provides the ship performance
“The rapid evolution of ship performance monitoring solutions within the shipping industry highlights how important ship efficiency is when it comes to the competitive battle between charterers and owners” 48
“it is crucial to actually model the ship data with MetOcean data because it takes the extreme environmental conditions out of the equation. You cannot measure the performance of a ship in very high seas.” information that the charterers require. Ship owners are having to ensure their ships continue to perform at optimum efficiency in order to remain commercially buoyant within the stormy shipping market, otherwise they will simply lose the competitive battle for chartering. If the performance of a ship drops, they will soon realise that less charterers will come knocking at the door for their services and their premiums will fall. Moreover, with shipyards producing more efficient ship designs, every year it is becoming increasingly important to keep up with the industry. Mantel stressed that developments are evolving very quickly and monitoring ships can keep owners ahead of the game and stay competitive for the charter rates.
The Owner’s Perception Owners are starting to realise the benefits of these systems. For example it is extremely easy to quickly view a trend building that shows the ship burning extra fuel. Once the issue is flagged by the monitoring systems it can be immediately actioned upon by the owner. Mantel pointed out that if the owner is proactive then they can keep the ship running at its optimum efficiency, thereby increasing its competitive edge in the charter market.
Increasing the Future Transparency The future for this technology is only just beginning. The transparency it offers could potentially equip charterers with bargaining tools that will enable them to demand more efficient ships. It is with this potential that charterers are starting to even finance the installation of the technology. A win-win for the ship owners. ∎ ISSUE 03. 2014
PROFITING FROM NEW TECHNOLOGY: THE ECDIS WAY Advances in maritime technology have allowed for modern ship navigational suites to become highly advanced, ensuring both ship and shore are constantly connected.
he rise of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) has pushed the industry into the digital age. Fathom spoke to Tor Svanes, MD of e-navigation specialists NAVTOR to find out how ECDIS can benefit not only routing practises but also boost the efficiency of your fleet.
ECDIS – A saving, not a cost
“Ship owners need to stop looking at ECDIS adoption in terms of costs and start considering the operational savings they can make,” states Svanes. “There is a genuinely compelling case for switching to Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) and the latest e-navigation technology, regardless of whether your vessels fall under IMO’s ECDIS Carriage Requirement or not. It just makes good business sense, for everybody.”
Mapping the benefits
Most ECDIS discussions, certainly those centred around the IMO, gravitate towards issues of reliability and safety. Widespread ECDIS adoption, it is said, will help counter the growing number of groundings and collisions, which, on 60 percent of occasions (according to the International Union of Marine Insurance) can be attributed to human, often navigational, errors. “This shouldn’t be over-looked,” Svanes states, “but it also shouldn’t blind us to other benefits.” Svanes stresses that ECDIS use, augmented and refined by the adoption of the latest e-navigation technology, can
positively impact on fleet management in a multitude of areas, including fuel consumption, man and chart management, and communication/ tracking. Fuel, which accounts for between 50 to 80 percent of total ship operational costs for the 100,000 strong SOLAS fleet, is an obvious place to start.
Fuel for thought
“Fuel costs have risen by an average of 16 percent year-on-year since 2005 and maritime demand is increasing, putting further upward pressure on prices,” Svanes comments. “Ship owners spend vast sums on fuel optimisation and efficiency measures for their vessels, whereas we would argue that more effective route planning and voyage monitoring could deliver greater benefits, with fuel savings of up to 10 percent.” Svanes contrasts the container ship sector with the aviation industry to make his point. Planes plan departures and arrivals with precision, knowing exactly what time slots they have been allocated and how much fuel will be burned en-route. Container ships, however, behave more erratically and might increase their speed by three to four knots as they approach port, only to find that they then have to anchor for a day awaiting time slots. All that extra fuel consumed for absolutely zero return. “However, investing in a modern route planning service facilitates enhanced ship-shore interaction, providing in-depth information on voyage progress, changing weather patterns and arrival schedules. S h i p t ra ff i c m o ve m e nt s b e c o m e predictable and reliable, with routes and timings optimised for maximum fuel efficiency. “ This is happening now,” Svanes continues, referencing NAVTOR’s involvement in the SESAME project
(Secure, Efficient and Safe Maritime Traffic Management in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore), which aims to develop and implement innovative new traffic management strategies for congested waterways worldwide. He continues: “Increasing ECDIS uptake allows for enhanced communication and information sharing, and this empowers better decision-making and greater efficiency.”
Reduced fuel consumption is better for both business and environment alike. Reduced workloads can improve crew management, safety and retention. Sva n e s a rg u e s t h at t h e l ate st e-navigation technology dramatically cuts down on the administrative workload of navigators and the bridge team, allowing them to use their valuable time to greater effect. In addition, such ENC services can be ordered on fixed area subscriptions for certain periods of time and/or on a ‘pay as you sail’ basis. In the latter case, ships are only charged after using charts on their routes. “By offering this degree of flexibility, vessels can now access charts when they need them and in the most costefficient way for their operations. In addition, there are now apps that not only give onshore ship management teams a view of ship location, but also let them see ENC usage and management, ensuring that all the latest charts and licences are being used, as mandated by SOLAS. Without this kind of cutting edge technology it would be extremely difficult, and very time-consuming, to get a detailed overview.” “This is a competitive industry,” Svanes concludes, “and every small efficiency delivered by e-navigation technology can add up to big competitive advantages.” ∎ ISSUE 03. 2014
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STEAMING FORWARD -
ustainability is one of the biggest challenges facing global trade in the 21st Century. A term previously thrown around the board room is now being questioned by Government Agencies, NGOs and Stakeholders as corporate ethics go straight to the heart of an organisations’ brand. What is Sustainability?
Today the most commonly accepted definition is still that put forward by the Brundland Commission in its report entitled ‘Our Common Future’ 1987, - ‘Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own.’ To focus our lens, about 90% of world trade is carried by sea. It’s the back bone of globalisation, spreading prosperity throughout the world however this industry is now under pressure to show compliance with international standards of integrity. World Maritime Day signified a change in attitudes as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) extended its mandate towards a comprehensive set of sustainability goals for 2013. While the concept of sustainability is not new, the method in which it’s applied today is. Companies now use Corporate Sustainability Reports (CSR) to retrace their carbon footprint
and stay ahead of the curve of regulation. Investors look to CSR to evaluate risks associated, whilst stakeholders expect transparency and accountability. The benefits of CSR extend to improved self-regulation, efficiency, intelligence, objective setting and achievement recognition. Reporting achievements that go beyond mere compliance will pre-empt ‘offsetting’ damage to a corporation’s eco-brand in the event of unforeseen circumstances.
Taking responsibility as a Corporate Citizen
One company ahead of the trend is CSL who have recently released their inaugural Corporate Sustainability Report which highlights their progress and performance during 2013. The report focuses on making sustainability – ‘sustainable.’ The key according to Rod Jones CEO is eco-efficiency becoming ‘a part of how things are done’. CSL has undergone extensive research into addressing environmental concerns whilst increasing economic output. The results speak for themselves. Through state-of- the- art weather routing and fuel monitoring systems 4,555 MT of diesel was saved in 2013 – to put this into perspective – enough energy to power 1,035 homes for one year.
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STRATEGIES requirements of the EPA, IMO and U.S. Coast Guard. Reducing low frequency underwater noise is addressed as an issue facing the prosperity of marine life. CSL also joined partnership with WWF to increase awareness on unnecessary bycatch within fishing. T h ro u g h re p o r t i n g t h e i r w i d e involvement in environmental matters, accountability is quite simply demonstrated. Rod Jones CEO, “Preparing CSL’s Corporate Sustainability Report has in fact challenged some of our assumptions and raised our overall awareness of our strengths and weaknesses.”
The report concluded: • 1 3 . 5 % o ve ra l l d ro p i n d i e s e l consumption. • Greenhouse House Gas (GHG) emissions were reduced across the board by an average of 1.62%. • Fuel sulphur content averaged across the entire CSL fleet was 1.36% - a 10% drop since 2012. • Fuel oil usage dropped by 12.3% as a result of implemented fuel efficiency technologies. • It is the company’s projected aim to reduce GHG emissions by 1.5% annually for the next 10 years. The initiatives contribute towards longterm developments in shipping whilst producing more immediate economic gains through resources saved.
With CSL’s leadership and financial support, eight different ballast water filters have been tested to develop a fresh water system that meets the stringent ISSUE 03. 2014
With a vision towards continuity and consistency, CSL has put in place Green Marine and ISO 14000. These external systems provide a credible audit method towards achieving internal-regulation and global goals. Green Marine is an independent North American initiative that enhances standardisation of environmental practices. It sets challenging standards that appeal to corporations looking to case-show their participation in green incentives. Green Marine sets challenging standards that appeal to corporations looking to case-show their participation in green incentives. ISO 14000 is a set criterion for all Environmental Management Systems. The use of a framework gives assurance t h at e nv i ro n m e nta l i m p a c t s a re measured and improved, which is useful in minimising the risk of environmental liability fines.
Setting a Standard
In breaking away from traditional maritime methods, CSL sets a standard to be observed. The report – a framework to be adopted across the board. As globalshipping enters new waters, progression is dependent on both intelligence and practice. Customers and stakeholders are already exerting pressure to see lowered costs in tangent to ethical practices. Environmental regulations are likely to become the most important ‘factor’ in cost-analysis development. Sustainability reporting is a simple step up on the ladder of development, pre-empting both market and legislative forces to ensure your co-operation’s integrity. ∎
FRAMEWORKS FOR THE FUTURE In recent years, the environmental profile of commercial shipping operations has increased dramatically worldwide. Today, environmental interest reaches far beyond the management of oil spills and effluents. Issues such as the transfer of invasive species via ballast water tanks, garbage, gaseous emissions, grey and black water discharges and underwater noise are all now under the microscope. The need to develop a solid strategy to incorporate environmental issues and corporate social responsibility within shipping organisations is gaining momentum. Societal pressures and regulatory requirements are driving the industry to look towards structures and resources to assist them in managing their environmental stewardship. The Forced Hand of The Industry The intensification of trade and rising resource depletion due to globalisation have driven the need for management systems to address environmental issues across all global industry. Like any other industry, the exposure of environmental impact has enhanced the education of key stakeholders, thus driving the need for ship owners to reassess operations and technologies to conform to current standards of
environmental management. Stakeholders are putting increasing pressure on ship owners and operators to provide evidence of environmental compliance, and to explore new technologies that will assist in doing so. However, the adaptation of new technologies into the maritime sector is a complex matter due to the range of technologies available claiming to reduce environmental impact. This pressure on the maritime industry and the overwhelming number of options presented to ship owners prompt the need for a structured management approach to address current environmental concerns and methods of mitigation. It is also vital that any mitigation measures remain costeffective in order to maintain competitive advantage. Environmental Management in the Maritime Industry? A major challenge for many ship owners and operators in implementing a successful environmental management system is the overwhelming quantity of information available. This can often cause confusion and requires a strategic plan that presents the technologies in their simplest form, guiding those involved through their environmental and economic benefits. Varying operational sizes and types, differing management philosophies between companies, and various
vocabulary and terms can lead to miscommunication and challenge the ability to implement efficient environmental initiatives. Keeping up with changes in legislation and conforming to regulations can be arduous in a larger company. As legislation on equipment can be made before the equipment is available (for example the lack of a ballast water system available to meet both national and international regulations) complying with standards and moving toward obtaining environmentally recognised awards and certifications can be challenging. It is, therefore, essential that a management plan incorporates the full support of all employees, in order to stimulate behavioural change and increase understanding and participation. Structure and Resources Required! Ultimately, a structured approach is essential to improving the environmental consciousness of maritime operations and satisfying societal, stakeholder and regulatory demands. Guidance on specific emission levels and acceptable pollution outputs, combined with a continuous overview of management systems should help to ensure regulation of environmental issues. An environmental management approach incorporating long-term planning and foresight is required to achieve sustainable environmental management of the maritime industry.
THIS COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE EXAMINES THE FULL RANGE OF OPTIONS FOR SHIP PERFORMANCE MONITORING, FROM CHOOSING THE RIGHT MONITORING SYSTEMS AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS TO HOW DATA CAN BE APPLIED AND ADVISORY AIDS THAT ARE AVAILABLE. MEASURE, ENHANCE, PERFORM
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ISSUE 02. 2014
MAKES FLEET MANAGEMENT EASY MAINTENANCE
QUALITY & ENVIRONMENT
THROTTLE UP TO SAVE FUEL? The forecast is looking ominous, 7 meters swells are predicted in the mid Atlantic with strong head winds following the storm. What do you do? Full throttle and try to power though the bad weather? Reroute around the storm? Slow down and wait for the storm to pass? These are just some of the decisions a captain will have to make. Not to mention traversing through an Emission Control Area (ECA) where captains might be burning fuel at USD$1,000 per tonne. How do you choose the right option, the optimum route, the route that saves the most fuel? The adoption of slow steaming across the maritime industry has seen ship speeds slowing down to save fuel. Slow steaming saves on fuel consumption and cost while also releasing fewer greenhouse gas emissions as emissions are proportional to fuel consumption. The commercial shipping industry is catching onto the benefits and many companies are now enjoying the rewards of more sustainable emissions through monetary savings. But is this really the best way to save fuel? Applied Weather Technology (AWT) have suggested that variable speed optimisation can actually help save fuel. Does this mean slow steaming is coming to an end? Fathom met up with Applied Weather Technology’s George Schlinkert, Vice President of Route Advisory Services to find out about a new product, AWT SmartSpeed, which takes into account both the optimum route and optimum speed for each segment of a voyage through daily updates. “There has never been a system which takes into account historical weather, current data and relates both to the speed of the ship. One speed for a route is not going to be the most cost-effective” George Schlinkert stated. “ S m a r t S p e e d co m b i n e s ve s s e l specifications and voyage details with AWT’s up-to-date weather and oceanographic information to calculate optimum speed settings across an entire voyage. This allows operators and captains to improve the performance
of their vessels and ultimately burn less fuel.” Take a standard route from Rotterdam to New Orleans (Figure 1) that encounters ECAs. For the first day or so, the ship’s captain may take it slowly while consuming low sulphur fuel at USD $1,000 per tonne while within the ECA. The captain then hears of a storm directly en route which he wants to outrun and will require him to speed up to 17 knots when burning high sulphur fuel outside the ECA (red line). There may still be the tail of the storm which the captain has to navigate but by reducing the speed down to 15 knots, he is are able to burn less fuel, knowing that he can make up time when further into the journey. By altering both the speed and route of a voyage depending on what weather or compliance regulations the ship is going to encounter, it is possible for ships to save money on fuel. “Trying to avoid storms using route optimisation doesn’t provide a final solution. Instead, by running both speed optimisation and route optimisation side by side it can improve fuel consumption.” “The new suite will allow the user to set the appropriate speed setting during various segments of a voyage that will allow for minimal consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thereby achieving SEEMP objectives.” George Schlinkert emphasised that
users will be provided with tools to achieve on-time arrival, proactively minimise fuel costs and actively monitor daily fuel consumption. “We have been speaking to a lot of our clients and the major concern is fuel. This is our way to help them proactively make savings. Instead of owners saying after the voyage ‘what when wrong, why am I not making money on a voyage’, we are helping them make money instead of losing it.” “Because AWT routes 50,000 ship voyages per year, we have access to millions of speed and consumption records in all types of weather. This gives us a unique ability to calculate a vessel’s consumption and the effects of weather,`” commented George Schlinkert. “To provide variable speed and variable route optimisation has been the goal of ship routing for years, but only today, with massive computing power, is this made possible.” “Most people think of weather routing as just recommendations and forecast information. But we are doing a lot of consultation because ship operators need to know a little bit more than just the ETA of the ship. For example why is the captain deviating, why is there a delay?” “We are really holding the hand of the ship operator to help them make smart decisions commercially.”
Figure 1. Weather routing from Rotterdam to New Orleans.
ISSUE 03. 2014
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Tricks of the
Bunker Trade In each issue of Ship Efficiency: The Insight, The Bunker Detectives, in association with Ship & Bunker (shipandbunker.com), will share insight and advise around bunkering best practices to make sure bunker buyers get the bunkers they pay for. Keep your eyes peeled for vital information that could help slim your bunker fuel bill! The Bunker Detectives, a division of AVA Marine, are a dedicated team who primarily help ship charterers’ & bunker brokers deal with bunker quantity disputes (which do not fall under P&I cover for charterers’), and also offer an exclusive service to ship charterers’ dealing with ‘Bad’ Bunker dispute claims, such as the supply of contaminated or off- specification bunkers.
Empty Tanks - Unpumpable Fuel In an event of a short delivery be wary that empty tanks may not be empty even with zero dip and that substantial pumpable may exist. Verify the tanks claimed to be empty – don’t take the supplier’s word for it.
Key Notes • Do not assume any tanks to be empty even when reaching stripping level. • Check tank calibration tables to verify the unpumpable. • Apply correct list / trim corrections during calculations. • Remember whenever in doubt or have concerns always issue a letter of protest.
Dealing with Bunker Disputes: In the event of a short fuel delivery, remember that time is of the essence as any post-bunkering investigation is many times futile and inconclusive. However, the following minimum steps are recommended to safeguard owners/ charterers interest:
Key Steps • Immediately notify the parties concerned and appoint an independent surveyor if not already done so. • Re-do the entire gauging, check and re-check both pre and post bunkering calculations making sure the list/trim corrections have been correctly applied. • Verify correct temperatures and densities have been used. • Issue letter of protest for each incident and have it acknowledged by the barge (note the barge Master will probably refuse to acknowledge such letters). • Write up a detailed statement of facts leading to the short delivery. • Preserve any evidence e.g. if you suspect froth on the surface of the fuel / too many bubbles on the sounding tape then taking photographs would be prudent. • A success of a claim will largely depend on the nature and the quality of evidence gathered at the time the supply is made. If there is detailed contemporaneous written evidence, the ship operator will be in a much stronger position. • Further, it may be necessary for full disclosure of the supplier’s stock movement reports to ensure that the original supplied quantity tallied with the quantity at the time of opening gauge. • Another tactic we have seen is “pilot onboard” – this may seem like a stalemate and to the supplier’s advantage (delaying the vessel’s departure it never a good thing) but with careful handling of the situation the agent should be advised beforehand to postpone the pilot boarding thus giving the vessel sufficient time to resolve / deal with the dispute. • The barge outturn figure (delivered fuel quantity) will be recorded on the BDN for invoice purposes. In case of a short fuel delivery a note of protest must be issued and the same reflected in the Oil Record Book (ORB) and do not sign the BDN as presented but sign only for the soundings and ship’s volume.
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SHIP&BUNKER Under-Declaring actual ROB and Deliberate Short-Supplying of Fuel Why it is important for the ship operators to ascertain the exact fuel quantity onboard prior stemming bunkers? The mal-practices during bunkering operations which we see and hear about though quite prevalent with bunker suppliers; but on many occasions we have come across situations where the receiving vessel will be as much as involved as the supplier in these dubious practices. Often we have found that the vessel would under-declare fuel quantity which is then either sold back to the barge supplier or simply kept hidden on the vessel until an opportunity comes along to profit from this. For example: An order for 1,000 metric tonnes of FO is placed at the next bunkering port - the vessel has an excess of 50 metric tonnes (un-declared). Now when the supply barge comes alongside (through prior negotiations) the vessel would deliberately short-receive (or barge will deliberately short-supply) 50 tonnes. In other words the actual supplied quantity would be 950 tonnes but on the BDN it would be reported as 1,000 tonnes and the operator will be invoiced based on this BDN quantity. The short-received (or short-delivered bunker) profit will be shared between the supplier and the vessel. In the end it’s the operator who is affected – suffering the loss twice (50 tonnes + 50 tonnes).
Contributing factors for the loss: • Too much reliance on the vessel’s staff. • No bunker stem audits are conducted which involves elaborate detective work carried out by independent third party surveying firms. • Ignoring non-nominating (non-receiving) tanks to be included in the overall tank measurements during stem operations. • Most shipping companies will engage the services of an independent surveyor to protect their interest in case of a large discrepancy in the final figures between the barge and the vessel; however, how many companies actually give clear instructions to the attending surveyor to measure all non-nominated tanks (non-receiving tanks)? Or how many surveying firms actually carry out the measurements diligently? Failing to do so leaves the operator vulnerable as explained above. This is further illustrated as follows: Scenario 1: Under-declaring - To Ship Owners Advantage Bunker stemmed by the vessel operator
ROB as per log book (arrival bunkering port)
Un-declared fuel onboard
Actual Bunker stemmed
Quantity declared on BDN
Final ROB declared in log book after bunkering
However, Actual ROB would be
Fuel Cost $ USD /MT
Losses for the Operator
The excess 53 MT of fuel oil will be in favour of the owners with a loss to the charterers Scenario 2: Under-declaring - With the Aim to Profit for Personal Gain Bunker stemmed by the vessel operator
ROB as per log book (arrival bunkering port)
Un-declared fuel onboard
Actual Bunker stemmed (deliberate short supply)
Quantity (incorrectly) declared on BDN
Final ROB declared in log book after bunkering
Actual ROB would also be
So where did 53 MT disappear?
You guessed it!
Fuel Cost $ USD /MT
• for under-declared fuel
• for the short-supply fuel
Losses for the Operator will be double
Key Notes • Carry out regular ‘bunker stem audits’ – in a large fleet this is an indispensable loss control tool. • Measure all non-nominated tanks prior to stemming operations and again after bunkering is completed. • Always engage the services of a reputable bunker stem surveying firm during stem operations. ISSUE 03. 2014
WIND AND SOLAR POWER CLOSE TO A COMMERCIAL REALITY? by Martyn Lasek, Editor, Ship & Bunker
“We won’t see sails on oil tankers or container ships any time soon.” That is what one delegate told me earlier this year at the Connecticut Maritime Association (CMA)’s 2014 annual conference. And they certainly are not alone in that view.
ut one person working hard to change all that is Greg Atkinson, Director at Japan’s Eco Marine Power (EMP). The company is developing a number of sustainable shipping technologies that harnesses both wind and solar power, and over the last few years has been making steady progress towards a commercial system. Earlier this year at Sea Japan 2014, EMP made the first public display of a number of its bunker saving technologies, a major focus of which was its Aquarius Eco Ship. “The Aquarius Eco Ship is EMP’s vision of how various renewable energy technologies can be combined via the Aquarius Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) System and then integrated into the design of a modern ship,” EMP’s Greg Atkinson told Ship & Bunker. “The Aquarius Eco Ship is not science fiction nor are the technologies it incorporates just ideas. “All of the major components of the Aquarius MRE System are either currently being tested in the Aquarius Innovation Lab in Osaka, Japan, or are commercially available such as the flexible marine grade solar panels and KEI 3240 computer system.” One of EMP’s core technologies is the EnergySail, a rigid sail capable of using both wind and solar energy to help power a vessel. A vessel can be fitted with either one, or an array of EnergySails, and each EnergySail can be lowered and stored when not required or in bad weather. The corresponding EnergySail Automated Control System (ACS) is used to automate the operation of an EnergySail or an array of EnergySails. Earlier this year EMP announced the successful completion of initial tests of the technology. “We are extremely pleased with the test results which have confirmed that we made the right design choices regarding the EnergySail and the devices that will be connected to it,” Atkinson said at the time. Also at Sea Japan 2014, EMP showcased the Aquarius Management & Automation System (MAS), a system for shipping which can monitor fuel consumption, calculate emissions, and manage renewable energy sources, as well as being expanded to include other functions such as alarm handling, engine performance logging and onboard systems monitoring.
Commercial Reality Later this year, the Aquarius MAS with a marine solar power array and energy storage will be installed on the 2,400 passenger, 430 vehicle capacity ferry Blue Star Delos, and a joint evaluation trial will be undertaken by Blue Star and Eco marine Power. This is effectively half of the overall Aquarius MRE System. In May of this year EMP said it made a “major step forward” towards bringing its EnergySail system to market, having formed a strategic alliance with Japan-based marine equipment manufacturer Teramoto Iron Works Co. Ltd. (Teramoto Iron Works), a company who already has a history of making rigid marine sails. The alliance has provided access to a production base and testing centre in Onomichi City, Hiroshima Prefecture, allowing for the production of the pre-commercial version of the EnergySail, which is due to commence within the next couple of months. “Our alliance with Teramoto Iron Works moves us from testing in the lab to a position where we can deliver, along with our strategic partners, our EnergySail technology,” says Atkinson. “This is not a model, this will be a complete EnergySail designed for a large ocean-going commercial ship made in cooperation with Teramoto Iron Works using their production facility in Onomichi City.” Should the subsequent sea trials prove successful, we might see sails on oil tankers and container ships in the near future after all.
ISSUE 03. 2014
Houston 1 Year Bunker Price History
With bunker price indications for over 150 of the world’s top bunkering ports, in addition to daily news and exclusive features, Ship & Bunker is the world’s leading free-to-access website focused on marine fuel.
ISSUE 03. 2014
There is no registration process, or username and password to remember. Simply visit shipandbunker.com for immediate access to the critical business information you need, fast. ∎
EVENT ROUND-UP RECOGNISING EXCELLENCE
IN EFFICIENT OPERATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
2 OCTOBER, LONDON Ship Efficiency Awards 2014 is an award ceremony launched by Fathom to celebrate the organisations and individuals within the maritime sector that are catalysing technological innovation and successfully making waves within the industry through efficient operations. Alison Jarabo, Director, Fathom commented, “We have been overwhelmed by the number of high calibre nominations we have received. It highlights the enthusiasm of an industry looking to prove its commitment to efficient operations and improved corporate social responsibility.” The shortlisted nominees were assessed and selected by an expert panel that included: - Dr. Jan de Kat - Director of Energy Efficiency, ABS - Craig Eason - Deputy Editor, Lloyd’s List - Peter Hinchliffe OBE - Secretary General, International Chamber of Shipping - Minas Miliaras - Associate Vice President, Marine Operations of RCL Cruises Ltd - Lars Robert Pedersen - Deputy Secretary General/COO, BIMCO A/S - Martin Stopford - Non-Executive President of Clarkson Research Services Ltd
Energy Efficiency Solution of the Year
An award for an innovative solution that implements fresh thinking and offers significant proven efficiency benefits. • DeltaMarin – B. DELTA Energy Efficient Cargo Vessel Designs. Deltamarin specialises in consulting, design and engineering from specific small tasks to complete engineering packages. • E-CO – UVC for HVAC. Leader in high-intensity ultraviolet germicidal solutions for HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning). • Eniram – Optimum Speed Assistant (OSA). Eniram provides the maritime industry with energy management technology to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. • VAF Instruments BV – PEM3 Efficiency Monitoring Solution. VAF Instruments is the leading specialist for the development, manufacturing and world-wide sales of measurement and control systems. • Wärtsilä – 46DF Engine. Wärtsilä is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets.
An award that recognises a technology that makes a significant contribution to environmental impact reduction or prevention to ships. • GAC – HullWiper ROV. GAC is a global provider of integrated shipping, logistics and marine services. • Hempel AS – Hempaguard Hempel coatings protect man-made structures – from wind turbines and bridges to ships and houses – from the corrosive forces of nature. • International Paint – Intersleek 1100SR. International Paint is a leading global paints and Coatings Company and a major producer of specialty chemicals. • Micanti BV – Thorn-D. Micanti was founded to commercialize the non-toxic antifouling technology. Their technology provides a physical barrier for organisms such as mussels, barnacles and algae. • Terragon – Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS). Terragon was created to develop simple appliances that enable any habitat to treat its own waste locally with no environmental damage.
Initiative of the Year This award celebrates projects that support the maritime industry in improving environmental performance or energy efficiency. This award covers initiatives such as classification society work, collaboration projects, and academic projects. • Corvus & Scandlines – Scandlines Hybrid Ferries. Corvus Energy has extensive experience in marine design and development, as well as in the production of battery storage systems for deep power applications. • Eco Marine Power – Blue Star Delos Renewable Energy Innovation Project. Eco Marine Power is an innovative marine renewable energy technology company committed to designing, developing and promoting eco- friendly power & propulsion solutions for vessels. • Green Marine – Environmental Certification Program Green Marine is a voluntary, environmental certification program which addresses key environmental issues through its performance indicators. • Jotun – Hull Performance Solutions. Jotun is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of decorative paints, marine, protective and powder coatings. • Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach. Low Carbon Shipping aims to address the policy making process by developing new knowledge and understanding on the subject of the shipping system.
ISSUE 03. 2014
EVENT ROUND-UP Sustainable Ship Operator of the Year
The One to Watch
An award to honour a ship owner, operator or manager that demonstrates an industry-leading commitment to energy efficiency, environmental performance or CSR responsibilities. • CMA CGM - The Group offers a complete range of activities including transport by sea, river and rail, handling facilities in port, as well as logistics on land. • CSL Group - CSL owns and operates a highly diversified fleet of specialized self-unloading vessels, transhippers and bulk carriers. • Laurin Maritime - Laurin Maritime operates a modern fleet of tankers for oil products and chemicals worldwide. • Maersk Line - Help customers optimise their supply chains by delivering second-to-none products and services, making it possible for commodities to reach new markets. • Shell Shipping & Maritime - Provides commercial, ship management and technology services, along with assurance advice to internal and external customers.
This award recognises a project, concept or technology which has the demonstrable potential to improve the efficiency of an aspect of ship operations along with evidence of real uptake and growth potential. • B9 Shipping - B9 Shipping has been pioneering renewable energy solutions such as B9 Organic Energy is developing anaerobic digestion projects to create energy from waste to create bio-gas that can be used in marine engines. • Eco Marine Power - Aquarius MRE System Project is an innovative marine renewable energy technology company committed to designing, developing and promoting eco- friendly power & propulsion solutions for vessels. • Marstal Navigationsskole & Partners - Offer safety and operational courses for personnel working on oil, chemical and gas tankers • Monalisa 2.0 - Sea Traffic Management. Monalisa 2.0 aims at contributing to a continuous improvement and development of efficient, safe and environmentally friendly maritime transport in the European Union. • Turbosail - The Turbosail™ is a naval propulsion device, which produces a very high drive force created from pressure difference. • Wärtsilä - LNGPac. Wärtsilä is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets.
Outstanding Contribution to Ship Efficiency (AS VOTED BY YOU) This award celebrates projects that support the maritime industry in improving environmental performance or energy efficiency. This award covers initiatives such as classification society work, collaboration projects, and academic projects. • Anne Marie Warris – EcoReflect. Dr. Anne-Marie has a unique record of achievement in her field demonstrating the logical and pragmatic understanding she has for the maritime industry. • Tristan Smith – UCL. Dr. Tristan Smith has played a fundamental role in linking academic research to the maritime industry. Tristan leads a research group studying the global shipping industry, particularly focused on estimating CO2 emissions both now and in the future. • Alastair Fischbacher – The Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI), have announced the appointment of Alastair Fischbacher as its new director based on his contribution and commitment to progressing the SSI’s vision and his understanding of the challenges facing all stakeholders within the shipping supply chain. • Oskar Levander – Rolls Royce. For his involvement in the development of more energy efficient ships and an ongoing commitment to pushing the boundaries of innovation within the maritime industry. • ABS Operational & Environmental Performance Department - Made up of Howard Fireman, Vice President, Operational and Environmental Performance, Dr. Jakob Buus Petersen, Director of Vessel Performance and Dr. Jan de Kat, they take on the critical industry issues of operational performance, energy efficiency and environmental compliance.
marine | energy | environment
ISSUE 03. 2014
THE SOCIAL SCENE
THE SOCIAL SCENE Craig Eason @shiptech DNV GL says it’s big data that will count in the future Lena Göthberg @LenaGothberg Good line up @fathomshipping Ship Efficiency Awards 2014! Good luck! Laurin Maritime @MONALISA2_0 @AnneMarieWarris ! http://bit.ly/1pwGcgy Jim Heath @JimHeath_LR Is sustainable #shiprecycling part of a deeper, “new wave” of sustainability? http://www.economist. com/news/business/21614152-few-pioneering-businesses-are-developing-sustainability-policies-worthy-name-new … Rickmers-Linie @rickmerslinie Rickmers-Linie supports new low sulphur regime but expects increasing costs http://bit.ly/1uvBOEl BLUE @BLUECOMMS This feels like a big moment. Poten & Partners to track time chart rates for ‘eco’ & ‘non-eco’ ships @bunkerworld http://ow.ly/AYky0 IMO @IMOHQ “we should recognize the world-wide interest to use LNG as a ship fuel which has lower environmental impact” said SG http://bit.ly/1lTna9L Ship & Bunker @ShipandBunker General Dynamics NASSCO says they are “building the most energy-efficient tankers in the Jones Act fleet.” #BunkerFuel #shipping #LNG Sailors Society SA @SailorsSocSA AWT Announces SmartSpeed — #Shipping Industry’s First Variable Speed Routing Service Improves Fuel Efficiency http://buff.ly/1owCTqu
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FATHOM INSIGHT JUNE 2014
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THE LAST WORD SOCIAL MEDIA AND SHIPPING - STRANGERS AT A PARTY It won’t come as much of a surprise to you to hear that the maritime industry as a whole doesn’t really trust social media.
r, let’s be honest, the majority of the industry certainly doesn’t understand the power it holds. “Twitter?” they say. “Isn’t that for boy bands with half a shared brain, and teenage girls with no respect for consonants?” Oh, fine, yes there are exceptions … indeed there are some (pretty big) exceptions. Your company might be one of them, using social media platforms very effectively to convey key messages, enhance brand awareness, demonstrate your corporate social responsibility, and keeping your staff, colleagues and associates worldwide feeling warm and special in a great big online family cuddle. If you’re working for a particularly proactive company in the social media area, for example Maersk, let’s say in their corporate communications department, the company, and you of course, deserve a pat on the back as you are part of the exception. Exceptions exist, but by and large, the maritime industry and social media are strangers at a party who don’t usually get introduced. This is a shame. Because they’d get along well if someone did introduce them properly. It’s a shame for another reason, too. If the maritime industry and social media first meet by accident or by surprise, they can get off on the wrong foot and things can go very, very wrong. That word “accident” is horribly suitable, too. Because it’s typically when an accident, or a crisis occurs that maritime companies get slapped in the face and learn the hard way just how incredibly powerful social media can be. Then the ship owner, the manager, bank or manufacturer, or whoever the company in question is, starts thinking maybe they should have been a bit more switched on to the reality of Twitter (and Facebook, QQ, Qzone, Pinterest, and Google Plus, Bebo, and Renren and Cyworld, and WhatsApp, etc, etc). And they’re right, they should have been. Because more than 75 percent of people who use the Internet (which is projected to be three billion people by the end of this year, yes THREE BILLION) look at and use social media networks. Social media platforms are collectively the single biggest and most significant arena where public and business opinions are
aired, influenced, debated and flat-out created. There’s a Chinese character I can neither write nor pronounce very well, but by the magic of technology I don’t need to. Taken together, the meaning is akin to “Crisis”. But the Chinese person who came up with it thousands of years ago knew a thing or two about the link between risk and reward. The characters on the left mean Danger and Opportunity. With the right people and the right understanding, Danger can be managed. So don’t let Opportunity pass you by because it will find your competitors waiting with open arms. Seize it. Seize the Opportunity...∎
Toby Ingram, Senior Consultant - Media & Social Media and Training Helix Media, Singapore.
ISSUE 03. 2014
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