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design journal 2013



Special Thanks to David and Michael and my hardworking groupmates Alex,Ken and Sylvia














BIBLIOGRAPHY 2.0 [98-99]







Hi my name is Ahmad Faris bin Ahmad Zulfaa,Im currenty a third year student in Bachelor of Enviroments. Previously I studied in the University Technology of Malaysia in Diploma of Architecture and I got credit transfered straight to 3rd year here. Based on my observation the way of designing and thinking here is quite different from what I learn previously,Thus Im looking foward to learn new things here in the University of Melbourne. Im used to do CAD and sketchup but doesn’t really have much experience in Rhino and grasshopper.My hope for this semester will be to fully understand the discourse in parametric design and fully maximize my potential through digital computational design. All the best for all of us!





The folding motion is a student centre project that idid during my final semester in diploma years in UTM.The idea of a folding motions comes in when i studied the circulation and forces of people moving around the site. The idea is to fold movement of circulation into the circular folds of an interactive courtyard. The idea Again reinforce by dramatizing the movement of people with the continous ramp circling the building. The building itself is a circular ramp creating an abstract of a moving force providing more interaction between the spaces




I love to do mockups and model of my design,its a way of epressing my own thoughts through a 3d model,for me working model allow you to appreciate more on the 3d visual side and allowing us to manipulate the visual experience throught model making and mockups. Working with mockups and model give me an idea and allow me to experiment on different kind of space of distintive emotional state and spatial experience. The three working mockups below are the experimentation of the form making for the motion study in the design,I studied the light and the shadow as well as the motion folding to its centre as a source of main interaction.(figure above) The paper mockup allow me to create and experiment on different level of modulation in design.


‘We do not create the work.I believe we, in fact, are discoverers.’ -Glenn Murcutt








Photo from Eugene Hi-Def Pics - Amazingly Beautiful Cathedrals of Europe (11 photos)

‘’Architecture as a frozen music, doesn’t mean literally architecture is a music that is frozen, it means that how architecture can be visualize as a composition of music which really can affect certain emotional sense towards its user.’’

Architecture as a frozen music How can a space effect the emotion of the user? Architecture that brings memories, joy certain depth to such feeling that really move our feeling, trigger our senses, enhance visual experience. Without emotion buildings become merely just a box without a memorable sense towards it, an architecture without romanticism. Elements of composition is very important as an intertwining forces that make up a romantic spaces -elements of nature, light, scale and material. With the purifications of these elements combining with a well composed architecture, emotion can be made, mould into specific programme as these factor combine to make a grand phenomenon. Back in the early age of Christianity, Gothic architecture really embodies what a emotional architecture might be, a building that really indulge with the emotion of holiness and greatness of God. Churches were design on massive scale give a sense of gigantism grace of god towards the small humble human. Elements such light are being design such that it allow the pureness to penetrate to windows slit, which trigger such a grandeur power of the holiness. Combination of these elements allow the church to embodies the character of the almighty and holiness. People that using these religious spaces seems more deeper sunk in the depth of religion and feel closer to their creator.


Figure 1 shows the majesticnes of gothiic cathedral and how the scale is manipulated to allow the fearsome of god to be established.


Figure 2 The church window highlighted the light penetrating giving the sense of holyness to the building.

Spaces with emotion doesn’t really lies in such grandeur building, A dark back alley giving in such emotion that is dark narrow and creepy, giving a sense of fear, lonely and darkness. This is because the way that a dark alley is being characterize with tall height and narrowness giving a sense of distance when walking through it. It’s is quite different when you walk with a bright light or a space with many people, non-such can give a dramatize impact of fear, a fear of something that might happen to you along the way. Spaces in the retreat also brings out positive emotion through the environment and its surrounding, living in a village or somewhere retreat after a busy day of work in the crowded cities brings peace, a relaxation to mind and body. These kind a retreat places brings in elements on nature invade softly through it design space. Emotional space can also be related to an emotion towards a memorable space, such as the house that you live in during childhood which fills the memories growing up inside it. These spaces contain both physical memories through visual, touch and smell of the places that really can bring back the emotional memories in the user. How powerful these kind of basic spaces that really embodies the romanticism toward memories, and how it intertwine with our senses such as sight and smell. With grand scale or not most of the space with the combination of these elements can contain emotional trigger on the user.





[3] Figure 3.0 shows the swirling ribbon strcuture undulating throught the concert hall as a visual and acoustical booster to the surrounding.

‘’I call architecture frozen music.’’ a quotes by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe really embodies the physical form of this structure.Located in the.An installation for the Manchester International Festival 2009 the structure is design such that the harmonious melodies in music expresses through physical form creating such a dramatic and poetic effect to the audience.Im very fascinated how this voluminous ribbon swirls and fold around the room as it capture and futhurmore enhance the musical performance of Johann Sebastian Bach.


The undulating form of the ribbons swirls such that it came from the harmonious music of Bach really puts you in those dramatic enviroment, as it is design in such that the acoustical element in the performance is controlled. By using computitional design technique the form of the ribbon is basically design to enhance the acoustic experience as its create spatial emotion,an intimate enclosure through the room.(Bustler,2009) Clear acoustical panel being place at the top of the ceiling to reflect the sound of the performance. The surface of the ribbon is modulately differ as it undulates through the room creating a modulation of high tension of fabric to soft cloud like effect.I do love this design because it really captures the poetic emotion of the performance and enhance not just visually but the acoustical part of the concertHow to design a form that is beautiful,dramatic and yet functionally helps the whole spatial emotion.


Figure 4.0 shows the production of the model through acoustical manipulation on parametric design.

For me a good architecture is a building that really trigger emotions and feeling such that it is memorable and sensible.With the help of paramatric design and digital technology,i hope that somehow we can create a well composed dramatic design but still generates form that really compliment the function. By using parametric design architecture can really set a new level of aesthetic,emotions and function as the generated forms are controlled by a specific parameters.

references Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Peter Eckermann, Margaret Fuller; “Conversations with Goethe in the Last Years of His Life”, page 282; by Translated by Margaret Fuller; Publiched of Hilliard, Gray, and company, 1839; 414 pages . JS Bach / Zaha Hadid Architects Chamber Music Hall for Manchester International Festival Posted: Tuesday, July 07, 2009 Available(online) Accessed 20 March 2013 (


I know the two design example of my favourite architecture is quite differ from each other;one is from zaha,the form making queen and another one from one of the minimalist architect Tadao Ando,however there is actually a quality that coherent in both of the design which I am fascinated with. Both of the design really embodies the emotion and enhances its function through way it had been composed and design By using conventional way of designing Tadao Ando manage to really capture the spiritual and enhance the serenity of the c church through architectural compostion and manipulation of light and material.Here again its shows that how a building can really enhance the function and emotion of a space to become more meaningfull according to it usage. Located in Ibaraki,Osaka,Ando manage to really create such dramatic effect by combining the hard texture of raw concrete and balancing it out by manipulating the light creating a balance compliment toward the building.Again Im fascinated by how architecture can really trigger mood or emotion through such a minimal gesture. The building is design such that it faces the east allowing light to penetrate the building during morning time creating such a effect of drama or holyness just by light as an element penetrating through the concrete slits. (Kroll 2011) With the help of parametric design,Im sure that elements of the surround can be enhance and manipulated by the form and function to create such a emotional spaces and architecture. Both of my precedent embodies function that allow the architecture to be compose in a way that the usage of the spaces amplifies emotionaly.

[5] Figure 5.0 shows how tadao ando manage to compose light and shadow through detail and slit allowing emotional serenity to be captured.






Kroll , Andrew. “AD Classics: Church of the Light / Tadao Ando” 06 Jan 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 04 Apr 2013. Available(Online) (http://www. Photography: Flickr User: Buou, Naoya Fujii, Antje Verena

[6] Figure 6.0 shows the grandieur design of the light slit penetrrating to the church creating such dramatic effect to the enviroment of the church




Computation in architecture; architecture as a frozen music. Emotion and architecture, can we still achieve that in computational design? Do computational design brings out rigidity and fake creativity that doesn’t transcendence through emotional expression of an architect?(Lawson 2002)



Do spaces become generically dull because of the process of making it through digital design? Does architecture can still be composed as part of poetic music? If we break down in most of the resemblance significant of a well composed architecture that give distinctive vibe to the user, we can conclude that mostly the characteristic of the design embodies a certain pureness or highlights of elements in such as light, water sound and scale. With this parameters an architect can compose a building that embodies and melodize using the intertwining of these elements in such that in create certain mood or emotion. Architectural elements: scale, elements of nature; light, sky, water, wind, proportion, view, purity and composition, senses; sight, smell and touch. How does we integrate these elements into a parametrically computational design? Regarding to my discourse of architecture as a frozen music, these are my question on the how computerization in design can affect the emotional sense in building or does all the sentimental romantic value is loss through the digital composition.


Lawson,Bryan CAD and Creativity: Does the Computer Really Help? Article published 2002 Page 328 Page 328 Amy,Fearson,the Martin Luther Church,Posted Wednesday, August 17th, 2011,Dezeen (http://www. Coop Himmeblau,Wolf D Prix and Partner Martin Luther Church Available(online) Accesed 4 April 2013 ( projects/martin-luther-church)



[7] Exploration of new form and spaces With modern times, comes computerization in design. With computerization an architect’s dream is achieve impossible form came through clicking and visual modelling. The boundaries of architectural formmaking and technology were in the click. Exploration of form is important as it create new possibilities and generates new kind of spatial ambience. With dynamic form, an architect vision to compose such experimental structure is no longer impossible. The Martin Luther church by Coop Himmeblau really embodies the relation of form making through computerization and the possibilities of creating such emotional value. With the help of CAD design and advanced engineering software through computerization of his idea managed to be built beautifully. As the form swirls into an impossible and extreme shape framing the skylight allowing light to penetrate smoothly through the dynamic roof. The roof was design in such that it swirls and daylight penetrates the room’s stuccocovered ceiling through the circular voids, as well as through a street-facing facade of projecting glass triangles. The soft and swirly form of the roof manage to be design through digital making and construction wise possible computerization in design. How the architect manage to compose such dynamic form that create such impressive effect towards the user? With computational design, the possibilities of these new kind form is challenge. Form of all sort and impossible angles were created realizing the drama and the dynamic emotional expression from the architect idea to its visualisation in the real building.

Figure 7.0 and the above shows how a digitally model roof is design such that light is framing and captured through the altar at the church.

Again digital designs brings and uplifted the form making industries in architecture. These new kind of form and spaces ensure that new ambience and emotional sense embodies and magnified as the vision romanticism of an architect is realized.



Figure 8.0 show the undulating ribbon rendering and how the acoustical studies allow the form to be generated and optimizing the sound control and as a visual aid to the performance

GENERATIVE DESIGN. OPTIMUM CONTROL Generative design and optimum control

But if we take those away and leave it all the parameters to the computer to generate, does it make it less romantic somehow? Does all the emotion, creativity and sweats of an architect making a space lively somehow is being taken away through computation of design?

Again a good example of generated form from elements surround it is the the Bach chamber hall by Zaha Hadid, still amazed me how the design team studied the acoustical value of Bach performance and create such structure that really complimenting the whole program visually and emotionally.

Computational in architecture redefine how an architect works, not just through experience and theories these theories can be applied through simulation in design that can really test the accuracy and possibilities in design. With the help of parametric design these parameters can be carefully control and generates more possibilities in the whole process of designing.

The swirling form is mainly derived from the acoustical studies of the performance and at the same time visualize the vision of both the architect and the composer complimenting the performance. Here the form is mainly generated through the studies of the acoustical value of the performance and in the end visually aid the whole emotional journey of the concert.

Simulation on how wind and light or even sound can be done to generate the optimal possibilities in design.IN the long run the form and the material of the design can be mold in such that it really compliment the elements through the design that still embodies such emotional sense.

With computational design, an accurate generative design can be achieved and allow the designer to take the optimum control that influence the form making, material and composition of the design without leaving the emotional value through it.



JS Bach / Zaha Hadid Architects Chamber Music Hall for Manchester International Festival Tuesday, July 07, 2009 Available(Online) Accessed 20 March 2013 ( Photo and rendering are courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architect



Interactive design, redefine architecture and emotion. Interactive architecture is the next step of incorporating emotional sense in building, an architecture that is responsive and can interact with the user brings emotional impact to the next level. Building are no longer static, but with motion in such that it is trigger by the senses of light, touch and sound Digital age design really redefine the emotional state in architecture.Building can now be manipulate in such that it compliement every aspect to be control in such detail. These brings new kind of emotional architecture in design,as my discourse of architecture as a frozen music can be achieved.



Philip Beesly



Figure 9.0 shows how the sculpture interact with the user,giving a reaction that somehow fondling and breathing like a living organism.


INTERACTIVE DESIGN,REDEFINE ARCHITECTURAL & EMOTION Hylozoic Ground ventures on the possibilities of parametric design towards new kind of responsive spaces and architecture,The project is designed by Philip Beesley a kinetic structure that interact with it user that accumulates hybrid soil from ingriedients drawn from it surrounding.(Allen 2010) As imitating towards a functional living organism,the sensor that incorporated in the sculpture react that will produce and responsive towards its surrounding somehow breathing motion,touching and reacting to the user.It will feel like somehow the sculpture is licking and fondling the user as an act of responsiveness .(Terry 2010) Describing the experimental structures as a living thing,Besley with his experimental design envision the future of cities that using cybernetics modulation to built and rebuilt as if a part of organism,a living organism. The responsiveness and the kinetic motion is achieved under the influence of parametric and digital design,with these kind of new architecture, the experintetial of a space can be redfine,spaces that really interact with the user,emotionally and physically.Recollaborate the idea of architecture and the responsive towards human interaction and design.

references Terry Peters,Azure Magazine Hyzoloic Ground September 2010 Available(Online) (http://www. ) Allen,Max Hylozoic Ground: Philip Beesley at the Venice Biennale of Architecture Available(Online)Accesed 4 April 2013 ( Dezeen,Hylozoic Ground by Philip Besley Dezeen 27 August 2010 Available(Online)Accessed by 4 April 2013 (

[10] Figure 10 shows the detail and intriguing design of the sculpture imitating living organism through form and responsiveness.


Scripting in architecture.


Scripting in architecture allow the architect to actually interact and collaborate more in term of digital design. Without the constraint of the program or software a scripting culture can really break the normal boundaries of a software that is designed by the engineers to do. A significant engagement between the designer and the computer will provide a greater range of outcome. A potential to break free the designer to spend more time on the designing part of the thinking. The idea of scripting allows the designer to escape the strict boundaries of character in any software design.(Burry, 2011) Without a software constraint a designer can freely design and think carefully to what his design as the possibilities of the outcomes can be purely control by the hand of the designer.


CHAPTER 3 [28]

Paramatricism? The digital age in architectural design has ventured upon many possibilities and explore many boundaries through architectural design. Parametric design has given new opportunities, and a explicit way of designing a building that could redefine design process. The on going exploration of parametric design has began to promotes a lot of discourse regarding this matter. The idea of parametric design as a style is being push by Patrick Schumacher in his writing on Parametric Manifesto. He believe that parametric design will replace the long going post modernism and call is as parametricism. Schumacher stated that the idea of parametric design is a maturing part of the avant grade movement, that will progress and a big potential on replacing the on going style search in the architectural community.(Schumacher,2008) Parametricism as a new age of transition period that eventually will replace the stylistic pluralism of the modernism and provide a unified era of architecture all over the world.

The usage of parametric design has been superficial and the there a a lot of possibilities still have not yet to be explore,without a large researcha dn build ups on the knowledge through parametric design,as the possibilities of writings and recordings.Burry believe that parametric design still has a long way to go,with more possibilities and more research has been done. Instead of establishing it as a style, parametric design still offers a lot to be ventured with, and discussion and discourse on parametric design must be further proceed(Burry,2011). My point of view is parametric design can have a distance future in architecture, with more research and the permeability to elicit manipulate the design parameters. Parametric design doesn’t really have to be consist of form, blobs and irregular shapes but really need to be embodies as a catalyst towards a better performance in architecture and building construction. But still parametric design doesn’t really have to be consist of the principle that is proposed by Schumacher. The main key important of parametric design is not just the accordance to the form and space but towards the main parameters in design. The field itself is consist of research based and explicit elements through design.

references Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71. (pdf) Schumacher, P. (2010) ‘Patrik Schumacher on Parametricism: Let the style wars begin”, Architects Journal (accessed 30th March 2013) Available: [Online] http://www. critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-warsbegin/5217211.article


The essence of the parametric design is the clear parameters, which allow us the designer to carefully design in such that it up rise our methodology in designing building. Whether or not it is a style, it is not the main priorities as parametricism still haven’t really being widely applied. The vast area of research still need to be done in order to establish parametricism as a style of design. It is true parametric design offers new possibilities especially in making breakthrough form and design language. Exploration of new possibilities on form making aligned with the explicit parameters. Regardless of the parametricism style the principle idea form Schumacher can be used as a ground establishment in parametric design. Parametric design should not be consist of more rigidity in design, a breakthrough from the square grid form towards a softer new kind of space. Spaces now can be no longer monotonous or consist of the same modulation, in other way through massive customization. Parametric design has been a breakthrough in a way that every detail part of the design process can be specifically control. The designer can now explicitly control from the very basic parameters such as the material performance and towards the bigger influence on the form making and structure to the extent of the detail.

[11] Figure 11 shows the form and structure of the veneer wood modulated by parametric fabrication to perform passively.



The Hygroscope from the Archi Menges designer has really explored the to the extend that material manipulation and performance in parametric design.I think that material performance in parametric design is one of the main threshold to the whole idea of digital architecture. The technique of digital computation is used to generate a system that can test and related to the way of material performance towards the responsive behavior of the whole system.The computational and the materialization are corresponded towards each other and inherently connected. The structure is consist of digitally complex structure and quarter cut maple veneer and synthetic composite. The composite system of parameters control the compute different shapes within humidity. This project is based on more than 5 years of extensive research on climatic change affecting to the material performance. By studying the timber responsiveness towards moisture to change, and how the design modulates in order to become a climate responsive natural composite that can be programmed to allow different shape in response to surrounding humidity. (Archi Menges,2012)



The whole idea of this project can be define as a significant change in how we manipulate material performance according to optimal parameters in design. These new kind of specific parameters allow us to relatively connect towards a new kind of responsiveness and spatial experience through just passive changes in the environment. With computational modulation and program these kind of structure can be able to perform and tested accordingly towards the constraining parameters explicitly.

references Archi Menges HYGROSCOPE – METEOROSENSITIVE MORPHOLOGY Achim Menges in collaboration with Steffen Reichert, Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2012 Available (online)Accessed 4 April 2013 (

[12] Figure 12.0 shows the studies of parametric modelling can lead to advanced and passive responsive of material performance a new era of responsiveness in design.




Figure 13.0 on the left shows the detail facade of the design allowing light to penetrate to it. Figure 14.0 below shows the study of light and sun shading on the parametric model of the facade design,and optimizing the function of the form.




Parametric modelling redefine the way of environmental attribute towards our design. With perfect calculation and algorithm parametric modelling can achieve a very optimal product that is carefully studied responsive towards its environment. This is a uplifting method that will change the form making and the façade making in the industries, as the form follows accordingly to the environment. Dalian Conference Centre is one of the project that incorporated parametric generated form through it façade. With the creation of the façade form in such way that all the spaces inside can be controls lighted to reduce energy usage of the building. The interesting part of this Dalian conference center is the façade system of the building, the façade system is design such that it allow maximum and the most optimum light into the spaces. The design of the louvers façade is generated troughs studies of the parametric modelling with the sun angle and distance. The placing of the louvers façade organically determine the maximum and controlled sun intake to the building. It also allows air to enter to provide cross ventilation. As a result a form follow function façade is design organically and non-rigid. This only can be achieved with the used of parametric modelling whereby optimum potential and maximum accuracy can be obtained. With parametric modelling most of the building can be design accordingly towards their responsive to their environment creating a outcome that actually form from the nature of the environment itself. Parametric modeling will redefine the environmental attribute of designing a building to provide the maximum and the most optimum result towards the parameters that had been set. With parametric design, a new environment is redefine and change. This brings a new level of emotional and responsiveness towards the user, integrating light and the environment in the design but with controlled variables and parameters will give a new kind of spatial experience to the user, again relating towards my discourse for architecture as a frozen music.

references Coop Himmeblau, Dalian International Conference Centre,Accessed 4 April 2103( architecture/projects/dalian-international-conference-center)

[15] Figure 15.0 on the above shows us that parametric design can optimize the function and maximum accuracy in design form espicially toward enviromental sustainability.



[1] Figure 1 shows the exploration of the line and the usage to tangent and cosine to draw a spiral graph chart.

Figure 2 amd 3 shows the exploration of the voronoi command randomly to form these celular form making by controling the ammount of cellular cell in the voronoi component.

Learning Grasshopper and rhino is quite tough for me because im not used to using them before,it is quite different from what i did previously using computerization of CAD and sketchup in design.




Grasshopper gives the designer the chances to manipulate to every extend of the design parameters,the design in such can now be control and parameters constraining it can be modulate accordingly.This provide a better change for designing process whereby the designer can easily modulates the design without starting all over.

Figure on the right is one of my favourite defination whereby grasshopper will detect and modulate form according to the black and white image and produce a significant shaper according to the level and brightness of the image white and black background.This defination can be used in situation of building a facade or form accodring to the lighting value of a building or an enviroment.





Figure 4 and 5 shows my exploration towards the definition on the point attractor and curve attractor.This technique is quite useful to generate form from a single point or from a cruve generating and controlling the height according to the strength of the attractor. Learning grasshopper defination is quite hard,eventually without understanding the whole concept sometime i feel like im just following the recipe instead of creating one.It will take time to fully develop and understand the jizz of grasshopper modelling and I will get it. Without constant practice and revision,grasshopper defination is quite hard to understand and remembered,I tried slowly to understand the grasp idea of grasshopper and hoping to understand fully throught out the concept of grasshopper and parametric design eventually along these



CONCLUSION The exploration of parametric design has really allow to creation of new kind of form-making, structure and performance through its distinctive parameters control in design process. As a result a new type of spatial quality can be achieve through these critical exploration process. Building are no longer rigid and monotonous can be avoid.


The idea of parametric design can push more boundaries towards spatial exploration in term of how a building affect the emotion in design. With parametric design, an uplifted kind of emotional responsive of the user towards a building can be redefine. Responsive and interactive design is the new way of altering with emotion through spaces. Building is not just a motionless fragment of the environment but integrate the whole as a system. A change paradigm in experiential perception towards a certain space by its user. As referring to my discourse before architecture as a frozen music, somehow with parametric design and towards the responsiveness and interactive, building no longer be a frozen composition but act as a whole dynamic in motion impact towards the emotional state of the user . Idealistically, with parametric design, the Wynhamm city gateway can be design to attained such that emotional state that given the influence towards the user. A dynamic emotional state towards the experiential emotional state of the user. The whole sculpture act as a new shift of emotional impact by using parametric design, in such that a new type of emotional architecture is accomplished.


LEARNING OUTCOME A venture towards parametric design has really set an eye opener for me, I learn so many levels on the discourse theories of parametric design in a whole. For me parametric design have a great far future in architectural industries. The idea of explicit parameters really allow we as a designer to optimize the potential in every corner of a design. The discourse and the discussion on digital design really give me opportunity to deepen and widens my perception towards computational design. Previously I really had no idea on the discourse of parametric design in computational design. Being used to just used sketches and mockups, a really jump ahead for me to try a different approach of design and explore more on the parameters instead rather than the final product. I am very impressed towards the capability of grasshopper that really make me thinking about a different future for architecture ahead. Before embarking on these discourse my perception towards parametric architecture is just an architecture that is produce by the computer, somehow producing weird and blobish form, but after discoursing and explore through the software and discussion in the studio I realize how parametric design can lead to a vast change in the industries of architecture. Probably change the entire landscape of architectural world-major customization to every detail and optimizing such parameters towards a accurately, mathematically produce design.

The idea of scripting in architecture, really allow us to control most of our design part in the process, it is somehow a hands on process towards the design making in grasshopper, without the limitation of the software, as we become the toolmaker for the tool itself. To the extend that I do believe that with proper knowledge in every detail on architecture, architects can be renowned again the title ‘Master Builder’ in the building industries due to the extreme and explicit participation in design from the whole idea to the smallest detail in construction and fabrication. Learning Rhino and grasshopper allowing me to understand more on the technical part of design parameters in modeling and scripting. I had learn how to manipulate geometries by parameters and have a clear view on how the parameters work as to influence the design. By learning grasshopper I am now have a widen view towards the whole idea of parametric design and designing with parameters which is very distance to me previously. I do hope along these studio session my learning curve towards grasshopper and rhino can be increase, further learning more on how to learn these software to the maximum extend.




Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Peter Eckermann,Margaret Fuller; “Conversations with Goethe in the Last Years of His Life”, page 282; by Translated by Margaret Fuller; Publiched of Hilliard, Gray, and company, 1839; 414 pages . JS Bach / Zaha Hadid Architects Chamber Music Hall for Manchester International Festival Posted: Tuesday, July 07, 2009 Available(online) Accessed 20 March 2013 ( Kroll , Andrew. “AD Classics: Church of the Light / Tadao Ando” 06 Jan 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 04 Apr 2013. Available(Online) (http://www.archdaily. com/101260) Lawson,Bryan CAD and Creativity: Does the Computer Really Help? Article published 2002 Page 328 Amy,Fearson,the Martin Luther Church,Posted Wednesday, August 17th, 2011,Dezeen ( Coop Himmeblau,Wolf D Prix and Partner Martin Luther Church Available(online) Accesed 4 April 2013 ( Terry Peters,Azure Magazine Hyzoloic Ground September 2010 Available(Online) ( ) Allen,Max Hylozoic Ground: Philip Beesley at the Venice Biennale of Architecture Available(Online)Accesed 4 April 2013 ( Dezeen,Hylozoic Ground by Philip Besley Dezeen 27 August 2010 Available(Online)Accessed by 4 April 2013 ( hylozoic-ground-by-philip-beesley/) Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71. (pdf) Schumacher, P. (2010) ‘Patrik Schumacher on Parametricism: Let the style wars begin”, Architects Journal (accessed 30th March 2013) Available: [Online] critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars- begin/5217211.article Archi Menges HYGROSCOPE – METEOROSENSITIVE MORPHOLOGY Achim Menges in collaboration with Steffen Reichert, Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2012 Available (online)Accessed 4 April 2013 (






Why Biomimicry? On this part we will explore more on the concept and how we are going to approach the whole design and the specific parameters of the project. Nature as a guidance and wisdom that redefines our principle in design, biomimicry act as a catalyst towards livable space by learning the fundamental value of design in the nature. Acts as a living organism, a building no longer static and motionless but act as a responsive environments that transcendence interactive architecture into the next level.



Biomimicry is a method of adapting and mimicking the ability and specialties of certain species into a design advantages, that we as an architect can learn by adapting this quality onto our design building. With biomimicry,a certain characteristic can be adapt and learn that really performs onto special impact for the user and its performance. If we sees beyond the extravagant shapes and form in nature, and understand the principles and function behind them, exploring the possibilities of these character, these will lead to a new innovative techniques that somehow is more efficient and relatable toward the context, we as a designer need to go towards this direction, as biomimicry brings problem solving through evolutions and adaptation towards the surrounding.(Pawlyn 2012)




Pawlyn, M.: 2011, Biomimicry in Architecture, RIBA Publishing, London, p.47. (ISBN: 978-1859463758)

‘‘From nature we came and from nature we return’’ (Ahmad Faris,2013)

DOES BIOMIMICRY RELATE BACK TO MY DISCOURSE? Relating back towards my discourse was architecture as a frozen music, which is the intimate sense of spaces interacting with the emotional sentiment of a user, a building that emotionally so intense that it touch a person mind and giving a sense of poetic interaction. A building that enhances these certain emotion through the manipulation of elements,such as light,shadow and space. Returning to nature,these elements has been assimilated toward the process of the enviroments,hence does using biomimicry in architecture will it also creates these elements and process along the way? Biomimicry will somehow uplift these emotional and interaction thought building, that is not just static, but with a sense of emotion and mimicking the living nature which ultimately brings a soul towards a distinctive design. With these traits, a building can imitate and perform just like a creature in the nature, making a much livable spaces towards the user.


Aside from providing a framework for efficient structural systems, creates a form relatable to the public it will be viewed by. It reinforces the concept of architecture as being a living organism in that it adapts to and enhances it surroundings. Nature itself is innately interactive with its surroundings inadvertently invoking emotions and response through spatial experience.









Figure 1.0 shows the movement of a group of bird,in swarm formation as they take flight and form a specific pattern on the skylline.




Swarms of Birds. The idea of imitating flocks of birds comes to mind when we research onto the Wyndham cities background and these process of these swarming birds it is interesting to be explored. Located in the flat desert like area, the Wyndham city gateway will be the first thing that the visitor and travelers sees when they enter through the highway. We wanted to create something that is dynamic, eye catching and somehow visually triggering on the car user. An instant dynamism, that will give a visual impact towards the drivers passing through the gateway. After researching through the process of nature, we decided that flocking’s of birds will be the interesting process to study and imitates, as swarming of birds, give a dynamic visual impact, and we can studies these process formation and variation in giving certain visual aid quality which can be only achieved through parametric design.

A distinct character of swarming, is also its ability to be appeared differently from far and near, as it will create frames of visual dynamics. People from afar will sees a dynamic whole form and when you are near people will visually sees it as a porous dynamic single module, which create a two different visual perspective on the gateway. The architectural effects should therefore be the core interest that leads to a talking point, and the gateway sculpture itself is not necessarily required to be mechanically responsive to create users’ interactivities. By taking the advantage of the speed of a freeway, we believe driving through it can create frames of visual dynamics. These frames, like a camera, capture the changing phases of a ‘swarm of flocking birds’; as if to freeze music for a lasting entertainment.

A swarm of birds will definitely breaks the horizontality of the surrounding site without consuming the whole visual experience, as a swarm is dynamically porous, and enhances the experiences when people pass through it.


Digital Canopies A light sculpture that is inspired from the experienced from walking through under a forest canopy, with dappled light, the sculpture was 90 meter long located in the front decade of the Maple Leaf Square in Toronto, Canada. Inspired from the canopies in the nature, this installation use the idea of identical module, that is arrange and design in such that its moving in growth pattern. The abstract of their form is based on the geometry of the leaves.(d3 Technologies,2012) With the combination of both artificial and daylight, these pavilion allows the poetic feeling of walking through the forest. Poetically, the sculpture is designed to mimic the effect of light dappled through a forest. Combination of these effect, will eventually create a sense of romanticism towards the forest and the rustling of leaves, with light penetrating to it. Eventually the purpose is to help people escape the built environment of city and reconnect themselves with the ‘natural’ atmosphere, a reminding of the nature itself with the help of architecture and parametric design. Here it is quite interesting for us to study how the module has been created and how basically the module combined the effect of natural lighting and artificial lighting to create such desired mood or ambience. With the help of parametric design, these factor will be taken consider in order to design a ‘swarm based’ mimicry towards our project.


[2] Figure 2.0 shows the pattern of an abstraction of the leaf canopies which will allow light to penetrate and also with the help of artifical light to create such effect.


[3] Figure 3.0 shows the form and pattern of the digital canopies giving such effect of inside a forest with the help of arctificial light.



references D3 Technologies Digital Canopies, Toronto Accessed 9 May 2103 (

[4] Figure 4.0 shows the streak of artificial light whereby when the user walk pass throught it and allow the feeling of under a tree canopy on the user.


references Evolo Website The Swarm Pavilion ,Accessed 9 May 2103 (http://







Figure 5.0 shows the modulating modules which act as a strcutral component sefl supproted each other as a whole structure.

Figure 6.0 and 7.0 shows the fabrication of these different module with the help of parametric design and the showing these modules will modulate according to sizes,density and etc respectively.

The Swarm Pavilion The swarm pavilion is a self supporting structural pavilion, which is inspired from the mimic of a group of flocking birds taking flight. Its overall form is consist of individual, digitally design specific modules, with the combination of density, light, and shadow. Consisting of 210 different module of birds, these modules are designed in such that it varies in term of sizes to hold each other up. With that a form of swarming bird, is achieved with the effect of dynamism and motion. The project, created by students in collaboration with assistants from the Chair of Emerging Technologies at the Technical University of Munich, has now been made available as a loan to Red Bull‘s Hangar-7 in Salzburg.(Evolo , 2012) What fascinate us is the ability of these form to be achieved by using different sizes of module and how the module support each other. Giving the effect of light and shadow cast play, this pavilion eventually mimics the form and yet the dynamism of a group of bird is also achieved. The swarm is a combination between a parametric design system and an architectural tectonic making. With the natural intriguing phenomena of a flocks of bird taking flight, the swarm pavilion moves and barely touching the ground, before it takes of again. The play of visual variation of both density and transparency gives the sculpture a moving dynamic visual perception towards it. Eventually after studying the motion and process of birds and swarms, we will try to integrate these modules system in our sculpture which will create a porous, non-solid effect towards our design sculpture, as well of giving a dynamic visual impact towards the user.



Figure 7.0 shows each module act as a structural members carrying together the overall weight of the structure.


This Puppet pavilion is a hanging structure in theater space that is soft and amorphous that inhabits the intricate Turbine Hall. The structure envelops the audience and the performers like a soft child’s fabric cubby. With the soft and fluid effect the structure remove the sense of formality and familiar structures and will appeals to the user, somehow to be cuddled and lost it in. The form however is created from the interaction of gravity on the tessellated grid sculpture that is hung by the force of tension downwards from an array of winches. These winches can be modulate to control the surface, like a marionette or a puppet show, to allow spaces modulation to specific ambience of the emotional sense of the user. The undulating form of the space can change according to an mood of an event, a specific certain type of performance, it can be small and intimate and sometime large, dramatic also with the effect of low, compact to produce the feeling of claustrophobic .Its vibrant color on the outside and muted on the inside, the pavilion wraps and sway around the performers and audience while leaving the floor clear for the director and the designer specific program. The idea behind this sculpture is a surface that is composed with triangulated modules made from thick shag hair carpet tiles. With size varies, the center of the sculpture has a bigger triangle to be dominated. The triangle recursively reduce in size, as a fractal towards the edges. The smaller triangles, with the size of human scale, allow interaction from the audience as they disrupt and pass to and from the space. These form then changed and create a sense of abstracted movement like the drapery studies of Albrecht Durer or Leonardo da Vinci. With this pavilion we can learn how triangulated module and form, can influence the emotional sense of the user, as well as manipulating the scale in the design, ensure the different vibes that comes and go with the changes of scale and size. These is totally relatable to how architecture frozen music can be unfroze, and interactive as a sculpture, that giving a more dynamic impact towards the user, a visual dynamic. (Raffaello Rosselli,2011)

[54] [8.0]

Figure 8.0 shows the process of making these triangulated surface in forming a modulated movable structure as a skin.

references Rafaello Rosselli Official Website The Puppet Pavilion ,Accessed 9 May 2103 (

[10.0] Figure 10.0 above shows the structural reacts with certain condition of certain performance which trigger interactiveness with the user.



Figure 9.0 shows interactiveness of the structure reacting to user and creating visual dynamism for the user experienced.


























PATTERN AND BIOMIMICRY Using the Morning Line definition given, we have created matrix of different form and modules, eventually created the modular effect, which we are trying to explored. Learning from these set of matrix we explored the possibilities of creating a modular structure that is control by specific parameters. With these modules, we can create a form that remain consistent and modulates in certain parameters that we are trying to achieve. With different type of matrix created, we can evaluate in which we might continue to explored as certain quality on the form and maybe shadow play is optimally achieved. These morning line definition also allow us to form varies of pattern that resembles the growth of a tree which in relation to biomimicry, that will be useful in creating certain shadow effect based on certain pattern and form play of the structure. These will be our starting point on to explored the possibilities of modules and structure in our design of the Wyndham cities gateway.









Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom




Case Study 2.0 The concept of Swarming? In reference to the concept of birds swarming and flocking, we have analyzed and proposed a few elements in term of the process that we are trying to mimic from the making of swarm. A few elements that in relate to our discourses will be achieved through the imitation of the process of birds flying through group swarming. • • •

Moving Pattern Modules Design Visual Dynamics

Through out these projects we proposed that our structure will be consist of certain element or effect that is achieved on these precedent.




Swarm Architecture Wordpress Swarm Dynamics – Pablo Miranda Carranza,Accessed 9 May 2103 (http://swarmarchitecture.wordpress. com/2010/11/16/swarm-dynamicspablo-miranda-carranza/)

1.The points are taken based on the swarm intelegence plugin. 2.It is then recorded through several motion of swarming, 3.Using line and pipe to follow the moving motion of the swarming.


Moving Pattern.



In this precedent we are interested of the idea of recording the pattern forming a certain flow of form of a swarm of birds. The ability to record and modulate the moving patterns of a group of birds can only be determine using specific algorithm which can be done through parametric design. (Caranza, 2010) Throughout these motion the form and process of a grouping bird can be studied and modulate. These allow us as a designer to achieve certain imitation towards the arrangement and pattern of specific movement in certain condition and parameters. The idea of these study on swarm dynamics is how the formation of swarm is gathered and recorded to form a specific path according to the bounding parameters. Through out these study of pattern and motion we manage to create a record of a moving group of bird according to specific explicit parameters that will determine and affect the whole structure of the motion swarm. With specific parameters such as number of birds and the speed of the swarm, it will effect how the formation and the final outcome of the moving pattern of these swarms. With these techniques we can study certain parameters and modulates these parameters according to our site and tries to modules a different and variety of these moving swarm pattern to create certain effect that we tries to achieve to mimic the whole process of bird swarming.

Swarm Dynamics



CASE STUDY 2.0 Modules Design. In relating to our concept of biomimicry, which is the idea of mimicking the process of flocking birds into our design structure. As we trying to create a module that gives the impact following the pattern of flocking birds as part of the process. One of the idea for the reverse engineering for our structure is the Esplanade building which was a performing art center in the capital city of Singapore, it has become one of the main attraction for the tourist and the locals.



It has become one of the iconic building to the nation, which the locals believe that is inspired by the ‘durian fruit’. The architect quotes that the triangular sunshades came about because he wanted to protect the building from the sun, yet allow lot of views outside. It also makes the building look different from different angles. For example, if one were to view it from the ground level of the Swiss Hotel, The Stamford, one would see nothing but glass because the sunshade edges are pointing at you. But if one were to go up all the way to the top of the hotel and view the Esplanade, you see only the sunshades and no glass. The idea of the dynamic spiky modules that can affect view and shadow casting of the underside from the form is really coherent to what our vision is. The idea is to have an aerodynamic form which will affect the shadow cast and the light penetrating the inside of the structure, which eventually create a better sense of space, and interaction towards the structure and the user.



NG S.S.,2011(Photo Source:http://farm6.staticflickr. com/5300/5526068602_a225c00605_o.jpg) Wikipedia,Esplanade SIngapore,Accessed 9 May 2103 (,_Singapore)

1. 1.Grid in surface is formed throught grasshopper 2.Create points on the grid,and offset the middle points between grids,modulate according to specific distance 3.Make a surface out of these point by lofting the lines together.


2. [65]



1. 2. 3.


1.Grid is formed on the surface dividing it together. 2.Modulate the shape of surface by using points and then loft. 3.Create another module perpendicular to it. 4.Create slot holes to allow slotting between the structure. 5.Modulate the size and density of the form accordingly


The structure above is made by different module which make up a single structural body that is self supporting.First we need to create a triangle surface and divide them into points, regulate those points to modulate the shape of the triangle forming like a fins like structure, create another same surface to anchor it with each other to form a dynamic arrow-like form. Next use grasshopper to make the joinery on each fins allowing the structure to be self supported. After creating a lots of modules combine them together in a required series or specific points such as swarming points, to allow modulation of dynamic overall structure. The size or density of the fins can now be modulate using specific parameters such as light or shadow.









B.4. Technique: Development For centuries architects have looked into nature for inspiration for architectural forms and to mimic nature’s absolute structural efficiencies. The idea of flocking birds is particularly different than many biomimicry-inspired architecture because it is not a study on structural efficiencies rather we are interested in the sensory experience it creates. The architectural effects should therefore be the core interest that leads to a talking point, and the gateway sculpture itself is not necessarily required to be mechanically responsive to create users’ interactivities. By taking the advantage of the speed of a freeway, we believe driving through it can create frames of visual dynamics. These frames, like a camera, capture the changing phases of a ‘swarm of flocking birds’; as if to freeze music for a lasting entertainment.


Technique 1:Points By using grasshopper plugin (swarm intelligence) it allows us to recreate the movement of a swarm of flocking birds. We wanted to achieve an overall sculptural form that freezes the motion of flocking birds. This is achieved by recording motion points through constraints of parameters that is responsive to the site for example the size, potential heights of the sculpture, viewing perspectives and location of the road. The optimal iteration we concluded is this one.






Technique 2: Module Each of these points represents each birds and we produce this through designing modules. Each module should respond to the wind by rotating on an axis. Therefore, it creates dynamic casting of shadows that are ‘moving’ throughout the day. To boost this effect, we decided to have reflective materials on one side of the module.




Technique 3:Structure Because each of these modules respond and rotate individually, we need a structural frame work that could hold on to these modules without impacting its responsiveness to wind. We tried to create a space truss through these thousands of points. The complication of these trusses did not allow us to use standard joints as pipes would to connect to the joint at several different angles. As a result, each joint needed to be unique, and a joint that could accommodate for any number of pipes to be inserted at any angle needed to be designed.








B.5. Technique: Prototypes

Cilinder joint which jointed with the steel member.(bolted)

Structural proposal The structural proposal for the special joinery on the rotating fins of modules which will provide visual frames of dynamism to the structure. The structure itself which maybe made of light weight steel members is design in such that the edges is minimal to allow the effect of slender from below.

Rotating Sphere Nodes to allow rotating of the angle of the joinery.

Connected these multiple angle of the structure which also become a multi directional truss is a Spherical Node socket, which allow the change in any angle of the structure to connect those triangulated module. The proposed modules of fins can be plastic plates, which is very lightweight as it will rotate and sway around when wind blowing it, to give the effect of birds flying through the structure, as a part of visual dynamism. A special rotating joint is also jointed with the spherical node socket, allowing it to rotate between the structure smoothly. The structure is consist of the steel members, the spherical node socket and the rotating fins. Each of the structural steel member length is unique, therefore the usage of parametric design is required to allow maximum accuracy and these length can be manipulated explicitly.



Steel members designed to accomodate the structural and vision of the scultpure.(300 mm thick)

The steel members is designed such way to allow the effect of slendering towards the members when the user overlooking the structure from below.

Steel Rod to support the plastic fins

Plastic Fins allows the the module to rotate when wind blewing in.(50 mm thick)

Steel member joined together with the help of the rotating sphere nodes to create a modulation of trusses.

references Novum Structure website Swarm KK-System Kugel Knoten (Spherical Node),Accessed 9 May 2103 (

Rotating Joint allow the steel rod to be rotate in order to move the fins

Model and Prototype The fabrication of the model is based on one of the part of the structure consisting the fins and the supporting members act as a multidirectional trusses.However due to is complicated form,we are unable to generate these model through fab-lab. Maybe in next step we need to simplify and revise the whole form making and structure of these sculpture in order to make it fabricate easily in the fab lab.






B.6. Technique Proposal With the Wyndham Gateway Project we choose these swarms of birds design as it can brings the possibilities of visual dynamics towards the user from afar and close. As the Wyndham highway is basically a monotonous flat site, we proposed that we create something that give an absolute impact of dynamism breaking the flat horizontal plane, but still retain the transparent and porosity of the site, giving a balance of visual aid to the user. The concept of swarm of birds as a mimicking point will be absolutely suitable for the site, with its ability to give visual dynamism following the pattern of a bird swarming as people pass through it, might as well retain the airy and transparency of the surrounding site, as the form is not solid, and it is porous where light will pass through and wind will take change. The flying flocks of birds will be an intriguing landmark which will be perceive differently from far and close. These will give a significant element of surprise and invoke curiosity, as the form dynamism changes as these visual frames of the user began moving towards and into the gateway.










We began our design by focusing on our topic which is biomimicry and how biomimicry can help us to generate and mimic something that will given the certain impact that we want to achieve. After discussion we decided that we want to use the mimicry of birds in swarming as part of our methodology. With the idea of bird swarming, the structure that we are trying to achieve will not be solid and rigid, to allow the ability of retaining the significant value of the surrounding highway.

2. SWARMING OF BIRDS(POROUSITY) In order to break the monotonous and horizontalness of the site, we tried to create a porous structure rather than creating a big block of structure to allow visual transparencies to the user. These structure is based on the modulation of swarming pattern that we achieve before, with the rotating modules that allow the motion of the birds flying to be captured.


When passing through the sculpture, the intention is to have modules and structure act as a frames of visual dynamism can be achieved through the dynamic form and the modulating modules on the structure itself.










B.7. Algorithmic Sketches We have began to explore more deep into grasshopper and more technical part of the making of these modules. I have began to understand more towards the basic principle of grasshopper and how those these specific visual scripting in adding to our aid in design. With the exploration of many definition I began to understand more on the process behind specific definition and how to break them into parts that might working as my own individual definition. But still I haven’t really master the possibilities of making things by my own, we as a student need to explore more and keep training our self using these grasshopper software. Basically grasshopper is the toughest and hardest software I haven’t learn, it is very different in term of form making 3d software that we had used previously. With grasshopper a designer need to think carefully as a specific parameters that will influence they design, by part or by the whole. It is kind of different to actually start a design without thinking of the final form, which is a little bit hard for me to digest, but hopefully I will get used to it and learn more about grasshopper along these semester. Grasshopper brings out possibilities of new type of form and function manipulation.


Figure shows the definition for the reverse engineering for the esplanade modulating elevated triangles.

Figure 1 and 2 shows the modulation of the reverse engineering for the esplanade building which create by a grid on surface and then being modulated into elevated triangles.



Figure 3 shows one of the render for the modulation on strucutre and the surface throught swarm intelegence plugin.




Figure shows the definition for overall definition for our modules and points based on the swarm intelegence,and the structure generated through lunchbox.


The ability of these software to allow designer to tweak the possibilities of explicit parameters is no denial. But still to master these software we as a student need to practice consistently and grasshopper is not like any others 3d making software. It will allow form to be generated as the design process and parameters still be influence at the same time. With few weeks left to learn and explored grasshopper, I do hope I will keep exploring these software as a part of continuity of my learning progress. This is because I saw grasshopper and parametric design as a new and potentially one of the biggest thing that will take over the architectural industries someday. So it is vital for us the future architects to learn and to master and go beyond these parametric design, someday.



Figure 3 shows the function of lunchbox creating spatial trusses in the surface that we bake.

Figure 4 shows the close up of the structure and modulation of the fins,based on the points that is generated through swarm intelegence.

Figure 5 ased on the points that is generated through swarm intelegence that is modulated according to specific parameters




Figure shows exploration of modules from the volta doms definition into different shape and form according to specific parameters.

[6] Figure 6 shows the definition for the esplanade reverse engineering using line and loft to form a surface.


Mid-Semester Presentations Review Exploring these grasshopper definition on swarm intelligence and the possibilities of incorporating something algorithm and controlled in design, it give us designer the ability to explicitly control our design process and form simultaneously without going back from scratch. After our mid-semester consultation we have realized that a few things need to be improved to allow us to achieve a stronger design and outcome. There are some issues that has been highlighted on our mid semester critique session.





• We need to consider the right type of structure that is enveloping and supporting our module fins which currently it is a bit hard and rigid, consuming the fins and the overall looks of the swarm of birds which is suppose to be lightweight and easy. After discussing with our group we have come to a decision that we will explore further on the type of material and how these joinery modulate and connect with each other to remain its lightweight and porosity. • Modulation of the fins in term of size and direction can be applied, as the current design need to improve, adding a sense of direction towards the module and the whole concept of swarming to be practically achieve our vision to mimic the flocking’s of birds. • Our progress has been quite good in term of exploring and working together as a group, but we still need to be more clear on our concept and the whole idea of we trying to mimic. • After discussion with our group members we decided that we are going to simplify and try to apply these factors towards our design scheme in term of the overall concept and what our vision that we are trying to achieve. As a group we will keep revising our technique and possibilities to improve our design in upcoming phase. All the comments and consultation during the mid semester presentation will we be taking count and applied into our design.

B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes Previously in Part A we learn on how to apply theory and possibilities of parametric design in our project and try to create a discourse that in related to our design. Comes Part B which is more challenging that allow us to think and apply these theory practically into our design idea and produce a multiple series of matrices in groups. With these application towards a more technical approach in term of our parametric design, we had to work really hard and try our best to explore the possibilities of grasshopper and to produce these outcomes based on the parameters that we have been set. In this Part B we learn how to apply all the theory and the discourse onto the scripting method of grasshopper, and it is not quite easy to grasp the whole idea; it is a brain scratcher. We learn to come out with different modules with the possibilities of changing it parameters and try to modulate it according to what we want in term of the effect and the visual aid that we are trying to achieved. We also do learn more about biomimicry and how these biomimicry principle is to be applied in order to achieve our own personal discourses in the previous section and work as a group tolerating and giving opinion to each other. Working in group is also quite challenging as you have to tolerate and accept others opinion as it will also affect the final outcome of the design. We discuss on our individual opinion as a group to allow our vision to be mold together to create a well develop and matured design. Combining both the theory and the technical part of parametric design is not that easy. We need to explore more on these technical part as to provide a better and solid vision for our design to be implemented. Exploration in term of grasshopper and the understanding of the basic concept of these visual scripting need to be further continued.



1.D3 Technologies Digital Canopies, Toronto Accessed 9 May 2103 ( canopy-toronto-2010) 2.Evolo Website The Swarm Pavilion ,Accessed 9 May 2103 ( 3.Rafaello Rossolli Official Website The Puppet Pavilion ,Accessed 9 May 2103 ( 4.Swarm Architecture Wordpress Swarm Dynamics – Pablo Miranda Carranza,Accessed 9 May 2103 ( 5.NG S.S.,2011(Photo Source: 6.Wikipedia,Esplanade SIngapore,Accessed 9 May 2103 (,_Singapore) 7.Novum Structure website Swarm KK-System Kugel Knoten (Spherical Node),Accessed 9 May 2103 ( 8.Pawlyn, M.: 2011, Biomimicry in Architecture, RIBA Publishing, London, p.47. (ISBN: 978-1859463758).





‘FINALLY WE FIGURED SOMETHING OUT!’ Finally after a weeks of struggling we manage to pull off a form that brings the essence of our swarming of bird in a more matured and convincing way. Many thanks to David and Michael for this!.After a long discussion and a never ending argument we manage to overcome our problem that we faced during the mid semester presentation and come out with a better solution for our whole structure and form. With the previous design we, analyze and review our idea back and the whole purpose of biomimicking the swarm and come out with a better solution. Instead of separating they both as structure and module, our idea is to combine them together as part of the whole process of swarming and flocking flying dynamically throughout the highway. As a result a new form and new perception towards the process of swarming is applied to our design generating and an outcome that is quite different from the previous product.


inhabits, it provides an envir through efficient structure, ently creating space and exp The aim of biomimicry there to learn from the lessons of and improve upon them. To e structure, spatial experienc aesthetic, for longevity in the cal, social and environmenta

ronment inherperience. efore, is f nature enhance ce and e physial realm.



“A place to be for the birds,a sense of welcoming and direction”

THE CONCEPT The main idea of swarming is to generate a dynamic and memorable experience for the user, as the swarm goes through and flies away. Swarming come from the symbolism of the birds flying through and travelling to a destination. Located south from the site is the western water reserve which is called a bird ‘haven’, whereby all kind of birds travel across the land and gather to the area as part of their habitat. With that we symbolize Wyndham being one of their destination, as these birds greet and welcomes the user to the direction of the city. The chaos of swarming is therefore a perfect platform to explore the potentials of spatial experience and how it can be used to draw users to Wyndham by creating a long lasting impression of Wyndham. The visual dynamic of a swarm is familiar, powerful and memorable - exactly what the Wyndham Project brief calls for. Through the familiarity of a swarm of birds, something we have all witnessed, even experienced in our lives, the design prompts reminiscence; it creates a personal bond between user and structure to generate enough interest to be self-sustaining in both a social and architectural discourse that will have people talking about Wyndham for the years to come.


We wanted to create something that is dynamic and frozen in motion,memorable without totally overshadowing the overall view of the drivers. So we optioned to use swarming of birds because it is DYNAMIC IN MOTION, it shows a SENSE OF DIRECTION, and and have a POROUS properties.


“Directional and dynamism,a visual symbolic for Wyndham�

Reviewing back our process, the new proposal for Wyndham City gateway basically is being generated through the extensive generated of sequence of points and mimicking the whole movement of birds flying through a swarm in motion.

1.Sense of Direction



With these sequence of points we analyse and generate the best points in motion to potray our structure through certain parameters of the site.These parameters become our basic constraint to generate and to trigger a formation of points that responsive towards its surrounding site and condition. How we want to incorporate all the factors of swarm into the site so it is site responsive? This brings us back to what we want to achieve. The main elements of our design therefore are a sense of direction, footings that respond to the contours of the site, a scale that is visible from far and invoke a sense of self-awareness and covering a wider area in order to provide this experience to users travelling on different roads.

2.Viewing capacities

3.Undulating Arches


As a performance criteria for our iterations * The points had to be legible as a swarm of birds to keep the familiarity with users and play with their perspective experience. * The points had to be one undulated in proximity with the user to successfully recreate the dynamics of a swarm. We use the metaphor of birds flying towards Wyndham to symbolize Wyndham as a sanctuary for both nature and man. A place to be. On a highway the main driver for the design is the 100km/h speed which the users will be travelling at. The undulating sinuous forms of the structure will weave up and down, side to side to draw the eyes of users to take them on a ride they will never forget, a ride both familiar to past experiences and memorable post their experience. It is kinetic, yet static. Alive but inanimate.




PHASE Phase 1 We choose the best modulation of the swarming points that is the most responsive towards the site and the character that we wanted. We also pick the best iterations for directivity and dynamism to portrays in our structure.



Phase 2 Points is converted into structure sound form and trusses. We also considered the structural capability and the load transfer for the arch before going further. Phase 3 The rigid trusses is changed into a much more dynamic and organic form to portray the moving like and soft in motion structure.





We used a Grasshopper plug-in called swarm intelligence that generated a traced movement of points based on complex mathematical algorithms that replicated the behaviours of birds within a flock. The algorithms within the plug-in replicated the three main behaviours of birds in a flock: The plug-in also had the capabilities to input the numbers of birds within the flock, to intensify or soften the overall complexity of the form.

Grasshopper was then used to connect these points and control the thickness of these links, where the overall fluidity of the form was accomplished through exports to 3D Coat and MeshLab for smoothing. Supports were also able to be parametrically generated using Grasshopper so that we had total control over its dimensions to address any structural problems that may arise.




“A very strong and easy to mold material,perfect for a organic form structure�



GLASS FIBER REINFROCED PLASTIC Glass fiber reinforced plastic are usually used in common in the industries of shipmaking and aeroplane.The polymer are usually reinforced with fibers which are usually made from glass, carbon and aramids while the polymer is made of polyester or vinyl ester thermosetting plastic.



With GFRP we can achieve a very sound and stable organic form that can be molded according to the blue foam inside. An exoskeleton self supporting structure can be achieved throughout the usage of these fiber plastic in our construction. GFRP are usually high in strength and it can span quite a long distance compare to normal steel. With it lightweight properties which is about 80 % less than regular steel reinforced, making the construction easy and lightweight. It withstand corrosion and can be moldable into all form of organic form with its capability of self supporting and high in strength ,GFRP is the best material for our complicated organic form to be erected.


SCALE 1:20

“With pre-fabrication of these organic-form structure,the making process cost and time can be reduced�

Cast Thicket Technology is one of the many technologies that adapt parametric design into making organic form in consistent to each other. These allow form that is unmoldable and organic to be cast in a special casement made by parametric fabrication and then formed a solid organic structure. Combining both GFRP and the cast thicket technologies we can achieve a fast and easy construction coherent with the concept and the idea of digital fabrication into our structure. With these technology pre-fabrication of the form can be done, and the structural will be divided and designed in such that in can be assembled and reassembled on site with the help of parametric computational software of making the casement to the assembly and installation process.



We hope that with these advanced and innovative construction methodologies, more and more exploration in form making through digital fabrication can be done, as parametric fabrication and construction become mainstream through the architectural industries.

references Topo Cast LAB,Cast Thicket Technology Accessed 9 Jun 2103 (


1. 2. 3.

We wanted to explore the possibilities of molding and sculpting our structure as part of our process and tectonic making of the design. We used molding mix instead of the real fiber glass just to get the mold effect and fibre glass is a bit dangerous and hazard without expert handling. By using the blue foam as our based foundation mold we began to select a part from the structure to mold it into a prototype. The blue foam then being cut and formed into a basic formation of the section. Cutting and sculpting the blue foam seems easy but its required a lot of strength and hard work to actually mold the foam into desired form. The blue foam is then sanded to make the surface smoother before the sculpture mix to be mold onto. Mixing the sculptural mix requires some skills as the mix become to thin or too thick, we actually failed a few time before manage to get a decent sculptural mix to make a perfect mold onto the foam. With a strong and sound mix we began to mold the sculptural mix onto the blue foam slowly. This required layer and over layers of dried mold to get a thick and smooth surface perfectly After 3-4 layers of mold mix the sculpture began to be left dried and then painted with some acrylic to get a vibrant colour and then finish by some liquor to achieve the shiny and reflecting surface. Experimenting with sculpting foam and this prototype allow us to learn and to experience the process of foam sculpting using the real GFRP in our proposal.

4. [120]

The process takes a long time and we learn that it takes some skill and experties in doing it perfectlyt is not an easy process and requires a lot of determination to achieve a perfect organic sculptural form that are desired.

“Molding and sculpting process of the detail structure� 1.The blue foam is cut into desired form according to its rough measurement and shape 2.The blue foam is then sanded to get a more smooth and even surface. 3.The sculpture mold powder or the fiber glass is then mixed accordingly with its soluble ingredient which in our case we mix the mold powder with water. After creating a strong mold mix, we began to mold it onto the foam accordingly. Layers by layers is leaved to dried before we put another layers of the sculptural mix.



4.After several layer of sculptural mold being done, creating a decent organic shape. The mold is then sanded to get a smoother and more dynamic surface. 5.Lastly we painted the dried out form with an acrylic paint to get a more vibrant and colored finish.


Because our design 150m the ultimate aim for the structure was to make it as lightweight as possible so that the design would require less structural support, and the focus would be on the interweaving form overhead. Our structure is therefore based on Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic - material that weighs 80% less than steel, is low maintenance and structurally reinforced for physical longevity. and Cast thicket technology – a pre-fabrication method of construction that will allow most of the construction to be done offsite for quick construction.

references Topo Cast LAB,Cast Thicket Technology Accessed 9 Jun 2103 (

First a mould is made by using a parametric laser to cut out the pluproplene formwork for the structure with plastic tabs running along the edges to be used to bind the formwork together. Steel bars are placed inside along with blue foam act as reinforcement and give the structure shape. The Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic is then applied to the design to strengthen the structure and painted using 5 coats of primer and an acrylic gloss paint to give it a glossy finish. The strcutre will be in different modules and to be installed accordingly at the site based on the schemes and position.

“The structure will be divided into several part and installed accordingly to form the complete scheme.�








“Memorable welcoming and dynamic,a new icon for Wyndham�


south east elevation

[128] [128]

north west elevation













THE SWARM We use the metaphor of birds flying towards Wyndham to symbolize Wyndham as a sanctuary for both nature and man. A place to be. On a highway the main driver for the design is the 100km/h speed which the users will be travelling at. The undulating sinuous forms of the structure will weave up and down, side to side to draw the eyes of users to take them on a ride they will never forget, a ride both familiar to past experiences and memorable post their experience. It is kinetic, yet static. Alive but inanimate. Its sheer size, coupled with its darkness during the day and brightness during the night, is what makes the design powerful; overpowering surroundings views of the structure whether near or far gets the attention of bypassers, inviting them to experience a slice of Wyndham. The experience of driving through such a monumental gateway enthralls the user and raises self-awareness; it creates a positive and exciting association between the person and the space, and by extension Wyndham for impression.

Because of this, we believe that this bold image, statement, manifesto if you will, is able to symbolically represent the people and culture of Wyndham. It is abstract to highlight the complex intellect and artistic talent of the people and leave the structure open to interpretation. It is monumental to raise awareness to this fact and effectively promote the municipality’s culture and events, thereby economy, society and presence within a social realm, putting Wyndham on the map While the form, forever changing, moving, living, ultimately leaves a lasting impression that will no doubt be talked about for the years to come. Our design is therefore an iconic structure, a memorable experience of Wyndham.








After a long week of figuring out our definition, finally with the help of our tutor, David and Michael the four of us decided to combine both of the module form and the structure, instead it becomes a two separated system we decided to combine them to form a better dynamic and a clearer perspective towards our vision. This were triggered by our exploration on the plugin exoskeleton which we use a try to change the structural rigid trusses into a much dynamic fluid form. With these idea in mind, avid introduce us to another software which is the 3d coat and meshlab, whereby these software will then generate a much smoother form and potray our vision for a dynamic moving-like structure. After finding a good solution to our end product we started to figuring out the sets of points that we did earlier and generate a few more points and choosing the best points iterations that consist of what we trying to achieved throughout the product. Points of iterations were carefully studied and generated as we tried to produce a few outcome for our final product. We have to make a few adjustment towards the point in order to fix its structural capability such as the footings for a structurally sound form without changing its own swarming properties.


Throughout the semester, learning grasshopper is the most difficult task of all, our technical capabilities on solving issues in grasshopper are quite weak, so we need more time to figure out what are we trying to do. Due to this, we struggled a lot during the semester to produce something solid that align with our vision, I think that’s the tough part about grasshopper and parametric design, you have to master all these basic principle before you create something or else it you will eventually get stuck. Grasshopper is a powerful tool, but without a broad experience on how to use them and a competent technical skill on making something in it, its going to be quite hard to design with it. Furthermore being used to designing on paper or using a physical model, its quite awkward and hard for me at first to take on the transition from designing with paper instead putting all the parameters in the computer to generate. It will take a long time and hard work to figured out grasshopper entirely, and Im looking forward to revise and learn more on the techniques that other group are doing. With hardwork and determination, I think grasshopper can be a great tool for us, the future architects and designer to change the landscape of the industries.





A few things that we wish to continue if we are given a few more weeks to go, and to repair and improve from the consultation session during the final presentation. Using points attractor or other parameters to set the holes and the density of the porosity. One of the possible thing that we could explore in is merging the swarm intelligence point with an attractor so that we can explicitly control the size of the hole or the density of its porosity. With that the modulation of the holes can be explicitly be control based on specific parameters such as views or the sun direction to capture more experience throughout the sculpture.


Secondly we can also can consider the size of our actual structure going to be, because the current outcome is a bit bulky, maybe a few weeks more we can actually improve and alter the sizes and thickness of the structure so that it doesn’t feel and looks so massive for the highway. With that, the vision of motion like and fluidness can be achieved through a more lighter non bulky blobs. We could also explore further on the formation of the swarm to create a more dynamic and chaotic placement of the points so that our structure doesn’t appeared to be flat but moves up and down to an undulating formation. These will create a much more dynamic sense to the structure as it moves freely upwards and downwards in the swarming modulation.


If we were given more chances, we wanted to take these possibilities of creating a more dynamic and a more visionaries form that will manage to capture our vision on creating a chaotic vs order mimicry of the swarm. With that I think our vision on mimicking the swarm formation can be strengthen and portrays beautifully in the design.








Learning Outcome

Technical Issues

It’s has been a long semester for me, being here for the first semester an learning both parametric design and rhino really change my perspective towards architecture. After 3 years of learning architecture, I realize that parametric design and grasshopper as a tool, really have a very distance future.

As for technical capabilities grasshopper is not an easy software to learn. It takes perseverance and determination to learn every basic step and to understand the whole concept of parameters before someone master the technique.

Previously I never really exposed to the critical part of architecture, and how we produce discourses and argument, with studio air I learn to express solid discussion and opinion regarding parametric design as a branch of architecture. Learning grasshopper is really an eye opener to me, looking through my previous design, I can see that many possibilities and techniques of grasshopper can be develop accordingly towards every inch of our design process. These design parameters can change the way we develop our design and taking it a step further by explicitly manipulating the factors. Being used to just design everything computerization, it’s a hard time for me to adjust and adapt designing through to a very different approach of parametric method. Instead of using paper mockups and tectonics making we design varies through the whole process, without even having a preconceive idea of what the form or the design will look like in the end.

Through out the semester, I think I catch-up to grasshopper quite a bit slow, as I only use tools like sketch-up or CAD before and never really have a chance to explore grasshopper. After a lot of hard work and struggling one of my biggest accomplishment is the ability to read and understand a definition which I manage to grasp as a basic understanding of grasshopper. Learning for tutorial is something different rather than creating something out of nothing. Thats the hardest part of grasshopper, when you are not experienced, you cant really create something out of nothing from scratch. I personally have to refer a few definition through multiple of tutorial before I manage to generate a decent product. That’s why I think sharing and peer learning is very important throughout this studio. Learning in group really helps with the learning curve as our group tries our hardest to understand how things work and the process of experimenting with grasshopper as a tool.

Group Work! Nevertheless, working in groups is not that all easy, as you have to make compromises and opinion as the product reflect the groups as a whole. We do sometime have some argument on eveyr detail of our opinion and tries to actually give our own value into certain aspect of the design. With that I think this is quite a challenging semester for me, learning something new and adapting towards a new group workforce. Being in a group really teaches us the value of co depending on each other and helping each other out.



We helps and tries to resolve our problem as a group and discuss it thoroughly every time we meet up. Throughout the semester the hardest part was the technical making of grasshopper, sometime we feel really stuck and lost making our idea reflects through our product and definition, I think our group did a great job on discussing and giving our opinion through the concept and vision that we trying to achieve, but then the hardest part was to implement it in grasshopper as our technical capiblities are limited. Sometime we can only come out with a superficial solution, as our technical capabilities is limited in grasshopper. Till the mid semester presentation we really have a hard time of generating a solid argument and product which doesn’t really coherent with what we envision for. The idea and the form generated is not co relatable and doesn’t really provide the best solution for our design

Eureka! Finally after weeks of figuring it out, our tutor David and Michael really help us on putting us on the right track again. After several discussion we decided to change the form and the way we approach our design before. With the help of 3d coat and mesh lab, the design was simplified and coherent with our vision. Only one week before the final presentation, we work really hard on putting everything together, from experimenting the construction process and visualizing the whole generative form. We really put out some effort to actually prove ourselves worthy of these whole semester. As a group we really did a hard work to pull off everything in just one week. Fortunately everything goes smoothly throughout the presentation, there were some flaws here and there but we manage to pull everything together. Working as a group we really learn a lot these semester, and I cant wait to learn more and revise on my grasshopper skills and applied it in my future design. After one semester here,I can say that everything when quite smoothly and I do learn a lot in these short times,and im looking forward to further explore the possibilities of parametric design in the next semester.Thank you.


CONCLUSION A journey of learning towards the essence of parametric design doesn’t stop here ,I’m looking forward to explore more on the possibilities of parametric design in my future design as part of my design process. I think through my discourse of architecture as a frozen music has been is beautifully portrayed in the dynamic form of our proposal. It’s a motion in capture, a frozen moment of birds flying through gracefully greeting the user swiftly across the highway capturing bits by bits of visual dynamism portrayed in an organic motion like structure, mimicking this process of swarming.


Parametric architecture had uplifted the possibilities of capturing something, an essence from nature to be mimic, as it reflects the spirit and grandeur of the nature itself, a flying swarm, flowing and moving like a composition of music with chaos and order. Bringing to world closer together, understanding intricate formation of the nature and applied, as we grasp the wisdom from the things around us; our background music, the music of nature. As I would say a dynamic swarming, a composition of grandeur orchestra, and a frozen music.




1.Topo Cast LAB,Cast Thicket Technology Accessed 9 Jun 2013 (

2.Pawlyn, M.: 2011, Biomimicry in Architecture, RIBA Publishing, London, p.47. (ISBN: 978-1859463758) 3.Cast Thicket Technology Accessed 9 Jun 2013,( applied_research_through_fabrication_competition_now/) 4.Animation Video,( 5.Figure 3,GFRP material selection,Norway train station,(Image source: nordpark-railway-stations/) 6.Figure 1&2,Fibre Plastic (Image source:



Air Parametric Studio 2013,Faris Zulfaa