Page 1

Chapter 2

101

Reading an Encyclopedia article Encyclopedias have

heading and sub-headings

They have an outline and often a summary some also have further study

They have a lot of graphs, charts, tables drawing etc.


In example Wikipedia below they have bold prints and italics e.g. planetary-mass object, or planemo. words to show what theses mean or highlight these words.

List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Table of planets in the solar system) Jump to: navigation, search In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined a planet as a body in orbit around the Sun that was large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium and to have cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.[1] An object in hydrostatic equilibrium is one that is large enough for its gravity to have overcome its internal rigidity, and so relax into a rounded (ellipsoidal) shape. The practical meaning of "cleared the neighborhood" is that a planet is comparatively massive enough for its gravitation to control the orbits of all objects in its vicinity. By the IAU's definition, there are eight planets in the Solar System. Those objects in orbit around the Sun that have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium but have not cleared their neighborhoods are called dwarf planets, and the remainder are termed small Solar System bodies. In addition, the Sun itself and 19 known natural satellites are also massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium.[2]


Apart from the Sun, these bodies are included in the term planetary-mass object, or planemo. All known planetary-mass objects in the Solar System, as well as the Sun, are listed below, along with a sample of the largest objects whose shape has yet to be accurately determined. The Sun's orbital characteristics are listed in relation to the Galactic Center. All other objects are listed in order of their distance from the Sun. In total, the Solar System has 33 objects that have been observationally confirmed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium: 1 star, 8 planets, 5 dwarf planets and 19 satellites.

Contents [hide] • •

1 Sun 2 Planets

3 Dwarf planets

4 Satellite planemos

5 Largest likely dwarf planets

6 See also

7 Notes

o

7.1 Unless otherwise cited:[ac]

o

7.2 Manual calculations (unless otherwise cited)

o

7.3 Individual calculations

o

7.4 Other notes

8 References

[edit] Sun The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. It contains almost 99.9 percent of all the mass in the Solar System.[3] Sun[4] Astronomical symbol[q] Mean distance from Galactic Center

km light years

~2.5×1017 ~26,000

Mean radius

km :E[f]

696,000 109


Surface area

km2 :E[f]

6.0877×1012 11,990

Volume

km3 :E[f]

1.4122×1018 1,300,000

Mass

kg :E[f]

1.9891×1030 332,946

Density

g/cm3

1.409

Equatorial gravity

m/s

2

274.0

Escape velocity

km/s

617.7

Rotation period

days

[g]

Orbital period about Galactic Center[5] million years Mean orbital speed[5]

25.38 225–250

km/s

~220

Axial tilt to the ecliptic

deg.

7.25

Axial tilt[i] to the galactic plane

deg.

67.23

Mean surface temperature

K

5,778

K

1–2×106

[i]

Mean coronal temperature

[6]

Photospheric composition

H, He, O, C, Fe, S

[edit] Planets Key * ° terrestrial gas planet giant Planets both are large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium and have cleared their neighborhoods of similar objects. There are four terrestrial planets and four gas giants in the Solar System. The latter combined comprise more than 99 percent of the mass in the Solar System excluding that of the Sun. *Mercu *Venus[ *Earth[ *Mars[1 °Jupiter[1 °Saturn[12 °Uranus[ °Neptun 8] 9] 0] 1] ] 13] ry[7] e[14]

Astronomical symbol [q]


57,909, 108,208 149,597 227,936 778,412,0 1,426,725 2,870,97 4,498,25 Mean distance km 175 ,930 ,890 ,640 10 ,400 2,200 2,900 from Sun AU 0.38709 0.72333 1.00000 1.52366 5.203363 9.537070 19.19126 30.06896 893 199 011 231 01 32 393 348 Equatorial radius

km 2,439.6 6,051.5 3,397.0 25,557.2 24,766.3 6,378.1 71,492.68 60,267.14 [f :E 4 9 0 5 6 1 11.209 9.449 ] 0.3825 0.9488 0.53226 4.007 3.883

Surface area

km² 75,000, 460,000 510,000 140,000 64,000,00 44,000,00 8,100,00 7,700,00 :E[f 000 ,000 ,000 ,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 ] 0.1471 0.9010 1 0.2745 125.5 86.27 15.88 15.10

Volume

km3 6.083×1 9.28×10 1.083×1 1.6318× 1.431×101 6.834×10 6.254×10 8.27×1014 [f 10 11 12 11 5 13 13 :E 0 0 10 763.59 ] 0.056 0.87 1 0.151 1,321.3 63.086 57.74

Mass

kg 3.302×1 4.8690× 5.9742× 6.4191× 1.8987×1 5.6851×1 8.6849×1 1.0244×1 :E[f 023 1024 1024 1023 027 026 025 026 ] 0.055 0.815 1 0.107 318 95 14 17 g/c m3

5.43

5.24

5.515

3.940

1.33

0.70

1.30

1.76

Equatorial gravit m/s 2 y

3.70

8.87

9.81

3.71

23.12

10.44

8.69

11.00

km/ s

4.25

10.36

11.18

5.02

59.54

35.49

21.29

23.71

Density

Escape velocity Rotation period[g] Orbital period[g] Mean orbital speed

day 58.6462 −243.01 0.99726 1.02595 0.41354 s 25 87[h] 968 675

Axial tilt[i]

−0.71833 [h]

0.67125

yea 0.24084 0.61519 1.00001 1.88084 11.86261 29.44749 84.01684 164.7913 rs 67 726 74 76 5 8 6 2 km/ 47.8725 35.0214 29.7859 24.1309 13.0697 s

9.6724

6.8352

5.4778

0.20563 0.00677 0.01671 0.09341 0.048392 0.054150 0.047167 0.008585 069 323 022 233 66 60 71 87

Eccentricity Inclination[f]

0.44401

deg. 7.00

3.39

0[9]

1.85

1.31

2.48

0.76

1.77

deg.

0.0

177.3

23.44

25.19

3.12

26.73

97.86

29.58

440– 100

730

287

227

152 [j]

134 [j]

76 [j]

72 [j]

165

135

76

73

H2 He

H2 He

H2 He CH4

H2 He CH4

66 or 67

62

27

13

Mean surface te K mperature Mean air temper K ature[k]

288

Atmospheric compos He Na+ CO2 CO2 N2 N2 O2 ition P+ N2 Ar Number of known moons[v]

0

0

1

2


Rings?

No

No

Planetary discriminant[l][o]

9.1×104

No

1.35×10 6

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

1.7×106 1.8×105 6.25×105 1.9×105

Yes

2.9×104 2.4×104

[edit] Dwarf planets Key †

Ceres

plutoid

Dwarf planets are large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but have not cleared their neighbourhoods of similar objects. There are currently five dwarf planets recognized by the IAU in this category. Ceres orbits in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The others orbit beyond Neptune and are sub-classified as plutoids. †

Ceres[15]

Pluto[16]

Haumea[17]

Makemake[1 8]

Eris[19]

Astronomical symbol[q] Minor planet number

1

Mean distance from Sun

km AU

Mean radius

km :E[f]

Volume Surface area

134340

136108

136472

136199

413,700,00 5,906,380,0 6,484,000,0 6,850,000,00 10,210,000,0 0 00 00 0 00 2.766 39.482 43.335 45.792 67.668 471 0.0738

km3 4.37×108 :E[f] 0.0005[b]

1,148.07 0.180

575 0.1537[20]

750+200 0.12[20]

1,200 0.19[20]

6.33×109 0.007

1.3–1.6×109 0.001[y]

1.8×109 0.002[b]

7.23×109 0.008[b]

6,800,000 0.0133[z]

7,000,000 0.015[a]

18,000,000 0.0353[a]

km² 2,800,000 17,000,000 :E[f] 0.0055[a] 0.0333

−100

Mass

kg :E[f]

9.5×1020 0.00016

1.3×1022 0.0022

4.01 ± 0.04×1021 0.0007[21]

3×1021 0.0005

1.7×1022 0.0028[22]

Density

g/cm3

2.08

2.0

2.6–3.3[23]

2.0[c]

2.25[c]

Equatorial gravity

m/s2

0.27[d]

0.60

0.44[d]

0.5[d]

~0.8[d]

0.51

1.23

0.84

0.8

1.37

Escape velocity

km/s[e ]


Rotation period[g]

days

0.3781

−6.38718[h]

0.167

?

?

Orbital period[g]

years

4.599

247.92065

285.4

309.9

557

Mean orbital speed

km/s

[o]

4.484

4.4

[o]

3.436[n]

17.882

4.7490

0.080

0.24880766

0.18874

0.159

0.44177

deg.

10.587

17.14175

28.19

28.96

44.187

deg.

4

119.61

?

?

?

K

167[24]

40[25]

<50[26]

30

30

Atmospheric composition

H2O, O2

N2, CH4

N2, CH4.[27]

N2, CH4[28]

Number of known moons[v]

0

5

2[29]

0[30]

1[31]

Planetary discriminant[l][o]

0.33

0.077

0.023

0.02

0.10

Eccentricity Inclination[f] Axial tilt

[i]

Mean surface temperatur e[w]

[edit] Satellite planemos Key €

$

Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite of Earth of Jupiter of Saturn of Uranus of Neptune of Pluto See also: List of moons There are 19 natural satellites in the Solar System that are known to be massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, what Alan Stern calls satellite planets. Another satellite, the Neptunian moon Proteus, is not in hydrostatic equilibrium, but is slightly larger than Mimas, the smallest of the 19 satellite planemos.[ab] Satellites are listed first in order from the Sun, and second in order from their parent body. €

Moon[32] ₤Io[33]

Euro ₤Ganym ₤Callis $Mim $Encela $Teth $Dion $Rhea[ p] pa[34] ede[35] to[36] as[p] dus[p] ys[p] e[p]

Astronomical symb ol[q] Mean distance 421,6 670,90 1,070,40 1,882, 185,5 237,94 294,6 377,3 527,10 km 384,399 from primary: 00 0 0 700 20 8 19 96 8 Mean radius

km 2,410. 198.3 1,815 1,569 2,634.1 252.1 533 561.7 764.3 [f 1,737.1 :E 3 0 0.273 0.286 0.245 0.413 0.04 0.083 0.088 0.12 ] 0.378 0.031


Surface area[a]

3,965, km² 37,930,00 41,91 30,900 87,000,0 73,000 490,0 799,00 4,940, 7,337, 000 :E[f 0 0,000 ,000 00 ,000 00 0 000 000 0.007 ] 0.074 0.082 0.061 0.143 0.143 0.001 0.0016 0.01 0.0144 8

Volume[b]

3.3×1 6.3×1 7.4×1 km3 6.7×107 1.9 10 2.53× 1.59× 10 5.9×10 7 2.2×10 7.6×10 0 08 08 10 :E[f 1010 1010 0.0000 ×109 0.02 0.15 0.000 0.000 0.000 ] 0.02 0.07 0.05 6 0.0017 03 6 7

Mass

3.75× 1.08×1 6.174 1.095 kg 7.3477×1 8.94× 4.80× 1.4819× 1.0758 2.306 1019 020 ×1020 ×1021 :E[f 022 1022 1022 1023 ×1023 ×1021 0.000 0.0000 0.001 0.000 ] 0.0123 0.015 0.008 0.025 0.018 0.0004 006 18 32 3 g/c m3

3.3464

3.528 3.01

1.936

1.83

1.15

Equatorial grav m/s 2 ity[d]

1.622

1.796 1.314

1.428

1.235

0.063 0.111 0.145 0.231 0.264 6

2.38

2.56 2.025

2.741

2.440 0.159 0.239 0.393 0.510 0.635

Density[c]

Escape velocity[e]

km/ s

Rotation period

day s[g]

1.61

0.98

1.48

1.23

27.32158 1.769 3.5511 7.15455 16.689 0.942 1.3702 1.887 2.736 4.5182 2 1378 81 3 02 422 18 802 915 12 (sync)[m] (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync)

Orbital period day 1.769 3.5511 7.15455 16.689 0.942 1.3702 1.887 2.736 4.5182 [g] 27.32158 about primary s 138 81 3 02 422 18 802 915 12 Mean orbital km/ speed[o] s Eccentricity

1.022

17.34 13.740 10.880 8.204 14.32 12.63 11.35 10.03 8.48

0.0549

0.004 0.020 0.009 0.0013 0.0074 0.0047 0.02 0.002 0.001 1 2

Inclination to deg 18.29– primary's . 28.58 equator Axial tilt[i][u]

deg .

Mean surface te K mperature[w]

0.04

0.47

1.85

0.2

1.51

0.02

6.68

0

0

0– 0.33[37]

0

0

0

0

0

0

220

130

102

110[38]

134

64

75

64

87

76

No

No

Yes?

H Atmospheric compo He Na+ SO2[39] O2[40] sition K+ Ar Rings?

No $

No

No

O2[41]

O2 CO2[42]

No

No

1.51 0.019 0.345

H2O, N2, CO2, CH4[43] No

No

Titan[p] $Iapetu ₩Miran ₩Ariel[ ₩Umbr ₩Titan ₩Ober ₦Trito ¶Charo


s[p]

Mean distance from primary: Mean radius Surface area

Volume

[a]

[b]

Mass

Density[c] Equatorial gravity [d]

Escape velocity[e]

km

km3 :E[f]

r]

iel[r]

ia[r]

on[r]

n[44]

n[16]

1,221,8 3,560,8 190,90 436,30 583,51 354,75 129,390 266,000 17,536 70 20 0 0 9 9

km 2,576 735.60 :E[f] 0.404 0.115 km² :E[f]

da[r]

235.8 0.037

578.9 0.091

584.7 0.092

788.9 761.4 1353.4 603.5 0.124 0.119 0.212 0.095

83,000, 6,700,0 4,211, 4,296,0 7,820,0 7,285,0 23,018, 4,580,0 700,000 000 00 300 00 00 00 000 00 0.0014 0.163 0.013 0.008 0.008 0.015 0.014 0.045 0.009 7.16×10 1.67×10 10

9

0.066 0.0015

5.5×107 0.00005

8.1×10 8

0.0008

8.4×108 0.0008

2.06×1 1.85×1 1×1010 9.2×108 09 09 0.0095 0.00085 0.0019 0.0017 8

1.35×1 3.014× 2.14×1 1.3452× 1.8053× 6.59×10 1.2×102 3.5×10 1.52×10 21 kg 0 1021 022 23 21 19 1 21 21 10 10 :E[f] 0.0002 0.0004 0.0035 0.023 0.0003 0.00001 0.0002 0.0006 0.00025 2 6 8 g/c m3

1.88

1.08

1.20

1.67

1.40

1.72

1.63

2.061

1.65

m/s2 1.35

0.22

0.08

0.27

0.23

0.39

0.35

0.78

0.28

km/ s

0.57

0.19

0.56

0.52

0.77

0.73

1.46

0.58

2.64

Rotation period

days 15.945 79.322 1.414 2.52 4.144 8.706 13.46 5.877 6.387 [g] (sync)[m] (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync) (sync)

Orbital period about primary

days 15.945 79.322 1.4135 2.520

Mean orbital speed[o]

km/ s

Eccentricity

3.265

6.657

8.706 13.46

5.5089 4.66797 3.644 3.152 8

0.0288 0.0286 0.0013 0.0012 0.005 0.0011 0.0014

Inclination to deg. primary's equator Axial tilt[i][u]

5.57

4.144

deg.

Mean surface tem K perature[w]

−5.877[ h]

6.387

4.39

0.2

0.0000 0.0022 2

0.33

14.72

4.22

0.31

0.36

0.14

0.10

157

?

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

?

93.7[45]

130

59

58

61

60

61

38 [46]

53

Atmospheric compositi N2, on CH4[47]

N2, CH4[48]


[edit] Largest likely dwarf planets Main article: List of possible dwarf planets These trans-Neptunian objects are theoretically large enough to be dwarf planets. Dozens more could have been included.[2] Both Quaoar and Orcus have known moons that have allowed the mass of the systems to be determined. Both are more massive than the 5×1020 kg recommendation of the IAU 2006 draft proposal as sufficient for classification as a dwarf planet. [49]

2005 2002 2007 2005 [5 Orcus[ Ixion[5 Varun [5 Quaoa [5 2007 [57 [58 Sedna UQ TC UK QU 513 302 126 182 50] 1] 9] a[52] r[54] OR10[56] 3] 5] ] ]

Minor-planet number

90482 28978 20000

20242 50000 84522 225088 229762 303775 90377 1

5,896, 5,935, 6,451, 6,479, 6,493, 8,264, 10,072, 11,032, 16,991, km 78,668, Semi-major 946,00 999,00 398,00 089,38 296,00 380,00 433,34 000,00 749,80 A 000,000 axis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 U 525.86 39.419 39.68 43.13 43.31 43.6 55.24 67.33 73.74 113.58 km 460 473 402 ~350 422 ~550 Mean radius[s] :E[ 0.072[aa 0.06 0.066 0.094 f] 0.0742 0.063 ]

~640 0.10

440 525 [aa] 0.07 0.08[aa]

~500 0.08

km 2,030, 1,091, 2,237, 4,521, 2,811, 2,659, 6,157,5 2,432,8 3,463,6 3,000,0 ² 775 000 870 600 Surface area[a] [ 462 044 22 49 06 00 :E 0.0039 0.0063 0.0043 0.0088 0.0052 0.012 0.005 0.007 0.006 f] 0.0055 8 6 9 7 km Volume[b]

443,27 272,12 549,13 407,72 314,79 904,32 1,436,7 356,81 606,13 500,000 3,768 3,951 5,785 0,083 3,649 0,000 55,040 7,905 1,033 ,000 :E[ f] 0.0004 0.0002 0.0005 0.0003 0.0002 0.0008 0.001 0.0002 0.0004 0.0005

Mass[t]

5.4×10 5.5×10 (1.3– kg 6.32×1 20 8.2×10 1.8×10 2.9×102 7.1×102 1.2×102 20 1.9)×1 1×1021 [ 20[60] 20 21 1 0 1 :E 0 0.0000 0.0000 021[61] 0.00016 f] 0.0001 0.0001 0.0003 0.0005 0.0001 0.0002 9 9 0.0004

Density[t]

3

g/c 1.5±0. m3 3[60]

Equatorial gra m/ 0.27 vity[d] s2

2.0 0.22

0.9992[ 62]

2.0

>2.8[61]

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

0.14

0.26

0.24

0.34

<0.39

0.25

0.29

<0.5


Escape velocity[e]

km 0.50 /s

Rotation period[g]

da ys

Orbital period[g]

ye 247.49 1,210.5 12,059. 249.95 283.20 285.12 287.97 410.62 552.52 633.28 ars 2 3 06

?

Mean orbital km 4.68 speed /s Eccentricity Inclination[f]

0.42

0.38

0.49

0.45

0.63

<0.74

0.46

0.55

<1.0

?

0.1321 6[62]

?

?

?

?

?

?

0.42[63]

3.93

3.63

3.25

2.79

1.04

0.2255 0.242 0.051 0.145 0.038 0.292 2

0.5

0.490

0.675

0.855

de 22.5 g.

4.66

4.53

4.52

4.52

19.6

17.2

25.69

8

35

30.7

23.37

14.03

11.93

Mean surface K temperature[w]

~42

~43

~43

~41

~41

~38

~30

~32

~25

~12

Number of known moons

1[64]

0

0

0

1[65]

0

0

0

0

0

Planetary 0.003 0.0027 0.0027 0.003 0.0015 0.335 0.18[x] 0.036[x] 0.007[x] discriminant[l][o] Absolute magnitude (H)

2.30

3.20

3.70

3.40

2.71

3.8

1.7

3.40

3.40

?[x] 1.58

[edit] See also â&#x20AC;˘

Book: Solar System

[edit] Notes [edit] Unless otherwise cited:[ac] o.

^

p.

^

The planetary discriminant for the planets is taken from material published by Stephen Soter.[66] Planetary discriminants for Ceres, Pluto and Eris taken from Soter, 2006. Planetary discriminants of all other bodies calculated from the Kuiper belt mass estimate given by Lorenzo Iorio.[67] Saturn satellite info taken from NASA Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet.[68]


q.

^

r.

^

Uranus satellite info taken from NASA Uranian Satellite Fact Sheet.[71]

s.

^

Radii for plutoid candidates taken from material published by John Stansberry et al.[20]

u.

^

v.

^

Astronomical symbols for all listed objects except Ceres taken from NASA Solar System Exploration.[69] Symbol for Ceres was taken from material published by James L. Hilton.[70] The Moon is the only natural satellite with an astronomical symbol, and Pluto and Ceres the only dwarf planets.

Axial tilts for most satellites assumed to be zero in accordance with the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac: "In the absence of other information, the axis of rotation is assumed to be normal to the mean orbital plane."[72] Natural satellite numbers taken from material published by Scott S. Sheppard.[73]

[edit] Manual calculations (unless otherwise cited) a.

^

Surface area A derived from the radius using

b.

^

Volume V derived from the radius using

c.

^

Density derived from the mass divided by the volume.

d.

^

e.

^

n.

^

t.

^

w.

^

, assuming sphericity. , assuming sphericity.

Surface gravity derived from the mass m, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: G*m/r2 . Escape velocity derived from the mass m, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: sqrt((2*G*m)/r). Orbital speed is calculated using the mean orbital radius and the orbital period, assuming a circular orbit. Assuming Pluto's density of 2.0

Calculated using the formula where Teff =54.8 K at 52 AU, is the geometrical albedo, q=0.8 is the phase integral, and is the distance from the Sun in AU. This formula is a simplified version of that in section 2.2 of Stansberry, et al., 2007,[20] where emissivity and beaming parameter were assumed equal unity, and was replaced with 4 accounting for the difference between circle and sphere. All parameters mentioned above were taken from the same paper.

aa. ^ Calculated using the formula , where H is the absolute magnitude, p is the geometric albedo and D is the diameter in km, and assuming an albedo of 0.15, as per Dan Bruton.[74]


[edit] Individual calculations y.

^

Derived from density

z.

^

Surface area was calculated using the formula for a scalene ellipsoid: where

is the modular angle, or

angular eccentricity; and , are the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind, respectively. The values 980 km, 759 km, and 498 km were used for a, b, and c respectively.

[edit] Other notes f.

^

Relative to Earth

g.

^

sidereal

h.

^

retrograde

i.

^

The inclination of the body's equator from its orbit.

j.

^

At pressure of 1 bar

k.

^

At sea level

l.

^

m.

^

x.

^

The ratio between the mass of the object and those in its immediate neighborhood. Used to distinguish between a planet and a dwarf planet. This object's rotation is synchronous with its orbital period, meaning that it only ever shows one face to its primary. Objects' planetary discriminants based on their similar orbits to Eris. Sedna's population is currently too little-known for a planetary discriminant to be determined.

bb. ^ Proteus average diameter: 210 km;[44] Mimas average diameter: 199 km[68] cc. ^ "Unless otherwise cited" means that the information contained in the citation is applicable to an entire line or column of a chart, unless another citation specifically notes otherwise.

[edit] References


1. 2.

^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes" (Press release). International Astronomical Union (News Release – IAU0603). 2006-08-24. http://www.iau.org/public_press/news/release/iau0603/. Retrieved 2007-12-31. (orig link) ^ a b Mike Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". CalTech. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/dwarfplanets/. Retrieved 2008-09-25.

3.

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Start of chapter two 2  

What is an encyclopedia with an example of planets