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Editor’s Desk

Concept & Editor Pandarinath Prabhala Honourary Editor Dr. Bhaskara Reddi Academic Consultants Dr. P.G. Sastry Prof. O.R.S. Rao Prof. K.C.B. Rao Prof. Vedasharan Nishitesh Reddy C Maruti Nagendram M. Madhuri Reddy Ms. Usha Rani Vijay Kumar Nellutla Silveri Srishailam Advertising support Sri Charana Communications, Hyderabad. Mail: Marketing Head: M Nikhil Reddy Design & Layout: Srinivas Tripurana Photographs: P Prasad Printed & Published by Pandarinath Prabhala on behalf of FAIR media, Printed at Navya Printers, Himayatnagar, Hyderabad. Administrative office: FAIR Media, 3rd Floor, H.No. 11-11-143, Plot No. 91, Telephone Colony, Kothapet, Hyderabad, 500035, Phone: 040-65222767, Mobile: 9666242767 Email:


ntegrated development of Human Resources capital is directly proportional to the qualitative quantum of education. Education, as a platform, should build a sustainable economy model, useful for self, family, society & Nation, consisting of growth induced with E3 modules namely Employment, Employability and Entrepreneurship. Education does not mean that possessing a battery of Degrees which guarantee a job. Higher education has become an exciting, confusing and expensive product! No doubt, the choices in terms of courses/ Universities/Professions increase, year by year, to a great number, adding more confusion. Our aim is to ease you from the precipitation. The need of this hour is creative thinking, innovative approach, adoptive advancement, career growth and healthy life style! Students and parents get influenced by society, near & dear, overnight / early bird success achievements in a different way., this insight may be acting as a driving force for choosing an academic career. Where has the logical thinking gone? Do we need to relook at ourselves! Yes! We have degrees., how useful really are they for our healthy life styles! Do we have the required skills set with us? Are we really looking into the future demands & growth? Are we geared – up for building a sustainable career in Global market! We understand the concerns of the parents and the students., hence, this informative edition with unique advisory concept! We wanted to place before you an ocean on education., But, we could able to provide you the most vital information, in a compressed & packet format in the form of this special edition,with special emphasis on availability of courses read with true sense Academic career planning. We wish you all the success! Dr. Bhaskara Reddi (Honourary Editor)

© FAIR media

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Engineers achieve great things!



Meaning of Academic Career

Academic 7 Course Listings: A Glance

"AAUSHMAN” Medical & Health 25 courses


Civil services examination A challenge worth 28 taking

Future courses in demand: A Study Report


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Career in 32 Business Administration & Management

Prospects in CA, CS & ICWA 35

Opportunities in Indian Defence 38

“Modern 46 trends in law education”

Dual/Integrated Vocational courses: 53 A View


Meaning of Academic Career PLANNING - STRATEGY - KNOW HOW Academic career planning is a long term strategy and the benefits are much more if you plan for it when your child is in 10th standard. The next best decisive point is plus 2 standard, to plan and choose a right academic career path. Plus 2 What Next

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ultidisciplinary r e s e a r c h shows that strategic career advancement plan leads to a systemic and standardized life cycle., the plan helps in establishing a broader discourse on development path. There is a need to adopt an open mind set for devising a suitable meaningful – resourceful – satisfied career plan, in order to become knowledgeable, resourceful., venture outside of your comfort zone to learn more about sustainable career plan options. The difficulties and pains associated in selecting a right combination of Academic career is probably the highest in India, because of non-availability (true meaning) academic career planners / counselors / experts. We believe in transforming people in order to place / keep them on


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suitable, right track by reforming their attitude, approach and mind- sets. Academic career planning is a long term strategy and the benefits are much more if you plan for it when your child is in 10th standard (The options and opportunities are available in 3600). The next best decisive point is plus 2 standard (then, the options are restricted to 1800 only), to plan and choose a right academic career path.

WHERE IS THE NEED? Academic career consulting is a misrepresented term in India. Ethical practices have been a huge challenge! Education today h a s lost it’s traditionally valued meaning along with direction and goal., learned are maintaining silence., values are lost., it is a sad situation

and more devastating for the future generation. Education must aim at making / producing young – energetic – creative minds on healthy grounds who are going to steer the future of our country. Bottom line, unfortunately, for a vast majority of the people (in today’s society) is creation of wealth rather than adopting healthy life styles. The life cycle today is revolving around ‘money’., everything has become a model for revenue., there is no time for proper understanding, evaluation and assessment (irrespective of the subject or relation-ship)! The examinations have become routine., there is a dismal scope for inclusive learning. The end result is crawling paths., dissatisfaction., loss of mental peace., depression & frustration.,

H ow to select a right college / University? FIRST STEP: Compile a credible list & data of all the functional, recognized colleges / Universities corresponding to your course area you wish to join in (sources: websites of UGC, Association of Indian Universities, Journals, NBA, Universities, Colleges, Regulatory Authorities like Medical Board, APSCHE, AICTE., learned teachers – friends, Google search etc). SECOND STEP: Pick & prepare a list of five best suited colleges (basing on your SWEAR marks, merits) and put them in order of merit / choice of interest as No: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. THIRD STEP: Select best of three out of the short listed five colleges in accordance to your vision, choice, merits, demerits, compulsions in consultation with your parents. FOURTH STEP: Evaluate and make a thorough, credible analysis on the selected three colleges., prepare a comparative analysis chart., grade them in order., ensure that the data generated by you match the quality standards criteria prescribed by the regulatory authorities. Then, the students should visit all the three colleges / universities in person accompanied by their parents / learned well wishers. Talk to the principal / Director / concerned authorities of the college., make a note on the standard practices in force and also about the infrastructural facilities available at the college (namely equipped - functional Laboratories, Library including



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finally, frequent ups and downs in social – economical – professional family & personal life. So, we need to be pro-actively alert and should believe in taking right decisions at right time, that too in right phase. We (the parents – teachers – students) should put an effort for arriving at a suitable plan of action for the student(s) (academic) career plan, duly giving weightage to the merits (as per “SWEAR” analysis) while devising a right combination of academic career plan; our decisions / decisive plans should put the student(s) on a prospective career path which will last for the next sixty years of their life. You will be more successful if you take a right decision duly

e-learning facility, faculty credentials & strength, teaching & learning methodologies, Buildings, Academia-Industry orientation activities like incubation facilities, provision for sports – games)., compile a small historical / performance data on the past track records (on Industrial tie-ups, training at work places, skills training & placements, visiting faculty, placements, exchange programmes for faculty & students)., also, corroborate sample opinions from a few of the final year students and the alumni. FIFTH STEP: Prepare a point wise notes on Pros & Cons of all the three colleges. Then, the parents should discuss thoroughly with the child, in a comprehensive manner, for taking-up admission in the selected college / university duly considering all the in-puts., if required, take opinion of expert(s). The student then should take admission in the selected college / university.

Available options & risks

following the ‘SWEAR’ analysis methodology.

WHAT IS “SWEAR” ANALYSIS? ‘SWEAR’ is an acronym for

S - Strengths W - Weakness E - Eligibility A - Available options – risks R - Resources SWEAR analysis will make students to examine and compile a data on themselves covering strengths, weak points, eligibility criteria, available options / opportunities, risks and the resources available. This analysis must always be carried-out by focusing on the internal and external environments for designing a successive action plan. This analysis is a process to proper identification of contributing factors for preparing an action plan & development. Plus 2 What Next

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GUIDELINES FOR METHODOLOGY 8 Be realistic while compiling the data 8 Do an extensive probe work., but, prepare it in short., use it precisely 8 Be rational in approach while scanning the components of strengths and opportunities 8 Always adopt a point by point, issue wise analyzation and compilation., be specific MIND BLOCKS – KNOW HOW! Students need to be well prepared to travel steadily on their serpentine career path, irrespective of ups & downs which we may encounter in today’s Globalization scenario! The process of learning & adoptability has become a life time, continuous cycle. HOW TO SELECT A RIGHT COURSE? We should learn to evaluate ourselves, on every important issue, duly attributing ‘SWEAR’ analysis methodology., for example, academic career plan., step out of the box to collect the maximum possible information / data on academic courses you wish to pursue., pick & short list them to five options., then, select the best three options out of five. After a thorough, brain-storming, tensionfree, healthy discussion with the parents / learned well wishers, finally, select the best favoured / suited course in tune with your life ambition, goal read with the results of ‘SWEAR’ application, duly giving weightage to the future Job / entrepreneurship market growth and demand estimates. Once you complete this, you should do a similar exercise for choosing the best college / University for pursuing the selected / desired course!


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Planning W

e are required to adopt and embrace an innovative style while looking at inclusive education. All of us, especially the parents, students & teachers must explore the possibilities judiciously in accordance to the students strength & weakness while planning for an academic career path. We are offering palliative care. If we follow this plan of action, we will certainly do better than some of the developed countries like China, Japan, America. We advise you to believe in ‘short pain and long gain’., so, learn to walk a mile extra to know & make plans for the best possible academic career. We are to stay focused and compete at all the levels., every ambitious person should possess C3 attributes (namely Command, Connectivity and Commitment) for steering a sustainable & satisfied career, be it academic or economic or professional. Hence, choosing a right course combination for a bright academic career is the best bet for any serious student / family. We should decide on the available course options we wish to apply before we jump into the education Pond. Infact, there are a very wide range of choices / opportunities where careers have multiplied, which suits to your interest, wish, need, capability and compatability. You require a clarity & transparency on what you want at every stage! a clarity on what you possess! This truthful insight will guide you to a right career path.

The parents, teachers and the students should know, understand the multiple perspectives, languages and nuances in economics of education in relation to personal and national productivity:

FUN FACTS A vast majority of the parents, teachers & students do not find it necessary to know about the available courses data whose number in total is around 2000., this data helps in choosing a suitable course combination. We do not spend/spare enough time to know the required quantum of details, because of our compulsive / preoccupied learning schedules. Many students choose academic courses ignorantly / imitatively / blindly / passionately / fashionately without knowing the future implications / influences. The present education system does not give enough information on

career guidance in true, meaningful & practical sense. Indian students have very little confidence in value addition to higher education and ignorant of synergy in demand – supply gap equations of job market, corresponding to their qualification & capability. We never find time for knowing ever changing technologies, the demand – supply chain statistics, the emerging new course combinations like Avionics, Mechatronics, Biotechnology, Bio-informatics etc. So, we must know how to travel in accordance to the growing demands of the world market. We should equip our youth with relevant qualification stirred-up with suitable, productive skills set! (The author is an acclaimed academician, trainer, administrator & consultant. Authored 6 books and 36 research articles)

The emerging challenges are forcing us to adopt, embrace and develop computational algorithms in education. We need to be vigilant, calculative, fast and visionary while planning for a bright career. They should pursue the course, in accordance to the merits of their interest and must cultivate the application oriented educational approach read with emerging new sectors /technologies.


Academic Course Listings: A GLANCE


he current uncertain economic and political environment looks set to continue at least till 2015 in India. The world is being altered at faster phase owing to shift of focus in major areas of growth namely Technologies, Globalization, innovation, ever changing business

cycles, faster / liberal economics, sustainability, cross country cultural activities, socio-economic changes, adoptive life styles etc. We must equip ourselves to take on many of the challenges & opportunities that we may come across in near future. The emerging

challenges are forcing us to adopt, embrace and develop computational algorithms in education. A poor or irrelevant choice of academic course combination / cycle leads to a pool of failures. So, we need to be vigilant, calculative, fast and visionary while planning for a Plus 2 What Next

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S egmentation of Courses 8 MES Course For School Drop Outs (225 Courses)

8 Dual-Integrated Studies

8 MES/ CTS Courses For 8th Pass (15 Courses)

8 Tour, Travel, Hotel, Logistic & allied studies

8 Xth Class (22 Courses)


8 Hospitality, Tourism, Catering, Home Science related Studies

8 CTS / IIT Courses for Xth Pass (61 Courses)

8 Hospitals, Medical Diagnostics & allied Studies

8 Poly Technic (61 Courses)


8 ITES, BPO, KPO, Communications, Medical Billing etc studies

8 +2 (Intermediate, Regular & Vocational) Courses

8 Infrastructure, Maintenance, Automotive, Aerospace, Mechanical, GIS, Production, Electrical, Electronic & other services sector

8 CTS/ITI Courses for + 2 pass 8 Bachelor of Arts (Regular & Vocational) (295 courses)

8 Food, Dairy, Beverages, event management, Interior Decoration & related studies

8 Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) / CA / ICW / CS Courses 8 B.B.A / B.B.M / B.Com (Hons) courses (Regular & Vocational) / BSW 8 Bachelor of Science ( (212 Courses) 8 Medical & Health Sciences (Bachelor) (44 courses) 8 Engineering & Technology (Bachelor) (63 courses) 8 Defence courses (Army, Navy, Airforce). 8 Agriculture, Animal & Plant Sciences, Horticulture, Environbright career. The students should choose diverse courses & revamped curriculum., they should pursue the course, in accordance to the merits of their interest and must cultivate the application oriented educational approach read with emerging new sectors / technologies. We should adopt an innovative, interdisciplinary


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mental fisheries, Courses


8 Bachelor of Fine Arts (vocal, Instrumental, Performing, Sculpture, Design & Art, Theatre, Photography etc.,) couses. 8 (Bachelor) Language Courses, Journalism & Mass Communication 8 Law., Library., Education, Social Courses.

Physical Sciences

8 Insurance & Risk management studies and useful approach while choosing the course. This means that career prospectus advancement may be bright if a student possesses the suitable qualification equipped with demonstrable right skills set! We need to be vigilant while choosing a right choice of course out of the whole lot of 2000+ courses available

8 DTP, Animation, Gaming, Multimedia, Print media, Publishing, Advertisement & TV-FilmDrama related studies 8 Beauty, fashion, spa, yoga, Meditation, wellness, sports & related studies 8 CSR, SHG, Rural & Community development, Public services related studies 8 Certificate courses (job oriented) 8 Diploma courses (job oriented) 8 PG Diploma courses (job oriented) in India & abroad. Check – list for screening the short listed college(s): There is an urgent need to redefine the parents’ role and responsibilities while facilitating children to carve a career niche., students should streamline thoughts after understanding their needs & identifying

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the goals. Make a thorough probe before you join in a college. The most important among them are:  The parents should prepare a comprehensive notes on their family & on their child as per ‘SWEAR’ analysis which is an unique concept.  Note down the details on the track record - historicity of the college & the management to gauge their experience and performance skills!  Find out if the college is affiliated (or) autonomous and recognized., if so, to what University!  Find out whether the University is Government owned or privately owned! Whether it is recognized or not (including derecognized, black listed) by UGC!  Find out whether a particular course (you choose) is approved and recognized by the concerned regulatory authority (like AICTE, MCI, APSCHE, University etc.) / Governing body or not!  Find out whether the approvals showed by them (for the total course period) are valid or not!  Find out whether the admissions and the procedures followed are in line with the statutory guidelines & rules, as prescribed by the Regulatory and Governing authorities or not!  Find out whether the college is following (in all the important issues such as infra facilities, teaching methodologies etc) all the quality parameters & ratios or not!  Find out whether the college is accredited / possess certificate of Excellency etc. credentials / accorded ratings as per the National & International quality Assessment Boards or not!  Find out whether the college possesses all the requisite (mandatory) facilities in quantum on quality basis or not!

Find out whether the college possesses all the requisite (mandatory) facilities in quantum on quality basis or not!  Find out / enquire about their orientation levels clubbed with committedness towards shaping the career of the students! Measure them whether they yield required fruits or not!  Find out whether they have tie-ups with functional Industries / Research Institutes or not for working on live projects, incubation centres, faculty Development programmes, exchange programmes, internships etc.

SPECIAL ADVISORY & REMARKS  We must be satisfied thoroughly with all the above mentioned points Numbering 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7., then only, we should consider that short-listed college for taking-up admission! There

should not be any compromise.  The above mentioned points numbering 8, 9, 10, 11 are of much importance and play an influential role in shaping the students career prospects. So, these four points are complementary and crucial, for both the students and the college to maintain a sustainable growth.  We are of the opinion that +2 passed students, who want to pursue further education, should not compromise in assessing the college as per the above mentioned points., of course, variations to some extent are allowed in the points Numbering 8, 9, 10, 11 only. If we follow the above simple procedure judiciously, then you are guaranteed that our Degree / Diploma certificates (if awarded) are valued for further interventions/ education/ career advancement. (The author is Avionics Engineer from US and he is the CEO of Centre for Innovatie Learning, CEFIL) Plus 2 What Next

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“Find what you love and you don’t have to work”. Career Choice should be based more on the Life style and Living, but not as a means of earning; if you choose life based on earning, you will one day regret your living. MADHURI REDDY



uture is an idea of the present, and only a Vision, to think ahead of the present, can pave way to achieve the $ Dream. A good future comes from a good education. Remember, every person in history is now cherished for achieving his “dream”.


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Career Choice should be based more on the Life style and Living, but not as a means of earning; if you choose life based on earning, you will one day regret your living. Like the saying goes “Find what you love and you don’t have to work” In a pace that India is fast growing

in the world market in the fields of services and products., like Wipro and Infosys serving the world needs from India as a platform and Tata releasing products like MegaPixel from India to the global market and technological marvels like Intel’s chip being designed by an Indian.,



■ 1 ■ 2 ■ 3 ■ 4 ■ 5


■A ■C ■D ■E

IIM & IIT & Business entrepreneurs in Forbes top 100.

ALL OF THIS JUST BOILS DOWN TO 1. Your present dream. 2. Insight into your dream. 3. Achieving your dream Before getting into the elaborate section, let us 1st get on the same page. This is because there is a difference between 1. Degree 2. Diploma 3. Certificate And all 3 have completely different meaning in the JOB ELEGIBLITY. Based on the different fields, the outline is as below and is ranked according to highest with 5 being least. For their individual subdivision, you can consult your Career Guidance advisor at school / college / home / office. EVERGREEN BRANCHES (GLOBAL) FOR THE NEXT 5-7 YEARS 1. Medical & Health, Paramedical & allied (Technical & Non Technical) Sciences 2. Education / Teaching / Research and Development 3. Management & Consultancy, Law, Accounting, Finance & HR o Management -> Operations, Six sigma Lean Expert

o Consultancy -> Financial, Mergers and Acquisitions, HRM o International Law, ADRM, Company Law, CS, ICW, CA. 4. Civil/Architecture/Mechanical/ Automobile etc. Infra development Projects. 5. Hospitality, Tourism, Food, Fashion, entertainment, Travel, Hotels.

Civil, Mechanical, Automobile, Interior Design, Basic infra Projects etc.,) C. Teachers / Lecturers / Trainers / Back-up / Support / Consultancy services. D. Hospitality, Tourism, food, Fashion, Travel, Hotels, Education, entertainment. E. IT, ITES, BPO, KPO.

POTENTIAL FIELDS IN INDIA FOR THE NEXT 5 TO 7 YEARS A. Medical/Health, paramedical (Tech. & Non Tech) & allied services B. Infra structure (Architecture,

PROFESSIONS IN DEMAND (GLOBAL) This section is determined basing on the recent global phenomenon where in there is no compulsive degree associated but demand exists, Plus 2 What Next

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FUTURE COURSES IN DEMAND : AN ESTIMATE A battery of survey reports support that India is emerging as one of the best potential countries in near future. It is estimated that the following sectors can create not only a good quantum of jobs but a considerable revenue both in terms of Domestic and foreign exchange. These estimates are to be considered only as an advisory options while planning for a career advancement. 1. Education, Communications, Media & e-learning, entertainment. 2. IT, ITES and software services / solutions, Engineering. 3. BPO, KPO, Business solutions Provider, Consultancy. 4. Banking, Finance, Risk Management, Insurance sectors. 5. Infrastructure projects, tourism, Hospitality. 6. Industrial products, Machinery & equipment. 7. Medical, Health, Pharma, R & D, Survey & analysis. 8. Automobile Industry, spare parts & service, Design & Production. 9. Food Processing, FMCG. 1. Technical and Non-technical lines in FMCG, House hold amenities maintenance and service etc., 2. Media Advertising/content writing/Event management/Travel & Tour/Hospitality / Multimedia, services consultancy. 3. Photography / film & docu-drama making / Fashion designing / Artist / Journalism / Visual communication / Animation



4. CSR, supply chain management; surveying, recreation, Mass Communication, Man Power Consultancy. 5. Sports and athletics at Regional, National and International platforms.

FUTURE BUSINESS INVESTMENTS (POTENTIAL ESTIMATES) IN INDIA 1. Hospitals, Tourism, Hospitality, Travel, Hotel, entertainment 2. Infrastructure & Real Estate (buying, Developing, Leasing, PPP mode Projects) development. 3. FDI tie up and setting up franchise, electronic surveillance & security, Transport, e-projects 4. Service sector related activities like Medical & Health, Food & entertainment, supply chain management, community Development sectors, mass communication. 5. Products related to FMCG (Production, Mktg, & Services). 6. Education; Agriculture & Horticulture (organic farming). DISCLAIMER 1. Next 5 years can be estimated but cannot be predicted to the exact nature. 2. This is an estimated statistical data acquired from cluster of recourses which cannot be challenged for accuracy. (The author is Academician)


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There are quite a good number of engineering colleges available across India and overseas who care more for subject competency and social sensitivity. The admissions are through entrance examinations only. We must be prepared well for getting an admission.

Prof. P.G. Sastry




ngineering degree program consists right now an ‘array’ of subjects clustered together to solve real world engineering issues of the present and future. Engineering is concern with developing, providing and maintaining infrastructure, products, processes and services for society.

SOLVE PROBLEMS Truly an engineer is a Problem Solver — not only mathematical but in day to day life of every aspect.

1. Like most of the medical equipment in the operation theater are invented by engineers. • Like the invention by vasculardesigns - IsoFlow™ infusion catheter, a treatment to cure the small and unreachable tumors / cancer, was invented by a software engineer. 2. The most powerful invention in automobile industry is by an engineer • SEAT BELT — the statistics show an increase of 50% of lives saved

in automobile accidents is because of this. • The same seat belt is also utilized in aircrafts for passenger safety. Be it Medical or Safety or any other field an engineer has a role to play in all major inventions involving design and development.

ARRAY Necessity is the mother of all inventions. And in history the next best invention after the WHEEL is the ENGINE. The word "engine" is Plus 2 What Next

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derived from the Latin term ingenium (c. 1250), meaning "innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention”. And now it is 2013 A.D., now no more is engine an innate quality though the remaining aspects are the same. It has now become a structured approach beating in the most advance Ground (ThrustSSC), Air (X15) and underwater vehicles. And this structured approach of design till the delivery as intended is ENGINEERING.

SUBJECTS CLUSTERED TOGETHER For Array of problems to be solved there is a cluster of subjects required. Let us take the example of software Engineer in medical invention of IsoFlow™ infusion catheter. This was invented by Robert Goldman. Goldman by profession is a software developer, he has developed and patented technologies for digital audio systems wherein music could be stored, browsed, downloaded and purchased from digital databases. These technologies are a way for


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enabling digital music downloads on web sites still used in the present day. When unfortunately his sister was diagnosed with cancer, the Software engineer tried to save his sister and invented a breakthrough medical device IsoFlow™ infusion catheter. In the above example Goldman is a Software Engineer, But the need of cure is in Medicine. and that too the needs of medical industry are catered by the Biomedical engineer. How did Goldman do it! How did he bridge the gap of a Bio-Medical engineer! To take this to the next level and explain it in simple terms the basics of engineering are same throughout all the branches be it CSE, ECE, EEE, MECH. As you go deeper into each domain there are slight variations and an in-depth study will certainly solve the problem. Hence, “Engineering is an array of subjects clustered together to solve the problems of the present and future.”

STRUCTURE OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES There are Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes

of technology (NITs), National Institutes (Like Indian School of Mines, IIITs), University Engineering colleges, Technical Universities (like Delhi Technical University) owned by central / state Governments and privately owned engineering colleges (like BITS, Pilani., Nirma., Vellore., etc). All the IITs and NITs are enjoying a great credibility across the world because of their commitment to excellency in teaching (out-come based), Research & Development, Academia-Industry partnership activities, 100% placements, access to the latest technologies, FDP & students’ – teachers’ relationship management interactive (counseling)centres. There are quite a good number of engineering colleges available across India and overseas who care more for subject competency and social sensitivity. The admissions are through entrance examinations only. We must be prepared well for getting an admission. Course Planning: - Most of the Companies, Institutes, R & D Centres, IT & ITES, Organizations give preference to the quality conscious colleges in recruitment. Knowledge

in concepts and fundamentals is a basic requirement in addition to the corresponding skills set.

CHOOSING/SELECTION CRITERIA: 1. Your area of Interest & Resources: Write down the areas of your interest duly matching your capabilities, strengths, weaknesses, willingness to adaptability., evaluate them and short-list the areas to a maximum of three., then select and focus on one area. Consider your health, family set-up and background, financial strength, family support before final selection. 2. Basic Educational Qualification(s): You require basic educational qualification in the selected area of your choice., focus on acquiring fundamental knowledge on the subject(s) and attain the status of mastery or professionalism in that

area of specialization. 3. Your Qualities, Aptitude & Skills Set: You should always give weightage to your IQ levels and abilities, aptitude, capabilities, talent, potentiality, willingness to adopt & flexibility levels, readiness to acquire the required quantum of ‘Skills Set’, namely soft skills, life skills, employability skills, social skills etc. 4. Consult the Learned & Experienced: You should always consult a minimum of two or a maximum

of three career planning experts., discuss all the relevant points with them at length., take an advice from them in clear-cut mode, in the light of positive and negative factors., estimate future growth and demand with reference to service potential. 5. Decision Making: You should sit with your parents / mentor and discuss the points at length in the back-ground of all the above mentioned criteria., it is always better if you ask yourself and get an answer intuitively., form an opinion, analyze, evaluate and visualize all the factors., they only you should take a final decision on your further moves in career planning by choosing a suitable course.

AVAILABILITY OF COLLEGES & COURSE COMBINATION A vast data on the genesis and development of colleges and the courses are available in websites of

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the Engineering Colleges, Universities, Institutes, regulatory authorities ( / / etc.,). There are around sixty Bachelor Degree programs (subject combinations) available under Engineering & Technology stream in India. The number increases if we add the overseas course options. Lack of vision, poor resource management and deficit plan are the mind blocks! You should cultivate the habit of reading Daily News Papers, Journals, Employment News on regular basis. This habitual conscious reading will help you to source the material whether it is about engineering colleges or about job market demand-supply relationships / opportunities. The chances of success in career advancement will increase if we cultivate these simple habits and learn to adopt strategies designed in accordance to ‘SWEAR’ analysis report. There is a growing unemployment because of growing unemployability. There will be a great demand for suitably qualified, productive Engineering Teachers as there is an acute shortage for faculty in a vast majority of engineering colleges. Those who are interested in teaching profession (possessing inner capabilities) should opt for integrated courses which otherwise save time, energy and money. Engineers should learn how to contribute in this globalised knowledge economy as they are supposed to provide (effective & economical) solutions to the problems the society (present & future) is facing. Career opportunities for engineering graduates are extensive and can be found working in multidisciplinary activities environment, be it Government sector / Public sector or private sector. Short-term / long-term courses (after graduation) like Diploma / PG Diploma / certificate add value to their efficiency which otherwise also enhance excellent employment (including self employment) prospects. Job-oriented technical courses like polytechnic can be put to use immediately after acquiring the trade knowledge and helps in job creation. Alternately, the (polytechnic) diploma holders can pursue higher education by taking lateral entry (admission) into the related engineering and technical courses. There are some universities that offer Doctoral Programmes for the eligible Bachelor degree (with distinction) holders through GRE / TOEFL scores. (The author is an Academic Expert, Director and Head of Learning and Development, Ramkey group and Winner of several prestigeous awards)


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We advise the students and parents to stick to the SWEAR analysis results., take a decision according to the merits on case to case basis. There is a saying: “There is no future in any job., future lies in the person who holds the job!”



Medical & Health courses


edical courses can be categorized as “AAUSHMAN” which means Allopathy, Aayurved, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, Meditation (mind management), Alternate Medicare & Naturopathy” systems. All these medical education systems are recognized and being practiced across the Globe. Allopathy: - MBBS, BDS, BPT come under this Allopathy system and is widely practiced in our country. The qualified Doctors (with MBBS +) are enjoying a credible, professional supremacy over the other medicinal systems and their income is comfortable compared to the other segments of medicinal methodologies. Hence, MBBS course has become the most preferred medical course. The investment that is being made in pursuing MBBS + Course(s) ranges from a couple of lakhs of

Rupees (if a free seat is allocated) to a little over crore of Rupees per candidate. The investment increases if we want to pursue MBBS course in other countries like China, Russia, CIS countries, Nepal, Srilanka, UK. If we are awarded a foreign MBBS degree, then we are required to pass a conversion exam i.e. being conducted by MCI which is mandatory for registration of foreign MBBS Degree in India and even for pursuing higher studies like MS, MD, DGO, DM etc. we, the parents should first analyze ourselves duly following “SWEAR” methodology and then decide on the future course of action. We must also think about the cost economics and viability of the course(s) cost (in case of seats allocated because of sponsorships / donations by paying huge money) in addition to the future needs. We must not jump into actions basing either on blind popular beliefs

or on our predetermined (voluntary) passion / decisions. We must pursue education basing on our needs, merits, vision and capabilities., but, certainly not on others beliefs. We advise the students and parents to stick to the SWEAR analysis results., take a decision according to the merits on case to case basis. There is a saying: “There is no future in any job., future lies in the person who holds the job!” It is wise and healthy to consult a career planning expert for seeking the transparent, credible directions! The Dept.of AYUSH., ministry of Health & family welfare, Govt. of India, is actively engaged in promotion, propagation, education, training, research & service in the fields of yoga and naturopathy. Bachelor of Naturopathy

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We would like to place before you the address of few institutes for ready reference purpose only: 1. IPMT, New Delhi ( ml) and yogic sciences (BNYS, 5 ½ yoga course) is available at various institutes (, post Graduate diploma is also available ( /)., diploma is available in conventional medicine and application of naturopathy medication (www. php) (www.gorakhpur_school_of_ natural_therapeuties.html). Aayurved, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, Mind management science (Meditation, TM, Yoga & other psycho-somatic therapies), Alternate medicine systems and Naturopathy are also rewarding professions., of course, mind management & the psycho-somatic practitioners are becoming more popular now-a-days in countries like India, Japan, USA. Though, the mind management & Psycho-somatic science is not recognized as a medical Degree course in India as of now, the practices / practitioners are well acknowledged across the country., looking at the growing popularity, these courses may be placed next to Allopathy courses in near future, in practice. The statistics also confirm this predictive statement. There are some credible Institutes, organizations, Trusts, universities which offer certificate / Diploma / Degree courses


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in Yoga-mind management sciences. Alternate medicine courses are available in few countries like India, China, Germany, Kambodia, Srilanka, Japan, Burma, Spain, Australia, USA. Intermediate (+2) passed (with Biological Sciences) students are eligible to apply for all these courses. There are around 142 medical Degree courses, available across the Nation, starting from Bachelor Degrees to super specialty (like DM, Ph.D.) awards. In addition, plenty of Diploma, PG Diploma and certificate courses are available in Medical & health divisions, for increasing one’s scope and efficiency in order to achieve professional excellences. Alternate medical education is witnessing growing attention because of it’s efficacy & affordability. There is a lot of scope and demand for Doctors / Registered qualified practitioners as there is a mismatch in Doctors – patiens ratio! Medical and Health sector is growing and bound to grow in future. Paramedics who help / assist Doctors in investigation, diagnosis, therapy, emergencies, surgeries, post operation, nursing, patient care and management, treatment methodologies etc. are in great demand in India and across the world. There is a dearth of Paramedical (qualified

2. NIMHANS, Bangalore ( 3. Appollo,NewDelhi/Chennai/ Hyd.(www:appollohospitals) ( paramedical_course) 4. AIIMS, New Delhi ( 5. JIPMER, Pondy ( 6. RIPANS, Mizoram ( 7. CMC, Vellore ( 8. AIMS, cochin (www:aims. 9. nutrition/dietetics/ms 10. 11. research/divisions 12. 13. Dr.NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada. 14. // www. Expertise-services 15. 16.

& trained) personnel in India, UAE, UK, USA, Germany, Australia and other countries. The survey reports and statistics establish the fact that there is a lot of Demand for qualified paramedics in India. A large number of Institutes are offering certificate, Diploma, undergraduate, post graduate courses. The aim is to meet the demand-supply gaps and address health care issues at affordable pricing to the general public. These courses bring good remuneration and are skill based. These education courses are in great demand by Hospitals, Diagnostic centres, super-speciality & multispeciality Hospitals, rural & Community Development health care divisions, medical centres like PHC etc. Paramedical courses are plenty in number and the subjects are: Nursing, Diagnostics, Pharma, Clinical Research, Emergency medicare, Optometry, Dental machanics, Dentistry, Medical lab technology, Medical Radiologic technology, clinical Hematology, Osteopathh, Epidemiology, Medical Radiation Physics, Radio diagnostics, Bio-informatics, Palliative care, Radiology & imaging, Radiotherapy technology, cardiac assistant, Non-invasive technology, dialysis technology, perfusion technology, physiology, clinical psychology, community health, bio-chemistry, pathology, microbiology, histopathology, cytopathology, immunology, entomology, preventive medicare, Gynaec Assistant, operation theatre technology, physiotherapy, medical bio-chemistry, radiography, ECG, Anesthesia technology, CT scan operations technology, Neo-natal care, Medical Billing, medical insurance, Audiology, virology, Medical anthropology, speechhearing – language pathology, opthanology assistance, Nuclear Medicine, etc. Audiology, speech- language, pathology, audo-speech language

pathology, speech and hearing, speech therapy, optometry, virology are some of the best courses at (B.Sc) Bachelor degree level for those who are interested in serving health sector. Those course are best suited for female candidates. Short term, Long term courses for qualified doctors, practitioners, healthcare volunteers are available (for in the areas of Acupuncture, yoga, Naturopathy, Integrated medicine, Traditional medicine, medicine, meditation, diet, nutrition, herbal medicine, organic food, pulse diagnosis etc. these short term courses add value to qualified doctors like MBBS, BAMS, BNYS, BHMS., they can excel well in their own practice provided their work place is situated at tier. II, III & IV cities / towns / municipal habitation. Doctors, physiotherapists, health professionals holding a valid Bachelors degree can apply for distance learning programmes for value addition., these courses update about the emerging techniques (useful

to patients for speedy recovery & healing). Advisory: We need to source the information by browsing Google search, websites of medical colleges / Universities / paramedical Institutes., then, we should compile a data about the desired courses and colleges., follow the ‘SWEAR’ analysis procedure for choosing a right course and suitable college. Short term courses on emerging trends / technologies read with complementary /integrated medicinal methodologies will boost the success rate of doctors and paramedics., emphasis should be given on the use of end note. The career enhancement course(s) will facilitate the professionals in continuous learning about Agile principles, practices, tools and techniques. (The author is among the few qualified clinical, metal toxicologists in India and Fellow member of American collecge for advancement in Amecica)

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Education, for most of the promising youngsters today is an 'enabling factor' to secure a decent and dignified job. With the status and power going with civil services. Evidently it remains the topmost choice at as against all other jobs and services in this country. Then how to reach this goal? When to start preparation?? And what should be the road map ??? AK. MOHANTY An interaction with Shri AK. Mohanty, IPS (Retd.), the former DGP of Andhrapradesh an expert trainer who is also credited to have two spectacular success in his house, his two sons being in IPS, answers the Frequently asked questions and reveals the method to attain the success.




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Where does civil services stand as career options for promising youngsters? To my mind civil service is one of the best career options in this country .It is one of unending challenges and opportunities providing an unique platform to serve the people and the country giving tremendous sense of fulfillment and satisfaction. How difficult is this competitive examination and what is the scheme of this examination? Undoubtedly CSE of UPSC is one of the toughest competitive examination. Only few hundreds are selected out of several lakhs of aspirants each year after being subjected to a series of rigorous tests. Aspirants are first required to undergo a screening test called preliminary examination consisting of two papers of 200 marks each .The test is of objective type with multiple choice questions. The syllabus spreads over a very wide range of subjects and

topics. Only candidates who qualify in the preliminary examination will be eligible for the mains examination. The number of candidates admitted to the mains examination is generally 12 to 13 times the number of vacancies of that particular year. At best only one out of 50 appearing for prelims is selected for the main examination. The mains examination consists of 7 papers of which one paper is for essay (250 Marks ), four papers are on general studies (250 Marks each) and one optional subject of two papers (250 each).Those who qualify in the mains examination are called for interview for personality test (275 marks). The number of candidates called for interview is about twice the number of vacancies to be filled that year which generally works out to about 15% or less of the number who appear in the mains examination . That is one out of 6 is selected for interview. The UPSC website can be referred for details.

A closer look at the syllabus of general studies consisting of four papers will reveal the difficulty level as a candidate is expected to master a wide range of subjects requiring continuous preparation over a long period of time. What should an aspirant do to succeed in this competitive examination? Work very very hard and improve his/her ‘knowledge’ on extensive range of subjects, acquire ‘skills’ more particularly effective ‘communication skill’ and develop a positive ‘personality’. One should have the burning desire to be in civil service deep inside the heart and make the dreams come true. The aspirant should have early familiarization with the syllabus, source of study materials , previous year question papers etc., and prepare and practice in a planned and systematic manner. One should DREAM TRY AND PRAY to succeed. Plus 2 What Next

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What method and strategy should be followed for the preparation? Strategy for preparation should be with reference to the scheme of examination. The whole scheme of examination is intended to test the general awareness of the candidate in variety of subjects which have relevance to career in civil services, basic understanding of issues, ability to analyze and take a view on socio economic goals ,objectives and demands .The quality and standard of answers are expected to be one of degree with honours level. Civil services examination is not a test of memory. Preparation modules therefore needs to be designed to develop knowledge, skill and personality of the aspirant to meet the requirement of civil services . Knowledge on a very wide range


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of subjects and topics cannot be acquired overnight and needs long term preparation through inputs from books, periodicals, news papers, journals, magazines, articles, research papers and other similar sources. A candidate therefore needs to develop an in depth reading habit .Clear understanding of basics and fundamentals of subjects, topics, issues etc., is necessary. Application of knowledge and analysis of issues are rewarded and hence needs to be addressed. Effective communication skill is another important requirement. Good handwriting, good language, exact and precise expression, coherent and systematic presentation of thoughts and ideas needs to be cultivated which would help a candidate in both written as well as personality test.

One can develop communication skill by regularly writing short and long paragraphs on range of topics, participating in extempore debates and group discussions etc., Listening to discussions on subjects of topical interest and importance in television ,reading articles and critical analysis, witnessing certain channels like Discovery, National geography, Animal Planet, Loksabha, Rajya Sabha and prime time discussions of National and international channels would also help a candidate to develop such skills . Personality development is yet another aspect that needs to be addressed to attain success. The process of tests also aim to ascertain ethics, integrity, objectivity, tolerance, initiative, morality etc., of the candidates. Thus a candidate

should get groomed to develop a positive personality from a very early stage. A candidate’s knowledge, skill and personality hold the key to success in civil services examination. What is the ideal age and class to start preparation for civils? Ordinarily a hard and fast rule cannot be prescribed for this. Informal preparation should start when the child is in class IX . From that stage he could be encouraged to improve his general awareness through reading and discussion with parents and teachers, to write short paragraphs on different subjects. Devlop views on important political, economic and social issues etc.,He should participate in co curricular and extra curricular activities and competitions. The preparation can be gradually formalized from +2 level and properly structured at graduation level keeping in mind the syllabus of this competitive examination . What role parents and teachers are required to play at the preparatory stage? Parents and teachers need to play a very active and positive role to groom a child for civil services .Parents should prepare the children mentally to develop a spirit of competition to attain excellence and help them to develop their knowledge,skill and personality.Learning process should be enjoyable for the children without putting them to unnecessary stress . Teachers are also required to play a similar role. What should be the criteria for selecting an optional subject? One should preferably select a subject of which he/she has proper understanding and clarity. It is safe to select a subject which the aspirant enjoyed while studying at graduation level. However there are some popular subjects like Public administration, Geography, History,

Sociology, Anthropolgy which could be opted and prepared without any serious difficulties . Is success inbuilt in a candidate? I don’t think so. A determined and planned effort can lead to success. Is it necessary to study in a well known study center /school /college /university for getting a success in competitive examination?

Studying in a well known and reputed institution would certainly help an aspirant .It will be of advantage if the Institution has dedicated coaching modules to prepare students for civil services examination. But one can also prepare on his own keeping in mind the scheme of the examination and requirements of civil services. The key to success remains HARDWORK AND DEDICATION.

STEPS TOWARDS THE GOAL STEP 1: Start preparation as you enter PLUS 2 STEP 2: Read a standard General Knowledge book on regular basis and familiarize with topics and contenct given in the book. STEP 3: Write paragraph/paragraphs (in 150 to 300words) on atleast 2 subjects/ topics of interest and importance every week and read them out to your parents/ teachers. STEP 4: Have clearity in understanding of a subject, topic, word, phrases etc., by asking questions as to What, Why When, Which, How etc., to satisfy yourself that you have convincing answers to them. STEP 5: Improve your vocabulary by learning good words, expressions, phrases, quotes etc,. STEP 6: Participate in extempore debates, Group discussions whenever you get an opportunity or practice yourself the same before a mirror. STEP 7: Try to have indepth understanding of topics/ subjects that you study. STEP 8: Develop your views on issues and matters of importance. STEP 9: Read books, Magazines and News papers etc., regularly. STEP 10: Watch discussions on current issues in National and International news channels. STEP 11: Select a Graduation course in a subject you like which is also relevant for Civil service examination. STEP 12: Decide a optional subject for the mains examination at the Graduation level itself. STEP 13: Familarize yourself with syllabus of UPSC and previous years Question papers. STEP 14: Don't merely learn and remember. Develop a capacity to anylise facts, issues and events. Also develop a flare application of knowledge. Don't forget that Civil Service Examination need not a memory test. STEP 15: Be focused and Work Hard.

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Management/ Business Administration as a “Need” was initially identified in Business Organizations, in the early 20th century , in line with Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management. MNC’s wanted people dedicated to managing projects as well as cascading issues based on hierarchy , to be in sync throughout their global operations.

Prof. O.R.S. RAO

Career in Business Administration & Management


or this, they have identified people within the company and trained them the basics, all of this , as an internal initiative within its respective companies. After a while, Management/ Business Administration was a Certificate course in leading universities.,


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then a PG Diploma., later an MBA Degree. And now, in its present state , Management / Business Education has proliferated , into not only major functional areas ( like Strategy, Marketing, International trade , Finance ,and HR ) but also into all industry/sectors ( like Banking,

Finance, Insurance, Manufacturing, Hospitality, Health care, IT etc). While Management & Business Administration graduates are now-adays widely found in all the business arenas, the strong ones survive and grow , whereas the weak perish due to the simple fact that the Principles

taught in class are not applied during the real life. Hence, there is wide gap between the demand and supply. This gap will certainly narrow in the next few years to come and another cycle of change , resulting in an integrated course combining management and leadership . Challenges faced by the industry in the last 100 years of scientific management have paved way to emergence of Leaders , who can withstand unprecedented changes in the economies and industries all over the world and lead the companies successfully. In the next few years, you can expect the word “Manager” to be replaced by “Leader”, f o r the focus will be the trait of Leading People , as different from a “Manager”. The following are the subjects that are covered in most of the Business Schools during an MBA programme: • Managerial Economics • Macro Economics and Business Environment • Financial Management • Accounting for Managers • Sales and Marketing • Quantitative Analysis • Production and Operations • Organizational Behavior • Human Resource Development • Business Communication • Management Information Systems (MIS) • Legal Environment of Business • Business Strategy • Management Control Systems • Business Ethics and Corporate Governance Besides, a number of Electives are offered in second year among core functions like Marketing, Finance and HR. . A number of Business Schools expect the students to take up Summer Internships / projects in

industry , as a part of the curriculum, so that they can get exposed to corporate work environment and acquire hands-on skills, to apply their knowledge in real life. Currently, most of the Business Schools prepare the graduating students as a generalist and expect the recruiting the companies to train them in the respective industry domains. In fact, there are only very few Institutions that groom managers in specific fields like infrastructure, Health care, Media and Entertainment, Telecom, Rural

development, NGOs, Patents , Consulting , Entrepreneurship etc. There are very few that are now focusing on social development, social entrepreneurship and capacity building, which is a welcome sign for the future of the youth and the nation. , They are a few B Schools that offer programmes that built on the unique needs of the Indian market. For instance, IRMA offers

management programmes focused on Rural Development as India consists of around 75% population from rural areas and there is a huge demand for Rural management professionals in Govt. / Quasi-Govt., / Public sector organizations & Institutes / CSR enterprise / NGO / Co-operative sector in addition to Banking, Finance and Insurance sectors. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad runs a PG programmes in Agri – Business Management . Defence focused courses like MBA in Defence technology, PGD in Defence Management, M.Phil and Ph.D. in Defence & Strategic studies are available from Hindustan University, Chennai. There are Business Schools in

India, that are quality accredited ( Indian accreditations like NAAC, NBA or international ones like AACSB,AMBA and EQUIS). The market for DBA / BBA / BBM / MBA / MBM Programmes is wide open across the Globe and Thousands of Management Institutes are imparting basket full courses namely Certificate, Diploma, PG Diploma, Graduate, Post-Graduate, M.Phil and Plus 2 What Next

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Doctoral studies. Today, it is possible for working professional to pursue MBA, without leaving their current job. They can pursue either Distance Education program (wherein they have to study on their own) or Part-time MBA ( wherein they will have to attend classes during week end or in the evening ). Alternatively, they can pursue Executive MBA, which is generally for a duration of less than 2 years. But it is not considered to be equivalent to MBA , for purposes of faculty jobs or for pursing a PhD in management. In line with other traditional courses like BA, B Sc, B Com, students can pursue Bachelors degree in Business Administration ( BBA), (BBM), after 10+2 also. Some Institutes offer graduate programmes in management for 10 Plus 2 pass students , in focused areas like in Hospitality, Tourism management, Wealth Management, Event Management, Retail Services, Sports Management etc. In today’s business world, MBA qualification is considered to be a passport for a successful career , as there are good opportunities for Managers in all industries in India – be in Product or service industries like IT, banking, financial services, insurance, telecom etc. Even if you want to be an entrepreneur, MBA provides you with good skills to set up and mange your company successfully. Jobs for fresh


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MBA’s are primarily in three functions - Marketing and Sales, Finance and Human Resource ( HR) Management . Today, over 50% of job opportunities for fresh MBAs are in marketing and sales, as sales is essential for survival and growth of any business. While a manager’s job looks attractive , today, all fresh MBAs do not get equally good campus placements. Out of the over 2,500 Business Schools in India, students from top 100 premier B schools like IIMs get good jobs in reputed companies with attractive salaries. Students from the next 100 B Schools get average profile of jobs and the students from the bottom 20% of the B Schools find it difficult to get any placement before

completion of their programme. So, it is important for the students to choose the right Business School, wherein students can get practical exposure and acquire hands-on skills . Industry looks for students , with functional skills and soft skills ( like verbal communication, attitude, team working , self confidence etc). In order to get into a good Business school, you have to appear for national competitive aptitude tests like CAT/ XAT/MAT/CMAT/IBSAT. Some B schools do not conduct their own tests but accept test scores like CAT/MAT/ CMAT. Most of the Management

Aptitude Tests broadly cover five areas – Language / grammar/ comprehension, quantitative ( mathematical) ability, Logical ability, Data interpretation ( like analyzing graphs/charts etc), General Knowledge (India and global ) in areas like geography, politics, movies, sports, commerce etc. In order to do well in quantitative tests, the students need to revise their Mathematics syllabus of 10th class. Students must read newspapers and watch business TV channels ( like ET Now, CNBC TV18, NDTV Profit) so that they can do well in General Knowledge module. By practicing the mock online tests and test papers of previous years , you can gain selfconfidence and improve your time management ,which is critical for success in such tests. A number of premier B schools also conduct group discussions and one-minute speeches short presentations on a specific topic by the students , to test their verbal communication ability. So, it is important that students should practice these aspects regularly, as it takes time to acquire soft skills. A Business School , however good it is, can only provide inputs and opportunities for skill building . It is up to the student to plan for his/her career and work hard to achieve so that he can achieve success. Formula for success is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. (The author is well known academician and Vice-Chancellor, ICFAI University, Jharkhand)

“An engineer is someone who is good with figures, but need not be the personality of an accountant” C MARUTI NAGENDRAM


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The information technology boom and globalization of Indian economy has brought in the western culture of giving importance and credibility to business accounting and reporting and the multiple ways these can be put in use for taking business decisions. The increase in cross-border transactions is making the business promoters to look upon commerce professionals to guide them in taking business decisions like mergers and acquisitions, capital deployments, business restructuring, corporate governance, geographical expansions and optimizing stake holders wealth. These new horizons are in play in conjunction to the traditional areas of tax and audit, secretarial compliance and cost analysis. Students who wish to learn the magic and logic of figure work and corporate regulations and be part of the top layer of the business world can turn towards Commerce field. They have the choice between professional courses or MBA. As regards professional courses one has a choice to select from the trinity of professional courses which are: • Chartered Accountancy (CA) – regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) • Cost Accountancy (CWA) – regulated by the Institute of Costs and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI), presently renamed the Institute of Cost Accountants of India • Company Secretary (CS) – regulated by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI). Following are the requisite characteristics every student aspiring to become a professional must possess: • Willingness and ability to work hard, for, these courses are not meant only for genius brains but definitely within reach of normal


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Specific requirement/s

Course content

Course focus


• Be good at math • Possess numerical ability • Develop logical sequencing

The main focus is on Accountancy, Taxation and Auditing. Curriculum also contains other diverse fields such as finance, Cost a c c o u n t a n c y, business & corporate laws and Information Technology.

A qualified professional can be, inter alia: tax consultant corporate accountant forensic auditor software pro financial analyst legal advisor in corp laws investment banker


Keen observation of transactions & activities good at math numerical skills communication skills

The main focus is on Management A c c o u n t a n c y. Other fields covered are Tax laws, Auditing, IT, etc

A Cost Accountant can be management consultant tax consultant IT pro Financial analyst


• High degree of The main focus communication skills is on everything Logical sequencing related legally Numerical skills to a company. Course also covers Tax, Accountancy & Financial management

A qualified Company Secretary can choose, among others: Company secretarial services Issue manager for public & private placement Advisor in Corporate Structuring, Mergers & Acquisitions

hard working students • Prior education must be preferably in English medium, although there are plenty of achievers, even rank-holders, hailing from vernacular medium • An extremely useful habit of reading (news papers & magazines, both current affairs & finance/

business related) coupled with one’s own analysis, for, merely reading sans understanding would be futile • learning process in professional courses is cumulative; students must know and believe the fact that whatever they learn during the 3 levels of these professional courses should be carried in their knowledge

bank for the purpose of applying it in their careers on a day-to-day basis. The scope and reach of each of the professional courses is summarized below: HOW TO START Once students choose a course which is most suited to their career goal, they must register with the respective Institute within the due date. In this internet era, easy access to info is ‘just one click away’. One may also buy the prospectus issued by the Institute. The contacts of the institutes are given below: Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) - Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) - Institute of Cost Accountants of India -

MINIMUM QUALIFICATION The minimum qualification is completion certificate of ‘plus 2’ or an equivalent examination. However, it is sufficient eligibility for ‘level 1’ exam of the professional courses if the

student appeared for the qualifying exam, pending result.

QUALIFICATION PROCESS All the three professional courses have a three tier qualification process. The ‘First’ level is called ‘CPT’ in case of CA while it is called ‘Foundation’ by the other 2 Institutes. The ‘Second’ level is the ‘Intermediate’ level (called IPCC in CA and Executive in CS). The Third and last level is called ‘Final’ (Professional in CS). The course duration ranges between 3 to 4 years. One has the golden opportunity to become a professional by the young age of 22. Practical Training There is a mandatory period of practical training or apprentice-ship for 3 years for all the 3 courses. Exams can be written simultaneously along with the training period. PURSUING MULTIPLE COURSES One can pursue more than one

professional course at a time, however subject to one’s own estimate of abilities. While the Employment The professional courses enable one to either go for practice or seek employment. For practicing as a professional, one may join an established entity or set up one’s own office. The 3 Institutes are conducting campus-interviews for qualified students for employment in which multi-national companies, Indian corporate houses participate. Apart from the campus-interviews other conventional avenues are also open for seeking employment avenues. To conclude the 3 professional courses will help one in developing the “helicopter view” which means the ability to see the big picture without losing sight of the details and their implications; that, is a sign of outstanding leaders and strategists. (The author is senior Practicing Chartered Accountant and Specialist in Tax matters)

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Defence Academies teach and prepare the energetic, enthuastic youth on war fare - Engineering Technology - Integration - Strategic planning Equipment production - Training - Medical & Health - administration - HRM - R&D - management & Services - Welfare etc. activities. NDA moulds young cadets as strong defence force and the defence career prospects are wide open.




AFTER Opportunities in PLUS2 Indian Defence

he Indian Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Republic of India encompassing the Indian Army, the Indian Air Force, the Indian Navy, and various other inter-service institutions. India maintains the world's third largest armed forces. If you are courageous, brave, intellectual and


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most importantly willing to serve the nation, then the defence is the right career choice for you. The Indian Army promises both professional and personal growth at every stage of the career. Opportunities to upgrade through various courses are abundant. The adventure and extra-curricular activities

in the Army ensure an all round development essential in today's world. Army teaches you all Art of Warfare - Engineering - MedicalAdministration-Human Resource Development-Management,-services etc moulding the officers into leaders capable of leading from the front in any field. Joining the Army is

THEY LIVE BY CHANCE, LOVE BY CHOICE, KILL BY PROFESSION ! possible both after school as well as after graduation. Various types of entries after plus 2 are available:

MODE OF ENTRY: OFFICERS National Defence Academy (NDA) Plus 2 Tech Entry Scheme (TES) Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) PUNE The UPSC holds an all-India competitive examination, known as the National Defence Academy Examination twice a year. plus 2 qualified candidates are eligible to appear in the examination. Successful candidates after 3 years training at NDA join the respective training academies, viz., the Indian Military Academy (IMA) for the Army, the Naval Academy for the Navy and the Air Force Academy for the Air Force.

KHADAKWASLA The National Defence Academy (NDA) is a premier Joint Services institution for training of young cadets as future officers of Defence Services after 10+2. It has four fold aim:

a) Attain requisite educational standard and acquire mental, moral and physical qualities essential to the cadet's progressive and continued development as officers of the fighting services. b) Obtain basic service training

Defence Studies T NDA

here are four strategic wings in defence establishment namely DRDO (R & D), Manufacturing (ordnance), Armed forces (warfare) and the Defence Academia. The DRDO undertakes research and analysis in electronics, weaponry, missiles, combat vehicles, Army, Naval & Air force needs development. Many disciplines come together to address several of the issues of Defence sector namely R & D, Planning, Designing, Manufacturing, engineering, logistics, robotics, Nanotechnology, Health care, Medical & emergency services, security, surveillance, Analysis, operation, Maintainance, war fare strategies. Aircraft technology, Ship building,

marine engineering, Aero-space engineering, Avionics, Mechatronics, Defence technologies etc. Defence education is available in private sector also in addition to Defence Academics. Cross country teaching and learning activities are taking our Defence education to greater heights – centre for Defence and Technology studies, Chennai started MBA course in Defence Technology in addition to Diploma,

PG Diploma and Doctoral studies in Defence studies. Armed forces medical college, Pune was started as a P.G. Training college in 1984 and now enjoying a top rank in medical education. AFMC consists of around thirty teaching departments and possess around thirty five different courses. AFMC caters mainly the armed forces sector extending the needful medical and healthcare services.

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THEY LIVE BY CHANCE, LOVE BY CHOICE, KILL BY PROFESSION ! and it will assist in developing their character, initiative, selfconfidence and above all qualities of leadership. c) Develop ability to appreciate inter-service aspect of the armed forces; and also d) Develop interest in extra curricular activities particularly out-door oriented. The Academy is a unique institution wherein Inter Services aspects are developed right from the formative stages of an officer, thus developing a bond of friendship and respect for each other's service. The details of Entrance exam are advertised in all National daily news papers or in Employment News/ Rozgar Samachar.

AFTER PLUS 2 TECHNICAL ENTRY SCHEME (TES) Under this scheme, candidates with 10+2 qualification, after selection through SSB, is sent for military and engineering training

Sl No

Cource/ Entry




TES 10+2 (CH)


Notfn in Emp news & leading news paper

at IMA and the College of Military Engineering, Pune. Initial six months military training is followed by Degree Engineering training of 4 years. The objective of this scheme is to help in bringing down the deficiency of officers in technical Arms/Services Details of Examinations are

published in all National Daily News Papers and Employment news/ Rozgar Samachaar.

IMA, DEHRADUN Recruitment of Medical Officers: Candidates who are 10+2 qualified are required to appear an all India level entrance examination



Application to be received by

Training academy

Duration of training

May & Dec notified by UPSC

16½ - 19 As on first day of month in which the course due to commence

10+2 or equivalent for army& with physics and maths for A/F and Navy

Oct /Nov For Jan course and April for July course

NDA June

3 years at NDA & 1Year at IMA or AFA or INA

May & Nov notified by addl Dte Gen recruiting/ AG’s branch

16½ - 19 As on first July for the course ommencing in Jan and 1st jan for the couse commencing in July

10+2 with Phy, Chem, & Maths (aggreg are 70%) and above to apply

30th jan and 31st Oct by Rtg Dte/AG’s branch

OTA, Gaya

5years (1 year at OTA & 4 years CTWS) mmission after 4 years

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Joining the Defence Forces is normally the Aspiration of every able Youngster of the Nation. It is a matter of great pride to serve your nation as Uniformed Soldier to Guard it from any external Aggression. conducted by UPSC, to join Armed Forces Medical College (Pune).Based on the respective merit candidates are selected to join the AFMC Pune,for studying MBBS Course. On successful completion of the course Candidates get commissioned into Armed Forces as Medical Officers. Details of Examinations are published in all National Daily News Papers and Employment news/Rozgar Samachaar.

RECRUITMENT OF OTHER RANKS IN DEFENCE Recruitment of Airmen Recruitment to the Air Force is done through the Central Airmen Selection Board, located at the Air Force Station, New Delhi. There are 13 selection centres under this Board. Details of Examinations are published in all National Daily News Papers and Employment news/Rozgar Samachaar Sailors Recruitment into Indian Navy: The Indian Navy, as one of the three wings of Indian Armed Forces has kept pace with ever changing advanced technologies operates and maintains highly sophisticated ships, submarines and aircraft. Various entries after 10+2 are a) Artficier Apprentice- age 17-20 years (with PCM). b) Senior Secondary Recruit- 17-21 years with PM with Biology/ chemistry or computers as optional. Recruitment of Jawans into Army through Open Recruitment Rallies:A new system of recruitment has been introduced with effect from April 01, 1998. Under the revised system,

recruitment of jawans in the Army is carried out through open recruitment rallies only. Recruitment rallies are planned well in advance, keeping in view the geographical, demographical and topographical considerations. At least, one such rally is held in each month, combining districts, areas and regions, depending upon the response anticipated, thereby giving every aspirant, irrespective of his place of residence, minimum one opportunity in a year to get himself enrolled in the Army. Details are published in all National Daily News Papers/Radio and Employment news/Rozgar Samachaar. Advisory: Indian Armed Forces are an Epitome of Excellence, honor and Integrity. Joining the Defence Forces is normally the Aspiration of every able Youngster of the Nation. It is a matter of great pride to serve your nation as Uniformed Soldier to Guard it from any external Aggression. It gives immense sense of Satisfaction besides providing a bright career, Dignified and a Disciplined life. Armed Forces definitely will always continue Remain a right Choice.

FOR CAREER DETAILS Additional Directorate General Of Recruitment, Adjutant General’s Branch, Integrated HQ Of MoD (Army) West Block III, R.K.Puram, New Delhi-110066 Website: Tel No: 011-26175473, 26173215,26173701 (The author is Logistics and Management Consultant) Plus 2 What Next

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“Modern trends in law education” Indian legal system is one of the oldest legal systems in the world. Today there is a need to have reforms in legal education because old legal education does not fully fulfill the demands of modern society. SILVERI SRISHAILAM


uman beings gain enormous values from dealing with other human beings; living in a human society is proper way of life—but only on certain conditions, and with the legal frame of society. Human being is not a lone-wolf and not a social animal. Human being is a contractual animal. Human beings have to plan their life’s goals, make own choices, and deal with other human beings by voluntary and legal agreement” In India legal education has been offered as a three years graduate degree. However the structure has been changed


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since 1987. Law degrees in India are granted and conferred in terms of the Advocates Act, 1961, which is a law passed by the Parliament both on the aspect of legal education and also regulation of conduct of legal profession. Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country. In the modern legal education and development have become interrelated concepts in modern developing

societies, which are struggling to develop into social welfare states and are seeking to ameliorate the socioeconomic condition of the people by peaceful means. The same is true in our country. It is crucial function of legal education to produce lawyers with a social vision in a developing country, like India. Indian legal system is one of the oldest legal systems in the world. Today, there is a need to have reforms in legal education because old legal education does not fulfill the demands of modern society. Therefore, there is a need to change the pattern of centralized body to deal with the body of legal education in the vast changing society; the socio-economic relation of people with each other have increased and this creates lot of litiga-

tions; variety of new crimes generated need a novel situation; selfishness person centric attitude of people has increased day by day and it exploits the common people.

LAW REFORM Legal education plays a vital role in law reform. Law reform means some reformation, correction in existing legal system or enactments. When a set of rules or a set of principles is enacted by the legislature or a specific principle is declared by the court, sometimes they are not adequate for the society or are ineffective to control any social problem for which such laws are implemented. COMMON ADMISSION TEST As of 2012, admission to LLB and

LLM in most of the autonomous law schools in India is based on performance in Common Law Admission Test (CLAT). However, the National Law University, Delhi and the private autonomous law schools conduct their own admission tests. Admission to Jindal Global Law School is done through the LSAT examination conducted by Law School Admission Council, USA conducted by Pearson VUE, through its affiliate in India.

FATHER OF MODERN LAW Professor N.R. Madhava Menon is know as father of modern and corporate law. Professor N.R. Madhava Menon is a legal educator who has completed over 6 decades of teaching and research in different universities. He is the author of the Five Year

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C ommon law degrees B

achelor of Laws (B.L) (LL.B.) - The LL.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Indian universities which has duration of three years. Almost all law universities follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Integrated undergraduate degrees - B.A. LL.B., B.Sc. LL.B., BBA. LLB., B.Com. LL.B. These degrees are mostly offered in the autonomous law schools having a duration of five years. Master of Laws (LL.M.) - The LL.M. is most common postgraduate law degree which has duration of one/ two years. Master of Business Law (MBL) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Integrated MBL-LLM/ MBA-LLM. -Generally a three years double degree integrated course with specialization in business law. Specialized law universities. The Specialized law universities

are great land mark in Indian legal system. The Specialized law universities produce quality advocates to the Nation. The suggestion by the Law Commission of India was accepted and this decision was taken somewhere in 1985 and thereafter the first law University in India was set up in Bangalore which was named as the National Law School of India

Integrated B.A., LL.B. (Hons) course which successfully transformed the quality of legal education in India beginning in 1986. Professor Menon also has been the founder-director of the National Law School at Bangalore which revolutionized the status of law schools in the scheme of professional education in the country. He was also instrumental in establishing National University of Indicial Sciences in Kolkata and the National Judicial Academy in Bhopal, in both of which he was the founder-director. Presently he holds the IBA Chair in continuing legal education at NLS, Bangalore and is the chairman of Menon Institute of

Legal Advocacy Training (MILAT), a voluntary organization in professional development training for young advocates, based in Trivandrum (Kerala). Recognizing the services rendered to legal education and legal profession, the Society of Indian Law Firms has instituted an annual award The award is known as the “Professor N.R. Madhava Menon Best Law Teacher Award”. Professor Menon was also honoured by the President of India with the highest civilian award PADMA SHRI for public services. Professor Menon was president of the Commonwealth Law Teachers’ Association for a four year term. He


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University (popularly 'NLS'). These law universities were meant to offer a multi-disciplinary and integrated approach to legal education. It was therefore for the first time that a law degree other than LL.B. or B.L. was granted in India. NLS offered a five years law course upon the successful completion of which an integrated degree with the title of "B.A.,LL.B. (Honours)" would be granted. Thereafter other law universities were set up, all offering five years integrated law degree with different formulations. The next in line was National Law Institute University set up in Bhopal in 1997. It was followed by NALSAR university of law set up in 1998. The National Law University, Jodhpur offered for the first time in 2001 the integrated law degree of "B.B.A, LL.B. (Honours)" which was preceded by the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences offering the "B.Sc., LL.B. (Honours)" degree. KIIT Law School, Bhubaneswar became the first law school in India in 2007 to start integrated law in three different streams and honours specialisation; i.e. BA/BBA/B.Sc. LLB (Honours).

is the author of eight books and over a hundred research papers in law, the legal profession, and legal education. It is a fact that India is producing a large number of legal professionals in the world. According to a Harward Law School report, there are approximately, 1.3 million registered attorneys, and half a million Indian law students pass out every year from various colleges in India. Albeit that not all of them go through the regular run of the mill jobs like litigationoriented practice or drafting. (The author is Academician and Law practicioner)

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wide range of financial assistance schemes, education loans, grants, scholarships, meritorious awards, fee reimbursement schemes, Project support / financial incentives, Training & employment schemes, fee concession, special financial assistance schemes (to girls, women, young entrepreneurs, young scientists, meritorious students, young talent, SC, ST, BC. EBC, Tribals), internships are available as a supportive means. These financial assistance schemes / scholarships / awards are sponsored by Government (state / central) Departments, corporate / NGO bodies, National / International organizations Universities, Public Sector & Private bodies, Registered Societies & Trusts, Good Samaritans. We place before you, some of the sources for ready reference: 1. All Nationalized Banks in India. 2. UGC, DST, ICHR, ICSSR, RTP, RIM, BIRD, CSIR, NSDC, NREGS, Defence services, universities (National & Abroad), central Govt. Sponsored educational schemes / scholarships. 3. Scholarships, awards, schemes like fees reimbursement etc. promoted by state Governments owned Departments like Education, Backward classes welfare (BCW, BCSCFBC, APBCFC, APWF, APVCSF, APUF, MW, APSMFC, APUA, APWB, SW, APSCCFC, APSWREIS, APTW, APTWREIS, APWCDSC, APGCCL, APWDCW, APJWCS. APSSWB, APVCC, APSA, APSTEP, EMP, APSFCSF, REECAP, REEMAP). 4. A large number of Registered Trusts, (Ex: Tatas, Birlas, Ambanis, Nirma etc. groups); Societies: Corporate world (Ex: Bill gates, Infosys, Dr.Reddy’s etc.); some colleges; NGOs (Ex: Aga khan, Mullapudi etc.), and individuals are extending


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financial assistance / scholarships to a large number of needy (meritorious) students every year.

HOW TO SOURCE AND REACH THEM? Most of the schemes (as mentioned above) are being published in leading News papers, once or twice in a year. We need to know and apply for the needful assistance., learn to search for the details by brousing Google search, websites of the service providers Viz.companies (CSR initiative), Trusts, Societies, Universities, colleges and the concerned Government departments & organizations. HOW TO GET EDUCATION LOAN FROM A BANK? All the Nationalized Banks are extending education loans to the needy and eligible students. You need to go to a nearest bank branch of your area and meet the Bank’s Branch Manager., or else, we can reach them on line through their website address. Plan for it in advance in order to avoid last minute disappointments. We place before you the education loan details of SBI (Source: LHO, SBI, AP region) for ready reference. State Bank of India is the market leader in Education Loans in the country with a 25% market share. The SBI Student Loan Scheme as the name suggests is designed to extend financial assistance to deserving students for pursuing higher education. The Scheme comes bundled with products like Inter Net Banking etc. A brief of the scheme is detailed below for ready reference purpose only. (The author is an Acclaimed Academician)


State Bank of India is the market leader in Education Loans in the country with a 25% market share. The SBI Student Loan Scheme as the name suggests is designed to extend financial assistance to deserving students for pursuing higher education. The Scheme comes bundled with products like Inter Net Banking etc. A brief of SBI scheme is detailed below.


To extend financial assistance to deserving, meritorious students for pursuing higher education in India and abroad. ELIGIBILE COURSES STUDIES IN INDIA Graduation / Post Graduation courses and Ph.D/ Professional courses. Diploma / computer courses / evening courses offered by approved institutes /Universities. STUDIES ABROAD Graduation: For job oriented professional/ technical courses offered by reputed universities. Post graduation :MCA, MBA, MS, etc. Courses conducted by CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) London, CPA (Certified Public Accountant) in USA etc.


Should be an Indian National: secured admission to professional/ technical courses through entrance test/ selection process, secured admission to foreign university/institutions.

ELIGIBLE EXPENSES Fee payable to college/ school/ hostel/ examination/ library/ laboratory fee. Purchase of books/ equipments/ caution deposit /building fund/ travel expenses / passage money for studies abroad/ Purchase of computers essential for completion of the course/ any other expense required to complete the course - like study tours, project work, thesis, etc. QUANTUM OF FINANCE Need based finance subject to repaying capacity of the parents/students with margin and the following ceilings: - Studies in India - Maximum Rs. 10.00 lacs. - Studies Abroad - Maximum Rs. 30.00 lacs.


Available within the overall limit and subject to

security requirements as applicable to the aggregate loan limit. MARGIN - Upto Rs.4 lacs : Nil. - Above Rs.4 lacs : - Studies in India :5% - Studies Abroad : 15 %. SECURITY Upto Rs. 4 lacs - Co-obligation of parents - No security - Above Rs. 4 lacs and upto Rs.7.50 lacs. - Co-obligation of parents together with collateral security in the form of suitable third party guarantee. Above Rs.7.50 lacs - Co-obligation of parents together with tangible collateral security of suitable value, along with the assignment of future income of the student for payment of installments. PROCESSING FEE : Nil RATE OF INTEREST Floating rate of interest linked to BASE RATEpresently Loans upto Rs. 4 lacs : 13.20% - Loans above Rs.4 lacs and upto Rs.7.50 lacs : 13.45% - Loans above Rs.7.50 lacs : 11.45% - Simple interest during moratorium period - 1% concession in interest rate for the entire loan tenure if interest is fully serviced during moratorium period - 0.50% concession in interest rate for girl students.

REPAYMENT Repayment ranging from 5-7 years. Repayment will commence from 1 year after completion of course or 6 months after getting employment which ever is earlier Plus 2 What Next

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Combination courses enable you to learn more about the evolving discipline / systems. Teaching and learning is complemented by specialist speakers from Academia – Industry, which keeps you updated about the latest trends & developments.


Dual/Integrated Vocational courses: A View


cademic career counseling offers an opportunity to think, talk and behave in confidence about the issues that concern you. We would like to make you resourceful while planning for career advancement. A right perspective of career advice will probably guide you

to choose and pursue a suitable mix of academic courses. The opportunities for aspiring students at the end of Plus 2 course are plenty; we would like to focus here on Dual, vocational and integrated courses and their availability. If a student aims at a particular

profession (for example: teaching, R & D, Q & C), he / she should also select a right combination of undergraduate and post graduate courses for achieving a hastle free success. The plan helps them in saving a lot of time, money and energy., the opportunities will also be increased Plus 2 What Next

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upon completion of combination subject as Dual courses and Integrated courses which are also termed as specialist studies.

DUAL COURSES These combination courses enable you to learn more about the evolving discipline / systems. Teaching and learning is complemented by specialist speakers from Academia – Industry, which keeps you updated about the latest trends & developments. You will learn more about the application of project principles as well as the resources management. You will gain an understanding of business efficiency and marketing development in accordance to the growing needs. These courses are designed and offered by several universities. We place before you some examples and the potential sources for information: 1. M.Tech in signal processing (JNTU) India + M.Sc. (Electrical Engg.,). Sweden 2. M.Tech in telecommunications Engg., (JNTU) + M.Sc. (EE), Sweden 3. B.Com (Hons) + M.Com (4yrs) ( 4. (Hons) + (5 yrs) ( (www.sxccal. edu/)


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5. B.Tech + MBA (5 yrs) (www. 6. BBA + LLB (5 yrs) 7. BALLAB / BSCLLB / BCOMLLB. 8. DBA (one year, India) + Bachelor Degree (2 yrs) (Australia) 9. B.Tech + MCL (5 yrs) (IIIT, Hyd) Integrated courses: These courses enable you to complete under graduation and post graduation in the same subject, in continuation, in the same college / University. These courses are meant for Plus 2 pass students. We place before you some examples for your ready reference: 1. 5 year Law course (email: 2. BHMCT & MWMCT 5 years course ( 3. (Bio-Technology) (5 Yrs) (Adikavinannayya university) 4. (Petroleum & exploration) (5 yrs) 5. M.A. (Applied Economics) (5 yrs) ( 6. MBA (5yrs) 7. M.A., M.Com., M.Sc., (5 yrs) (www.dravidian 8. M.Tech. (5 yrs) IIT.Delhi; Bombay; VIT., You have plenty of integrated courses available in India. Most of the universities are extending these Dual and Integrated courses keeping in view the market demands. You are advised to compile the data Bank (if you choose to prefer these course combinations) from websites of the Universities (recognized by UGC) like BITS, Pilani., Central Universities.,

Nirma University., Andhra University., Nagarjuna University., Dravidian University., IISR., AIIMS etc. Specialized Courses: We have an established procedural system in Higher education like Plus 2, then under graduation, then post Graduation and then Doctoral studies. Now, we have another special provision / option for pursuing Ph.D. eliminating PG. In other words, those who have completed Graduate course with distinction, can apply for Ph.D. in some Universities; the availability and eligibility criteria varies from University to University. We would place before you very few examples, on such Universities, for your ready reference purpose: 1) University of California, LA (USA) academics/admissions) (Electrical Engineering) 2) Carnegie mellon University, USA (computer science) 3) University of Buffalo, USA (Economics) 4) University of South floride, USA (Nursing) 5) Rutgers University, USA (CS). Interesting course options: There are some specific work / profession related short term / long term / vocational courses and are available across the country. They are categorized as certificate / Diploma courses and Plus 2 passed students are eligible to pursue these courses in accordance to their needs. We advise the students to be more specific and transparent while selecting these job oriented courses. These short term / long term courses aim to create livelihood / income in the shortest possible period. You may be able to help yourself as well as your family in earnings within two to three years after passing plus 2. The aspiring students can pursue further education in part – time / correspondence / on-line methods, while working, soon

after the completion of vocational course. These are best suited courses mostly for semi-urban and rural plus 2 students. In fact, a vast number of the students hailing from rural areas prefer indulging in earning means, as a supportive / responsible gesture towards their family. There are several hundreds of such vocational courses available across the country, almost in each & every state. But they are not sufficient to cater to the growing needs of the people. There is an urgent need for increasing and introducing a large number vocational courses, exclusively for catering the needs of Rural youth. There must be a great emphasis on vocational courses for Plus 2 students, following the line of direction as we observe in china. We would like to place before you a brief data on the availability of such vocational courses for ready reference purpose. You are advised to sourse more data from other resources on your own if you are an aspirant, looking for vocational courses (eligible for Plus 2). 1. Computer aided fashion design ( 2. Vedic vaastu sastra (www.ivaindia. com) 3. Business / Retail management (www. 4. DJ ( www. 5. Diamond grading (www.giaindia. in) 6. Skilled Professional (Jewellery) ( 7. Film making (www.zimainstitute. com) 8. Marine Deck officer (class.III) ( 9. DTP Operator, Lab Technician, Floriculture, Photo-shop / Printing. 10. Photography (www.masscomedia. com) 11. Animation and VFX (www.disd. 12. Cinematography (www. 13. Stone grading ( 14. Agriculture / Horticulture / Food Processing / Health care / Transport / Organic farming / catering / event management / Interior decoration / Electronics / Fish – Prawn culture / Aromatic plants / leather technology / TV mechanic / Call Communication / Nursing / Cell applications / farm equipment / Electrician / Motor winding / Automobile mechanism / Lab assistance etc.etc. We have a wide scope for increasing vocational courses to a greater number. We have enough jobs / self employment opportunities., but, we do not have trained students who

are industry ready. Hence, vocational training should be made available to Rural youth clubbed with effective implementation and qualitative quantification. Kerala in India has got the highest number of skilled students spread across the state in different sectors. India should rise upto the challenge of ensuring that at least 10 million youth (10th / Plus 2 pass / Graduates) are trained with requisite skills set per annum, gradually raising the training capacity to 50 million youth per Annum by 2020. We advise you (these who are looking for early means of income) to search for vocational courses availability on websites or else can meet the nearby institutes like ITI, Polytechnic, vocational centres / colleges, education department officials (MEO, DEO) for more information. These vocational courses add value not only to resume but help us in increasing our revenues. Rural, Semi-Urban and Urban youth should assess themselves in accordance to the ‘SWEAR’ methodology and then should opt for further course of Action., accordingly choose the suitable course subject(s) / sector / professiony. (The author is Acclaimed Academician, Associate Professor in JNTUK University College, VZM) Plus 2 What Next

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In fact, it is to be like animals, no longer human. In fact, along with fire, religion and the wheel, language is the indispensable feature of being human. And while language is as old as humanity itself, it is a living, pulsating, and growing organism that can help define even the most modern inventions



CAREER IN LANGUAGES THE WORD LANGUAGE comes from the French word langue meaning a tongue. This is probably because the tongue seems to be controlling and even producing the sounds that we make to speak. So crucial is language in human life that to be without it, means, in many languages, to be also stupid. In fact,


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it is to be like animals, no longer human. In fact, along with fire, religion and the wheel, language is the indispensable feature of being human. And while language is as old as humanity itself, it is a living, pulsating, and growing organism that can help define even the most modern inventions: we only need to notice

that computers communicate with us and with each other in “language�. Cultures all over the world have recognized the preeminence of language and take great pains to learn it and transmit it, seeing in it a manifestation of the history and culture of the group. Today, we are confronted with

ever new and growing challenges from language. Faster and cheaper modes of transport have brought us into contact with each other and with people from faraway lands. Inventions and discoveries made in one part of the globe are coming to be used with amazing speed in other parts. Thus the need to be able to communicate with each other is of the utmost importance. It seems that we need a common language, and that seems to be English in the modern world. It is an area that is challenging, promising, and very disturbing. English has been dubbed the lingua franca, the language that connects, the so called “link language�. But it has associations of colonialism in which a European, Christian nation systematically conquered and exploited non-European and non-Christian nations. Its continued predominance in the modern world can be explained by the domination of the United States culturally, politically, economically, and militarily. In a more practical sense, we

need to come to terms with our world and its challenges. We need to learn English. Does this double the burden on non-native speakers of English? It is the fastest growing language in the world in terms of vocabulary, adding more than 7000 words a year. There are very few advertisements anywhere in the world which do not have a word or two of English. It seems there is no escaping this language, and we have to learn it, either as a second language or as a foreign language. The distinction is that as a second language, there is more interaction in the language, to study, for example, but as a foreign language, it is used by people to visit the country of the language for purposes such as tourism and work. Today, language teaching institutes mushroom everywhere with an emphasis on the spoken aspect. Communication is identified with speaking. But this is not always true. Writing, listening and reading too play an important role, and we need to learn these too. It is essential that we

must learn a language with interest and love rather than as a burden. In the era of the internet, we have an abundance of information, and most of this (about 75%) is in English. Translation is useful, but the power of the expressions and turns of phrase are lost with a myriad other beauties of the language. Thus we need to learn English in the modern world. We must also recognize that learning this language is a double-edged sword. We must not forget our languages, and allow English to Anglicize them. We must take words from English in science and technology especially, and form words in our languages. Thus we have an immediate need to learn English, and also to learn it to keep our languages alive. Our duty is heavy, but its rewards are progressive in life, and the preserve of our culture. Education empowers and is a solution to many more issues like multiple language processing capacity & globalization. A lot of course corrections need to be addressed in addition to introducing Plus 2 What Next

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sound vocational degrees., there is a need to make vernacular languages more capacity creative, than more subjects. Linguists classify a speaker’s vocabulary into two categories namely active and passive. We use active voice in our communication more and passive voice rarely when we communicate with others on day to day basis. Knowing a word means knowing how to use the word in a sentence appropriately and what the word means in a particular context. There is a lot of scope for all the language professionals, more particularly for English language. A vast majority of the educated youth are unemployed just because of their unemployability and not because of unemployment. It means there is skills shortage and we can overcome if only when we equip ourselves with required skills, in particular communication skills, inter-personal skills, public speaking. Apart from these necessary traits, there is a good scope and demand for content writers, Authors, translators, voice modulators and language teachers. Command, Expertise and proficiency in languages create good career opportunities for millions of people around the world through education. We have more than fifteen languages in India, out of which English is in commanding position, followed by Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, and other regional languages. We have several universities, colleges and academies imparting education on languages (for ex: EFL University., Telugu University., Urdu university). Plus 2 pass candidates aspiring for language education have plenty of opportunities for establishing their career and the subject options are also plenty in number, namely English, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Sanskrit, Urdu & French, German, Arabic, Russian, Chinese etc. all these language and literature programmes, especially English, enable successful


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careers in Teaching, mass communication, Journalism, Counseling, Translation, Diplomatic relations & assignments, skills Training and content preparation. The Departments of Languages offer different courses namely certificate, Diploma, Degree (Graduation), PG Diploma, PG, M.Phil and Ph.D. degrees. English and foreign languages university, Hyderabad offers a basket full of courses in English and other foreign languages. All most all the universities (except medical & technology universities) in India offer multiple courses in multiple languages. In addition, overseas universities offer more number of courses (for ex: www. www.english. We need to add a few words about foreign languages. People learn them for aesthetic purposes such as reading literature. They learn them for practical purposes to visit the country of the language or to study there. They may even learn a language to improve their prestige—for polyglots are respected. But in any case, languages have immense wisdom in

them, and we need to unlock it for our own purposes and enrich our lives. We cannot understand ourselves unless we see how others are, and how they think. Foreign languages provide us excellent mirrors in which we can look at ourselves. Thus we can learn from others and share our experiences. And there are few examples in our lives that can bring people closer together than language. Academically and for careers, knowledge of a foreign language, combined with computer skills, can provide innumerable opportunities to progress in life. Now with the arrival of the internet and other advanced gadgets, self-study is more feasible. The scenario is one of great hope and excitement. As new countries such as China and Brazil rise into prominence, we need to build trust and cooperation, and language learning can be one of our best chances of doing so. Great challenges and even greater opportunities await us. (The author is Acclaimed Academician, Head of the Department and Professor in EFL University, Hyderabad)

COURSES IN FINE ARTS Fine Art is the making and study of visual art. It educates and prepares students to become artists and to follow other practices that are aligned to the making of art. The curriculum is centred on the individual student’s potential and imagination.

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nlike the old thought that the fine arts was considered as non-fetching, today it is one of the top most revenue –generating sectors. Currently due to the recession, there are several engineering graduates without jobs, but in the field of fine arts, there is a dearth of qualified people. Many MNCs and Media organizations require artists and photographers, thus there is a channel for absorbing graduates in large numbers.

COURSES Students must have passed (10+2)/Intermediate or its equivalent examination. At JNAFAU Painting, Sculpture, Photography, Applied Art and Animation are taught over a 4-year (8 semester) course. Degree: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Paining & Visual communication) (4 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (Painting & Visual Communication) (2 years) Degree: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Applied Art& Visual communication) (4 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (Applied Art & Visual Communication) (2 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (PTPG) (Applied Art & Visual communication) (3 years) Degree: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Photography & Visual communication) (4 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (Photography & Visual Communication) (2 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (PTPG) (Photography & Visual Communication) (3 years) Degree: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Sculpture & Visual Communication) (4 years) Degree: Master of Fine Arts (Sculpture & Visual Communication) (2 years)


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Degree: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Animation & Visual communication) (4 years) Degree: Film Making/Cinematography/Direction/ Still Photography / Actions / Film Production (3 years) Certificate: Script writing/ screen-ply / Documentary (six months) Diploma: Production / Digital film making / Sound engineering / editing / screenply Writing / Art Director / Acting / Animation (one year / two year) PG Diploma: Direction/ Cinematography/Sound Design/ Sound recording/content editing/ Advertising/mass Communication & Journalism. (One year / two years). We would place before you some sources for ready reference: (www. (www. ( ( ( admission) ( (www. ( (www. (www.nsd. com) (

JOB PROSPECTS AND JOB OPENINGS IN THE FIELD OF FINE ARTS: Professionals in Fine Arts have many avenues open based on their perseverance, personality and talent. Candidates with a degree in Fine Arts can find job placements in organizations working in the following industries: Fine artist, Community arts worker, Printmaker, Secondary school teacher, Teaching, Higher education lecturer, Museum/Gallery Curator Art therapist, Arts administrator Museum/Gallery exhibitions officer, Textile, Film and theatre productions, Graphic arts, Publishing industry, Advertising agencies, Commercial art gallery manager, Design trainer, Art professionals A career in the Fine Arts is an appropriate choice for students with creativity and imagination. It offers an opportunity to explore and develop their talents. Many students enroll in the routine engineering and medical streams due to parental expectations or lack of awareness of the scope in creative professions.

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plus2 what next? (full edition)  
plus2 what next? (full edition)  

Higher education has become an exciting, confusing and expensive product! No doubt, the choices in terms of courses/ Universities/Profession...