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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

OUTLOOK

2017 EDITION

PERMANENT BUSINESS

A NEW ERA FOR DEFENCE BUSINESS

INSIGHTS

IDEAS TO PURCHASE ORDERS HOW ACQUISITION IS CHANGING IN AUSTRALIA

INTERVIEWS

LOCKHEED MARTIN CEO

VINCE DI PIETRO AUSTAL CEO

DAVID SINGLETON AN INDEPENDENT PUBLICATION EXAMINING AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE ACQUISITION AND SUSTAINMENT PROJECTS


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EDITORS FOREWORD

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elcome to the latest, and newest publication in Faircount Media Group’s expanding defence stable of titles – Capability, Acquisition and Sustainment OUTLOOK.

As the defence industry in Australia evolves, complete with a continuous shipbuilding program and also an entirely new approach to acquisition and working with business, the timing is right to create a publication that looks into the work that the Australian Government and Australian Defence Force (ADF) does in turning the needs of the three services branches into real projects. In this premier issue, we cover the air, land and sea developments in capability acquisition. We have interviews with some of the biggest defence contractors in the world, and we look at the pipeline of skilled workers needed in the coming decades, including how the industry can attract staff from other fields and sectors. For more than 25 years, Faircount has worked closely with a long list of defence organisations such as the Royal Australian Navy (our signature Navy OUTLOOK title has operated as the commissioning title for HMAS Canberra and the official publication for the 2013 International Fleet Review); and the Royal New Zealand Navy. Worldwide,

Faircount has worked with the Royal Navy, and Canadian Armed Forces. In the USA with the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Army Material Command (AMC), the US Coast Guard (USCG), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Marine Corps Systems Command, and NASA, to name a few. Capability, Acquisition and Sustainment OUTLOOK is the first of a series of new titles in the defence space. Other new titles will feature some of the most exciting work we have done, as we continue to showcase the incredibly high standards of our defence forces as they lead the world in technology and innovation. We hope you enjoy the publication.

Keith Barrett


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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

OUTLOOK

CONTENTS LOCKHEED INTERVIEW...................12 Lockheed Martin is vital to Australian defence business, but it has a long and rich history of work Down Under. CASG IN THE NEWS........................19 With a major program of new projects in the pipeline, CASG has rarely been out of the news with a string of announcements and new projects over 2017 and 2016. Here is a chronology of major news announcements dating back to July 2016. ACQUISITION REFORM...................21 In 2015 the defence organisation as a whole was expecting a reorganisation, with far-reaching implications for future procurement, following the First Principles Review (FPR). DEFENCE WHITE PAPER..................24 The 2016 Defence White Paper outlined Australia’s strategic defence position and analysed potential threats, but also included significant changes to industry policy and capability planning.

IDEAS TO PURCHASE ORDERS.......30 The new approach to turning ideas into purchase orders may be relevant for the smaller domestic industry players, but when this is also brought into the approach of larger industries, the results can be fantastic. LAND 400........................................35 Faircount’s Ross Gillett discusses the Army’s new armoured fighting vehicles. HATS................................................38 The HATS system is continuing to ensure the helicopter aircrew are receiving the best training possible today.

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AUSTAL INTERVIEW.........................42 AUSTAL is one of the most important contractors to Australian defence. Here, CEO David Singleton talks through its various contracts and projects. CONTINUOUS SHIPBUILDING.........47 The recent Defence White Paper set the RAN on a new course, described as ‘Continuous Shipbuilding’.

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64 OPVS...............................................51 The new OPV project is outlined by Michael Wilson.

CHINOOK UPDATE........................ 70 Ross Gillett reports on this new boost to the Army’s capability.

PERMANENT BUSINESS................ 85 Defence industry policy is a key plank in the 2016 Defence White Paper.

FUTURE SUBMARINE.......................55 Three good designs, a class of 12 boats and one winner announced. This has been the story of the Future Submarine project (SEA 1000) over the past 12 months.

PILATUS PC-21...............................72 Faircount looks at the new Pilot Training System.

VITAL INFRASTRUCTURE RENEWAL...................................... 89 The 10-year Integrated Investment Program was designed to bring together all capability-related investment including new weapons, platforms, infrastructure and science and technology.

FUTURE FRIGATE.............................61 Michael Wilson outlines the SEA 5000 project for a new generation of frigates. PACIFIC PATROL BOATS..................64 The Pacific Patrol Boat replacement project is about to begin and from 2018, 13 nations will benefit from this investment in the Australian Defence industry. AWD................................................66 The Navy’s Hobart class guided missile destroyers (DDGs) made significant steps towards commissioning.

NAVAL COMMAND AND COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT.......75 In late 2013, the Finmeccanica company Selex ES, with support of other sister companies, was announced as the winning tender for Naval Communications and Command Support – SEA 1442. BEYOND THE BILLIONS.................78 The Government has committed $195 billion to defence spending in the next decade, and delivering into that capability requires engagement with a whole eco-system of small and medium sized enterprises. MARITIME SUSTAINMENT.............. 82 Who will maintain our future vessels?

FUTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGY............................... 92 More militaries around the world are moving into a new generation of highly capable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UPSKILLING................................... 97 Australia’s defence capability requires a range of specialised skills beyond front line roles and combat professions. This will often mean attracting people into the field from other professions.

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CAPABILITY WILL ALWAYS BE OUR BEST DEFENCE. Delivering superior defence capability for our nation requires a strong and supportive partnership. From Collins Class Submarines to Hobart Class Air Warfare Destroyers and beyond, ASC is committed to supporting the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group to deliver the best possible defence for Australia. It’s a partnership that will ensure our naval fleet is available, capable, reliable and formidable for years to come.


CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

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INTERVIEW WITH VINCE DI PIETRO, CEO

LOCKHEED MARTIN

Lockheed Martin is vital to Australian defence business, but it has a long and rich history of work Down Under.

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ne of the most famous flights by an Australian aviator was by Charles Kingsford Smith, who was the first man to make the eastward crossing of the Pacific in his plan the “Lady Southern Cross” in 1934. While “Smithy’s” flight has gone down in history, less well known is the fact that he was flying a Lockheed Altair powered by a Pratt & Whitney engine, which he had purchased from Hollywood legend Douglas Fairbanks. In early March 2017, two RAAF F-35 Joint Strike Fighters made their first eastward crossing of the Pacific on their way back to the US from the Avalon airshow. These fifth generation aircraft, eight decades on from the Altair, are also built by Lockheed and powered by Pratt & Whitney engines. To Vince Di Pietro, the chief executive of Lockheed Martin Australia, the two events say a lot about his company’s history in Australia. “I think it shows a great link between Lockheed Martin and some of the most exciting events in Australian aviation,” says Di Pietro. “We have been very actively

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engaged in Australia, both in the military sphere but also in commercial aviation for a very long time.” While the Lockheed Constellation airliner helped pioneer intercontinental travel from Australia to Europe in the period after World War 2, Lockheed was also involved in military aircraft programs from the 1950s with the C-130 Hercules transport and submarine hunters the P-2 Neptune and the P-3 Orion. For the last 25 years, the company has also been a partner with the former Defence Science Technology Organisation (DSTO) in the development of the Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN), contributing design, integration, construction and operational management skills to one of Australia’s most successful homegrown aerospace programs. “The relationship between Australia and Lockheed Martin is longstanding, and there is a lot of what we have done in most things you will see in the Australian commercial and military aviation space,” says Di Pietro. In 2017, Lockheed Martin boasts an Australian headcount of 753 on

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017


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“We have been very actively engaged in Australia, both in the military sphere but also in commercial aviation for a very long time"

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its direct payroll, with another 100 or so contractors, consultants, and also researchers at new R&D facilities in Adelaide and Melbourne. This workforce is spread evenly around the country on projects which show that Lockheed Martin’s involvement is not just with large headline projects such as the F-35, but on a broad range of activities with all branches of Defence. Lockheed Martin staff are located at the Pearce RAAF base north of Perth, in South Australia where the focus is on current and upcoming naval projects such as the Future Submarine, Air Warfare Destroyer and Future Frigate, and up the east coast to Nowra in NSW, where the Navy has taken delivery of 24 MH-60R Seahawk submarine hunting helicopters. Melbourne is both an administrative centre, but also home to the new Lockheed Martin STELaRLab, the new multi-disciplinary R&D hub the company established last year. Canberra is the hub for business development and the soon to be opened Customer Demonstration Centre. At the Williamstown RAAF base, more than 70 Lockheed Martin staff are gearing up to sustain the new

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F-35 program, while the company has a presence at the Richmond RAAF base. In Longreach in Queensland, the project is the JORN radar while other staff are in Darwin, working on tactical radar systems. “We probably don’t crow about ourselves as loudly as we could,” says Vince Di Pietro. “Our presence is self evident when you see the F-35 at Avalon, with the kangaroo markings on the fuselage, but if you sat back and had a look at our footprint from one of our satellites,

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

it would be a much bigger picture.” Later in 2017, Di Pietro will be in the US presenting Lockheed Martin’s 10 year strategic plan for growth in Australia, and he says it is a positive picture. Australian Government policy around the Defence industry has delivered a pipeline of major projects and an ongoing commitment to the industry which delivers certainly not only to a major player such as Lockheed Martin, but to the ecosystem of smaller companies it works


CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

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with and which are also part of the Defence supply chain. “We see our contribution as a partner of choice and we take it very seriously,” says Di Pietro. “We are delighted that the Government is committed to an industry capability because that is opening a lot of doors.” Di Pietro’s background prior to Lockheed Martin was as a naval aviator, and he says that after “four decades in a uniform and now in a suit” he is well placed to understand how the industry is developing and maturing. “The really big change in the coming years will be the way in which Government is trusting industry to have direct conversations with the customer,” he says. “It allows us to do a lot more listening instead of selling, and that makes for a much better outcome

“Now it is more about a solution which engages more of Australia’s industrial capacity and establishes more Australian sovereignty in technological and industry terms, and I find that a really refreshing shift and think it’s a smarter way to go about it." for everyone because when you are listening you get a better understanding of what the customer wants to achieve. “This is going to be really important in helping us to understand what the requirements are.” Di Pietro welcomes the Government position, articulated in the 2016 Defence White Paper, of putting a priority on developing a sovereign defence industry capability in Australia. “The emphasis until a year and a half ago was about rapid acquisition, about getting stuff quickly,” he says. “The fastest way to do that was

through foreign military sales, but what is happening now is a really positive transformation of how that works. “Now it is more about a solution which engages more of Australia’s industrial capacity and establishes more Australian sovereignty in technological and industry terms, and I find that a really refreshing shift and think it’s a smarter way to go about it.” While Lockheed Martin has the ability to “reach back” into the US to deliver capabilities and projects, Di Pietro says a major focus is being able

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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

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to engage with Australian companies to deliver not only local projects, but to work with the company’s global supply chain. “This is more important to us than just setting up big Lockheed Martin factories,” says Di Pietro. “The reality is that we see a great deal of talent and best of breed intellectual property in so many Australian companies, and this is recognised by the number of contracts for the regional sustainment packages for the F-35 program. “64 out of 65 of the total opportunities for this were won fair and square on the open playing field by Australian SMEs.” He points to the example of Melbourne-based company Marand, which supplies vertical tails to the F-35 project and has contracts to

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supply aerostructures tooling as well as training technology to the program. “When you go to the Fort Worth factory you go down a production line of more than one mile and every

engaging and making sure we are part of the industry and the sovereign capability in Australia. “We are far more interested in that than we are in acquiring companies, because it is a better

“The reality is that we see a great deal of talent and best of breed Intellectual Property in so many Australian companies, and this is recognized by the number of contracts for the regional sustainment packages for the F-35 program." single trolley and stand and safety mounting for the engines, wings and fuselage was constructed in Victoria, and I think that is pretty special,” says Di Pietro. “We are very proud of the ability to find this best of breed production, and use that with a primary aim of

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

outcome if we get them on board and work with them.” Di Pietro also singles out NSW based Quickstep Holdings as another company making a significant contribution to the F-35, and to other Lockheed Martin aviation projects in Australia.


OVER 46 YEARS OF ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR INDUSTRY Quickstep recently announced that it achieved an 85 percent increase in delivered parts for the F-35 in the three months to the end of 2016, with production expected to ramp up this year. The company has agreements in place to supply F-35 parts for the next two decades, contracts which are valued at around $700 million. “We are heavily engaged in managing a global supply chain contribution, and part of that is identifying companies which have the ability to be directly exportable in their own right,” says Di Pietro. “In doing that we are not looking for them to simply make product for us, we are saying that there is a place in the market for what they create, and we can connect them to others through the Lockheed Martin network. “The reality is that in our business you are going to meet and shake hands with some people who do some pretty amazing things, and in a company of our size we know of stuff that is happening in other orbits, with other people we have shaken hands with, and we can connect them up and make things happen.” The company has also invested and contributed around $45 million to Australian Research & Development in universities and research establishment in the last five years, in a program which has just been extended through to 2019. In Adelaide, researchers are working at a submarine combat architecture laboratory in preparation for the construction of the Future Submarine fleet. Part of that work is classified, while the unclassified component is working in “lockstep” with facilities being constructed at Cherbourg in France, in collaboration with the

Commonwealth Government and submarine builder DCNS. In August last year, Lockheed Martin opened a $13 million research facility in Melbourne, known as STELaRLab (Science Technology Engineering Leadership and Research Laboratory). STELaRLAB is the first multidisciplinary R&D facility the company has established outside of the US, and Vince Di Pietro describes it as a strategic investment in Australia. “I have to pinch myself that since joining the company last year the lab has had a soft opening, started recruiting, now has around eight permanent staff and has started collaborating on projects with Defence and with universities around Australia,” he says. “One of its first projects is something dear to my heart from my previous life as a pilot, and that is developing an algorithm for aircraft and helicopters loaded up with buckets of water for firefighting, so they can avoid built up areas and take the best route to fire hotspots. “The point I like to make about this facility is that it is not tied to any particular defence equipment project, it is an investment up front in Australian R&D which takes the view that from little things, big things grow.” Di Pietro says he has arrived in his role at Lockheed Martin at a key point in the development of Australia’s defence industry, making the company “exactly the place I want to work”. “We see the R&D, the national investment in a sovereign capability and the promotion of solutions to the customer as major positives, and our job is to stay relevant and leverage what is already a very permanent presence here in Australia,” he says. “It’s all very exciting and there is a lot to look forward to.”

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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

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CASG IN THE NEWS

September 2016

With a major program of new projects in the pipeline, CASG has rarely been out of the news with a string of announcements and new projects over 2017 and 2016. Here is a chronology of major news announcements dating back to July 2016.

March 2017

• The first of 72 F-35 Joint Strike Fighters was showcased at the Avalon Air Show, where it was welcomed by the Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull. • The Australian Defence Force and the United States Air Force also announced that the re-located C-Band Space Surveillance Radar System had reached full operational capacity. • Minister for Defence Marise Payne said the joint initiative would improve Australia’s protection capabilities.

January 2017

• The next phase of sea trials for the first Air Warfare Destroyer, Hobart, began off the waters of South Australia. • The first of Australia’s F-35 aircraft conducted its first ever in-flight weapons release during an exercise at Luke Air Force Base in Arizona. • The GBU-12, 500lb Paveway 11 Laser Guided Bomb was employed by Australian aircraft A35-002 on a sortie over the Barry M Goldwater Range just west of the base. • The F-35’s Autonomic Logistics Information System (ALIS) achieved its first Cybersecurity Accreditation from the RAAF and the Defence Chief Information Officer Group.

December 2016

• The second destroyer in the Air Warfare Destroyer (AWD) program was formally named and launched into Australian waters for the first time. • The Brisbane was launched in South Australia, a milestone which will be followed by outfitting and the loading of combat system equipment. • It was announced that jet engine support for the RAAF’s new EA-18G Growler attack aircraft would be

supported under an existing contract with General Electric International Corporation (GE).

November 2016

• The FFG Enterprise, a collaboration between BAE Systems, Thales Australia, CASG and the Royal Australian Navy, was recognised with an innovation award. • The Minister for Defence Industry, Christopher Pyne, kicked off a roadshow to help Australian companies get involved in the Future Frigate and Offshore Patrol Vessel programs. • The first of 15 new P-8A Poseidon surveillance and anti-submarine aircraft touched down at its new base at RAAF Edinburgh, South Australia. • Army received some new vehicles in November, and the Minister of Defence Industry Christopher Pyne was on hand to witness the handover of two new Hawkei protected vehicles. • Defence signed an Information Communications Technology contract with Leidos Australia for services to the ADF’s Joint Command Support Environment.

October 2016

• A roadmap to help boost the participation of local industry in the Land 400 armoured vehicle program was released. Land 400 Phase 2 involves the delivery of 225 Combat Reconnaissance vehicles for the Army, replacing the Australian Light Armoured Vehicle. • The Navy was boosted by the release of the Beyond Benchmark review, which evaluated the capability and sustainment management of the Collins Class submarines. • For the RAAF, a sustainment contract for the new P-8A Poseidon aircraft was announced, with Boeing Defence Australia contracted for four years.

• Lockheed Martin Australia was announced as the preferred Combat System Integrator for the Future Submarine Program. The contract is likely to create around 200 skilled jobs during the design and build phases of the program at a dedicated facility in Adelaide.

August 2016

• CASG and BAE Systems Australia together delivered an essential ammunition capability to the Australian Defence Force three months ahead of schedule. • The sensitive Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR) consists of an Australian Mission Processor, which utilises US Air Force derived infrared satellite data to detect events in Australia’s area of interest.

July 2016 • Rheinmetall and BAE Systems were announced as the shortlisted tenderers for the Land 400 project. CASG deputy secretary Kim Gillis said both companies had been assessed as offering competitive solutions with designs based on capabilities already in service with other nations.“When introduced into service Army will have a capability which represents a quantum leap in protection for our soldiers while providing enhanced sensors and weapon systems for the crew,” Mr Gills said. He said that the participation of Australian industry would be optimised in the program. • For the RAAF, the Pilatus PC-21 trainer took its first flight in Stans, Switzerland. Partners Lockheed Martin and Pilatus Aircraft are collaborating on the project, which is the centerpiece of the new Pilot Training System. • A Defence team won an inaugural Institute of Public Administration Australia Public Sector Innovation Award for developing a suite of products to assist in countering the threat of improvised explosive devices (IED). The Redwing project was successful in the Innovative Solutions category that recognises new, improved and effective approaches to public administration.

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CHANGING HOW PROJECTS UNFOLD In 2015 the defence organisation as a whole was expecting a reorganisation, with far-reaching implications for future procurement, following the First Principles Review (FPR), a report on the acquisition process released that April by the Defence Minister.

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ne major result of the review included: “the Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO), which performs acquisition and sustainment for the Australian Defence Force, is to be merged back into the force. DMO is staffed by a mix of civilian and uniformed personnel.” The present government pledged to undertake the review upon coming to power, with any of the shortcomings to be identified and urgently addressed. These would later include a proliferation of

structures, processes and systems with unclear accountabilities, which in turn had caused institutional waste, delayed decisions, flawed execution, duplication, over-escalation and issues for decision, and low engagement levels amongst employees in parts of the organisation. The review called for a transformational change across Defence, to ensure that it can deliver on future requirements that will be outlined in the ensuing Defence White Paper.

To achieve such results, Defence was required to move from an inefficient federated approach into a single, integrated organisation that would deliver an enhanced joint capacity. Titled ‘Creating One Defence’, the report and the majority of its 75 findings agreed to by the government would be implemented over a number of years. RAND REPORT A report was also released on Australia’s naval shipbuilding enterprise, undertaken by the RAND Corp. Although submarine construction was not included in the terms of reference, the report found that Australia could sustain a naval shipbuilding program, subject to industry reform and careful management of a continuous shipbuilding strategy. The RAND Study into the lessons learnt from other submarine programs

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April 2015. Commissioned in August 2014, it was produced to ensure that Defence is fit for purpose and is able to deliver against its strategy with the minimum resources necessary. SEA 1000 SEA 1000 has become the largest and most complex Defence project ever undertaken by Australia. The program was tasked to undertake the replacement of the Royal Australian Navy’s current force of six Collins class submarines with an expanded fleet of 12 conventional submarines to be assembled in South Australia. In October 2013 Defence considered several options for its Future Submarine project with the ADF’s Integrated Project Team (IPT) responsible for designing option four, QinetiQ’s Paramarine ship and submersible design software tool.

“With all future projects, good levels of collaboration and transparency will become the important characteristics of success but these can only be delivered by groups of knowledgeable buyers and sellers."

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DMO TO CASG DMO has since been superseded by CASG. The new organisation is the key delivery agency for Defence capability and in delivering on its purpose it aims to: • Reform, implement and embed the First Principles Review recommendations, • Improve its relationship with its owners (Government) and customers (capability managers), • Improve its strategic level partnerships with industry, • Achieve full cost and performance transparency of its projects and operations, and • Develop, support and professionalise its workforce. The Minister for Defence announced the release of the First Principles Review of Defence on Wednesday 1

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

Photo: DCNS

in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia noted that "…technical risks must be identified early, and much thought must be given to deciding, with industry, the appropriate form of the contract and the incentive and risk sharing clauses built into the contract. Getting this right in the future will eliminate numerous problems as the program builds and delivers". With all future projects, good levels of collaboration and transparency will become the important characteristics of success but these can only be delivered by groups of knowledgeable buyers and sellers. The new acquisition process will herald a new level of competitive tension designed to improve three major factors in any project: the overall schedule, an attractive price and steady progression.

SOFTWARE DESIGN TOOLS Paramarine was selected for this task, as one of the world’s premier submarine software design tools. Apart from the Australian contract, it is employed by governments, navies and commercial builders in Austria, Brazil, India, Turkey and the United Kingdom. The selection was aided by QinetiQ Australia, which provides local sales and support for Paramarine on behalf of QinetiQ GRC, a wholly owned subsidiary of QinetiQ and a part of QinetiQ’s Maritime division. QinetiQ Australia is also a member of the SEA 100 IPT panel working on option four. Paramarine will now provide the best software tool to assist Australia design an option that will best meet its future strategic and capability requirements. It is independent from submarine manufacturers, yet possesses a wealth of experience through its QinetiQ Maritime division to provide advice to governments and navies across the globe on how to successfully achieve optimal designs for new platforms, including submarines.


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Paramarine now has more than 500 worldwide users and thousands of vessels have been modelled and analysed using the software. It is the only leading integrated design and analysis software product capable of dealing with the complexities of both surface and underwater vessel design. Paramarine is also employed by some of the world’s leading shipbuilders and designers, governments and academic institutions. QUINETIQ QinetiQ GRC, a wholly owned subsidiary of QinetiQ, is a leading provider of software solutions for submarine, naval surface and commercial ship design and onboard stability assessment. Built on over 20 years of experience, QinetiQ GRC’s software is used extensively in the worldwide defence and commercial sectors by shipbuilders, designers,

operators and owners. On 28 February 2017 the former Chief Executive of Lockheed Martin Australia & New Zealand, Rear Admiral Raydon Gates, Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) Conspicuous Service Medal (CSM) Royal Australian Navy (Rtd), was appointed to the QinetiQ Australia Pty Board. Shortly after his appointment Gates said that: “in the current climate, the defence industry has an important role to play in innovation, leadership and collaboration to ensure we have the best capability to protect Australia’s sovereignty.” CAPABILITY LIFE CYCLE The CLC is overhauling the way Defence does its business of capability development and sustainment. The objectives have been to create a Simpler, Faster and more Fit for

purpose system. In a speech delivered in February 2017 DEPSEC CASG, Kim Gillis, said that working with VCDF and the investment Committee, they have achieved 44 major approvals through the system. CASG is on a journey to become more business-like. This has been achieved by applying smart buyer risk assessments on all new projects that go to the IC and by having representation from both the Department of Finance and Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet at the Deputy Secretary level. “Having these two central agency representatives has been one of the most important changes that we have made to speeding up the process,” he added. “We have been working with industry from a much earlier point than we have ever done before to find out what is possible, what you can deliver and what is needed.”

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DEFENCE WHITE PAPER –

A DECADE OF UNPRECEDENTED INVESTMENT The 2016 Defence White Paper outlined Australia’s strategic defence position and analysed potential threats, but also included significant changes to industry policy and capability planning. By Lachlan Colquhoun.

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nnounced in February 2016, the White Paper commits $195 billion to defence spending over the next decade, raising the percentage of the annual budget spent on Defence to 2 percent of GDP by the 2020-2021 budget. This increase includes only four of the planned 10 vessels in the Future Submarine project, the most expensive items on the Defence shopping list. While other Defence White Papers, notably the one released in 2009, focused more on regional geopolitics and security threats, the 2016

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document is more concerned with Australia’s defence capability and how that can be built up and maintained. It looks at procurement with a 20-year perspective, with a detailed focus on the first 10 years. For the first time, all elements of the Government’s Defence investment, including new weapons, platforms, systems, and the enabling equipment, facilities, workforce, information and communications technology, and science and technology are outlined in an Integrated Investment Program, published in conjunction with the White Paper.

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

The Government’s 10-year Defence budget plan to 2025-26 grows the Defence budget from $32.4 billion in 2016-17 to $58.7 billion in 2025-26, providing an additional $29.9 billion to Defence over this period above previous commitments. The Defence Industry Policy Statement released with the White Paper acknowledges the fundamental contribution that Australian industry provides to the national Defence capability, and the policy statement focuses Defence’s relationship with Australian industry to support the plans outlined in the White Paper.


“The Government places a high priority on maximising the innovation potential of the Australian economy. Innovation will be re-positioned as an essential driver to generate new capabilities for Defence and new opportunities for Australian industry,” the White Paper says. In its capability overview, the Government committed to delivering a “more capable, agile and potent Australian Defence Force (ADF)” that can respond wherever Australia’s interests are engaged. To support these goals, the Government has earmarked $230 million in funding for the new Centre for Defence Industry Capability (CDIC), based in Adelaide but with advisers working in every state and territory. Opened in December 2016 by the Minister for Defence Industry, Christopher Pyne, the CDIC is a major initiative of the Government’s 2016 Defence Industry Policy Statement which complements the White Paper. The CDIC mission is to facilitate the creation of a “world class, globally

competitive Australian industry as a fundamental input to Defence Capability.” Although it is funded by Defence, the CDIS’s partnership with AusIndustry will provide a “whole of industry” perspective, and enhance collaboration on broader government innovation initiatives. The Government will also invest around 25 percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 in the enablers that are essential to the operation and sustainment of the ADF. “Even the most capable platforms and systems will not be effective without the enabling capabilities that allow those platforms to operate,” the White Paper says. “Key enabling capabilities to receive substantial investment over the next decade include our people, critical infrastructure such as bases, training ranges, wharves and airfields, information and communications technology, simulators, logistics, science and technology, health services, and

INTEGRATED SUPPORT SOLUTIONS Delivering complete asset management and program life cycle support.

Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull inspects a Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F-35 as he attends the Avalon Airshow on March 3, 2017.

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The Royal Australian Air Force’s first P-8A Poseidon flies down the St Vincent Gulf coastline near Adelaide in South Australia.

strengthening force design, strategic and international policy.” Defence analyst Mark Thomson, from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, says the White Paper marks a major shift in Defence planning because of its strong focus on the domestic defence industry. “Until this White Paper the thrust of defence industry policy was not so much about equipping the defence force, and it exhibited a bias towards buying things off the shelf and from overseas,” says Thomson. “With this White Paper and the subsequent specific decisions the Government has announced there is a clear move towards favouring domestic construction, and doing so not simply because there is an expectation there will be additional capability benefits from doing so.” The Government position, interpreted by Thomson, is that the defence industry will be a “nursing ground for the reinvigoration of manufacturing and manufacturing innovation in Australia.” “There is a domestic agenda in addition to the strategic,” says Thompson. “The Government wants the Defence dollar to do two things. They

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want the Defence capability and they want the Defence dollar to provide economic benefits and spin offs in the economy. “Shipbuilding for example is an industry with major employment potential.” Already, some of the projects which are part of the White Paper strategy are being funded and are gaining momentum. In March 2017, a $213 million upgrade was announced for the Navy’s Garden Island facility in Sydney, a

the Oil Wharf, with the construction of a new wharf alignment to reduce the protrusion into Sydney Harbour. The White Paper also commits $400 million to enhanced cyber warfare activities, and in February a new $47 million cyber security facility was opened in Brisbane. The facility, which also has a civilian and law enforcement focus with other agencies, will be joined by other similar facilities in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. In November, the first of 15 new P-8A Poseidon aircraft was welcomed to its new home at the Edinburgh RAAF base just north of Adelaide. The Poseidons, based on the Boeing 737, are next generation maritime surveillance aircraft to replace the ageing AP3C Orions, which have done three decades of service. The aircraft are one part of a next generation maritime surveillance capability which also includes seven MQ-4C Triton unmanned aircraft, also supported by a $297 million upgrade of the Woomera Test Range in the north of South Australia. The arrival of the Poseidons, which with aerial refuelling can stay in the air for up to 20 hours and fly faster, higher

“The White Paper also commits $400 million to enhanced cyber warfare activities, and in February a new $47 million cyber security facility was opened in Brisbane. The facility, which also has a civilian and law enforcement focus with other agencies, will be joined by other similar facilities in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide." project designed to enhance naval efficiency which will also create hundreds of jobs. The wharf upgrade has been referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, with work expected to begin in mid-2017, subject to approval. The project comprises the demolition of the Cruiser Wharf and

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

and further than the Orion, coincides with $380 million of upgrades at the RAAF base. These include a new hangar maintenance and operational facility, a runway extension and an operational conversion facility. The upgrades are expected to create 30 direct new jobs. Although they were ordered well before the 2016 White Paper, the F-35


Joint Strike Fighter is a cornerstone of Australia’s Defence strategy for the first half of the 21st century, and the first aircraft was on display at Avalon in March 2017, sharing the tarmac with the first of the 12 EA-18G Growler electronic warfare support aircraft. Australian companies have been closely involved in the development of the Joint Strike Fighter aircraft and will continue to be involved in its maintenance, with Australian expecting to take delivery of 72 of these aircraft by 2020. Already 2,500 Australians are working on this project and this is expected to double by 2013. The Government commissioned a report on the economic impact of the project from PricewaterhouseCoopers, which found that by 2038, spinoffs from the JSF program would contribute $1.2 billion to the Australian economy, with the number of direct jobs created over that time rising to 6,300. All of this plays into one of the main themes of the White Paper, and that is that a strong domestic defence industry goes hand in hand with the nation’s capability. Defence analyst Mark Thomson says this is well understood by global defence firms, which are prepared to invest in local industry, transfer technology and intellectual property and work with smaller companies in the defence supply chain as part of their own fulfilment of contracts to supply equipment to Australia. “In shipbuilding, for example, the international defence industry understands very well that the Government wants to set up a long term – if not perpetual – shipbuilding industry here in Australia,” says Thompson. “Remembering the approaches of the three contenders for the Future Submarine project. One of the main

factors which was considered was the extent of technology transfer, so that Australia would have the ability not just to build these submarines, but engineer and adapt and even perhaps in future design their own submarine classes. “From a commercial point of view, working with a monopoly shipbuilder and delivering into that supply chain is a very attractive proposition.” While this might mean slower delivery of vessels in the shorter term, Thomson says that in the long term this should not only deliver to the policy goal of creating a large number of manufacturing jobs, but will also create products of high quality by any international standards. It also has export potential. Another example of developing local capabilities was the Land 400 project, which will deliver a next generation combat reconnaissance vehicle (CRV) and infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) to the Army, with the bulk of the manufacturing to be executed in Australia. In July 2016 two shortlisted bidders for the project were announced: BAE Systems with its proven Patria AMV35 8x8 vehicle, and Germany company Rheinmetall with its Boxer CRV 8x8. Both bidders are offering significant local product packages as key components in their bids “We are setting up new capabilities and there is always some risk in that proposition even for countries like Australia which have a strong background in manufacturing,” says Thompson. “The vessels and the vehicles will be equipped with largely imported weapons and weapons systems with contributions from Australian industry, so the ultimate capability will be as good as any international program. “So ultimately I certainly think that it is within Australia’s capability to product what it intends to produce.”

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2016 DEFENCE WHITE PAPER EXCERPTS: KEY AREAS FOR INVESTMENT

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he Government will invest around 25 percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 in maritime operations and anti-submarine warfare capabilities as part of a significant regeneration of maritime capabilities. Key capabilities will include: 12 new regionally superior submarines; nine new anti-submarine warfare frigates; 12 new offshore patrol vessels; seven additional P-8A Poseidon maritime surveillance and response aircraft for a total of 15 aircraft by the late 2020s (which will complement the seven MQ-4C Triton unmanned surveillance aircraft); new maritime tactical unmanned aircraft to improve our ships’ situational awareness on operations; modernised mine countermeasures and

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hydrographic-related capabilities; and a new deployable land-based anti-ship missile capability. INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE, SPACE, ELECTRONIC WARFARE AND CYBER SECURITY The Government will invest around nine percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 in strengthening intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, electronic warfare, space, and cyber capabilities. Key capabilities will include: enhanced intelligence collection and analysis, including in support of targeting; enhancements to broad area surveillance through the acquisition of the MQ-4C Triton unmanned

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

surveillance aircraft and enhancements to the Jindalee Operational Radar Network; strengthened electronic warfare support to naval, air and land forces, including through the 12 E/A18G Growler electronic attack aircraft and a new long range electronic warfare support capability based on the Gulfstream G550 airframe, with additional modified systems; enhanced space situational awareness; and enhanced cyber capabilities to deter and defend against the threat of cyber attack. AIR AND SEA LIFT Around six percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 will be invested in air and sea lift capabilities.


The long distances over which the ADF is required to operate means flexible and high endurance air and sea lift capabilities are essential to lift, move, and sustain the ADF. Key capabilities will include: two additional heavy-lift C-17A Globemaster III transport aircraft already acquired to complement the existing six C-17A fleet (with consideration of further additional heavy lift aircraft at a later stage); two additional KC-30A air-to-air refuellers for a total of seven aircraft (expanding the fleet to nine aircraft will be considered in the longer term); three additional CH-47F Chinook heavy-lift helicopters to complement previously planned CH-47F Chinook heavy-lift helicopters for a fleet of 10 aircraft, extension and upgrades for the logistics support ship, HMAS Choules;

“The long distances over which the ADF is required to operate means flexible and high endurance air and sea lift capabilities are essential to lift, move, and sustain the ADF." two new replenishment ships by 2026 to resupply naval forces with the option for a third replenishment or additional logistics ship in the late 2020s; and a large hulled multi-purpose patrol vessel for the Navy to support border protection and maritime resource security related tasks. STRIKE AND AIR COMBAT The Government will invest around 17 percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 in strike and air combat capabilities. More potent strike capabilities will provide flexibility for the ADF to rapidly respond to threats against Australia and provide military contributions to support regional

security and coalition operations globally where our interests are engaged. Key capabilities will include: 72 F-35A Lightning II Joint Strike Fighters to enter service from 2020 to replace the current fleet of 71 F/A-18A/B Classic Hornets; 12 EA-18G Growler electronic attack aircraft to enter service from 2018; new air-to-surface, air-toair and high-speed and long-range strike and anti-ship weapons; and strengthened command and control, integrated air and missile defence, and situational awareness capabilities to support strike and air combat operations. LAND COMBAT AND AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE The Government will invest around 18 percent of Defence capability expenditure to 2025-26 in land combat and amphibious warfare capabilities to provide greater mobility, firepower, protection and situational awareness. Key capabilities will include: a new program for continuous upgrade of personal equipment and force protection for our soldiers; new combat reconnaissance, infantry fighting, and protected mobility vehicles; upgrades to the M1 Abrams Main Battle Tanks; new armed intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance unmanned aircraft; a new long-range rocket system to complement existing artillery; logistics enablers to support the amphibious deployment capability of the two Canberra Class ships; and a new fleet of lightly armed boats for operations in a wide range of estuarine environments. Investments in Special Forces will deliver: a fleet of light reconnaissance and attack helicopters, high-end close combat capabilities, tactical mobility, situational awareness, digital communications, force protection, target awareness and logistic support.

MAJOR PROGRAM SOLUTIONS Solving our clients’ complex engineering, procurement and construction challenges.

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CAPABILITY CAPABILITY ACQUISITION ACQUISITION & & SUSTAINMENT SUSTAINMENT

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BUILDING A SUPPLY CHAIN ECO-SYSTEM

The new approach to turning ideas into purchase orders may be relevant for the smaller domestic industry players, but when this is also brought into the approach of larger industries, the results can be fantastic. By Lachlan Colquhoun.

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ermany’s Rheinmetall Defence and the Damen Group from Holland are large industrial manufacturing companies with global operations, and both are forging links with Australian companies as they look to supply Australia’s Defence needs. While Rheinmetall has been operating in Australia for longer, having established itself in South

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Australia in the 1960s, the strategy of the two companies is similar. Both are engaging with CASG on Defence contracts with a plan to transfer their technology, build up an Australian manufacturing operation with an eco-system of local suppliers, and use that capability to supply world class equipment to Australia which they can also export to other markets. Andrew Fletcher is Rheinmetall’s

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

Australian Managing Director, and came to the job in 2015 after a long career in South Australia’s Defence industry. He arrived in the role after Rheinmetall made a number of acquisitions which gave the company critical mass in Australia, culminating in a $1.58 billion contract to deliver a fleet of 2,500 advanced logistics vehicles. This contract to deliver both protected and non-protected vehicles in different configurations was delivered through a joint venture with truck maker MAN. “Currently we also do a lot of simulation training work and deliver logistics solutions to Defence, but our main focus at the moment after the truck contract is our bid for the Land 400 Phase 2 program,” says Fletcher.


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“We are one of two companies shortlisted for that contract, which is to deliver 225 vehicles to the Australian Army in the first stage of a program that will see the replacement of its entire fighting vehicle capability.” Establishing an Australian presence has significant advantages both for Rheinmetall and for Australia’s defence capability, says Fletcher. The company has proven designs and decades of highly developed Intellectual Property (IP) which it can leverage, while manufacturing in Australia brings down the cost of the hardware and makes upgrades easier and also more cost effective. “Our plan is to use our IP and work with the Australian SME base, with whom we have shared our IP over a period of time, to develop a significant capability here in Australia,” says Fletcher. “The defence supply chain is very heavily about IP. What we are building in Australia is to grow sovereign IP for Australia’s defence which can be developed, upgraded and added to over time.” Rheinmetall is a member of the Commonwealth’s Global Supply Chain (GSC) program, which has transitioned to the newly created Centre for Defence Industry Capability (CDIC). As part of this initiative, eligible Australian SMEs seeking to enter global value chains to export their products are giving a comprehensive package of defence export advice, development and promotion. As a major global defence equipment manufacturer, Rheinmetall is able to identify many of these SMEs and work with them as part of its own supply chain. At the end of 2015 Rheinmetall went on a national roadshow, inviting SMEs around the country to a series of briefings on its overall requirements, and also the needs of the Land 400 Phase 2 project.

“The defence supply chain is very heavily about IP. What we are building in Australia is to grow sovereign IP for Australia’s defence which can be developed, upgraded and added to over time." Around 300 of those companies were then interviewed and appraised and Rheinmetall made offers to around 30 of them and invited them to join its global supply chain. “In terms of SMEs, we are genuinely looking all the time at who can add value to our supply chain here on the ground, but also into our supply chain to all of the countries in Europe,” says Fletcher. Working with CASG, says Fletcher, requires a “transparent and collaborative approach” which works to the advantage of both parties. “I would say we have built a good relationship,” says Fletcher. “We have shared successes together, and we have found that if both sides work on challenges together it means they are more easily overcome.” While supplying Australia’s defence capability is the main focus, Rheinmetall Australia also has

ambitions to be a defence exporter, although Fletcher is careful to point out that in some cases the projects developed for Australia will include sovereign IP which remains exclusive. “The Rheinmetall board in Germany looks at Australia as a country which shares common values and has a stable political situation, and for that reason they decided to set up a hub here in 2014,” says Fletcher. “This enables us to present the one consistent face to our customers and develop our Australian manufacturing capability to supply both domestically and service export contracts, in particular in South-East Asia. “We are a vertically integrated company which develops IP and manufactures, so we are well placed to transfer that IP to our Australian operations and work with Australian SMEs and R&D houses to grow a significant business here.” Dutch shipbuilder the Damen Group

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is following a similar strategy. The company has been shortlisted for the Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) program, a $3 billion program which will deliver 12 patrol vessels constructed in Adelaide and then in West Australia. Roland Briene, Damen’s Area Director in the Asia Pacific, says the company has successfully created shipbuilding capabilities in several other markets, and plans to do the same in Australia if it is successful with the OPV contract. It is a methodology, he says, the company has successfully pursued in 25 countries around the world. “We have been active offshore since 1978 in markets such as Brazil, Indonesia and Vietnam,” he says. “Those shipbuilding industries were at a certain stage and we have teamed up with local shipbuilders there to build up the capability and have made it possible for them to start exporting. “In Vietnam, for example, we built our first vessel there for local industry in 2001 and so far we have built more than 250 vessels there, 80 percent of them for export.”

Damen signed their first contract in Australia in 2000, and supplies many of the tug boats working in large container and mining ports around the country, from Port Hedland to Townsville. In 2010, Damen began delivering tugs and other support vessels to the Navy, such as a 90 metre submarine rescue vessel. The shipbuilder is also completing a 90 metre Multi role Aviation Training

we intend to use with the OPVs,” says Briene. “We will team up with Australian shipbuilders and set up a whole supply chain and invite local suppliers to become part of Damen’s international supply chain network.” Damen already uses some Australian suppliers on its existing operations, but is looking to engage with more businesses, in addition to universities and training institutions with which it can work to help train the next generation shipbuilding workforce. Briene says Damen has proposed a proven design for the OPV’s which is a unique bow configuration to maximise crew comfort in heavy seas, and which are also energy efficient. The company has held industry briefings for potential suppliers in Adelaide and Perth, and these events were attended by around 250 and 350 people respectively. “We want to be in contact with more people who can help us build these ships because in the end they have to be Australian built, and the outcome of the whole plan is to have a sustainable shipbuilding industry in Australia,” says Roland Briene. The first two OPVs will be built in Adelaide, with construction

“We will team up with Australian shipbuilders and set up a whole supply chain and invite local suppliers to become part of Damen’s international supply chain network." Vessel (MATV) to be used in training naval helicopter pilots. While being purchased for the Navy, these are commercial vessels and have been manufactured overseas. All this will change, however, if Damen is successful with the OPV contract. “In all our overseas operations we transfer technology and knowledge, and that is exactly the same concept

set to begin in 2018, and the remaining 10 vessels will be built in Western Australia. “Moving the construction is a risk for the Commonwealth and we want to derisk that,” says Briene. “We have completed many projects worldwide where we have built different vessels at different locations, and training people for the second location at the first.”

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LAND 400 TO STRENGTHEN LAND FORCES Faircount's Ross Gillett discusses the Army’s new armoured fighting vehicles.

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AND 400 will acquire and then support the Australian Army’s next generation of Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFV). The type will boast the firepower, protection and mobility to defeat increasingly lethal and adaptive adversaries for both the contemporary environment and into the decades ahead. It will also deliver enhanced levels of survivability to the Joint Land Force, including sensors, weapons and information systems, which will be networked to strategic intelligence platforms. The project will deliver these AFVs to replace the existing Australian Light Armoured Vehicle (ASLAV) and M113AS4 Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) fleets. Overall, LAND 400 will deliver to Army a Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle or CRV, a new Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV), a Manoeuvre Support Vehicle (MSV) and an Integrated Training System (ITS). As these vehicles are handed over

to the various units, Army will undertake a staged retirement of the older ASLAVs and M113AS4s in line with their technical ‘life of type’ and reducing tactical utility in the current operational environment that features increasing levels of both lethality and complexity. Number one for replacement will be the Australian built ASLAV fleet with its CRVs facing a number of obsolescence factors that are seen to constrain tactical employment and an increased dollar cost of ownership. As these obsolescence factors cannot be eased through a ‘fleet’ upgrade and without replacement from 2020, a capability gap will result. However, the IFV variant will replace the long-serving M113AS4 from 2025. LAND 400 Phase 3 Request for Information (RFI) was issued on 13 November 2015 and closed on 7 March 2016. The project features four phases, including: Phase 1, the Project Definition Study,

Phase 2, the Mounted Combat Reconnaissance Capability, primarily enabled by the CRV mission system (the ASLAV replacement), Phase 3, the Mounted Close Combat Capability, primarily enabled by the IFV (the M113 APC replacement) and MSV mission systems, and, Phase 4, the Integrated Training System. Land 400 Phase 2 will acquire 225 CRVs, with Phase 3 acquiring 450 Infantry Fighting Vehicles and 17 Manoeuvre Support Vehicles. CONTENDERS The Minister for Defence Industry announced on 23 August 2016 that BAE Systems Australia Limited and Rheinmetall had signed contracts with the Commonwealth for the Risk Mitigation Activity (RMA). The Deloitte Review of approach to Australian Industry Participation identified an additional four activities to increase opportunities for Australian industry involvement. One activity was the development of an Australian Industry

Boxer configured for Australian Land 400 Phase 2.

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Opportunity Roadmap to highlight opportunities for Australian industry to become involved with BAE Systems Australia and Rheinmetall. Another activity, building on this roadmap, a series of Defence facilitated showcase workshops conducted in all Australian states and territories during November and December 2016. BAE Systems Australia offered the AMV35 – Patria’s modern, agile, highly protected military-off-the-shelf Armoured Modular Vehicle (AMV) integrated with the combat-proven E35 turret from BAE Systems Hägglunds. If successful, BAE Systems will produce the AMV35 in Australia to secure and retain in-country capability and contribute significantly to the Australian economy across the vehicle’s expected 30-plus year life, plus the sustainment of the vehicles. Both Patria and BAE Systems Hägglunds have transferred technology

involved in the production of the AMV and the E35 turret to several other countries, successfully demonstrating capability transfer and the in-country economic advantages this brings, including long term sustainment, upgrade and maintenance activities. Another member of this tender is SAAB defence products providing sub-systems in the AMV35 vehicle and weapon system. The AMV35 is an 8x8 combat reconnaissance armoured vehicle jointly developed by the Defence companies Patria and BAE Systems. Overall, the CRV program calls for 225 vehicles in seven role variants based on a combat proven vehicle platform and weapon system. The vehicle combines Patria’s AMV vehicle and BAE Systems Hägglunds’ E35 turret systems. The vehicle integrates the combat-proven CV9035 turret from BAE Systems Hagglunds onto a modern, agile, highly protected military-off-the-shelf Patria AMV.

Some design features of the AMV35 include the power pack located front right, driver front left, with the turret in the middle and the troop’s compartment at the rear. The turret is a welded steel construction which is fitted with additional modules of composite armour and the SAAB Universal Tank and Anti-Aircraft Sight (UTAAS) fire control system. The vehicle can operate at a maximum road speed of 100 km/h with a maximum cruising range of 800 km. It can negotiate gradients up to 60%, side slope of 30% fording depth of 1.5m without preparation. It can cross a trench of two metres wide and a vertical obstacle of 0.7 metre. Standard equipment on Patria AMV includes a fire detection and suppression system, NBC system, air conditioning system, central tyre inflation system, radios, intercom and night vision equipment. In December 2016 Rheinmetall and Defence Australia announced

AVIONICS IN COUNTRY SUPPORT Partech Systems is an avionics through life support provider based at Albatross Aviation Technology Park Nowra NSW. Partech Systems provides avionics support solutions for ADF platforms including S-70B-2, F35 and MRH-90 helicopter. Partech Systems offers:    

Development of test and repair solutions for avionics systems. Development of Test Program Sets Development and of STTE In country through life support of avionics or electronic systems.

Partech Systems has ‘harmonized’ the use of modern avionics test equipment across multiple aircraft types i.e. Lockheed Martin’s LM-STAR ATE. It is Partech Systems goal to:  Reduce the TAT for ADF platforms.(increased spares availability)  Eliminate No Fault Founds from the maintenance repair pipelines.  Reduce support costs through harmonization of test equipment across multiple ADF platforms.

LM-STAR AVIONICS TESTING Partech Systems is currently working with Airbus Helicopters and AGAP through its Local Industry Plan initiative (LIP) and is developing LM-STAR based test programs to provide an Australian based through life support solution for MRH90 avionics systems. john.mckelvie@partechsys.com PO Box 558 Nowra NSW 2541


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its proposal to establish a national infrastructure asset for the production of Boxer CRVs in Australia to underpin a 50 year strategic relationship. Under the proposal, Rheinmetall would establish a regional headquarters for diverse military technology in Australia and transfer critical technologies and skills in military vehicle design, medium calibre weapons and ammunition, fire control systems, passive and active defence systems, electro-optic and surveillance systems, simulation and training systems, systems engineering and integration and advanced manufacturing. NEXT STEPS Whichever option is ultimately selected the new vehicles will revolutionise the Army’s mounted close combat capability. “Just like Air Force’s Joint Strike

Fighter or Navy’s Future Submarine Program, only the absolute best will do for Army’s new Armoured Fighting Vehicles”, Lt-Gen Angus Campbell, Chief of Army says. Maj-Gen David Coghlan echoed this important message. “Land 400 Phase 2 is Army’s equivalent of Air Force’s and Navy’s major capability acquisition projects because of its technological edge, cost and advanced capability outcomes.” “Both of the contenders are worldclass vehicles and represent a quantum shift in protection and capability for our soldiers,” Maj-Gen Coghlan adds. At an estimated program cost for acquisition of between $14 and $20 billion, LAND 400 is set to become the largest and most expensive acquisition project in Army’s history. On the surface

the new vehicles will replace the old ASLAV and M113 fleets, but, in reality, the Army will receive a quantum leap in capability, with stabilised direct fire, enhanced self-protection and anti-armour weapon systems. The improved protection for soldiers in these vehicles will allow them to operate on the battlefield. The 8x8 CRV will begin delivery from 2020, with both BAE and Rheinmetall agreeing to provide options with differing levels of Australian industry content and prices as part of the risk mitigation activity. In September 2016 both the Patria AMV35 and Boxer CRV took centre stage at the Land Forces exhibition in Adelaide, providing numerous ADF personnel and the local defence industry an opportunity to get up close to the vehicles.

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The EC135 T2+ helicopter above Jervis Bay.

The HATS system is continuing to ensure the helicopter aircrew are receiving the best training possible today. By Ross Gillett.

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et to achieve Initial Operating Capability in late 2018, the HATS program is responsible for the replacement, upgrade and support for the Navy and Army Helicopter Aircrew Training System at Nowra. As of early 2017 its training assets include 15 Airbus Helicopters EC135 T2+ helicopters and three Thales EC135 Reality H Full Flight Simulators. With these assets, and the personnel who will conduct the training in place, HATS will teach up to 130 students each year. This impressive number will include pilots and aviation warfare officers, air crewmen and sensor

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operators, as well as qualified aircrew returning for further instructor training. The twin-engine EC135 T2+ will replace the Navy’s Squirrel and Army’s Kiowa helicopters which are more than 30 and 40 years old respectively. ORIGIN The Eurocopter EC135 was designed as a twin-engine civil helicopter produced by Eurocopter (now known as Airbus Helicopters). It is capable of flight under instrument flight rules (IFR) and is outfitted with digital flight controls. Since entering service in 1996 more than 1,200 examples,

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

across numerous models, have been produced to date. As well as the military it is widely used by police and ambulance services and for executive transport. AIR 9000 PHASE 7 The new single combined RAN/Army flight school is a follow-on from the RAAF Fairbairn based combined military helicopter training school that operated during the 1990s, when all trainees utilised the long serving Squirrel helicopter. The first HATS EC135 T2+ helicopter conducted its first flight on 16 January 2015, achieved factory acceptance in July 2015, and arrived at Nowra on 31 March 2016, after a short flight from Bankstown Airport in southwest Sydney. To mark the successful end of the build phase, on 22 November the final six aircraft were delivered from

Photo: POIS Kelvin Hockey

THE HELICOPTER AIRCREW TRAINING SYSTEM (HATS) ‘TAKES OFF’


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Airbus Helicopters at their Donauwörth facility, north of Munich, Germany. To mark this milestone, the company performed a flypast and handling display with three of the final six helicopters over Donauwörth. Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Japan and more recently the United Kingdom have also selected the H135 for military aircrew training systems. All of the new helicopters are equipped with the common Thales Meghas cockpit avionics suite, also in use with the US Army’s UH-72 Lakota (Airbus Helicopters EC145) utility/ training helicopter. For many years the Oakey school in Queensland had provided current basic helicopter training for Army pilots. The service will retire its 19 Bell B206 Kiowa helicopters once the new HATS system is fully operational, while Navy will also decommission its fleet of 14 AS350 Squirrels operated from HMAS Albatross. The EC135 T2+ is larger, at least 50 percent heavier and also faster than the two current training helicopter types it will replace. In line with normal ADF numbering,

“All of the new helicopters are equipped with the common Thales Meghas cockpit avionics suite, also in use with the US Army’s UH-72 Lakota (Airbus Helicopters EC145) utility/ training helicopter." the new EC135s have been allotted the numbers: N52-001 to N52015, (cab numbers 841 to 855). Each helicopter also wears ‘NAVY’ and ‘ARMY” titles on the port and starboard sides of the vertical fin, above a fanged Taipan emblem, 723 Squadron’s unofficial emblem. The aircraft wear a high-visibility gloss black and yellow paint scheme, similar to that worn by Squirrel and Bell 412 helicopters operated by the British Military Flying Training System. VETERANS TO BOW OUT In May 2014 Navy celebrated 30 years of service of 723 Squadron’s AS350 BA Squirrels, marking the arrival of the

first ‘Battle Budgie’ at Albatross, on 14 May that year. The AS350 B model Squirrels were part of an initial buy of 24 helicopters for the ADF, with an original six Squirrels being flown by HC-723 Squadron in the light utility, SAR, and for the Interim Embarked Training Helicopter roles, including service at sea with the Adelaide class guided missile frigates. The RAAF used 12 in the helicopter pilot training role, replacing the ageing UH-1B Iroquois at 5 Squadron, Canberra, until their transfer to the Army in 1990. In 1995 Navy Squirrels were upgraded to AS350 BA models for improved capability and performance for pilot, aviation warfare officer and aircrew training. SIMULATORS Boeing Defence Australia’s Senior Manager Training Systems and Services, Mark Brownsey, believes comprehensive synthetic training systems will help the ADF train helicopter pilots in an environment that lets them make initial mistakes

New multi-role aviation training vessel (MATV) Sycamore, prior to her launch.

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with no safety repercussions. The first of the three Thales Reality H full flight simulators are being installed in the purpose built training facilities now under construction at Albatross. Up to now the Navy and Army’s current initial training has been in a live training solution, featuring class room, mass briefings and then live training. To meet the needs of a modern military force, with numerous newly acquired platforms, this new level of synthetic training will allow the ADF to transfer training between live and synthetic devices and undertake their duties in a much safer environment. By late 2018, in its fully operational state, the project’s Joint Helicopter School will allow the trainees to progress into training in and then crewing the ADF’s main helicopter types: the MH-60R

Seahawk, MRH-90 Taipan, ARH Tiger and CH-47F Chinook. OWNERS The new EC135 T2+ training helicopters will remain the property of the prime contractor, Boeing Defence Australia, to support development, verification and validation of the training courseware before the commencement of flying training of Defence personnel in late 2018. “By partnering with Airbus Helicopters on this important program, Boeing Defence Australia is confident of meeting our requirements towards the Commonwealth for providing a mature and cost effective platform that meets training, technical and safety requirements and the future needs of the Australian Defence Force,” HATS Program Manager James Heading commented in a

company media release. “The EC135 T2+ is a consummate military training helicopter, offering a glass cockpit with high visibility, a multi-axis auto-pilot, the performance and safety of a twin-engine helicopter replacing current single types, plus other advanced technologies to help instructors perform training missions safely and provide the ADF with the flexibility to undertake additional missions,” he added. FLIGHT TRIALS The twin engines that power the EC135 T2+ add a statistical safety margin, create a reserve of power that will give students a better feel for the high-powered helicopters they will fly in service, and, as a side benefit, will eliminate parts of the training previously required just to ensure safe flying in the current single-engine

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training helicopters, now the only single-engine helicopters in ADF service. The RAN’s Aircraft Maintenance and Flight Trials Unit has planned seven first of class flight trials before September 2017. Along with the RAAF’s Aircraft Research and Development Unit, and Army Aviation Test and Evaluation Squadron it represents the ADF’s core test and evaluation capability for aircraft. This will include first of class flight trials on the EC-135 T2+ during September. AT SEA TRAINING Under the JP 9000 Phase 7 HATS project a new multi-role aviation training vessel (MATV) is also being acquired. Named Sycamore (after the RAN’s first helicopter), and managed by DMS-Maritime (Serco Defence), the

“The EC135 T2+ is a consummate military training helicopter, offering a glass cockpit with high visibility, a multi-axis auto-pilot, the performance and safety of a twin-engine helicopter replacing current single types, plus other advanced technologies to help instructors perform training missions safely and provide the ADF with the flexibility to undertake additional missions."

ship will operate out of Sydney. On 13 December 2016 the RAN began the process to establish a three year contract to support, maintain, crew and operate the new 94 metre long MATV. The Damen-built Sycamore, launched in Haiphong, Vietnam on 30 August 2016, will operate as a civilian registered, aviation-capable, oceangoing vessel for the delivery of military training and other services to the RAN and other Commonwealth

agencies. She will also be required to undertake any other task that is within the inherent capability of the vessel. All training will be conducted by naval and/or Commonwealth personnel with the contractor operating and sustaining the vessel. Sycamore will feature a flight deck for training of crews of most types of helicopters used by the ADF. The ship will undergo builder’s trials and then arrive in Sydney in 2017.

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INTERVIEW WITH DAVID SINGLETON, CEO

AUSTAL

AUSTAL is one of the most important contractors to Australian defence. Here, CEO David Singleton talks through its various contracts and projects. How would you classify Austal in today’s modern shipbuilding world? Austal is acknowledged as a leader in the global shipbuilding industry, with a wellearned reputation for innovation in high speed commercial and defence vessel design, modern shipbuilding techniques and best practice in-service support. With a growing portfolio of sought-after vessels, including benchmark patrol boats, mission-proven theatre support vessels, frigate-sized combat ships and value adding commercial vessels, Austal is well positioned for further growth in competitive markets around the world. Austal is the world’s largest aluminium shipbuilder, Australia’s largest defence exporter and the fourth largest shipbuilder in the USA. As a successful defence prime contractor, we are delivering multiple naval vessel programs around the world, including the Cape Class Patrol Boat and Pacific Patrol Boat programs here in Australia and the Littoral Combat Ship and Expeditionary Fast Transport programs in the US. This experience is critical as we bid for involvement in the Commonwealth of Australia’s SEA1180 and SEA5000 programs as part of the Government’s continuous naval shipbuilding plan. We’re already playing a major part in building Australia’s sovereign shipbuilding capability and we’re excited about a very bright future for Australia’s shipbuilding industry in a competitive world.

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The decision in 2016 to award Austal the Pacific Patrol Boat contract was a great achievement for the company. Can you advise us when building will begin and how the program will be run for the many customers who will receive the boats? The Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement (PPB-R) project is a significant (A$306 million) contract for Austal as it is our first, major steel vessel program, which will see nineteen 40 metre vessels delivered to twelve Pacific Island nations from 2018. The design is an evolution of the proven family of Austal patrol vessels including 42 patrol vessel contracts since 1998 – including the Bay, Armidale and Cape Class Patrol Boats for customers such as the Australian Border Force and Royal Australian Navy. Austal Australia will commence construction of the PPBR project in April 2017 and deliveries will commence in 3rd quarter 2018. Austal is contracted to deliver 19 vessels from 2018–2023. Austal will also provide in-service support for the fleet from our recently expanded service centre in Cairns, Queensland. The PPBR Project is part of the Commonwealth’s Pacific Maritime Security Program (PMSP) that aims to enhance practical maritime security cooperation across the South Pacific. The Pacific Island Nations receiving new PPBR from the Commonwealth of Australia include: Fiji, Federated States

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of Micronesia, Tonga, Solomon Islands, Cook Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Palau, Samoa, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Your company is also in line to build the RAN’s new class of offshore patrol boats. Which design are you endorsing and is the company able to begin building in 2020? We have teamed with Fassmer of Germany on an 80 metre vessel that has been sold to two countries in South America and was recently chosen (in a lengthened format) for two German government requirements. Key to our choice was the quality and pedigree of the ship and the partner who will work well with Austal over the next 20-30 years to build and support the ships. Over the past few years Austal has promoted a new and smaller version of its American built expeditionary fast transport. Do you believe that this craft would be a suitable and economical contender for the Navy’s now retired fleet of Balikpapan class landing craft heavy? Austal is extremely proud of our leadership position developing theatre support vessel capability, such as the US Navy’s 103 metre Expeditionary Fast Transport (EPF) and the 72 metre High Speed Support Vessel (HSSV), recently delivered to the Royal Navy of Oman. These were all Henderson designed ships here in Australia using Australian capability. The HSSV platform is a fast, light and highly flexible naval vessel that is capable of conducting a variety of military and civilian missions cost effectively, when compared with traditional logistics support modes of transport. The growing EPF fleet (and now, HSSV) is redefining naval capability around the world, with these


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unique vessels quickly and efficiently conducting operations in previously inaccessible areas. Austal continues to promote our high speed support vessel solutions to navies around the world, including the Royal Australian Navy, and look forward to future opportunities to support amphibious operations for RAN missions.

Photo: Austal

Another recent achievement has been the construction and delivery of two high speed support vessels for Oman. What reports have been received back as to how the vessels are now serving in the middle east? Reports from the Sultanate of Oman are extremely positive, with the two 72 metre HSSVs exceeding expectations for performance and reliability. The Royal Navy of Oman continues to explore the possibilities and capability of these very flexible craft including the launch and recovery of Special Forces sea boats and helicopters. The success has spurred enquiries from other navies. It’s not just warships that you build, but also ships for private companies. Can you outline the success that Austal has had with these various types of ships, like the recent order for the 56 metre commercial contract for a German company and the 57.6 metre offshore crew transfer vessel for Swire Pacific Offshore? Austal owes much of its success today to our innovation and never say die attitude which has meant we are the brand name for fast ferries, innovative crew transfer vessels, trimarans and aluminium ships in general. The DNA that drove this still exists in our business today. Austal’s initial focus on 30-40 metre high speed aluminium catamarans in the 1990s expanded quickly to

include much larger vessels and feature innovative monohull, catamaran and trimaran hull designs, such as the 127 metre Benchijigua Express – still the largest trimaran hull vehicle passenger ferry operating anywhere in the world. Now boasting a portfolio of 165 commercial vessels (18 monohulls, 144 catamarans and 3 trimarans) delivered to operators in 38 countries, we continue to pursue new opportunities and develop class leading solutions for our customers, such as FRS of Germany and Swire Pacific Offshore. Recent contracts for high speed aluminium commercial ferries and offshore crew transfer vessels demonstrate our international competitiveness in developing customised vessel solutions for operators in environments as diverse as Scandinavia and the Middle East, whilst always delivering extraordinary value for money, the highest quality and exceptional service. We call it the Austal Advantage and it’s at the core of everything we do. Over to the USA; Austal has proven itself to be a number one builder of ships for the United States Navy and

the USNS, with the Independence class Littoral Combat Ship and the Spearhead class Expeditionary Fast Transports respectively. Does this intercompany connection help you in your endeavours in Western Australia and do you believe that orders for these two ship types will grow? Austal USA has grown from a ‘greenfield’ site in 1999 to becoming the fourth largest shipyard in the US today, employing over 4,000 people in Mobile, Alabama – at its peak this was greater than the entire requirement of the Australian shipbuilding enterprise. Austal is the city’s largest employer and one of the largest in the state. To date, the shipyard has delivered 5 x 127 metre Independence variant LCS and 7 x 103 metre EPFs, with another 8 x LCS and 5 x EPF’s to deliver, under the current multibillion contracts (totalling approximately US$6 billion). Austal USA’s modern shipbuilding facilities are the envy of the US shipbuilding industry, with a module manufacturing facility (MMF) that offers 1:5:10 productivity gains over traditional shipbuilding methods (assembly halls and alongside). One unit (hour) of manufacturing may be completed in

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efficient, cheaper to produce and easier to support.

the MMF which would take 5 (hours) in a traditional assembly hall, or up to 10 (hours) alongside. Austal Australia designed both the LCS and EPF specifically for the US Navy and is proud to maintain a strong working relationship and link to our design and production teams in the US. This ‘expertise exchange’ ensures both sites gain from the transfer of knowledge and technology under the terms of the contract(s), and offers benefits for both shipyards. Today the US business is helping us with our SEA bids by bringing their experience to match with ours. Based on the very positive feedback received from the US Navy on both the Independence variant LCS and EPF platforms, including recent shock tests on the LCS that saw the vessel pass with flying colours, I am confident that we will see continued support from the US Navy for these two classes.

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Will constructing ships of steel, as distinct from aluminium, create any special problems, if you do win the OPV contract with the RAN? Austal is fully prepared for the commencement of the OPV contract, with existing suitable infrastructure and expertise and skills in steel shipbuilding,

Photo: Austal

Can you enlighten us as to any new designs you may be considering for future military (naval) vessels? I can tell you that Austal is continuously developing new design solutions for our valued customers and within the defence category, will lead the development of new and proven platforms, such as the High Speed Support Vessel (HSSV) that deliver greater capability for operators. Austal is also very focussed on continuous improvement of our shipbuilding process and systems in

support of upcoming Commonwealth programs. The upcoming OPV Program provides an opportunity to mature our existing processes in use on the Pacific Patrol Boat Program and may also support the smooth transition from OPV to the Future Frigate Program. New designs we have recently launched include maritime security and mine warfare variants for the proven Cape Class Patrol Boat and at NAVDEX 2017 in Abu Dhabi we shall release an exciting new 113 metre variant of the HSSV that extends the platform to offer even greater mission flexibility. We are also working on a number of new technologies through our Research and Development group. Capabilities like sensor rich ships, intelligent ships using machine learning, advanced trimaran hulls, carbon fibre equipment to reduce weight in fast vessels are well underway. We are also working on a number of shipbuilding cost reduction and support enhancements like augmented reality systems to aid build and support, iPad apps to speed up OQE documentation, digital shipyard capabilities and even ecoskeletons to increase productivity in high physical stress environments. This is our investment in the future of our industry in Australia to keep us as leader and a major industrial exporter. One thing I can guarantee is that the ships we produce in five years’ time will be very different to the ships we produce today. More

With the workload increasing at your WA facilities will you be expanding these and employing more workers to meet the increased demand? And how much local content is used in the construction of your new ships and other vessels? Austal Australia will be taking on more employees as the Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement (PPBR) and 109 metre high speed catamaran ferry contract (for Mols Linien of Denmark) commence construction in April 2017. In the meantime we are completing 2 x 58 metre Cape Class Patrol Boats for the Royal Australian Navy and continue a major remediation package of work for up to 7 x Armidale Class Patrol Boats at the Henderson shipyard. Additional defence export contracts are anticipated in 2017 that will raise the workload yet again and of course we shall be building up our team in anticipation of securing the Commonwealth of Australia’s SEA1180-1 (Offshore Patrol Vessel) program which will see 12 vessels constructed from 2018. A key element in Austal’s success over the past 28 years has been the reliable Australia based supply chain that has helped us deliver innovative commercial and defence vessels on time and on budget. Our global supply chain includes almost 1,000 Australian companies and Austal has demonstrated through our US business how we have provided access for many Australian companies to global opportunities. Several Australian companies have successfully established facilities in the USA based on Austal’s US Navy program opportunities.


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fabrication and assembly. Many of the Austal team including our workforce of more than 4,000 in the US have spent the majority of their careers building steel ships. Whilst predominantly an aluminium shipbuilder over the past 28 years, we have built steel ships and of course we will be constructing the 19 steel Pacific Patrol Boats from April this year which provides an excellent, timely ‘lead in’ to the OPVs. How close will you work with the participating nations that will receive the new Pacific Patrol Boats and will you undertake each vessels’ trials with naval personnel from those countries? The Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement Project team will be working closely with both the Commonwealth of Australia (the owner) and the 12 Pacific Island nations (the end users) to ensure the vessels are delivered as specified and this includes the provision of tailored crew training and inductions for each nation’s naval personnel at the appropriate juncture in the vessels’ delivery. Austral also has a proud record with the Cape class patrol boats for Maritime Border Command. How many of these craft have you built and for whom? Austal has designed and constructed 10 Cape Class Patrol Boats – eight for the Australian Border Force (ABF) and two for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The eight Capes delivered for the ABF are in operation now, around Australia, whilst the two vessels for the RAN are in the final stages of construction and will be delivered to the Navy in the second quarter of 2017. We are currently working on export opportunities which would grow the class significantly. What has been the RAN’s reaction to their crewing two of the boats (on loan) in northern waters? Do they would do well, sailing alongside the RAN Armidale class?

The RAN has provided very positive feedback on the performance of the two Capes on loan from the ABF and look forward to taking delivery of the two additional Capes we are completing now (ADV Cape Fourcroy and ADV Cape Inscription). The recent order for two more of the Cape class (for lease to the RAN) is a very positive sign. Would you envisage further orders within and outside Australia for this very successful design? The Cape Class Patrol Boat has quickly become a benchmark patrol boat design, with Australian operators rating the vessel’s performance highly – and many overseas operators expressing an interest in the vessel for a variety of border patrol and maritime security missions. These vessels provide additional sea days to support important RAN missions until the OPV fleet begins to enter service between 2020 and 2030. We are very confident of securing additional export contracts for Cape, particularly now with additional maritime security and mine warfare variants available that further extend the vessels’ existing, class-leading capability. And one last question. Your role at Austal must be very exciting at this point in time. Do you see the company continuing to grow, and into what new areas or regions? It is indeed an exciting time to be a shipbuilder and especially at Austal. We are very much at the leading edge of growth in the Australian naval shipbuilding industry and we look forward to playing a key role in the Commonwealth’s continuous naval shipbuilding plan. We are currently bidding the largest ever single Henderson based contract, the largest ever contract for the USA, the largest number of commercial vessels for nearly a decade and have been down-selected for what will be the largest ever defence export out of Australia. Those contracts

separately will feed the USA, Australia and the Philippines. In addition, our sustainment business around the world will this year exceed $150 million per annum which was a key target for us. These programs can make Austal a national asset to be proud of. We shall grow not only here in Australia, but also overseas as we develop new opportunities for commercial and defence vessel programs with new partners – in regions such as the Middle East where we have had an effective presence and service centre operating since 2008. Will Austal develop additional facilities in Cairns in support of future naval activities for the Pacific and Australia, especially for the Cape, Pacific Patrol Boat and OPVs of the future? As part of the Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement contract, Austal shall grow our service centre in Cairns to support the delivery of sustainment services to the 19 vessel fleet operating throughout the Pacific from 2018. We currently have an office and a team of engineers in Cairns overseeing the delivery of sustainment services for the ABF’s Cape Class Patrol Boat fleet and this will expand as the PPBR project matures and sustainment services in Cairns commences. By the end of 2018 I would envisage we will have doubled our current team and by the peak of deliveries for the PPBR, we may have as many as 25 people working for us in Cairns. Austal recently held a supplier engagement forum in Cairns to promote the upcoming opportunities for local businesses to supply to Austal in the delivery of PPBR (and Cape Class) sustainment services. The event was supported by the Cairns Chamber of Commerce and attended by approximately 80 local businesses, registering their interest and capabilities via a new supplier portal Austal has established to develop an Australian Industry Capability database.

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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

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MOVING TO A CONTINUOUS SHIPBUILDING STRATEGY The recent Defence White Paper set the RAN on a new course, described as ‘Continuous Shipbuilding’. So what is continuous shipbuilding’?

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n the past, Navy has enjoyed anything but continual shipbuilding, with contracts issued to many local and overseas companies involved in warship construction, but unfortunately for them and Navy, these have been many years apart, and thus there have been numerous gaps between the deliveries of the different classes of ships and for the builders, an almost impossible task to retain the same trained staff for the next major project. At the end of six member River class destroyer escort program, between

January 1957 and January 1971, the service would not begin its next generation of surface ships produced in Australia until the final two units of the Adelaide class guided missile frigates built from mid 1985 to late 1993, a span of nil construction of 14 years. This was compounded with another three year gap between the commissioning of the last FFG and the entry into service of the first of the Anzac class helicopter frigates in 1996, a program that would last until 2006. To complete this story, in 2011 the first

of three Hobart class destroyers was laid down, and then commissioned in late 2015. A NEW ERA But the times are now changing, for not only has “Navy been fairly and squarely redefined as a system rather than a collection of cobbled-together platforms but, more importantly, it has been repositioned as a national enterprise”, the Chief of Navy VADM Tim Barrett said in June 2016. “This is a fundamental transformation in thinking about what the Navy actually is, where it fits in our national architecture and how it relates to the national economic infrastructure,” he added. Now Australian industry and the Navy will combine to deliver a

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more efficient and more effective maritime defence system to ensure a smooth transition between the decommissioning of older fleet units and their timely replacement by the new era warships and support vessels.

start approach to warship acquisition highlighted above, with its high startup and major termination costs, will become but a memory as Australia shifts from an occasional ship purchaser to a continuous ship producer.

INNOVATION This new shipbuilding policy is now extending far beyond the construction of hulls in Australian yards, but right up to the design and development of the systems that are accommodated within those various class hulls to allow them to perform their many assigned roles. A major element in this process is the number of production lines that will operate in parallel to each other, these being: • a stand-alone capability to continuously build and evolve the 12 new submarines; and • a stand-alone capability to continuously build and evolve major warships, beginning with the nine Future Frigates; and • a stand-alone capability to build the nation’s smaller vessels under a continuous serialised construction program. This mean that the historical stop-

FOUR ENDEAVOURS The aim of both the Government and Navy is to create a fully integrated approach for the future Navy, four endeavours comprising naval capability planning, development, delivery and sustainment. The classes of naval ships ordered or being planned include the dozen offshore patrol vessels, the new generation frigates to replace the Anzac class, the three Hobart class guided missile destroyers, the two replenishment vessels to be built in Spain and the 12 future submarines, all of which will provide a significant industrial challenge, but a challenge that Navy is confident it can meet in partnership with both Australian and overseas industry. A UNITED EFFORT The new united effort now being implemented will ensure an effective

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foundation for the continuous shipbuilding industry, where all new planning is undertaken in concert with industrial resources and capability. Forward vision is a major part of this strategy, a plan that lays out what industry will look like decades from now rather than only five years from now. Australian industry has enjoyed limited periods of continuous build, the most notable being the construction of the last two FFGs, HMA Ships Melbourne and Newcastle, followed by the 10 Anzac class, including two for the Royal New Zealand Navy. In a recent announcement the Government also advised that future large naval ships will be built in the existing and planned yards in Adelaide, with the smaller units to be built in Western Australia. Some other shipyards, like the one in Cairns would carry the burden of small ship repairs and upgrades. Australian industry will now and into the future play a very significant role in this long term process. However, the only real way Australia can continue to operate its own naval shipbuilding industry is if the industry is properly structured to drive efficiencies and improve productivity and reduce the domestic build premium. That is why the continuous shipbuilding plan is based on an extended construction strategy encompassing both major and minor naval surface vessels. OTHER SCHEMES To assist with the new building schedule the Government had previously stated its preference to secure mature designs that: • are more easily constructed in Australian shipyards, • are limited in the number of design changes for distinctive RAN requirements, • will develop a close relationship between the designer and the builder,


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• will ensure the designer has incentives to make the shipbuilder succeed, and • which has Australian shipbuilders assume overall responsibility for the particular ship class. OVERVIEW The importance of continuous build is of paramount importance to the nation’s long term national security and economic strength. To achieve these aims Australia will need the unencumbered use of the sea with more than 70% of its exported goods and services delivered across the oceans that surround the continent. Upgrading the Royal Australian Navy fleet is seen as the best way to reinforce Australia’s strategic edge in both the region and the wider global maritime environment. Over the next few years this new system of continuous build will begin to

deliver the required results. It will start with the dozen offshore patrol vessels, which at the same time will match the upgrade of the current Armidale patrol boats so they may operate until the last of the OPVs is delivered. Also, for some years in the 2020s Navy will be operating various numbers of the Armidale class alongside the new helicopter capable OPVs. The early 2017 announcement that the eight Anzac class helicopter frigates will receive a further upgrade will coincide with the keel laying of the first Future Frigate, and like the patrol vessels, these two classes will operate side by side for a number of years across the next decade. The same can be said for the existing and future submarines, although this part of the Fleet upgrade will not begin until the early 2030s, with some of the existing Collins class to also receive an additional upgrade.

As the continuous build program continues to develop in scope, BAE Systems will soon begin preparing for the arrival of the helicopter frigate HMAS Perth at its Henderson yard in Western Australia. The ship will become the first of the Anzac class to undergo the Midlife Capability Upgrade Program expected to take several months for each of the eight class members. She will return later for the remainder of the upgrades to be completed. The $2 billion six-year contract will feature improvements to engines, propulsion, heating, lighting, cooling and communications systems, as well as torpedo self-defence and the Nulka defensive system. The next unit, HMAS Arunta, will be placed onto the hard-stand at Henderson in September 2017 and will become the first frigate to receive all of the upgrades during her 12 months ashore.

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CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT

OUTLOOK HMAS Larrakia, and her sister ships, will be replaced by the OPVs to be built under the SEA 1180 program.

PLANNING PROCEEDS WITH NEW OPVS – SEA 1180 The new OPV project is outlined by Michael Wilson.

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ne of the most important projects now being considered by CASG is the proposal to acquire a new force of 12 offshore patrol vessels (OPV) for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) – SEA 1180. With 12 to be built – two in South Australia, followed by another 10 in Western Australia – the successful design will introduce to the RAN a new and higher level of patrol capability than has been previously operated. The completion, trials, and then commissioning of the lead vessel also continues the historic growth in the size of purpose-built patrol craft that Navy has operated over 75 years, when the service commissioned its first Fairmile B Motor Launch. Over those years the RAN introduced a variety of different

design patrol boats, from the tiny Harbour Defence Motor Launches to the Attack class patrol boats, then the 15-strong Fremantle class, followed by the 14 Armidale class patrol boats. The latter have also been supplemented by two Navy-crewed Cape class, on loan from the Maritime Border Command; and in 2017, another pair of Capes on lease from the builders. TENDERS The selection of the winning tender to build the new class of OPVs is expected soon with Navy to operate for the first time a patrol vessel able to embark a helicopter or UAV aboard a ship some would classify along the lines of an old corvette. With its larger size, greater fuel capacity and range, plus the embarked aviation element, these new OPVs will ensure Navy will be able to provide a much-improved seagoing patrol capability to defend Australia’s vast coastline. Like with all modern designs available today, crew numbers will

become an important factor in the decision as to which design is selected. The fewer the number, the lower the cost to operate such an OPV over its long career. As well, an OPV designed to negate the need to refuel or resupply onboard provisions will also allow for longer deployments than are currently being achieved. ANNOUNCEMENTS In September 2016 three designs were shortlisted for the OPV’s SEA 1180 program. Then on 30 November 2016, the requests for tenders for the RAN’s new class of offshore patrol vessels (OPVs) were released to these three designers. As part of the announcement, Minister for Defence Industry Christopher Pyne said the Request for Tender (RFT) will see the Damen, Fassmer and Luerssen companies team up with Australian shipbuilders, to ensure that the opportunities for local industry participation were maximised. All tenderers are now developing an

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sickbay, with treatment and recovery area for four persons. The Type 1800 can provide a border and EEZ surveillance, counter piracy and smuggling, counter drugs and weapons trafficking, SAR, fishery inspection, disaster relief and logistical support. Length overall is 83 metres, with a fuel oil capacity of 200 cubic metres, a maximum speed of 22 knots and range of 5,000nm at 12 knots.

Photo: Fassmer

The Fassmer OPV 80 has been ordered by Chile, with two OPV 80s already delivered.

Australian Industry Capability Plan around a local build and the use of Australian steel. The OPV project is currently on track with construction to begin in Port Adelaide in 2018 before shifting to Western Australia in 2020. Of the three major projects announced – submarines, frigates and OPVs – the latter will become the first delivered units of this impressive naval construction project. The new class is scheduled for delivery, one OPV per year, from 2020, after which they will perform a variety of roles including “enhanced border protection and patrol missions over greater distances than is currently possible with the existing patrol boat fleet. Building will start in 2018, with all twelve to be delivered by 2030”, the recent Defence White Paper commented. The inclusion of an aviation capability in the OPVs will raise the status of such a platform from the existing small patrol boat era to a new and more versatile level of operations, which in turn will provide the Australian fleet with a much more versatile vessel able to perform some of the tasks normally assigned to the larger frigates when away from their homeports.

The role of the OPV becomes even more important as the complexity of the next generation of frigates grows in size, up to 6,000 tonnes, close to the level of the three new Hobart class guided missile destroyers. OPV CONTENDERS Three contenders for the new OPV force have been announced: • Damen with their Type 1800 offshore patrol vessel, • Fassmer’s OPV 80 and • Lürssen’s PV80. DAMEN The Damen 1800 is described as an OPV with a spacious bridge, with a separate OPS room for surveillance and gun control. The ship’s flight deck is supported by a hangar and refuelling for a helicopter up to the size of a NH90, or MRH-90, in Australian service. Wave compensated davits (up to sea state 5) are fitted to accommodate a pair of 9.0 m interceptors / boarding boats. For the OPV crew, each living space will include heated and airconditioned accommodation for 46 personnel in single, double and four berth cabins; mess rooms; a recreation area; galley; laundry; gymnasium; and

FASSMER The Fassmer OPV 80 has been ordered by Chile, with two OPV 80s already delivered. These large offshore patrol vessels possess exceptional seakeeping characteristics and according to the company, have set numerous new standards in this area. Their advanced hull design makes the vessel fully seagoing and ideal for multi-functional tasks in naval and coastal missions. A special deck layout features the helicopter landing platform and a big rescue zone. The vessel can berth up to 100 persons and has a maximum speed of 25 knots. LÜRSSEN Lürssen, with their PV80 have designed the vessel to handle a range of new threats and a multifaceted array of deployment scenarios. The design is characterised by excellent seaworthiness for high seas and thus deployment beyond coastal areas. This ship type is also designed to support air and land surveillance operations, as well as helicopter missions. The outstanding features of Lürssen offshore patrol vessels include cost-efficient construction to allow expansion of functionalities at a later date, solutions for the care and lodging of crew as well as customised weapons, sensor and fire control systems. Prevention of smuggling and piracy is like the other designs on offer, via inflatable boats (RHIBs) carried on board. Length is 89 metres, with a maximum speed of 22 knots.

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Pantone 301C

C = 100 M = 45 J=0 N = 18

R=0 V = 101 B = 164

Pantone 185C

C=0 M = 91 J = 76 N=0

R = 239 V = 62 B = 66


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FUTURE SUBMARINE – A PROGRESS REPORT

Three good designs, a class of 12 boats and one winner announced. This has been the story of the Future Submarine project (SEA 1000) over the past 12 months.

Photo: DCNS

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he history of RAN, but more specifically RAN submarines, is a long one, a story that began in 1911 and in the years since has witnessed the delivery and service of no fewer than 22 boats, comprising five different classes. To fill the need for the sixth or next generation of submarines for the Australian Navy, submissions were received

from three prospective builders, outlining their plan to build up to 12 submarines. These were followed by representatives of the same companies visiting to promote their overall deals and the advantages their boat’s design possessed above the rival contenders. France offered Australia the Shortfin Barracuda Block 1A type, a slightly smaller and conventionally powered

version of its new nuclear Barracuda submarine fleet. Japan offered a longer range version of its existing Soryu class boats, while Germany’s TKMS proposed their Type 216 submarine, a larger version of its widely exported, but much smaller submarine. MOVING AHEAD In early 2016, the Federal Cabinet’s National Security Committee began considering the three submarine designs. As the final decision neared the Australian public was ‘flooded’ with the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of each submarine design, the final cost of the boats to be built and how

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much of the work would take place in Australia. As decision day neared additional press and even television advertisements appeared, all outlining the strengths of the three designs. After much consideration the large and powerful French design was selected as the winning tender. In May the former Defence Minister Kim Beasley offered some thoughts online via the Australian Naval Institute web page. He said, inter alia: "As was the case in 1987 when the Swedes won, so it is now. The boat least expected, the Shortfin Barracuda Block 1A, won the bid. Selection by the RAN and Defence Department can be trusted now as it was to be trusted then. People should understand this.

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Our Navy and Defence Department will tolerate political determination of the size of the program, a determination for a local build and the location of that build. The premium is worth it as it massively aids longterm sustainment and improvement. They will revolt against political determination of source selection. They have to fight the boat and they want the best they can get. By all reports, the French gave Australia the best they could offer. French engineering will be tested to the limits on this one. They have a brilliant propulsion system and they will have been careful in their presentation not to talk above themselves. It’s not a simple matter

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to put a conventional system into a nuclear boat. I was told by one American that there’s about eight times the amount of piping in a nuclear boat than a conventional one, so they should have plenty of space to play with. One hopes we will have a wiser media and political leadership courtesy of the Collins experience. That will require the tolerance and acceptance of the trial and error that goes with the acquisition of all major defence platforms." CONTRACTS On 30 September 2016 the two Defence Ministers announced that a contract with DCNS had been signed as the official signal for the start of


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the design phase. This ‘deal’, agreed ahead of schedule, represented another significant step along the path to developing the RAN’s aim to operate a new regionally superior Future Submarine. Mobilisation and design activities would now mark the start of the program, with work also intended to maximise local industry involvement and with early planning for the start of construction. Other highly technical work has also begun, including the integration and testing of the propulsion and combat systems. The Ministers also announced that Lockheed Martin Australia had been selected as the Combat System Integrator to partner with Defence and DCNS to design and integrate the all-important combat system. Partnering with an Australia-based company with strong links to the USA was designed to ensure availability of the best Australian and US technology, and at the same time make certain that sensitive technology would be

powered submarines, • the Navy which will have three of their Collins class boats further upgraded to allow for the extended building time for the new class, and

“Local industry will also be directly involved in the highly technical work of designing and integrating the combat system for the Future Submarine and further develop Australia’s own capability in this specialised area."

Photos: DCNS

protected. Local industry will also be directly involved in the highly technical work of designing and integrating the combat system for the Future Submarine and further develop Australia’s own capability in this specialised area. ALL WINNERS • the ever growing local South Australian shipbuilding industry on the Port River, • the numerous Australian and French companies that will support the massive project, • the RAN which will now operate the largest sized conventionally

• the workers at the companies involved in this extended building, and later, continuing sustainment project. DST STUDY In late November 2016 Australia’s Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group released a new study to provide a brief discussion on the considerations behind the decision about the replacement of the Collins class boats. Titled ‘Australia’s requirement for submarines’, the study stated that the new capability will enable the country to mount a sustained presence over seaways

traversing the South-East Asian archipelago to protect its maritime borders. It also highlighted that the defence capability will be further bolstered as the boats can operate in forward areas, where more readily detectable assets, such as ships and aircraft would be denied access. The new submarine fleet, twice the size of the six existing Collins class boats, will be designed to provide the nation with a highly effective submarine capability for many years to come, according to the study. FUTURE THOUGHTS The Barracuda program will deliver to the RAN an affordable and regionally dominant capability, one which can be sustained well into the current century. The new boats will then quickly develop their own levels of strategic importance as a critical element in the nation’s overall maritime security planning. The submarines will be tasked with the responsibility of securing sea lanes becoming the guardians of the Australian economy in the years ahead. According to the Government, SEA 1000, apart

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“The Government’s continuous build program equates to one or more submarines under construction at any one time, something like what has been achieved with the three Hobart class guided missile destroyers, also in South Australia." from being the largest Defence procurement program in Australia’s history, this building and sustainment of the new submarines will represent an investment of approximately $50 billion in Australia’s security. The new boats are expected to begin entering service in the early 2030s, with building of the entire class extending into the late 2040s to 2050 timeframe. To allow the force to achieve all of its stated missions and objectives the new submarines will require a long term level of sustainment over many decades ahead at levels of achievement never before

undertaken within the nation and by its shipbuilders. This support will be via modernised/new facilities and provided by highly trained personnel at both the Port Adelaide site and also at HMAS Stirling in Western Australia, the home base for the 12 Barracudas. The Government’s continuous build program equates to one or more submarines under construction at any one time, something like what has been achieved with the three Hobart class guided missile destroyers, also in South Australia. A major part of this program will be

the base design able to accept more modern and effectives technologies to be developed in the years ahead. This allows for the initial group of submarines to be modified to produce a gradually more capable fleet unit, most probably in groups of three or four before the next set of modifications is introduced to the follow-on batch. Eventually, what many would describe as a brand new class will be under construction, when future modifications are incompatible with the earlier design/s. A program based around continuous build will many years down the track result in the further construction and delivery of even more capable boats, all designed to allow the RAN to continue to operate the same number of submarines. From boat 13 onwards, each submarine will at the time of

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Photo: DCNS

its commissioning, become one-forone replacements for the earliest units of the Shortfin Barracuda Block 1 class, the same way the existing Anzac class helicopter frigates will be replaced by the new class of nine Future Frigates. Allowing for a 25 or 30 year operational career for each submarine, the construction schedule for the Shortfin Barracuda will need to be adjusted accordingly, unless of course, a decision is taken by some future Federal Government to expand the undersea force, to 14 or 15 boats. But at the moment that is pure speculation. A LONG HISTORY The French company DCNS (and its predecessors) have been in the warship building industry for 361 years, first building sail ships-of-war in 1631, and then

their first tiny submarines in the late 19th century. DCNS Australia is a subsidiary of DCNS, the French naval shipbuilding company and

European leader in naval defence. DCNS Australia was established in April 2015, marking almost a century of cooperation between France and Australia.


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FUTURE FRIGATE (SEA 5000) Michael Wilson outlines the SEA 5000 project for a new generation of frigates.

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Photo: LSIS Lee-Anne Mack.

s one of the most important projects currently being managed by CASG, SEA 5000 is destined to deliver a new class of nine Future Frigates as the next generation of naval surface combatants for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The new warships will undertake a wide range of missions, with a particular focus on antisubmarine warfare; and an embarked SH-60R Romeo helicopter, of which 24

of the type have been delivered to the Fleet Air Arm. The new frigates will feature sufficient range and endurance to operate effectively throughout maritime South East Asia and for deployment from forward bases, such as the Middle East, like the current Anzac and Adelaide class frigates. To perform such tasks each ship will be fitted with a range of offensive and self-protection systems. Construction of the new class will take place in Port Adelaide, South Australia, over a period of 10 years, with each unit to also incorporate the Australiandeveloped

CEA Phased-Array Radar. The Future Frigate project is one of a number of maritime projects currently underway that will ensure Australia retains a sovereign capability to build and sustain its naval vessels and implement the Government’s commitment to a continuous build of naval surface ships in Australia.

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APPROVALS Defence and industry have conducted risk reduction design studies to investigate a number of options for the Future Frigate. In considering all of the available options, the program will be guided by a number of key principles, including: • The necessity for a well-integrated designer, builder and supplier team • Preferencing mature designs of vessels rather than choosing to design a new class of vessel from scratch or undertaking large scale modification of existing designs • Thoroughly testing Navy’s capability requirement against more readily available naval vessels • Limiting the amount of changes to the design selected for ‘unique’ Australian requirements • Spending more time at the beginning of the project on planning the design and build program. The project began in October 2015 with the Government announcing First Pass Approval in April 2016. Accordingly, three designers: BAE Systems, Fincantieri and Navantia were shortlisted to refine their designs. Second Pass Approval will be announced during 2018 at the completion of the Competitive Evaluation Process (CEP) of the three frigate designs. Presently, building of the lead frigate will begin in 2020, for delivery later in the decade. CONTINUOUS BUILD In the early August 2016 announcement the Prime Minister and Minister for Defence outlined the new plan to ensure a strong and sustainable naval shipbuilding industry for Australia. For the RAN this would equate to 33 new surface warships and submarines, constructed as part of the continuous build programme. In line with these announcements the SEA 5000 program to replace the Anzac class frigates

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would begin in 2020, three years earlier than scheduled under the earlier Defence Capability Plan. Over the next 20 years the Government plans to invest over $89 billion in the three new classes of warships and submarines. These 33 new ships will comprise: • Nine new Future Frigates to replace the eight Anzac class helicopter frigates (FFHs) • 12 new offshore patrol vessels to supersede the 13 Armidale class patrol boats (ACPBs) • 12 new Future Submarines for the current six Collins class boats. The new frigates, OPVs and submarines will augment the two impressive Canberra class amphibious ships (commissioned 2014-15), and the three Hobart class guided missile destroyers, which in early 2017, were building or undergoing sea trials from their shipyard in South Australia. The August 2016 statement highlighted that the new continuous build programme was “a critical investment that will generate significant economic growth and sustain several thousand Australian jobs over (many) decades. It is a key part of our commitment to a safe and secure Australia”. “This means that Australia’s shipbuilding workforce will build the RAN’s Future Frigates and OPVs. It’s the first time that any Australian government has committed to a permanent naval shipbuilding industry, a strategy designed to transform the nation’s naval shipbuilding industry and put it onto a sustainable long-term path, giving the workforce certainty into the future." Asked if the retirement of the current Anzac class frigates would be brought forward as a result, Chief of Navy VADM Barrett said that no decision would be made before the completion of the Competitive Evaluation Process (CEP) for the Future Frigate.

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“This timing is planned such that we can manage the Anzac class with the delivery of the new frigate,” he added. PROJECTS Also brought forward by two years was the start of construction for the 12 OPVs (SEA 1180) to replace the 13 active Armidale class patrol boats, with a continuous onshore build to begin in 2018, following a separate CEP. This decision would maintain around 400 skilled jobs that would otherwise have been lost. It will also reduce the number of man-hours that would be wasted on the Future Frigate programme if the existing workforce was disbanded and reconstituted, setting it on a stronger path for earlier completion. NEXT DECADE By 2025 the new era RAN will begin to witness the start of this impressive programme with its naval combatants ‘flowing’ out of two local shipyards. This could mean an Australian Fleet looking something like: • Two LHDs and one LSD, • Three Hobart class guided missile destroyers, • One new Future Frigate about to enter service, plus seven active Anzac class helicopter frigates, • Three or four new OPVs, plus about eight to 10 surviving Armidale class patrol boats, • The six Collins class submarines and • Four to six Huon class mine warship vessels. Added to this force will be the two new AORs, the hydrographic vessels and the LLCs (LHD landing craft) operating from Canberra and Adelaide. Ideally the RAN’s Future Frigate will feature special internal bays for a variety of small craft and drones. For the former these areas would be located aside the helicopter hangar or with access via the small stern ramp, with the associated boat storage bay located under the aviation


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deck. This new style of frigate could also have space for a small ‘marine’ contingent of 50-60 personnel, in other words, a flexible multi-role frigate in so many ways. NEW OPERATIONAL TEMPO The Future Frigates are expected to face more demanding operational requirements and will need to be more capable than the Anzac class. They will be required to conduct a range of missions, from low-level constabulary roles through to regional conflict, but with a particular focus on antisubmarine warfare and theatre-level anti-submarine operations. Operating along Australia’s coastline, northern approaches and throughout the Indo-Pacific, will require the Future Frigate to have the range, endurance, sea-keeping qualities, survivability and weapons load-out to support

prolonged operations throughout our substantial region and, when called to do so, globally. The nature of the threat environment will require the vessels to be equipped with a range of offensive, defensive and self-protection systems. They need to be of adequate displacement to facilitate a growth path for future weapons system and sensors. RECENT VISITORS The Italian Navy FREMM frigate Carabiniere visited Australia during January and February 2017. Backed by Fincantieri, the frigate’s builder, the tour included visits to Fremantle, Adelaide, Sydney and Melbourne. The company was one of three shortlisted proposals from BAE Systems, Fincantieri, and Navantia, for the RAN’s program to build the nine new frigates. The antisubmarine frigate was delivered to the Italian Navy in April 2015, the fifth of 10

to be eventually commissioned. Another of the contenders for the RAN’s new Future Frigates, the Spanish Navy’s F-100 class frigate, began a deployment to Australia in January 2017. Named Cristóbal Colón the warship began her 120-day deployment from 9 January. The long-term mission was framed within the agreement between the Spanish Navy and the RAN to enhance the interoperability between the two services, and to provide individual training on board the frigate for the crews of the new Hobart class destroyers, designed by Navantia. The ship visited Adelaide 5-10 February. During the deployment, all the ship’s capabilities will be put to the test, including maintenance and logistic support procedures in far-off theatres of operation. Cristóbal Colón is scheduled to return to Spain at the beginning of August 2017.


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Computer image of INCAT’s new Pacific Patrol Boat.

NEW PACIFIC PATROL BOATS (SEA 3036) The Pacific Patrol Boat Replacement project is about to begin and from 2018, 13 nations will benefit from this investment in the Australian Defence Industry.

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total of 21 Australian-made steel hull boats, valued at $304 million, will begin duty with the various naval or police forces. Added to this will be the equally important through life sustainment, with Australian industry expected to receive $400 million over the three decades the craft are expected to operate. LOCAL WORK Building towards the release of the last Defence White Paper, the Government announced the plan was

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part of a sustainable naval shipbuilding industry focusing on the support for local shipbuilding jobs. It also recognised the significant value of a skilled naval shipbuilding workforce within Australia and this order for the Pacific Patrol Boat (PPB) will go a long way to maintain that important industrial base. The program will become the centrepiece of Australia’s engagement in the vast area that forms the South Pacific. The newly designed craft will be welcome additions to our Pacific friends, with their existing patrol boats

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approaching the end of their service careers. This will ensure those nations can continue to take a pro-active role in the protection of their own extensive Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). As a further improvement to the PPB’s overall capabilities, the new Austal design will be larger and more capable than the current fleet. This will include greater sea-keeping abilities, a longer endurance and improved crew habitability. Upon delivery, the new boats will further strengthen the region’s capability to respond to issues such as fisheries protection, trans-national crime, and search and rescue. STATES The new class of patrol boats was offered to all current 12


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participating states including; Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Samoa, Vanuatu, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, plus one new recipient, TimorLeste. In line with present practices, these states will continue to be provided with a long-term program of training, maintenance and operational support. In the publication Law and order at sea in the South Pacific by Bergin & Bateman (1999), the authors stated that “the (existing) Pacific class have provided indirect benefits to the operating nations. Operating the Pacifics has often required the expansion of maritime facilities, providing jobs and facilitating access for other ships. In addition to the economic boost from fishing fees and fines, improved hydrographic charts created by the ships contributes to boosting tourism. The ships are seen as miniature warships, and are a point of pride and prestige for the island nations.” The upcoming delivery of the new era patrol boats will reinforce these previously established benefits for decades to come. DATA Some of the key requirements for the winning Austal boat included being designed and built to commercial standards, simple and cost-effective to own, operate and maintain, weapon systems not fitted, but with allowance made to military standard, accommodation for 19 crew (with 23 berths), and an embarked seaboat capable of speeds greater than 20 knots, operating to top of Sea State Four, and with a crew of 6 (8 crew ‘Desirable’). AUSTAL WINS WITH NEW DESIGN On 18 April 2016 Austal Limited announced it had been awarded preferred tenderer status for the PPB Replacement, with the whole class to

be built at its shipyard in Henderson, WA, with the through-life support to be performed at the company’s existing facility in Cairns, Queensland. Quite importantly, the construction of the Pacific Patrol Boats will extend Austal’s shipbuilding capability into steel-hulled vessels, which will be important for the future construction of the RAN’s new force of twelve offshore patrol vessels. Under the contract, Austal’s share of the project is for 19 steel-hulled patrol boats, including an option for two additional vessels, valued at $280 million along with

“This decision reflects Australia’s ongoing commitment to work with regional partners to broaden and strengthen the region’s capacity to respond to maritime security, fisheries protection, and transnational criminal threats." sustainment support for an initial seven year period valued at approximately $24 million. The Federal Government signed the contract with Austal Ships Pty Ltd on 4 May 2016. NEW DESIGN Following the announcement of the contract being awarded, Austal began design work immediately. With construction expected to begin in 2017, the first delivery is scheduled for 2018, with work running through to 2023-24. About 120 direct jobs have been secured for the project, plus many more with local and Australian subcontractors who have worked with Austal over many years. Austal’s Chief Executive Officer David Singleton said the contract added to Austal’s long history in designing, constructing, and sustaining

patrol boats for domestic and export customers. “Given our extensive facilities at Henderson we will need to make only minor investments in training and equipment to support construction of steel vessels of this size,” he added. “Importantly, by expanding into steel we will further enhance the shipyard as we position Austal to bid and win additional domestic defence shipbuilding contracts.” The all new PPB is based on one of Austal’s proven patrol boat design platforms and measures 39.5 metres in length with a beam of 8 metres and a loaded draft of 2.5 metres. Its top speed is 20 knots and at 12 knots has a 3,000 nautical mile range. Each vessel can accommodate 23 people. CHIEF OF NAVY VADM Tim Barrett, CN, said the replacement of the existing fleet of PPBs formed the centrepiece of the follow-on Pacific Maritime Security Program (PMSP). “This decision reflects Australia’s ongoing commitment to work with regional partners to broaden and strengthen the region’s capacity to respond to maritime security, fisheries protection, and transnational criminal threats,” he said. “The replacement program will cost approximately $2 billion over 30 years, which includes Navy personnel costs, fuel funding, training and general sustainment for the life of the vessels.” According to VADM Barrett the gifted patrol boats would be complemented by integrated aerial surveillance and regional support provided by Australia under the broader PMSP. “Effective maritime surveillance cannot be achieved through surface assets alone, as it requires integrated intelligence from aircraft and regional command centres,” he said.

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AIR WARFARE DESTROYER PROJECT SAILING AHEAD During 2016 and into 2017 the Navy’s new Hobart class guided missile destroyers (DDGs) have made significant steps towards their commissioning into the Australian Fleet. First of the class, Hobart on 15 December 2016, with Brisbane just after her launch.

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into the water) for her fitting out to be completed. AWD PROJECT The Air Warfare Destroyer (SEA 4000) program is one of the largest Defence projects undertaken by CASG in Australia. It is a multi-phased task to acquire a surface combatant that will significantly increase Australia’s defence capabilities.

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MODIFICATIONS Designed to provide the RAN with an effective and flexible front line destroyer, the original F100 Spanish frigate design was modified to suit Navy’s overall requirements, coupled with the proven American Aegis combat system. As a result the RAN version was modified to incorporate: • Australian Combat System modifications and selected platform upgrades • More powerful diesel engines with improved fuel tank arrangements to satisfy the need for the increased ranges required in the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans

Photo: Matt Welsby

wo major events stand out from the above period: the 13 September maiden departure to sea of the first of these new-era warships, for NUSHIP Hobart a series of trials designed to demonstrate the functionality of the ship’s propulsion, manoeuvring, auxiliary, control and navigation systems; and 15 December, when the second member of the class, NUSHIP Brisbane was launched (lowered

The new Hobart class of three destroyers will soon become one of the most capable, world leading, multipurpose warships in service with the world’s navies. Their major role will be air defence for accompanying ships, land forces and infrastructure in coastal areas, and multi-level self-protection against missiles and aircraft. Joint maritime operations, from area air defence and escort duties, through to peacetime national tasks and diplomatic missions will keep the ships busy for many decades ahead. Construction of the trio of destroyers is being achieved by an alliance-based contracting arrangement between ASC (with AWD Shipbuilder as the lead shipbuilder), Raytheon Australia as the mission systems integrator and the Government, represented by CASG within the Department of Defence. Raytheon Australia bears the major responsibility for the design, delivery and integration of the Combat System which comprises 10 major subsystems, and more than 3,500 major pieces of combat system equipment. This sophisticated combat system contributes to making the Hobart class the most advanced and lethal warship ever operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).


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• A bow thruster to improve harbour movements and for underway replenishment and • Changes to manpower requirements. Other modifications included changes to the funnel tops to improve the ship’s air stream and for the embarked crew, larger bunk sizes for improved habitability during extended deployments away from Australia. A pair of Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIBs) will be embarked on all three destroyers for close-in duties against modern day ‘pirates’ and other support tasks. The ships have been constructed in blocks at three shipyards across the nation: ASC in Adelaide, BAE Systems Australia in Melbourne, and Forgacs in Newcastle, as well as at Navantia’s shipyard in Ferrol, Spain. A Systems Program Office will be established to provide the necessary in-service support for the ships when they enter service with the RAN. Hull consolidation of the third destroyer, Sydney, is planned for August 2017. EARLY TESTS Prior to her first Builder Sea Trials the AWD Alliance completed a number of important alongside dock trials: inclining trials to measure the ship’s stability and vertical centre of gravity, and bollard trials to test the ship’s propulsion system. Other tests included: • Main Battery Alignment to ensure elements of the combat systems were correctly positioned and aligned • Main Engines and Gas Turbines activated on-board in April and July 2016 respectively, as well as a number of critical combat systems including the Vertical Launch System, the Australian Tactical Interface, the Aegis Combat System and the SPY1D-V Phased Array Radar, plus various navigation systems.

Prior to her launch in mid December, Brisbane, Ship 2, received the load out of combat spaces such as Command Information Centre, Combat System Equipment Rooms, Direct Support Element Operations, and Communication spaces, as well as the successful installation of the last of the ship’s four AN/SPY-1D(V) Phased Array Radars. Combat System topside equipment load outs, as well as prerequisite work, included shore power through the ship’s switchboard, start of the ship’s Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS) and underwater hull paint were carried out between August and December. As part of the building process the Ship 2 team halved the amount of time taken to load-out the final AN/SPY-1D(V) Phased Array Radar. The first SPY Array installation on Ship 1 took 12 hours, while the last one was completed in less than six hours. In addition, work on the Techport wharf extension began in August 2016 and continued through to November to enable two of the new destroyers to berth alongside following the float off of Brisbane. FIRST DAYS AT SEA Hobart was shifted from the berth early on 13 September to begin her initial sea trials, and then again for a second day on the 15th, sailing at 0700 and back alongside by 2030. A local naval architect commented that the first sea trials were better than expected, and on the first day, the ship was taken to just over 20 knots. The AWD Alliance conducted these Builder’s Sea Trials during mid-September, the ship under the command of a civilian master and crew, augmented by specialists from the Alliance and key equipment suppliers who performed the system testing and trials.

Before heading away from the wharf, the Alliance undertook a comprehensive assessment to ensure the safety of the ship, embarked personnel, the environment and other seafarers. This assessment, defined as the Sea Trials Release Process, featured three major steps: the Sea Worthiness Assessment, Ship Sea Trials Release and Sea Readiness Confirmation. During these trials, and whilst the ship was at sea, a dedicated shore support team remained in constant communications with the master to assist the ship and ensure the success of the trials. In early October 2016 the RAN altered its classification of the new ships from air warfare destroyer to the more traditional DDG designation. OTHER TRIALS In 2017 additional capabilities will be trialled including the manoeuvring and auxiliary systems. Category 5 (CAT5) trials will test the ship’s more advanced systems and performance of the overall combat system. NUSHIP Brisbane is scheduled to begin her builder’s trials in December 2017, with NUSHIP Hobart to be delivered to the RAN in June 2017. Meanwhile, in a milestone event it has also been announced that the destroyers will be the first RAN warships to be equipped with the upgraded Standard Missile (SM-2). The addition is part of an unprecedented investment in Navy capability and improvements in platforms extending into the 2050s and beyond. Each DDG will use the Mk 41 Vertical Launch System where the missile is stored in its own canister until launched. The existing stock of SM‑2 missiles will also be converted from rail launch to vertical launch configuration for use in the destroyers. The SM‑2 was introduced into the RAN in 2009 to arm the Adelaide class guided missile frigates to replace the obsolete SM-1 missiles.

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Royal Australian Navy LLC offloads an Australian Army Lighter Amphibious Resupply Cargo (LARC) vehicle to transport aid from HMAS Canberra to a number of key village centres on Taveuni, Fiji’s second largest island, as part of Operation FIJI ASSIST 2016.

The deployment of landing craft is as old as the navy itself. The new generation of vessels takes this workhorse vehicle to new heights and capabilities.

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he idea of small landing craft operating from larger amphibious ships is not new. As early as August 1914 the RAN requisitioned the steamer Berrima for use as a troop carrier in the waters of German New Guinea. To accomplish her role through those early stages of the Great War, Berrima utilised her own ship’s boats to ferry the 1,500 embarked troops from ship to shore. Over the ensuing decades the idea of purpose built landing craft began development. For the RAN this meant the effective

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deployment of these small troop transports from three infantry landing ships in the Second World War, some similar craft in the early 1950s, and in 1969 the fast troop transport HMAS Sydney was fitted to carry up to six of the small, but still effective LCM 6s, to move soldiers and cargo ashore when anchored in Vietnam. From 1993, the RAN operated four local designed and built landing craft, vehicle and personnel (LCVPs) from the landing ship heavy HMAS Tobruk, replenishment oiler HMAS Success and

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from the early 2010s, HMAS Choules. The aluminum-hulled craft were built by Geraldton Boat Builders to carry up to 36 personnel or a Land Rover with a half-ton trailer. As of 2017, two of the LCVPs are carried aboard Choules. NEW GENERATION The RAN’s latest generation of landing craft mechanised (LCMs) comprise the very successful and much faster LCM-1E type. Navantia had delivered 12 of the class to the Spanish Navy between May 2006 and January 2008. After considering a French LCM catamaran design, the RAN selected Navantia’s LCM-1E proposal, designed from the outset for inter-operability with the Canberra class LHDs. Then in February 2009 a sole source request for tender was

Photo: LSIS Helen Frank.

PROJECT COMPLETE, TRAINING ON SCHEDULE, MISSIONS UNDERWAY


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second batch to HMAS Waterhen in Sydney in February 2015, the last batch was built and tested in Cádiz, Spain, and shipped to Australia for delivery to Waterhen on 15 November 2015.

issued for the design and construction of 10 or 12 LCM-1Es. Operationally, eight of the type would be required for the two LHDs, with another pair for training and two for trials and maintenance. The new LCMs were slightly smaller than the older Australian Army LCM-8s they replaced. On 27 September 2011 the Government announced the purchase of 12 of the medium-sized craft through Joint Project 2048 Phase 3. Delivery of the first batch of four was timed to coincide with the delivery of the first LHD, with maintenance and support provided by Australian industry. DELIVERY The first four LCM-1E landing craft for the RAN departed Spain on 8 March 2014 on board the cargo ship Dijksgracht. Sailing from the Navantia yard in Puerto Real the ship arrived in Sydney in early April. During 2014 Navy also decided to re-classify its new LCM1Es as LLCs (LHD landing craft). After the successful delivery of the

FEATURES Designed with both bow and stern ramps the LLC possesses an effective ‘drive-through’ loading and unloading of vehicles at sea and when beached ashore. The total load able to be carried is 55 tonnes (or 65 tonnes overload in calm conditions) on the craft’s 103 square metre vehicle deck. For the troops being transported from over the horizon to the landing site, each LLC has been fitted with improved ballistic protection (against hostile small arms) to maximise the safety and protection of the personnel being moved. Only minor changes were incorporated into the original design, including bow and aft anchors and improved habitability to meet Australia’s harsher climatic needs. Power is provided by twin Bazan MTU diesels driving two waterjets and developing 2,200 hp for a maximum 20 knots, a good speed for this type of landing craft. Fuel capacity is approximately 6,400 litres, with a range of 90 nm at the economical speed of 12 knots with a 55 tonne load. IN SERVICE On 6 February 2016 the LHD Canberra demonstrated her amphibious capacity for the latest group of trainee sailors. Utilising her own LLCs nearly 350 personnel were transported across Western Port Bay from the shore establishment HMAS Cerberus. Once on board Canberra the trainees witnessed helicopter and dock operations. Canberra had been operating off the Australian east coast conducting Exercise Ocean Explorer. The exercises were part of the lead-up to her Final Operational Certification, due in 2017. Already some units have been

deployed on humanitarian missions, the most notable being in the South Pacific in March 2016 as part of Operation FIJI ASSIST 2016 when the LLCs transported aid from HMAS Canberra to a number of village centres on Taveuni Island on the eastern side of Vanua Levu, Fiji’s second largest island. Canberra also took part in Exercise RIMPAC in June 2016 as the ship’s first multi-national deployment with the LLCs. Later, on 23 August 2016, an part of the LLC training schedule, the Amphibious Landing Craft Faculty at Waterhen completed the first LHD Landing Craft Coxswains course, a key developmental milestone for the amphibious capability of the ADF. WORKING WITH THE LHDS When operating with the Canberra class LHDs, the LLCs are manoeuvred through the stern gate into the well dock. Four main decks are a feature of the overall ship design including the well dock level for the four landing craft and the 1,410 square metre heavy vehicle deck for larger cargoes and vehicles (forward of the well dock). Army personnel are responsible for terminal management and loading of the LLCs, with the vessels manned and supported by Navy. Both LHDs feature a fixed ramp (steel beach) between the well dock and the heavy vehicle/cargo deck. Up to 110 vehicles, depending on their size and configuration, can be loaded across the two vehicle decks, and many of these would be taken ashore by the LLCs. The well dock measures 69.3 metres long and 16.8 metres wide, with an overall area of 1,164.24 square metres. The well dock is divided into two sections to properly secure the landing craft. It can also handle watercraft from allied nations, including LCUs (landing craft utility), LARC-V amphibious vehicles and one USN LCAC (landing craft air cushion).

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CHINOOKS AHEAD OF TIME Ross Gillett reports on this new boost to the Army’s capabilities.

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ne of the most successful military helicopters operated by the military, the CH-47 Chinook is currently flown by 21 world armies or air forces. The aircraft is named after the Native American Chinook people. In service with the Australian Defence Force (ADF) since December 1974, 12 Boeing CH-47C Chinook heavylift helicopters were initially acquired for duties with the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The order for the CH-47Cs was placed in March 1972 with Australia the first export customer for the helicopter. The C models were transported from the USA to Australia on board the aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne, and were unloaded at Brisbane on 28 March 1974. After 17 years the aircraft were retired in 1989. Plans to sell the Chinooks were

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put on hold late that year, when Army and RAAF investigated their options to reactivate the helicopters. The 1991 Force Structure Review recommended that between four and six Chinooks be reintroduced to service to support the new Black Hawks, with the helicopters preferably being upgraded to CH-47D standard. This deal was signed in May 1991, with seven of the surviving CH-47Cs sold to the US Army for $40 million, with these funds being used to partly cover the cost of upgrading the remaining four to CH-47D status. Total cost of the project was $62 million, of which $42 million was required to upgrade the four helicopters and the remainder to cover the cost of spare parts, administration and new facilities required for the Chinooks at Townsville. The four improved CH-47Ds were returned to service in 1995, but this time operated by the Australian Army. Five years later Army acquired two additional CH-47Ds, followed by another pair in 2012. During 2014-15 the CH-47D force was superseded by seven new CH-47F

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models, and in 2016, another three were delivered. AHEAD OF SCHEDULE In June 2016 it was announced that CASG had delivered the last batch of three new CH-47H Chinook helicopters three and a half months ahead of schedule. The arrival of the extra Chinooks was a major boost to the Army’s medium lift helicopter capability. With 10 of the choppers now available for service, the Army’s battlefield capability rose significantly in the areas of air assault, air mobile, aero medical evacuation, amphibious operations (with the RAN’s new Canberra class landing helicopter dock ships), as well as improving the very important humanitarian assistance and disaster relief capabilities. The final new Chinooks were delivered straight off the Boeing production line, fitted with the latest US Army technologies including updated avionics and, in an era of many new hostile threats, next generation self-protection systems. By utilising a foreign military sales strategy the ADF


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Right: CH-47F Chinook arrives RAAF Base Townsville 13 June 2016 aboard USAF C-17 Globemaster.

Photo: Mark Doran

has successfully leveraged the benefits of being part of a much larger fleet, which has almost reached an amazing 500 of the CH-47Fs now in use with the US Army. As well as benefitting from the scale in the initial CH-47H purchase price, the ADF will also gain financial savings from the much-reduced cost of consumable and repairable items into its future years of service SAVING CH-47D CHINOOKS In April of 2016 one of the unmodernised CH-47D Chinooks (A15202) was presented to the Australian War Memorial. The aircraft selected for transfer to the ACT based memorial operated in Afghanistan. The Chinook was one of three D-models earmarked for handover across to Australian museums, with the others presented to the Australian Army Flying Museum (A15-104) at Oakey in Queensland and the RAAF Museum (A15-106) at Point Cook, Victoria. With the transfer of A15-202, the AWM is now honouring its service with the military and at the same time, encouraging people to learn more about the role of the ADF. This particular Chinook gave excellent service, including numerous humanitarian missions as one of the first aircraft deployed into Afghanistan. Across four rotations it operated in the region for 513 days. For many years Chinooks performed a wide range of civilian and rescue tasks. They also supported Army units in Australian service. Three of the type operated in the Iraq War during 2003 in support of Australian Special Forces. A detachment of two Chinooks was also deployed to Afghanistan during the northern spring and summer months for each year between 2006 and 2013. Two

of these CH-47s were destroyed as a result of crashes. Three other CH-47Ds were retained by Army for training: A15-151 and A15-152 for general and Special Forces training respectively, and A15-201 as a maintenance systems training airframe. CH-47F PROJECT HISTORY The project to obtain the new CH47F Chinook fleet was established in the mid-2000s, and approved by Government in February 2010. A contract for the seven helicopters was signed on 19 March, and included the construction of new facilities, plus two flight simulators, for a total outlay of $631 million. As part of the order the new F models were modified to better enable them to operate from the two Canberra class amphibious ships, but that aside, are basically identical to the aircraft flown by the US Army. Australia’s first two CH-47Fs were delivered in early April 2015. The pair entered service with the 5th Aviation Regiment on 5 May, with the plan for C Squadron to be fully operational with the new Chinooks by January of 2017. The seventh CH-47F was handed over in September 2015. The three additional

CH-47Fs were ordered in December 2015, for a stated cost of US$150 million, including spare parts, related equipment and various support costs. TRAINING Conversion training was undertaken with the two flight simulators, allowing the F models to reach initial operating capacity in April 2016. The 2016 Defence White Paper and its supporting documentation stated that in future years the CH-47F fleet will undergo modifications to enable them to achieve improved aero medical evacuation tasks by the 2025–26 financial year. It is also planned to regularly upgrade the helicopters so that they can continue to be supported through the US military’s logistics system. STATS The new CH-47H is powered by two Textron Lycoming T55-L714 engines with a maximum speed of 315 km/h and range of 600 km. Service ceiling is 5,079 metres. Empty weight is 9736 kg and loaded 20,865 kg. Normal load is 33 fully equipped soldiers or 24 litters. The crew includes two pilots, one loadmaster and one aircrew.

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NEW PILATUS PC-21 TRAINER IN FULL FLIGHT Ross Gillett describes the new Pilot Training System.

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nother major project being managed by CASG has been AIR 5428 Pilot Training System, based on the Pilatus PC-21 single-turboprop, low-wing swept monoplane advanced trainer. An example of the new RAAF trainer first arrived in Australia in early 2010 when one of the planes undertook a month long demonstration tour of Australia, then as a contender for the program.

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ONE AIRCRAFT TO REPLACE TWO Considered by most as the world’s most advanced pilot training aircraft, the Pilatus PC-21 will eventually replace the RAAF’s current trainer force comprising the PC-9/A, employed as the advanced trainer since 1988 and CT-4B aircraft, used for basic training since 1989. The new PC-21 will be based at RAAF Base East Sale in Victoria and RAAF Base Pearce in Western Australia. A total of 49 of the type has been ordered, with the first two

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examples arriving in Australia in mid2017, after completing a series of testing and verification. The aircraft will be equipped with a pressurised cockpit, air conditioning, an anti-G system and on-board oxygen generation. The digital power management system and automatic yaw compensation will ensure the PC-21 will be easy to fly in the circuit, while still providing the performance required for advanced training. FIRST FLIGHT The RAAF’s first PC-21 (A54-001) undertook its maiden flight in Stans on 21 July 2016. The Head of Aerospace Systems in the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group Air ViceMarshal (AVM) Catherine Roberts commented on the milestone.

Photo: Jeff Gilbert - JGPhotographics.com

FIRST VIEWS Designed with a stepped tandem cockpit the PC-21 arrived in Darwin on 11 February that year. The national tour saw the trainer call into Amberley, Tamworth, as home of the RAAF’s Basic Flying Training School, then Williamtown and Richmond. On 22 February the PC-21 visited Canberra

for RAAF personnel to inspect, before it continued on to Point Cook, East Sale, Edinburgh and then Pearce. After a successful visit the trainer departed through Darwin in mid March to return to its Swiss manufacturer.


“This initial flight only seven months after contract signature represents a significant achievement toward implementing the new Pilot Training System for the Australian Defence Force (ADF).” The PC-21 was acquired to satisfy a very wide training envelope, and will be employed almost immediately within the ADF training system, and most importantly, eliminating the need

learning environment, for more personnel to be qualified faster and to a higher standard. It will ensure undergraduate pilots develop the necessary knowledge and skills prior to progressing onto more advanced military aircraft including the F-35A Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, and the Army’s Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter and MRH90 helicopter, which is also operated by the RAN.

“The first of the 49 PC-21s is due to be handed over at RAAF East Sale in June 2017. Under present plans the first undergraduate pilot training course is scheduled for early 2019."

TRIPARTITE EFFORT To achieve the best possible result for the AIR 5428 projects prime contractor Lockheed Martin teamed with both Pilatus and Hawker Pacific to deliver the new ADF pilot training system as part of the seven year, $1.2 billion contract which was signed in late 2015. “This is a true testament to our teammate Pilatus and a proven aircraft that will form the backbone of future pilot training for the ADF over the next 25 years,” says Raydon Gates, chief executive, Lockheed Martin Australia and New Zealand.

for an elementary flying training fleet that also bridges the performance gap between traditional turboprop trainers and the lead-in fighters. To mark the maiden flight Director Air Training Transition Office GPCAPT Chris Hake said, ”It is the right aircraft and the right pilot training scheme to prepare our young pilots for operations in the fifth generation ADF aviation force”. The first of the 49 PC-21s is due to be handed over at RAAF East Sale in June 2017. Under present plans the first undergraduate pilot training course is scheduled for early 2019, with the lead trainer to be used in the preparation of flying instructors whilst the other PC-21s are progressively delivered. ANOTHER CHAPTER Although the Pilatus PC-21 is a key part of the AIR 5428 project, it is only one component of the overall story. The RAAF’s new Pilot Training System will also feature state of the art simulation, an electronic

PARTICULARS When in service, each PC-21 will be capable of sustained low-level speeds in excess of 320 knots and with hydraulically assisted ailerons and roll spoilers can produce fighterlike rates of roll in excess of 200 degrees per second. Crewed by an instructor and student, the 11.2 metre long trainer is powered by a Pratt & Whitney PT6A-68B turboprop (1,600 shaft horsepower). Its maximum speed is 370 knots or 685 kph, with a ceiling of 25,000 feet and normal range of 1,333 km. Up to late 2016the aircraft was operated by six other air arms (totalling 139 aircraft) and in January 2017, the French Armée de l’Air placed an order for 17 aircraft.

The GAP Generation of Critical Mission Support

Global Aerial Platforms Ltd (‘GAP’) manufactures unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for a range of commercial, scientific, environmental, governmental and community purposes. GAP’s UAV models include: n The 6m multi-rotor quad is a robust heavier lift work platform for rural and emergency work. Fitted with the GAPmade super-bucket, as required, for firefighting or aerial irrigation. n The 7.5m + dual fuselage ‘Global Ranger‘ (PICTURED), higher altitude capability, up to 10 hours duration, range 200 kms diameter, payloads up to 40kgs. GPS satellite navigation. Real-time streaming of data and imagery to command posts at sea, ashore or aloft GPS satellite navigation. Real-time streaming of data and imagery to command posts at sea, ashore or aloft.

Multiple tasks related to: n Search and Rescue (maritime, island, alpine rescue) n National border surveillance n Maritime monitoring (pilot boats, fisheries protection, anti-piracy, anti-smuggling) n Emergencies (Fire, Police, Medical) n Vital logistics and couriering n Disaster support (cyclone, seismic, tsunami, aviation & maritime events) n Atmospheric analysis (volcanic, pathogens). n Environmental engineering surveys. n Highway and Infrastructure surveillance n Remote location logistics support. n Drought relief n Forest fire-fighting support n Communications platforms

CONTACTS: Graham Tully Warren Head

Graham.Tully@skygap.co.nz Mobile: 64 27 265 5557 headconsultants@xtra.co.nz Mobile 64 21 340 650


Delivering secure networked communications through partnership.

Leonardo has delivered secure networked communications systems through local partners into naval programmes in more than 40 countries. Our solutions have been supplied into over 250 surface and sub-surface platforms, making the company a truly global provider of integrated naval communications systems. Under the SEA 1442 Program, Leonardo is currently addressing communication systems obsolescence within the Royal Australian Navy’s eight ANZAC Class Frigates. The program will be modernising the Frigates with improved communications management, secure voice and tactical intercom, switching, tactical radios, and a high data rate line-of-sight capability. Inspired by the vision, curiosity and creativity of the great master inventor, Leonardo is designing the technology of tomorrow.

leonardocompany.com Helicopters | Aeronautics | Electronics, Defence & Security Systems | Space


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NAVAL COMMUNICATIONS AND COMMAND SUPPORT – W SEA 1442 The team of Defence suppliers on the Naval Communication and Command Support are busy delivering across the project.

ith the co-operation of a range of Australian and international companies, the project will provide an integrated suite of state-of-the-art communications capabilities for the Anzac class helicopter frigates (FFHs) from mid 2017 onwards. The solution involves enhanced external RF communications and internal tactical communications equipment, the provision of a high-data-rate-

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line-of-sight bearer capacity and the introduction of a modern communications management system. LONG HISTORY In the naval sector, the company’s Land and Naval Defence Electronics Division has enjoyed 50 years of leadership proven by Combat Systems and sensors installed in more than 100 naval units for different customers worldwide. A leader in the design of integrated naval combat systems, the Division has satisfied all the requirements to comply with an evolving mission scenario for any type of ship, of any class and tonnage, from small patrol boats to

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minesweepers and larger aircraft or helicopter carriers. Although the company Leonardo is a recent member in the defence scene, it was originally a part of the long established Italian based Finmeccanica group involved in aerospace, defence and security. The new name of Leonardo was derived from Leonardo da Vinci, one of Italy’s most famous characters, known across the globe. In the past the Finmeccanica group included many well known brands, such as Macchi, AugustaWestland, Ferranti and Alenia, but now with the new name and numerous future prospects it now mirrors the concept

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of ‘One Company’ now inspired by the famous, much creative and inspirational historical figure. NAVAL PROJECTS Leonardo is currently involved in various naval opportunities within the Australian defence industry including: SEA 1180 for the new offshore patrol boat design which is now being downselected for the winning tender to be announced in late 2017 and SEA 5000, for the Future Frigate, of which nine will be built. Both SEA 5000 and SEA 1180 represent a natural development of the capabilities the company has across Australia, particularly the


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communications capability, now firmly established under the SEA 1442 program. SEA 1442 is the Navy’s multiphased program that will upgrade and modernise the existing maritime communications systems on various RAN ships, that in turn will allow networked communications between selected major surface vessels within the Fleet’s newly created task group, led by the new HMAS Canberra and HMAS Adelaide, in their roles as landing helicopter dock (LHD) ships. SEA 1442 will incorporate an upgrade of the communications and information management infrastructure of the RAN. Other phases also include: Phase 1 (complete) was a scoping study. Phase 2B (complete) was a project definition study which refined the scope of work for phases 3 and 4. Phase 3 (in progress) is providing an initial enhanced ADF maritime communications capability with the introduction of the Mobile Tactical Wide Area Network (MTWAN) to a number of major fleet units.

“Both SEA 5000 and SEA 1180 represent a natural development of the capabilities the company has across Australia, particularly the communications capability, now firmly established under the SEA 1442 program." Phase 4 (to begin 2017) will enhance and modernise the communications capability of the Anzac class helicopter frigates, and Phase 5 (being planned) will be the Maritime Communication Modernisation scope to enhance and

modernise the communications capability of the LHDs and Hobart class guided missile destroyers and other legacy platforms. This will include the modernisation and improvements to the technology for these platforms baselined on the Maritime Tactical Wide Area Network (MTWAN) capability being delivered by SEA 1442 (Phases 3 and 4); and the provision of communications systems improvements. The contracts for Project SEA 1442 Phase 4 include the prime acquisition and five-year support contracts for Navy’s eight Anzac class frigates. The modernisation of the capability on board each Anzac will be a significant boost for the Navy, ensuring the frigates achieve and maintain information superiority in the maritime environment. The first upgraded ship, HMAS Perth, is planned to re-enter service in 2018.

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BEYOND THE BILLIONS The Australian Government has committed $195 billion to defence spending in the next decade, and delivering into that capability requires engagement not just with major contractors but with a whole ecosystem of small and medium sized enterprises.

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t the Defence Teaming Centre (DTC) in Adelaide, chief executive Margot Forster heads an industry association whose mission is to connect businesses of all sizes with each other to create a more efficient – and sustainable – supply chain for Defence fulfilment. The DTC is celebrating its 21st anniversary in 2017 and has grown from an initial membership of 24 foundation members – all of them in South Australia – to 250 companies from all over Australia. Forster, who took up the role at DTC in 2016 after a 33 year career with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Airforce, says the Government’s commitment to continuous procurement is good news for the DTC membership and for all companies – large and small – working in the Defence industry. “Having the certainty around a continuous shipbuild for example means that companies in the Defence industry can make investments from a long term perspective, and can start to build the workforce with a level of confidence that the workforce isn’t going to be laid off in five years’ time,” says Forster. “The peaks and troughs which the industry has experienced in the past are not the best way to do business, because you need to build up an understanding, expertise, and a level of competence. “Taking the shipbuilding industry as an example, it takes building two or three ships to really nail it from an efficiency and a capability perspective, and to really be competitive in an international market.” Building “three air warfare destroyers” and then “shutting down”


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is not the way to build a competitive industry. “You get competitive by having a commitment from the Government to continuously building ships and knowing that by the fourth or fifth vessel that we are really going to be up there as a world class competitive shipbuilder,” says Forster. The DTC’s mission is to connect the Defence industry with businesses, and to help smaller businesses connect with each other and the socalled “Primes” – the likes of larger companies such as BAE Systems, Lockheed Martin and Navantia – which ultimately deliver the contracts but need to engage with smaller contractors on the ground in Australia. A majority of these Primes are also members of the DTC, which is also working closely with the new – also Adelaide based – Centre for Defence Industry Capability (CDIC), funded by the Federal Government. “Our mission is to assist the Primes by connecting them with tier one, or tier two or three companies,” says Forster.

unprepared to do so. “There are a lot of small businesses who say ‘there’s a lot of money in Defence, I’m going to give that a shot’. “But even though they may come up with great ideas they don’t appreciate how complicated it is to actually do the business.

"Having the certainty around a continuous shipbuild for example means that companies in the Defence industry can make investments from a long term perspective, and can start to build the workforce with a level of confidence that the workforce isn’t going to be laid off in five years’ time." It is also about helping smaller companies “scale up”. “Individually a company might have a really fabulous niche capability but on its own it is not a company a Prime is interested in,” she says. “But if we can put it together with two, three or four other companies to build a larger capability then the Primes can be very interested.” Many small businesses, says Forster, look at the Defence industry and are ambitious to participate, but are

“So we run a number of programs on how to prepare to do business with Defence and explain to them that it can be a five year journey, and they need to be able to play the long game because that is how long some of these projects take to become real.” Forster also welcomes the Government’s commitment to continuity in procurement, and to building a national capability as a good way of bridging what has – in the past – been something of a “trust

deficit” between Defence and industry. “It will definitely build a better relationship, and help Defence become a smarter buyer from a more integrated industry,” she says. “We will move from a relationship where the industry thinks of Defence as a difficult customer, and Defence looks at the industry as just wanting to sell them their ‘stuff’. “We can have a truly collaborative relationship where both are working together to deliver the outcome we all need, which is a capability in the national interest.” The Government’s commitment to building a “sovereign defence” capability has also been a game changer for the DTC, which was originally created as an association for South Australian defence companies, and which receives project funding from the South Australian Government. “From the moment the Government said we are going to build a sovereign capability using Australian companies with Australian know-how, that was the moment the DTC ignored state borders, and understood we have to

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“The Government’s commitment to building a “sovereign defence” capability has also been a game changer for the DTC, which was originally created as an association for South Australian defence companies, and which receives project funding from the South Australian Government." do this as a nation,” says Forster. “There is now so much work coming down the pipeline that we have to take a national approach. No one state is going to be able to deliver these programs and even though the final assembly work might be done in South Australia there are gaps which can be filled by interstate companies and we need to engage with them no matter where they are.” An example of how the DTC works is its involvement with Plan Jericho, a program of work to enable the RAAF to become a “fifth-generation Air Force”. While Australia is not going to develop a full aircraft building capability in Australia, small and medium sized enterprises have a critical role in delivering innovation

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and technology solutions. “While we are not going to make aircraft here we do have the capacity to find clever ways to integrate the platforms, to process the data and to develop really sophisticated command and control systems,” says Forster. “The RAAF wants to deal directly with small businesses which are innovative, and which have the desire and capacity to work on these small niche projects.” In addition to playing a role in developing an industry eco-system to supply Australia’s Defence needs, the DTC has also had success in helping businesses become exporters of Defence equipment and services. The centre facilitated the Specialist Vehicle Alliance, for example, which has had significant success

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

in exporting defence equipment to Indonesia. The DTC signed a Strategic Partnership Agreement in 2015 with Indonesian specialist vehicle manufacturer PT Pindad. Beyond its role with industry, the DTC is also working with education and vocation training and educational institutions to help train the workforce the industry will need in the future. “We need to have a larger workforce of technically trained people in order to deliver these projects with the full Australian industry involvement,” says Margot Forster. “That means not just more university graduates, it means reaching back into our primary schools and creating an interest in our children and showing them there are meaningful long term careers in engineering and technology, because we also need to increase this pipeline. “So we are very actively working with education stakeholders to make sure we are pulling whatever levers to make sure we get the workforce we need.”


TOLL’S MISSION CRITICAL SERVICES AND TRAINING EXCELLENCE

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or more than 10 years Toll Helicopters has provided safe and reliable helicopter services including emergency medical service, search and rescue operations, passenger transfer and logistics support often in remote and challenging locations. With extensive civil and military helicopter experience, the Toll Helicopters team has flown over 6,000 hours, without accident or serious incident and high mission success, in remote and challenging conditions. These safe regional operations extend from the accident free helicopter logistics and aeromedical operations performed for the Australian Defence Force across Timor Leste from 2008-2013. More recently Toll has provided the AFP, the Solomon Islands Government and citizens valued helicopter services with medical evacuation, emergency response following natural disasters, search and rescue, and logistics support for outlying islands. In January 2017, Toll Helicopters commenced service for the communities of Southern NSW and ACT providing mission critical emergency helicopter rescue services. Across the 10-year contract, Toll will operate a fleet of eight ‘best in class’ AW139 helicopters from four bases, the largest AW139 fleet operator in Australia. Headquartered in Australia, but operating across the globe, their integrated team includes pilots, aircrew, helicopter engineers, safety managers, trainers, and inventory and aviation management specialists who bring extensive civil and military helicopter experience as well as offshore, oil and gas operational experience. Toll also built and operates one of the most advanced aeromedical training centres in the world at Bankstown

The training centre house’s the METS30, recognised as one of the best underwater escape training technologies in the world, and is equipped with multiple environmental systems and simulators, such as wind and wave generators, to create highly realistic training scenarios.

Airport, Sydney. The Aeromedical Crewing Excellence (ACE) Training Centre opened in October 2016 and is the Authorised Training Centre for Australia’s first AW139 Level D Full Flight Motion Simulator. With CASA Part 142 approval, it offers Pilot AW139 zero flight time Type Rating and currency training with its FFS. The facility also includes the latest high fidelity virtual reality integrated crew training simulator, winch simulator and a full sea state 3 Helicopter Underwater Escape Training (HUET) theatre, positioning itself as the most advanced training centre internationally providing totally integrated technical and non-technical training. No one helicopter mission is ever the same, search and rescue missions and patient retrieval missions are complex and challenging, so aircrew expertise and teamwork are central to safe helicopter flying and mission success. The ACE Training Centre will allow aircrews to rehearse high risk drills

under safe, highly realistic and simulated conditions to ensure crews are ready to safely complete these tasks in real-life scenarios. The training is also articulated around innovative ‘human factors’ (non-technical) modules to focus on human decision making processes and teamwork that are critical to safe and successful missions. Toll Helicopters holds Registered Training Organisation status, enabling the group to formalise its training under the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) Quality Framework. Initial courses include using the highly advanced HUET facility offering environmental simulation to deliver training for all crews to equip them to survive a ditching or emergency situation. Future programs will include aviation, aeromedical and airborne law enforcement centric courses. For further information: www.tollgroup. com/tollhelicopters or www.tollgroup. com/acetrainingcentre


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MARITIME AND NAVAL SUSTAINMENT

While much focus naturally goes to the development of new capability, the questions around who will maintain these vessels is equally important.

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owadays a great deal of attention is devoted to the actual planning for a new class of warship, followed by the tenders, contracts and then delivery of the units to the Australia Fleet. But equally important are the follow-on years, in many cases decades, when the new class of ships need the all-important extended sustainment from Australian industry. In December 2014 one of Navy’s most comprehensive implementation programs, aimed at improving ships’ seaworthiness and fleet sustainability and preparedness, was completed. RIZZO Known as the Rizzo Reform Program, a joint Navy and Defence Materiel Organisation initiative, the program was established in response to the Plan

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to Reform Support Ship Repair and Management Practices. It investigated the repair, maintenance and sustainment of the current and future amphibious fleet with its 24 recommendations to the Australian Government all accepted. The major areas of focus included asset and capability management, understanding and managing the total cost of platform ownership, addressing shortfalls in naval engineering and maintenance, integrated risk management and culture as well as the introduction of the Defence Seaworthiness Management System. NEW AGREEMENTS In recent years many new contracts have also been signed in the overall process to enhance the levels of sustainment. In April 2016 a new sustainment agreement was announced between the Australian

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

Government and the defence industry to support the RAN’s eight Anzac class frigates. The partnership, which included BAE Systems Australia, Saab Australia Pty Ltd, Naval Ship Management Pty Ltd and the Commonwealth, was valued at over $2 billion over eight years – at the heart of which is Navy’s requirement for improved capability and availability of the fleet. Across the nation many of BAE Systems maritime facilities will contribute to the program including asset management in Rockingham (Western Australia), platform engineering and integration support in Williamstown (Victoria), and major refit and upgrade implementation at Henderson (Western Australia). The initial eight year agreement period began on 1 July 2016. The agreement, which includes a Life of Type Assurance Program (LOTAP) for the frigate fleet, started in April 2017 with the first ship HMAS Perth. The scope of work includes improving the ship’s engines, propulsion, lighting, heating, cooling, and communications systems. HOBART CLASS In December 2016 Minister Pyne announced a five-year contract worth $70m for the sustainment of the three Hobart class guided missile destroyers as each ship is delivered and then transitioned into full operational service. With the destroyers to be homeported at Garden Island in Sydney, the winning contractor, BAE Systems, already offers a presence at the RAN’s largest naval base. BAE Systems will now develop and manage the supporting industry supply chain to deliver the full range of sustainment services required during the initial five year period. The new contract will build upon BAE Systems’ successful maritime sustainment partnerships including the FFG Enterprise to sustain the remaining Adelaide class guided missile frigates and the Warship Asset Management Alliance for the sustainment and upgrade of the Anzac frigate fleet (see above).


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QUEENSLAND The city and port of Cairns in northern Queensland has won a $55 million a year contract to maintain Navy’s Armidale class patrol boats that may establish the area as the biggest ship repair hub in the country. The successful tender from Thales Australia will service all of the boats until they are gradually retired from service in the decade ahead. The new class of offshore patrol vessels, to be built in Adelaide (two units) and Rockingham (10 units) will start to replace the existing fleet from 2020 onwards, with Cairns to then become a logical choice to service these successor vessels. To achieve the follow-on contracts it is hoped that the marine precinct will receive upgraded wharves, a floating dock, new refit yards, workshops, and hardstands to facilitate repairs ashore. Cairns has already been confirmed as the new homeport to at least three of the 12 new OPVs, with another batch a distinct possibility.

Austal has also announced it has been awarded a $24 million contract to maintain the smaller Pacific class patrol boats it will construct at Henderson in WA and their sustainment in Cairns over seven years. GI UPGRADE A new $213 million upgrade to the RAN’s Garden Island facility in Sydney is to be implemented to improve Defence operations, enhance national security and create hundreds of jobs. Announced on 2 March, the new wharf upgrade project is expected to begin in mid-2017, subject to approval. The existing Cruiser Wharf and Oil Wharf will be demolished and a new wharf with different alignment will be constructed, and an adjoining wharf will be extended to reduce the new wharf’s protrusion into Sydney Harbour. LHDS Maintaining the two new LHDs in the best condition is another major project being

undertaken with private industry. The initial four-year support contract (with a fifth year option) was won by BAE Systems Australia to take the ships from acceptance through to their first potential docking cycle in the Captain Cook Graving Dock in Sydney. Darren Kirkby, BAE’s General Manager Maritime Sustainment said: “Navy can self-sustain but what we tend to do now is join the ship on its way back from a deployment.” There will be a one-year gap between the planned dockings for Canberra and Adelaide, a period of time that will allow the lessons learnt with ship one to mitigate any risks that might otherwise present with the second LHD. Engineering design and ILS output support will also be provided by an engineering team at the BAE Systems’ Williamstown facility despite the cessation of shipbuilding activity at that site.

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PERMANENT BUSINESS Defence industry policy is a key plank in the 2016 Defence White Paper, committing Australia to developing a “sovereign industrial capability” which can help guarantee the ADF’s independence of action.

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dded to the Government’s 10 year budget Defence plan, which allocates $195 billion to Australia’s Defence Capability by 202526, the current stance is something of a game-changer for the domestic Defence industry. It has been called a program of “perpetual business” which, instead of procuring defence equipment off the shelf and at irregular intervals, commits to ongoing procurement which can drive and nurture a credible sovereign industrial capability. In the words of the White Paper, the goal is the “development of a

technologically advanced, innovationdriven and sustainable Australian defence industrial base, which is well placed to assist Defence in protecting Australia’s national interest.” Robert Wylie is a lecturer at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra. His research focuses on how Australia, as a small open trading economy, can balance indigenous development and overseas procurement to achieve its national strategic objectives. Wylie draws on his previous experience in Federal Government Departments of Treasury, Defence

and Prime Minister and Cabinet to place the current policy of sovereign industrial capabilities in context, and to identify the risks and potential rewards in its implementation. Wylie stresses that today’s sovereign industrial capabilities are all embedded in commercial companies. Many – but by no means all – of these capabilities are descended from government munitions factories and naval dockyards, themselves often the legacies of World War Two. These legacy assets were corporatised and privatised as part of a major defence industry policy initiative in the 1980s, culminating in what is now Thales, a private company with annual turnover of around $1 billion. Other mission critical capabilities are the legacy of Service in-house workshops that were outsourced and privatised in the early 1990s. Boeing Australia is a case in point. ASC represents yet another category

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of sovereign industrial capability that has been created through leveraging capital equipment procurement contracts to establish in the platform construction phase the capacity required to support that platform in-service. These commercial investments are the bedrock of the perpetual business based on defence procurement of goods and services from the private sector. Looking forward, however, Robert Wylie believes that the Defence customer and its commercial suppliers are still working out a mutually satisfactory business model, a process which is a key component of future plans. Wylie notes that the 2016 Defence White Paper included new phraseology around “sovereign industrial capabilities” which takes the defence industry commitment several steps further, but also creates risks and challenges as well as opportunities. “Australia has always had a choice between making stuff itself and importing it,” he says. “But in the past those choices were made on a case by case basis,

and what we are seeing in the 2016 statement are the seeds for a much more strategically driven policy for the development of local capacity. “Does that mean complete selfsufficiency? It does not. “We won’t develop our own F-35 aircraft, but there are certainly areas where we will get a very good return from our indigenous capacity. For example, an indigenous capacity to adapting command and control communications and surveillance systems to our own circumstances would yield good returns in terms of helping guarantee the ADF’s capacity for independent action.” In this context, Wylie points to the indigenously developed Jindalee Operational Radar Network as making a major contribution to Australia’s sovereign capacity to secure Australia’s northern maritime approaches. He acknowledges the development of effective acoustic signature management systems on the collins class of submarines as another example of what the local defence industry has achieved. “The ability to manage the acoustic signatures of our platforms and


“The example of Thales, which is the monopoly producer of rifles and small arms ammunition, shows that this risk can be managed successfully. In the case of monopolies, Wylie says the key to a productive result is transparency on cost structures." systems is an area that is closely held even by the most trusting of allies,” he says. “So in the case of the collins class submarines we had to develop this ourselves, and the then Defence Science Technology Organisation did a sterling job and these tiles are now manufactured locally. “They are an example of a real capability multiplier and there are many others like it, and it is an example of one of those niche areas where we get a major return from investing in military technology innovation.” As Australia commits to the further development of its defence industry through the White Paper, Wylie identifies some risks. Australia, he says, needs to be careful that it doesn’t opt for equipment programs largely because they include a significant local manufacturing component. The priority should always be on enhancing the capability of Defence, not on using Defence as a pillar of domestic industry policy. To foster a real culture of innovation also requires the ability to tolerate the failure which is a necessary part of ongoing success in innovation and developing new intellectual property. This needs to be driven “from the top down”. An encouraging example of such top down regard for local innovation is the Anzac ship’s active phased array for anti-ship missile defence developed in a fruitful partnership between Navy, the then DSTO, CEA Technologies and SAAB Australia. The management and the creation of monopolies is another risk inherent

in the development of sovereign industrial capacity says Wylie. The example of Thales, which is the monopoly producer of rifles and small arms ammunition, shows that this risk can be managed successfully. In the case of monopolies, Wylie says the key to a productive result is transparency on cost structures. Beyond that, he believes in the “need to link Defence investment with Defence preparedness”. “Preparedness is one of the key elements of military capability,” says Wylie. “Fundamentally, it is about how quickly the ADF can respond to government and deploy for a job, and how long the ADF can remain deployed and continue doing that job effectively. “I believe our defence industry policy should be about preparedness, and there should be a whole policy framework around how to invest in it.” Once again, he says that “transparency is a key”. “I am arguing for a set of principles for defence industry policy which are linked to the preparedness of the Defence forces,” Wylie says. He notes that Defence publishes basic information about ADF preparedness levels regularly in the Defence Annual Report. “The government should build on and extend this transparency by commenting on the efficiency and effectiveness of industry’s contribution to overall ADF preparedness,” he says. “I think this will deliver better outcomes for both defence and for industry, and enhance our chance of success in meeting our objectives.”

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VITAL INFRASTRUCTURE RENEWAL IN 2017 The 10-year Integrated Investment Program was designed to bring together all capability-related investment including new weapons, platforms, infrastructure and science and technology.

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n 2016 the Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and Minister for Defence Marise Payne officially released the Defence White Paper at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra. Some of the announcements included an extra $30 billion being spent over the following decade with the percentage of GDP expenditure on Defence to increase to 2 percent by 2020-21. The government committed to a continuous rolling acquisition program for 12 submarines and some previously unforeseen acquisitions such as an innovative review process to possibly replace the last 25 F-35s planned for acquisition with a sixth-generation fighter, that will be an option in the late 2020s, and a land-based cruise anti-ship missile capability for Army. The Defence White Paper was the culmination of detailed analysis of Australia’s strategic environment, its defence priorities and objectives, and the capabilities required to achieve these outcomes. It was further stated that the Defence White Paper fully aligned strategy, capability and resources to make the Australian Defence Force (ADF) more capable, agile and potent. It also set a new benchmark for transparency and funding certainty by releasing an Integrated Investment Program and Defence Industry Policy Statement. In the period up to 2035, Australia is expected to enjoy greater opportunities

for prosperity and development but it will also face greater uncertainty. The Defence White Paper has positioned the ADF to respond to this broader range of security threats with the Government to invest in new capabilities across the ADF. These include: • A continuous naval shipbuilding program commencing with nine Future Frigates and 12 offshore patrol vessels • 12 regionally-superior submarines, with the commitment to maximise Australian industry involvement in acquisition and sustainment • Enhanced intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, space, electronic warfare and cyber capabilities • Advanced training, modern equipment, health care and logistics systems to support ADF personnel • Comprehensive upgrades to Defence infrastructure across Australia to support the larger future force, including key bases, training and testing ranges and fuel and explosive ordnance facilities • A modernised information management, operational communications, and command and control systems. A major milestone in the anticipated arrival of the first batch of the Air Force’s new F-35A Lightning II Joint Strike Fighters was achieved at RAAF Base Williamtown in September 2016 with

the formal opening of the first runway extension to allow operations of the new warplanes to begin. The $1.5 billion upgrade is now ready for the maiden arrival of the first of the new F-35As, planned for 2018. Work on the project began back in May 2015, and has now extended the 2,438m long south-east runway by another 340 metres. The first aircraft to use the new runway was a DASH 8 passenger aircraft, on its regular morning flight to Brisbane. As part of the process, the upgrade also featured a new taxiway, aircraft safety point and new approach lighting. The final aspect of the extension will involve the lengthening of the north-west runway, with these works expected to be completed in mid 2018, to provide an eventual overall length of 3048 metres. On 7 December 2016 the Minster for Defence Industry, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, announced an upgrade of the Osborne South Naval Shipyard. The Department of Defence and Odense Maritime Technologies of Denmark would work together on the infrastructure upgrades needed for the delivery of the Government’s new continuous naval shipbuilding program. Odense would work with a range of stakeholders including Defence, the South Australian Government and ASC to deliver a surface vessel shipyard able to support both the minor and major surface vessel programs now and into the future, including the new Offshore Patrol Vessels and Future Frigate programs, all of which will be carefully managed. “This would ensure that the Hobart class Air Warfare Destroyers and Collins Class sustainment activities would continue unimpeded”, the Minister said. Substantial facilities and infrastructure

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upgrades will begin to take place to ensure the capacity and capability of the Osborne South Naval Shipyard as it continues to grow. Additional infrastructure renewal has also taken place at Sydney’s Garden Island for the new Canberra class LHDs and Hobart class destroyers. The proposed new Through Life Support Facility is now located on the historic Garden Island complex in the form of a new 5,600 square metre three-storey building built adjacent to the 1945 vintage Captain Cook Graving Dock, and on the site of the former Building 314. The new office complex accommodates the Through Life Support Facility and Systems Program Offices for both warship classes, to maximise the efficiencies and synergies of these functional areas. Another facility is the LHD Remote Monitoring Station, proximate to the

ships’ berths, with the capacity for duty personnel from each ship to operate their vessel’s Remote Monitoring System. Alterations to vacant space in Building 122 at Garden Island, an asset then occupied by the RAN Port Services Manager – East, was proposed as a cost effective solution for this function. The separate AWD Lay Apart Store partially occupies one end of Building 104 after the Thales licence expired on 30 June 2013. The store provides a 50 square metre caged enclosure for each ship, totalling 150 square metres, and a shared office on an existing mezzanine level. The Air Combat Capability (NACC) Facilities Project is a $1.6 billion investment into RAAF base facilities at: • RAAF Base Williamtown (NSW), • Defence Establishment Myambat (NSW), • RAAF Base Tindal (Northern Territory)

• Forward Operating Bases at RAAF Bases, Townsville (QLD), Darwin (NT), Curtin (WA), Scherger (QLD), Learmonth (WA) and Pearce (WA). This national project provides upgrades to RAAF base facilities in preparation for the Joint Strike Fighter’s introduction later this decade. The NACC Facilities scope at each site relates specifically to facilities and infrastructure works, not the aircraft or its operations. In December 2016 the Minister for Defence Industry launched the Defence Innovation Hub and called for submissions through its innovation portal. “The Defence Innovation Hub will invest around $640 million over the decade into maturing and further developing technologies that have moved from the early science stages into the engineering and development stages,” he said.

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“The Hub is all about an agile and transparent approach to innovation investment with the introduction of new business practices, including refreshed contracting frameworks and innovative intellectual property policies.” Minister Pyne said industry was invited to work with the Hub’s business advisers by submitting proposals through the innovation portal. “The innovation portal provides transparent and timely information such as Defence’s priority innovation needs,” Minister Pyne said. Once received, Defence will assess proposals submitted through the portal for ongoing management by the Defence Innovation Hub. “Defence recognises that great ideas can originate from a wide range of participants, from industry through to academia and researchers,” Minister Pyne said.

The Centre for Defence Industry Capability was also launched to provide a range of advisory services to support small to medium enterprises in the development of proposals they wish to submit to the Defence Innovation Hub. In early February 2017 it was announced that Ultra Electronics Avalon Systems Pty Ltd would receive Australian Government funding of $1.7 million to develop and demonstrate an innovative technology to enhance Defence capability, a project to develop techniques to provide naval ships with early warning of incoming low flying air threats, such as anti-ship missiles. In another example of Government and private enterprise working together, the new system will complement the existing ship-borne radar systems, and at the same time utilise the defence dollar to drive a higher technology, advanced manufacturing future.

“We need to ensure that we maximise opportunities for Australian Industry to contribute to meeting our capability needs,” Minister Pyne said. The 2016 Defence Industry Policy Statement outlined the Government’s commitment to building and harnessing the innovation potential of Australia’s defence industry. These examples of Defence moving ahead with its programs and doing its best to involve Australian local industry are but a few of the massive number of projects being undertaken by CASG, the ADF overall, and the single services, at any one time. The ADF is in the process of a major renewal of front line and support equipment, training of personnel and industry involvement, all of which will result in a much improved Australian Defence capability for decades ahead.

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FUTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

More militaries around the world are moving into a new generation of highly capable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

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lthough UAVs can be traced back to 1918, it has taken numerous recent technological advances to properly showcase the abilities of these longendurance, high-flying remotely piloted machines. For the Australian Defence Forces (ADF), this has meant the slow initial use of, and now gradual orders of small numbers of the different model vehicles to satisfy the specific needs of the three ADF partners, the Navy, Army and Air Force.

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NAVY The RAN’s early experiences with drones included the very early and much used Jindivik target drone, and then from 1998, theBAE Kalkara Unmanned Aerial Target. The latter was a pilotless high performance remotely controlled target drone manufactured by BAE Systems USA. A total of 20 drones was delivered, being operated by Boeing Australia at the Jervis Bay Range facility. In May 2016 the RAN conducted flight trials for the new Scan

CAPABILITY ACQUISITION & SUSTAINMENT OUTLOOK 2017

Eagle drone for surveillance and reconnaissance. The machine sends video and telemetry to its control station in near real time and can be configured with various sensors and propulsion modules. The ScanEagle system consists of a mission control station, catapult launcher, recovery system and multiple unmanned aircraft. The standard navy crew model is an air vehicle operator, mission commander and ground crew. It has an operating range of about 124 miles and a flight endurance of


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more than 12 hours. The trial was conducted aboard the amphibious ship HMAS Choules. Demonstration flights were then carried out in early June 2015 with Schiebel´s CAMCOPTER S-100 UAS in a series of flights which successfully demonstrated its multi-sensor capability to the RAN and other Australian Government departments. The demanding trials took place near Nowra, on the south east coast of Australia, and encompassed multiple scenarios, performed during both the day and night. The primary goal was to provide Navy with a comprehensive understanding of how an advanced rotary wing UAS could be effectively used to support maritime and littoral Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR) tasks. The three key mission payloads: the Finmeccanica - Selex ES SAGE ESM and PicoSAR radar and the L-3 Wescam MX-10 were operated in realistic maritime security scenarios in the littoral and open ocean. FUTURE NAVY On 6 February 2017 the RAN announced that the Schiebel Group had won the contract to provide a number of Camcopter S-100 unmanned helicopters, plus three years of logistical support. Signed earlier in December 2016, the $16 million project will build on the knowledge and experience already gained through operating the earlier fixed wing ScanEagle unmanned system, and will now allow Navy to further define overall ADF requirements for operating tactical unmanned systems in the all-important maritime environment. The RAN issued its request for tenders back in February 2016 calling for an unmanned rotary-wing aircraft to perform maritime and littoral ISR missions. Other contenders included the UMS Skeldar V-200 and the larger

The Schiebel Camcopter S100 UAS UAV drone

“Currently the RAN employs the Boeing/Insitu ScanEagle from a variety of ships. The service plans to add a hyper spectral payload to the tactical air vehicle this year, and to establish a full UAV squadron. By the end of 2017 it will be operating two unmanned flights at sea, wherever possible partnered with a manned capability. " Northrop Grumman MQ-8C Fire Scout. The new maritime rotary wing unmanned aircraft system is being acquired to support trials and evaluation activities for at least the next three years. Overall, the contract comprises two S100 Camcopter airvehicles with mission control systems, as well as the engineering, logistics and operational support. The incountry support is being provided by BAE Systems, based in Nowra and Unmanned Systems Australia in Brisbane. With an empty weight of 110 kg and powered by heavy-fuel or gasoline engines, the S-100 can carry a payload of 75 pounds for more than six hours. Fitted with an optional external fuel tank it is able to operate for more than 10 hours. The S-100 has a beyond line-of-sight operating range of 200 km. The aircraft operates outside the range of the organic sensors of the

platform it is operating from and supplements the maritime operating picture for the principal warfare officer. In turn this frees up the manned aircraft being operated by the frigate or destroyer. The RAN introduced this new vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle capability on 29 April 2017 ahead of a later potential operational acquisition in the early 2020s. Currently the RAN employs the Boeing/Insitu ScanEagle from a variety of ships. The service plans to add a hyper spectral payload to the tactical air vehicle this year, and to establish a full UAV squadron. By the end of 2017 it will be operating two unmanned flights at sea, wherever possible partnered with a manned capability. The new maritime UAV can be teamed with an ADF MRH-90 or RAN Sikorsky MH-60R as part of a manned/unmanned teaming concept.

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“For future activities, Army has plans to introduce a single person launched and operated UAV. Known as the small unmanned aircraft system or SUAS, it will provide information to commanders at the Combat Team level and below with enhanced situational awareness through improved reconnaissance and surveillance coverage." More specifically, the RAN expects to team the smaller ScanEagle with the MH-60R and a future operational VTOL UAV with the larger MRH-90. By the early 2030s Navy will be operating around 30 helicoptercapable ships. Eight flights will fly with MH-60Rs and three with MRH-90s. The latter has now reached their initial operational capability at sea, with full capability in this and other roles expected within a few years. The RAN will comprehensively test a number of new systems to reduce risks ahead of acquiring a permanent

unmanned capability in the early 2020s, that will see the capability fully utilised in the future fleet. ARMY For Australia’s land forces RQ7B Shadow 200 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide the all important intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) support. The Shadow 200 carries a suite of high resolution cameras above patrolling troops to provide detailed information about activities

on the ground. The air vehicle has approximately eight hours endurance, and ground troops are able to receive footage and data from the air vehicle in real-time using ground terminals. The air vehicles are rail-launched, have a gross weight of 208 kilograms, and are powered by a 29 kilowatt rotary engine. For future activities, Army has plans to introduce a single person launched and operated UAV. Known as the small unmanned aircraft system or SUAS, it will provide information to commanders at the Combat Team level and below with enhanced situational awareness through improved reconnaissance and surveillance coverage. The SUAS reconnaissance capability has been likened to that of a flying pair of binoculars.

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RAAF Remotely piloted unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will play a pivotal role in the RAAF’s ability to deliver air power effects in the support of national security interests. The true importance of such systems will be to extend and complement the existing human capability. UAS extend air power’s endurance by providing potentially unlimited persistent capabilities without degradation due to human fatigue or inattention. The benefits provided by the UAS include electronic warfare and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and possibly, as a strike platform. The range of UAS now operated and being acquired or considered for Air Force by the Australian Government are remotely piloted. Air Force currently operates the Heron from RAAF Base Woomera in South Australia, flying in

restricted military airspace for training purposes. These Heron aircraft have also completed more than 27,000 mission hours in Afghanistan airspace, providing high resolution intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support to Australian forces and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) partners in southern Afghanistan. Australia’s Heron detachment in Afghanistan flew its final mission for Operation SLIPPER from Kandahar Air Field on 30 November 2014. Looking ahead, the Government has committed to the purchase of the remotely piloted MQ-4C Triton subject to the successful completion of the US Navy development program currently under way. To be based at RAAF Base Edinburgh in South Australia, the Triton will be capable of supporting missions of over 24 hours while covering an area of over one million square nautical miles. The MQ-4C Triton and manned

P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft will provide the nation with one of the most advanced maritime patrol and surveillance capabilities to replace the ageing AP-3C Orion fleet. OVERSEAS Platforms such as the Predator MQ-1 and Reaper MQ-9 and the USN’s Unmanned Combat Air System (UCAS), which witnessed the extraordinary X-47B operate off a nuclear powered aircraft carrier, have signalled the start of a greater and more useful force of UAVs by the US military. Other operators flying their own distinct models include Air Forces in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. As well, in recent years the USA has increased its use of drone strikes against targets in foreign countries and elsewhere as part of the War on Terror.

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CAREER CHANGING TO MEET THE NEEDS OF DEFENCE Australia’s defence capability requires a range of specialised skills beyond front line roles and combat professions. This will often mean attracting people into the field from other professions. By Lachlan Colquhoun.

Photo: Australian Maritime College, University of Tasmania

S

taff required to support defence projects in supply and management roles need to be highly skilled and specialised, and must possess an intimate knowledge of the complex demands which go into supplying and maintaining a combat force. However, many of the skills which are critical to the defence industry are also in short supply in the wider Australian economy, and finding enough of the – adequately trained – people is an ongoing issue. Defence industry firms often struggle to fill vacancies in occupations such as systems and electronics engineers, and

in some areas the supply of people from education and training institutions is simply not enough. This applies not only to professions such as engineers and designers. Tradespeople working in the naval shipbuilding industry, for example, often require highly specialised skills that demand post-trade training and industrial experience. The upskilling and retraining of Defence people as they move into new careers is also a key trajectory, and this pathway has become well recognised as a way of maintaining and deepening the skills base of the Defence community and the overall national capability.

These needs have been well recognised for some years, and were addressed in a 2012 report by Skills Australia for the Defence Industry Workforce Strategy. "Skills Australia’s vision for this Strategy is that Defence industry has the workforce capability it requires for a productive, sustainable and inclusive future, and that Australian enterprises have the capacity to develop and use the skills of their workforce to maximum advantage for the benefit of industry and the community,” the report said, recognising that addressing the issue required coordinated efforts by Government, industry and education providers. That report noted that while the numbers of people employed in directly supplying Defence needs at any one time was quite low, at around 25,000, this was a uniquely trained workforce. The Future Submarine Force project is an example of these needs, and shows how they are being met.

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Lockheed Martin’s new high-tech laboratory in Adelaide to support the design, delivery and sustainment of the future submarine force was opened in March, and involves significant technology transfer which requires an upskilling of the workforce to deliver to the highest standards. Building an ongoing shipbuilding industry – and establishing the supporting sustainment supply chain – is one of the key capabilities coming out of the 2016 Defence White Paper, and upskilling across a range of professions will be required to fulfil this vision. One of the key institutions addressing this need is the Australian Maritime College (AMC) at the University of Tasmania in Hobart. AMC has a unique position as Australia’s national maritime centre with the most advanced maritime research facilities in the Southern Hemisphere.

This creates an exceptional environment for facilitating research in diverse areas such as maritime renewable energy, naval architecture, fluid dynamics, offshore engineering, human centred design, sustainable ports and underwater robotics. Most of these capabilities are as relevant for the development, design, operation and sustainment of naval vessels and base infrastructure as they are for commercial vessels and maritime structures. AMC has enjoyed a longstanding collaborative relationship with the Defence Science and Technology Group and its domestic and international partners. These collaborations have been pivotal for projects such as reducing the hydrodynamic noise signature of the Collins class submarines, and understanding the operational

load limitations of the Canberra class amphibious assault ship’s landing craft. For the disciplines of maritime engineering and maritime logistics, AMC offers an array of undergraduate and post-graduate courses suitable for the Defence sector broadly. In the area of seafaring, AMC is almost the exclusive provider of vocational education and training (VET) courses that are applicable to the Royal Australian Navy. “AMC is uniquely placed to supply these services to defence and defence industry in the broad disciplines of seafaring, maritime engineering and maritime logistics where common with the needs of the broader maritime industry and commercial shipping,” says Aaron Ingram, the head of the AMC. Ingram is well placed to understand the Defence upskilling issue, and is

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himself a case in point. He is a former RAN Commodore who, during the final phase of his military career held a number of capability related positions, including Director of Navy Force Structure and Warfare. He was also the Director-General of the Force Structure Review and DirectorGeneral of Navy Capability Plans. Ingram says that AMC’s extensive facilities and expertise in training, education and research can be accessed by defence and defence industry to meet niche requirements when it is more cost-effective than developing, acquiring and sustaining replicated capabilities. “These services available from academia will be a vital enabling component of the Naval Shipbuilding Plan for the sovereign generation and sustainment of a workforce skilled in areas such as naval architecture, marine systems engineering, logistics and

The Capability Systems Centre is an independent think tank within UNSW Canberra that offers cutting edge research, analysis and education to government, defence and industry. The Centre’s activities focus on the development, acquisition and sustainment of capability systems by offering: – Independent assurance – Research and independent advice – Training and education We offer organisations the flexibility to choose unique education and training solutions to fit organisational objectives.

“AMC is uniquely placed to supply these services to defence and defence industry in the broad disciplines of seafaring, maritime engineering and maritime logistics where common with the needs of the broader maritime industry and commercial shipping” technology management,” he says. AMC graduates are on several different pathways. Some are leaving combat roles and upskilling to take on a wider role within Defence support, others are moving into the RAN in uniformed roles, while others are entering the RAN as civilians. Entry pathways into the RAN through the AMC are Defence University Sponsorship, Defence Graduate Entry and Navy Direct Entry, although throughput is generally very small owing to the pre-dominance of recruitment and entry through the Australian Defence Force Academy.

The Australian Centre for Cyber Security at the University of New South Wales is the collectivity of some 55 research scholars within UNSW who work on aspects of cyber security in various schools and faculties. The Centre has been based at the Canberra campus since 2014 to address multidisciplinary aspects of the field and to draw together relevant research from UNSW and other universities in Australia and globally. It is the biggest single research and tertiary education centre for multi-disciplinary study of cyber security in Australia. www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/australian-centrefor-cyber-security

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Because of this, AMC Bachelor Degree students have tended to more often enter the Defence sector as civilians through routine recruitment or alternate pathways such as the Defence Graduate Program, Specialised Entry for the Defence Science and Technology Group and industry placements within the Cooperative Engineering Degree program. Ingram says that in expectation of increased demand from the Defence sector and “stimulated by national awareness strategies,” AMC is endeavouring to market these career opportunities to prospective students,

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Photo: Australian Maritime College, University of Tasmania

"Maritime business, logistics, engineering and technology management continue to be the most popular areas of study as they can be undertaken part time through distance learning, and are all generally supported for ADF personnel and sefence civilians and work in collaboration with Defence and industry through career expos and liaison, to draw a potentially higher percentage of undergraduate students towards the full range of entry pathways. Traditionally, however, the majority of higher education provided by AMC has been through post-graduate programs elected by individuals for self-initiated career development. Maritime business, logistics, engineering and technology management continue to be the most popular areas of study as they can be undertaken part time through distance learning, and are all generally supported for ADF personnel and defence civilians by both the Defence Assisted Study Scheme and Studybank. However, in order to deliver the Naval Shipbuilding Plan over the long term, Ingram says the AMC anticipates that Defence and industry will need to take a more formal, organisational approach to the upskilling of its workforces as outlined in the Defence White Paper. In response to this, AMC is pursuing

a range of innovative means to enable the flexible and potentially accelerated delivery of post-graduate courses, and is prepared to collaborate with customer organisations to achieve mutually optimal outcomes. With respect to training seafarers, there are several examples of niche ‘off the shelf’ courses successfully provided to the RAN by AMC, and mandated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. These include high speed navigation for bridge teams of the ex-high speed ferry HMAS Jervis Bay when it was acquired for sea transportation in support of coalition operations in Timor Leste, and life boat launch and operation for naval auxiliary vessels HMAS Sirius and HMAS Choules, which are fitted with some non-military equipment. Owing to the interoperability maintained between AMC and the RAN with respect to the operating systems of navigation and ship-handling simulators, training staff at HMAS Watson have been able to deliver their courses in large ship and tug handling to long

navigation students, annually since the 1980s, facilitated by the AMC Simulation Centre which now has fully integrated bridge and tug simulators. AMC also possesses the flexibility to develop and deliver bespoke short training courses to meet specific customer requirements and unique operating parameters. The best example is the Pacific Patrol Boat Program, where AMC has been contracted to Defence since 1992 to provide seafaring and vessel maintenance training for the naval and police force personnel of the participating Pacific Island countries. “While this longstanding relationship between AMC and Defence, and particularly with the RAN, has delivered a range of successful outcomes, it has been ad hoc and sporadic at times owing to a reliance upon personal rather than organisational relationships, and impacted by frequent staff turnovers and geographic dislocation,” says Ingram. “Owing to the evolution of more extensive opportunities to engage with defence and defence industry, as articulated in the 2016 Defence White Paper, the Defence Maritime Program Manager position has been established by AMC in Sydney to provide a permanent and more accessible point of coordination and external liaison related to the supply of training, education and research services to defence and defence industry. Additionally, the breadth and depth of the organisational relationship between AMC and the RAN has been expanded, and the foundations of enduring collaboration laid, through the establishment of a Training and Higher Education Steering Group co-chaired by Commodore Training and the Defence Maritime Program Manager. Further details regarding AMC’s capabilities as a potential supplier of services to the Defence sector can be found at the website, www.amc.edu.au

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We’ve armed the Department of Defence with executive education. QUT in Canberra delivers executive programs to senior people in the Department of Defence, Department of Finance, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Australian Tax Office, among others. Offering postgraduate studies, short courses, executive coaching, leadership and mentoring programs, we have something to fit every team or leader’s unique situation and challenges.

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he business of government is complex and QUT has the tools to help people be more successful in this environment. QUT is a leading Australian university delivering real-world tertiary, award and professional development programs to the Department of Defence and many other government departments around Australia. QUT’s success in applied learning and high-impact research has been recognised globally and locally. It is ranked in the top 300 universities globally and QUT Business School holds triple-crown international accreditation, placing it in the top 1% of business schools worldwide. Supporting all levels within government, our QUT flagship programs include: • Executive MBA – designed to enrich leadership skills and ultimately help participants become decisive and effective leaders in our complex working environments. With a triple international accreditation status, this program is placed within the top 1% of business schools globally. • Public Sector Management Program – this program is all about developing management skills in the business of government. Delivered on behalf of the Australian Public Service Commission to more than 700 students nationally in every capital city in Australia. • Emerging Leaders Program – workbased blended and flexible program suited to either up-and-coming leaders or those that would like to refresh or add to their existing leadership base. 

QUT also offers one-day master classes for leaders which are ideal as refreshers and to stay on top of the latest research and findings. QUT also has a particular strength in developing customised programs which are carefully co-designed to suit the particular organisation's needs. "What really sets us apart is the interdisciplinary approach of QUT Executive Education, bringing together the strengths of the entire university to solve the unique business needs of each client organisation. "This means we have our worldclass faculty academics, research and experience, complimented with the innovative, agile and relevance of our learning designers and dedicated account managers," said Bob O’Connor, QUT’s Executive Director, Graduate School of Business. This approach encourages participants to reflect on current practices, engage with new ideas, examine issues from multiple

perspectives, plus challenge and extend their thinking within a supportive learning environment. This experiential approach facilitates the transfer of new knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes to the work environment. To support this approach, QUT delivers programs using a range of innovative delivery options including: • Coaching (one-on-one and group) • Facilitated and virtual learning including online learning • Self-paced /eLearning plus personal support • Action learning projects • Blended learning including multi-media • Face-to-face • Reflective practice QUT has a strong reputation for being a real-world university and it continues to deliver on this promise to individuals that are looking to learn, do or become more.

"I have ‘sharpened my tools’ for tackling today’s and tomorrow’s problems and reinforced my undergraduate studies and work experience through studying an Executive MBA in Canberra. A standout for me is the cohort where I have formed a great network and have discovered I am learning not just from the QUT lecturers but from the experiences and knowledge the cohort shares." Damian Telford, Director Branch Operations, Aerospace Maritime, Training and Surveillance, CASG


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Capability Acquisition & Sustainment Outlook 2017  

An independent publication examining Australian defence acquisition and sustainment projects

Capability Acquisition & Sustainment Outlook 2017  

An independent publication examining Australian defence acquisition and sustainment projects

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