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96GE6 50 YEARS OF BRIDGING THE GAP

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DARPA 50th CVR fnl 871metallic.i1 1

2008

3/4/08 4:46:04 PM


innovative contributions sustained leadership Science and technology (S&T) play ever-expanding roles in today’s complex military environment. Whether developing the Saturn IV rocket that enabled the Apollo and Mercury programs to pioneering stealth technology used in the F-117 fighter and other platforms, DARPA develops innovative S&T that bridges the gap between today’s mission requirements and tomorrow’s long-range vision. Booz Allen Hamilton is proud to recognize DARPA on 50 years of contributing revolutionary technologies—transforming the military’s ability to meet its mission.

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Booz Allen, a global strategy and technology consulting ďŹ rm, has a successful track record of helping our clients address their needs. Our consultants provide S&T support to clients in both the private and public sectors who rely on our expertise to execute such critical S&T tasks as feasibility studies, modeling and simulation, analysis, technology transition, and technical evaluations. Booz Allen is committed to aligning our S&T initiatives with DARPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission, and to delivering results that endure.

www.boozallen.com

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Protecting the Warfighter. We take it personally.

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From the traditional battlefields of the past to the urban battlefields of the future, Dino and his colleagues at SAIC bridge the gap by transforming far-side science to near-term solutions. We congratulate DARPA on 50 years of creating innovative technologies for national security and look forward to contributing to the next 50 years. For more information, visit www.saic.com

© 2008 Science Applications International Corporation. All rights reserved.

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AIM

HIGHER At AIAA, shooting for the stars is a way of life. Our 35,000 members are the scientists, engineers, and allied professionals who conceive, design, develop, test, construct, and operate air and space vehicles. In fact, virtually every milestone in modern American ďŹ&#x201A;ight has been achieved by an AIAA member. For more than 75 years, we have been serving our members and the aerospace community through issue advocacy, education, communications, publishing, and professional development. We are constantly working to push aeronautic and astronautic excellence ever higher.

Congratulations to DARPA on 50 Years of Technological Superiority www.aiaa.org

See Aerospace Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s April issue for a retrospective look at 50 years of DARPA innovation, experimentation, and success.

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ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified

API Nanotronics Congratulates DARPA on their 50th Anniversary

Syn'·er·gis'·m Function: noun; interaction of discrete agencies such that the total effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects

It's about diversification. Through the combined efforts of our custom manufacturing subsidiaries, API Nanotronics supports the efforts of the global defense and communications industries.

It's about vision. By coordinating the goals of our subsidiaries, API Nanotronics sharpens the focus on new technologies and capabilities, developing tomorrow's technologies today.

It's about legacy. Ever-mindful of your investment in existing technology, API Nanotronics' subsidiaries offer a full complement of high-grade, new and replacement parts for aircraft, military, medical, and commercial systems built over the past three decades.

API Nanotronics Corp. The Definition of Synergism. • NANO OPTO: creates new classes of densely integrated, modular nano-optical components our design and nano-manufacturing capabilities are redefining cost and performance. • API ELECTRONICS: MIL-PRF-19500 power transistors, tuning diodes, solid state relays, and DC-DC converters. • FILTRAN: Filters, transformers, power supplies, inductors, chokes and coils. • NATIONAL HYBRID: Mil-Std-1553 Data Bus products, SSPC, Power Hybrid, High Density Custom Packaging and Custom State-of-the-Art Hybrid Microcircuits. • KEYTRONICS: Custom magnetics, power transformers, and capacitor networks. • TM SYSTEMS: Naval shipboard visual landing aid equipment. • SENSONICS: Aircraft instrumentation vibrators, circuit assemblies, and solenoids. • ISLIP TRANSFORMER & METAL: Radar signal indicators, circuit card/cable assemblies. • Pace Technology Inc.(PCI) is a wholly owned subsidiary of National Hybrid, Inc. and specializes in the manufacture of hybrid circuits and in the turnkey manufacturing of electronic assemblies and systems. Tel: 631-582-6767 e-Mail: sales@apinanotronics.com www.apinanotronics.com

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Working in the National Interest Like the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the General Atomics companies have a 50-year track record of creating and delivering technical solutions in the national interest. We’ve been carrying on such projects for DARPA ever since 1958, the agency’s first year. Some current examples: PREDATOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, have passed the 300,000 flight hour milestone. Predator® grew out of the GNAT®-750 unmanned surveillance aircraft developed in 1988-89 using experience gained in DARPA’s Amber technology development program. The Reconnaissance Systems Group produces airborne SAR/GMTI packages that enhance the ISR capability of manned and unmanned aircraft. It also integrates the Magnum EO/IR high-resolution imagery systems developed by GA’s Photonics Division. STAND-OFF PRECISION ID in THREE-DIMENSIONS (Spi-3D). Spi3D is an innovative approach to producing high-resolution threedimensional images from a single laser shot. Combined with advanced passive imagery, Spi-3D offers a new approach to precision ISR.

High-resolution passive imagery

HIGH ENERGY LIQUID LASER AREA DEFENSE SYSTEM (HELLADS) is a DARPA-sponsored, new laser weapons system now being developed at GA’s Photonics Division. HELLADS offers a major reduction in weight and volume enabling laser weapons on tactical platforms.

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2/26/08 6:38:43 PM


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DARPA Directors.indd 19

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!30A?0

Intro - Van Atta.indd 20

2/26/08 5:34:16 PM


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30A?0!

Intro - Van Atta.indd 2

3/1/08 6:58:47 PM


rsis on temp.indd 1

10/26/07 4:58:38 PM


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Intro - Van Atta.indd 23

2/26/08 5:35:18 PM


innovation » experience » reach

Telcordia salutes DARPA on 50 years of proud innovation. It takes a special kind of organization to spend five decades on the cutting edge of our nation’s defense. Telcordia congratulates DARPA on a star-studded legacy of pioneering research and development. As we continue our work with DARPA to deliver the future of military communications, we can’t help but anticipate many more landmarks to come.

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©2008 Telcordia Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.

www.mitre.org

024_telmitR.indd 1

2/22/08 2:22:58 PM


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Intro - Van Atta.indd 25

2/26/08 5:35:42 PM


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2/26/08 5:36:37 PM


  

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2/7/08 5:01:45 PM


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"!30A?0

Commercial Implications.indd 32

2/26/08 7:08:11 PM


Happy Birthday DARPA! From Oculus, one of the leading providers of innovative mission focused visualization for defense, intelligence and industry. www.oculusinfo.com

033_ocuqintR.indd 1

2/22/08 2:35:18 PM


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"#30A?0

Commercial Implications.indd 4

3/1/08 6:59:53 PM


50 Years of Bridging the Gap

The Technology Reinvestment Project. By the 1990s, the efficacy of dual-use technology was generally recognized. The benefits of the private sector’s innovation, economy of scale, and rapid and reliable production were well demonstrated. As a result, the Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Act of 1992 led to the establishment of a program designed to maximize the benefits of dual-use technology. The program was named the Technology Reinvestment Project, the TRP, and was placed under the management of DARPA because of the agency’s extensive experience in dual-use technology development. Both the Clinton administration and Congress publicly embraced the concept of the TRP. The program was first led by Dr. Lee Buchanan, then-director of DARPA’s Defense Sciences Office, and later by Dr. Steve Wax. At close to $1 billion, the program became one of the largest commercial investment efforts ever undertaken by the DoD. DARPA was required by Congress to work in concert with other government agencies. Program participants from the Army, Navy, and Air Force helped ensure that the TRP focused on military problems and benefits. In addition, high-ranking officials from other federal departments were also included. Through three solicitations held in FY 1993, 1994, and 1995, the TRP sponsored 133 dualuse technology development projects. But the TRP encountered problems on Capitol Hill. A new, Republican-dominated Congress decided that the program constituted more value for commercial industry than for the military and closed it down. The last TRP solicitation was held in 1994, but TRP’s products continued to emerge for years to follow. Private-sector Developers

Throughout its history, DARPA has often engaged commercial firms to conduct technology and systems development programs. At the heart of this strategy is a principle that is endemic to the agency’s entrepreneurial approach. After finding innovative ideas and technological opportunities that address military needs, the next challenge is to find the best people to develop them. If that means contracting with the defense industry, so be it, but for many fields, such as telecommunications, computing, and materials, the commercial sec-

tor reigns. DARPA has also kept abreast of the rapid advancements in the commercial technology world and added depth to the agency’s knowledge base by hiring private-sector personnel as program managers. One of many examples is Dr. Robert Leheny, now the agency’s deputy director. Before he arrived at DARPA in 1987, Leheny was an executive director for Network Technology Research in the Applied Research Laboratory of Bell Communications Research, Inc. He sponsored work in advancing optoelectronic modules, devices that connect optical and electronic systems. The Commercial Electronics Boom. It was clear to DARPA that the creativity in computing, communications, and information technologies was vested in the commercial electronics industry. It is interesting to note the large number of commercial companies and individuals that were sponsored by DARPA to produce a generation of worldchanging products and capabilities. Some of these companies were specifically created to conduct projects for the agency, and an impressive number of them have become recognized names throughout the globe. Sun Microsystems, Apple, Silicon Graphics, Inc., Cisco Systems, Fore, IBM, Compaq, NCR, Cray Research, and others began programs under DARPA’s sponsorship to contribute to the creation or improvement of distributive computing and open system architectures. The hardware side of the information revolution was addressed by DARPA in the same mode, enlisting Hewlett Packard, Intel, Motorola, Analog Devices, Cisco, Bay Networks, Precept, Intel, IBM, and hundreds of other commercial companies to conduct programs in semiconductor modeling, design, and fabrication. Though at the time no one could predict how ravenous the commercial market would become and how dramatically it would accelerate the advancements in electronics products, it was clear to many that only a market-driven and highly innovative private sector could respond effectively in developing and sustaining the products the military would need. DARPA formed many relationships with the electronics industry from the late 1970s on, and because of the similarities of telecommunication, computing, and robotics needs of the military and civilians, the technologies, and ultimately the products,

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Marketing@Mustangtechnology.com DARPA 35


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2/26/08 7:11:13 PM


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Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) is a science and engineering innovator in the fields of advanced sensors, communications, adaptive signal processing, nuclear systems analysis, and space/missile system technology.

ISL seeks to emphasize a select set of emerging technologies and to develop techniques to bring those technologies to customers, either directly or through joint ventures, strategic partnerships, licenses and teaming arrangements. T h e c o m p a n y â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s e m p l o y e e o wn e r sh i p m o del affo rds a m aj o r employment incentive in recruiting

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top scientists and engineers, and a strong motivation for excellent job performance and employee retention.

Information Systems Laboratories 10070 Barnes Canyon Rd. San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: 858-535-9680 Fax: 858-535-9848 www.islinc.com

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Cree. Innovation & energy-ef๏ฌciency in defense electronics. Cree is proud to have played a role in developing advanced power and RF technology for use by our nationโ€™s defense agencies and aerospace contractors. Creeโ€™s innovative, energy-ef๏ฌcient, products improve performance, reduce energy consumption and save valuable space in the next generation of military electronic systems.

cree.com

2/26/08 5:43:44 PM


sikorskyRR on temp.indd 1

2/21/08 12:05:51 PM


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##30A?0

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from research to reality

Consider this: In 2003 DARPA developed a concept to protect soldiers in the field by delivering real-time reconnaissance. Today the Honeywell MAV is a reality, operating in high risk theaters such as Iraq. Honeywell is currently working to bring other DARPA programs to reality including: Micro-Gas-Analyzer (MGA): As a leader in precision MEMS production we've developed a MEMS based sensor which achieves below part per billion detection of nerve agents. Green fuel: Honeywell subsidiary UOP is developing technology to convert biorenewable sources like vegetable and algal oils to green JP-8 jet fuel providing the military with a cost-effective, sustainable liquid fuel option. Honeywell has ZRUNHG with DARPA for over 25 years. Our unique capability to conduct high technology R&D and our production capability allow us to bring DARPA concepts to reality. Congratulations on your 50th anniversary.

Visit us online at www.honeywell.com Š 2007 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved

honeywellR on temp.indd 1

2/7/08 3:43:48 PM


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Rohm and Haas Company Congratulates DARPA for 50 Years of Innovation Leadership

Radar Applications

Infrared Missile Domes 3D MERFS Microwave Technology

Skin Decontaminatioin Resins

- ITAR-registered wafer foundry for MEMS and microdevices with advanced packaging capabilities

Breaking the Size Barrier in 3D Components

- Development partner for custom microdevices combined with materials innovation - Specializing in wafer level packaging for RF optoelectronics and metal MEMS (3D-MERFS) - Enables size reduction and higher frequency operation for RF (to > 100 GHZ) and optical packages and devices - Rohm and Haas Microfabrication, Blacksburg, VA

Leading Technology for IR Missile Domes Enabling New Capabilities in Advanced Functional Materials and Process Design

- Unique IR transmissive ZnS and ZnSe for missiles, aircraft and combat vehicles - Direct deposition of complex shapes - Rohm and Haas Advanced Materials, Woburn, MA - Protective resins for defense and homeland security - Environmental remediation - Water purification technologies - Alternative energy (Biofuels, Hydrogen, Solar) - Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, PA www.rohmhaas.com

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3/1/08 7:07:03 PM


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Robots-Autonav.indd 55

2/26/08 6:44:32 PM


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Nuke test.indd 61

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2/26/08 5:59:30 PM


syracuseR on temp.indd 1

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novatel.com

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2/26/08 7:01:13 PM


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Anti Sub warefare.indd 74

2/26/08 5:32:47 PM


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3/1/08 7:10:13 PM


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2/26/08 6:00:25 PM


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I.T. Intro.indd 2

3/1/08 7:13:44 PM


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Internet Development.indd 80

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The people who make history are those who deliver the future. www.textronsystems.com

At Textron Systems we’re very proud to work with DARPA, an organization committed to molding seemingly impossible futures into real world advances. Textron Systems’ R&D wing, recently renamed the Advanced Solutions Center (ASC), has worked alongside DARPA for more than 40 years, helping to pioneer many key technologies, especially in the area of directed-energy weapons. Broad in reach, while at the same time sharply focused, the ASC drives successful innovation throughout Textron Systems – AAI, HR Textron, Lycoming Engines, Overwatch Geospatial Operations, Overwatch Tactical Operations, Textron Defense Systems, and Textron Marine & Land. We thank you DARPA, for the leadership you have provided us and the entire defense industry, and for the ongoing delivery of countless innovations that have made American defense technology the envy of the world. We thank you DARPA, for the future.

©2008. Textron Systems Corporation. Textron Systems Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Avco Corporation. Avco Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Textron Inc.

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2/18/08 10:37:50 AM


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DARPA AND ORBITAL

Breakthrough Innovations in Space Technology

Orbital is proud to have worked with DARPA on some of the most innovative space programs to ever fly. As a leader in smaller, more affordable and more responsive space systems, we salute DARPA in its relentless pursuit to create new space-based technologies. Orbital’s DARPA space programs from the mid-1980’s to today include the following: • GLOMR – Global Low Orbiting Message Relay. Brian Bell (DARPA PM), George Sebesteyen (Orbital PM)

• HTV – Responsive launch vehicles for hypersonic test vehicles. Steve Walker (DARPA PM), Lou Amorosi (Orbital PM)

• SCSC – Special Communications Satellite Cluster. Col. Ed Nicastri (DARPA PM), Ray Crough (Orbital PM)

• MiTex – New technologies on a geosynchronous Microsat. Owen Brown and Roger Hall (DARPA PMs), Gregg Burgess (Orbital PM)

• MUBLCOM – Multiple User Beyond the Line of Sight Communications. Robert Ruth and Mark McHenry (DARPA PMs), Bill Coffman and Paul Caporossi (Orbital PMs) • Pegasus – Low-cost, air-launch space launch vehicle. Col. Ed Nicastri (DARPA PM), Robert Lovell (Orbital PM) • Taurus – Responsive space launch vehicle for small-class payloads. Col. Ed Nicastri (DARPA PM), Joe Padavano (Orbital PM)

• AVGS – Precision docking sensor for Orbital Express. Lt. Col. Fred Kennedy and James Schoemaker (DARPA PMs), Christopher Smith (Orbital PM) • System F6 – Pathfinder for fractionated spacecraft. Owen Brown (DARPA PM), Glen Cameron (Orbital PM)

To learn more about Orbital’s innovative small satellites and launch systems, visit www.orbital.com

DARPA did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement. ©2008 Orbital Sciences Corporation

orbital on temp.indd 1

1/11/08 4:45:52 PM


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DARPA: 50 Years of Risk and Reward

Congratulations to DARPA for 50 years of successful missions. Ball Aerospace is proud to have worked with DARPA on developing technologies and forwardthinking programs like Orbital Express.

www.ballaerospace.com

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30A?0 "

Quantum Info science.indd 103

2/26/08 6:55:27 PM


when every bit matters Lumera congratulates DARPA on 50 years of fostering revolutionary ideas and sponsoring radical innovation for national security. Lumera designs and fabricates revolutionary, polymer-based materials that are applied to state-of-the-art, high performance components for optical communications. Lumeraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s optical modulators, suitable for all digital and analog applications, have the highest bandwidths and lowest drive voltages in the industry, with small footprints compared to that of other electro-optic modulators. Lumeraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s materials are also ideally suited for satellite and military communication and high-performance computing platforms.

Applications tAll SONET and Ethernet, and Future Fibre Channel Applications: tVSR through ULH reaches t20Gbps to 100Gbps serial data rates tLine Cards and Subsystems for High Capacity Optical Transport Systems tStandard and Custom Optical Modules and Transponders t20Ghz through 100Ghz Analog Modulation tFree Space Optical Transmission tCATV tSatellite Communications

104_lumarg.indd 1

Features tElectro-Optic Polymer Waveguides tDual Drive tLow Power Consumption tHigh Extinction Ratio tLarge Bandwidth tNo Radiation Damage tSmall Footprint www.LUMERA.com

2/7/08 4:05:20 PM


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30A?0 &

space history2.indd 2

3/1/08 7:17:40 PM


intelR on temp.indd 1

2/7/08 3:26:40 PM


$HTPab^U1aXSVX]VcWT6P_

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30A?0 (

Space history.indd 109

2/26/08 6:52:32 PM


$HTPab^U1aXSVX]VcWT6P_

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30A?0

Space history.indd 110

2/26/08 6:52:47 PM


$HTPab^U1aXSVX]VcWT6P_

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30A?0

Space history.indd 111

2/26/08 6:53:09 PM


$HTPab^U1aXSVX]VcWT6P_

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!30A?0

Space history.indd 112

2/26/08 6:53:30 PM


113_raycray.indd 1

2/22/08 5:25:41 PM


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Congratulations to DARPA for 50 years of supporting innovation.

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Tyco Electronics Corporation M/A-COM Wireless Products North America 800.366.2266 Europe +44 (0)1908.574200 Asia/Pacific +81.44.844.8296 www.macom.com M/A-COM, TE logo and Tyco Electronics are trademarks.

30A?0 $

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Imaging Sensors Semiconductor Congratulations Electronics to DARPA on Optics 50 Years MEMS Materials of Innovation Technology

Information Sciences

www.teledyne-si.com

116_telucla.indd 1

2/7/08 4:28:29 PM


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grasping what’s most important For over 50 years, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has made unparalleled contributions toward solving the critical scientific and technical challenges faced by our country. Now, our staff is turning to the challenges faced by the nation’s returning war fighters. Leading a consortium of more than 30 partners, our team is developing the first fully-integrated prosthetic arm that can be controlled naturally, provide sensory feedback, and approach the speed and dexterity of a native arm with 25 degrees of freedom. APL’s men and women continue to push the limits of technology in mission areas ranging from national security to space exploration … making critical contributions to the critical challenges of today and tomorrow.

The Johns Hopkins University APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY

www.jhuapl.edu

© Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

There’s a reason why we call them “advanced” circuit materials. We build on years of experience to create custom materials that provide optimum solutions for your designs; materials that are highly efficient and extremely reliable. Some more advancements? Tightly controlled DK for panel to panel uniformity; low loss for excellent performance in high frequency applications; superior flexibility in claddings, thicknesses, designs, and applications. For more information, visit: www.rogerscorporation.com/acm/info9

The world runs better with Rogers.®

Congratulations DARPA for 50 years of continued success!

127_jhurog.indd 1

USA - AZ, tel. +1 480-961-1382

2/7/08 4:38:20 PM


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30A?0 #

Manned-Unmanned.indd 7

3/1/08 7:23:18 PM


boeingR on temp.indd 1

2/22/08 5:41:50 PM


Boeing proudly salutes DARPA for 50 years of technological leadership.

boeingR on temp.indd 2

2/22/08 5:42:33 PM


$HTPab^U1aXSVX]VcWT6P_

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##30A?0

Manned-Unmanned.indd 144

2/26/08 7:22:23 PM


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30A?0 #$

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2/26/08 7:22:45 PM


CSPI Rugged FastCluster Delivering Scalable Open Architectures

Advanced Hawkeye program file photo, U.S. Navy photo by Kurt Lengfield , UAV Air Force photo, and Air Force photo by Jim Shryne .

FastCluster Brings SuperComputing Performance to Embedded Platforms where Space, Power, Weight, & Cooling are at a Premium. Leveraging 10 Years of experience with MPI and VSIPL for Real-Time and Linux OS(es), CSPI supports Industry Standards like VXS, VPX, PCI Express, and 10-Gigabit Ethernet. FastCluster Payloads enable software reuse to accelerate development schedules and reduce development and deployment costs.

1-800-325-3110

www.cspi.com/darpa50

The George Washington University and its School of Engineering and Applied Science, Virginia Campus, Office of the Chief Research Officer, and Office of Graduate Studies and Academic Affairs

Salute and Congratulate DARPA and its many alumni on 50 years of outstanding accomplishment!

We look forward to continued work with DARPA: to educating future DARPA employees and to providing cuttingedge research and graduate education for DARPA employees at both our Virginia and Foggy Bottom Campuses.

G11664

146_cspgwuRR.indd 1

2/22/08 5:48:23 PM


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QEB_flabpfdkFKPQFQRQB A R I Z O N A

S T A T E

U N I V E R S I T Y

We’ve built our program around revolutionary concepts, attracting individuals who are unafraid to seek solutions in unfamiliar landscapes. — George Poste, Director The Biodesign Institute

THE BIG IDEA The world’s next great innovations – and career opportunities – will stem from a purposeful fusion of biotechnology, nanoscale engineering and advanced computing. Arizona is fast becoming a leader in this technology convergence, and the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University is leading the way. Our 600-person team is driven by a passion to address urgent problems on a global scale. Opened in December 2004, we’ve rapidly become the largest generator of federal biomedical research funding in the Metro Phoenix area and have attracted more than 190 new faculty and researchers to Arizona State University.

DESIGNED FOR COLLABORATION, BUILT FOR SPEED The Biodesign Institute fosters large team efforts aimed at delivering real-world solutions. It has launched major research initiatives to eradicate cancer, outpace infectious disease, clean the environment, generate alternative energy and rapidly detect disease. We offer an outstanding work environment and competitive compensation. Named R&D Magazine 2006 Laboratory of the Year, our 350,000 sq. ft. facility is master-planned for growth to 800,000 sq. ft.

PLEASE VISIT OUR WEB SITE FOR CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES.

www.biodesign.asu.edu

See the April 26, 2007 issue of Nature for two articles on the bold approach being taken at Arizona State University

biodesign on temp.indd 1

10/25/07 4:46:48 PM


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Trusted Partner

Congratulations to DARPA for 50 years of mission success. Raytheon is honored to congratulate DARPA on its 50th Anniversary, and to recognize its many accomplishments in the service of our nation. DARPA’s long-standing commitment, to facilitate and support radical innovation, is a vital component of the past, present and future security of the United States. We’re proud to honor DARPA’s achievements and work with the agency in its continued mission. On behalf of the 72,000 employees of Raytheon, congratulations.

www.raytheon.com © 2008 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. “Customer Success Is Our Mission” is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

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gdynRR on temp.indd 1

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DARPA: 50 Years of Bridging the Gap  
DARPA: 50 Years of Bridging the Gap