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P4- Unit 1 Investigating the Travel and Tourism Sector

Content 1960- Introduction of the Internet 1969- Development of Tourism Act and Concord aircraft completed 1966- Destination development 1976- Concorde was officially introduced 1980-1985- Transport Acts 1990- Technological Developments 1992- Package travel, Package holidays and Package tour regulations 1994- Introduction of ADP (Airline Passenger Duty) 1995- The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1999- Introduction of the Euro currency 2005- Self check-ins were introduced

Introduction In this assignment, I will be analysing the travel and tourism industry from the 1960’s all the way until today and you will understand how the sector has changed and developed over the years.

Introduction of the Internet Since the 1960’s, the travel and tourism industry has developed increasingly. Over the past years, there have been many aspects that have changed in the travel and tourism industry such as technology improvements. Since the 1970’s when the Internet was introduced, the majority of travel agents have closed down due to people looking on the internet to book their flights and accommodation. There are now a lot more Internet tour operators and it has impacted the high street travel agents because they have to shut down due to a decrease in profit. People now have laptops and computers where they can search their desired holidays and they can compare different companies to find the best price. This also has led to the development of a range of online travel agencies such as, and In addition, the web has already changed the way many of us choose our holidays, rather than going to travel agents, customers use online resources.

Development of Tourism Act The development of the Tourism Act had set a British Tourist Authority and tourist boards for Wales, Scotland and England. The Tourism acts objective was to manage all the organisations that make up the travel industry and to provide the financial support for the public funds for new hotels, extensions and improvements of existing hotels.

Concorde was officially introduced The Concorde was the first main cooperative venture of European countries to design and build an aircraft and it was the first fasted passenger-carrying commercial airplane and was built by aircraft manufacturers in Great Britain and France. The Concord made its first long-haul crossing on September 26, 1973 and launched the world’s first scheduled supersonic passenger service on January 21, 1976. Furthermore, British Airways flew the aircraft from London to Bahrain and Air France flew it from Paris to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Alternative routes were added temporarily or seasonally and the Concorde was flown on chartered flights to many destinations across the globe. British Airways Concorde made just fewer than 42,000 flights and flew more than 1.5m passengers. Concorde was measured 204ft in length and it had a maximum cruising speed of 1,354 mph, which enabled the aircraft to reduce the flight time between London and New York to around 3 hours. The development cost of the Concorde was outrageously costly that they could never be recovered from operations and unfortunately the aircraft was never financially responsible. However, it’s proved that European governments and manufacturers could work in complex ventures and it helped to make sure that Europe would remain at the front line of aerospace.

Transport Acts The 1980 Transport Act ended its licensing regulations affecting express coach routes and tours of over 40 miles; it led to competition between National Bus and different private companies. Deregulations came in when the government decides to move restrictions on the operation of a business to enable greater competition. In 1985, the Transport Act brought about wholesale deregulations, which enabled private companies to operate on different routes and providing cheaper travel for customers to visit popular attractions. This will benefit tourists because they are now able to find cheaper transport than before and it allows more people to travel more often.

Technological development Technology is forever changing and new developments will affect the way we work and the communication we use. Wireless products and services have developed rapidly and have led to an increase in where we can retrieve information. In today’s society, we have found that communicating between customers and businesses have got easier. For example, a number of visitor attractions now have downloadable visitor guides as well as other apps that make the customer’s experience better. Technology plays an important role within the travel and tourism industry. Smartphones, tablets and desktops have really improved our experience in travelling and will continue to develop. The use of apps and social media allows us to enhance our travel experience and it has also given us more information on the destination we choose when we book our holidays. Furthermore, social media has provided other routes to pass information on to existing or future customers and we see today that many organisations use social media to promote their brand and products and reports say “it has had a positive effect.” Moreover, airlines such as Qatar airways, Emirates and Etihad Airways allow all passengers to check-in online and access their boarding passes. Customer will only have to show their phone at the boarding gate before entering the plane.

Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package Tour Regulations The regulations set out the tour operator’s roles and responsibilities to their customers. The regulations set out a number of requirements that the tour operator must obey with, both before and after the package tour and there are also obligations to help the customer during the holiday if needed. Furthermore, the package travel regulations are mostly there to make sure that you know what you are really getting when you book a holiday. The Package Travel Regulations 1992 ensures all tour operators and holiday companies to put enough capital aside to make sure that if the company goes bankrupt, you will receive your money back. When your vacation is secured by the Package Travel Regulations, your UK tour operator assumes responsibility for making sure that your holiday is provided to a sensible standard. For example, if a customer is ill due to food poisoning or poor hygiene at your hotel, your tour operator must take full responsibility of the situation. Moreover, if a customer has suffered from an accident abroad or during a cruise or flight, they must immediately seek legal advice as the time limits for pursuing a claim varies.

Introduction of ADP (Airline Passenger Duty) Air passenger duty (APD) is charged on all passenger flights from all UK airports. The tax was introduced in November 1993 and began on the 1st November 1994. In 1996, air passenger duty was cheap on all economy flights. APD was charged ÂŁ5.00 on flights within the United Kingdom and ÂŁ10.00 on flights elsewhere. Since the 1st of March 2016, children aged 12-15 years do not have to pay Air Passenger Duty when travelling in economy and this included all British Airways flights departing from any UK airport. Some customers may have been charged the adult APD and be qualified for a full refund.

The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) A person with a disability is someone who is either mentally or physically weaken and has a long -term effect on their ability to do activities on a day- to day basis. This act makes discrimination against people with disabilities unauthorised in terms of employment, education and access to goods, facilities and services. The act sets out to promote the rights of people with disabilities and to make sure that they do not suffer discrimination because of their disability .One example of helping a person with disability needs is by providing wheelchair access if the customer is staying at a hotel and there room is on the first floor. The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) aims to make sure that websites are obtainable to blind and disabled users. However, there is no mention of web accessibility in the Act in itself and there are several mentions in the associated code of practise.

Introduction of the Euro currency The Euro was introduced as an accounting unit in 1999 and as currency in circulation in 2002. When the Euro was introduced in 1999, it was a big step in the European integration and it has been a major success because more than 229.8 million EU citizens in 19 countries now use it as their currency. The euro has led to an increase in investment rates and it has made it easier for businesses to access financing in Europe. In December 2015, the pound sterling stood strong against the euro and during 2016, its sudden slide took many people by surprise. The euro currency was used in 17 of the 27 members of the states of the European Union, Belgium, Estonia and Luxembourg. Before, the majority of countries became part of the euro and each country had their own type of currency and if you wanted to travel to 3 different countries, you would have to have 3 different currencies, which would be difficult. The euro was designed to make the process of providing services, transporting goods and moving capital between euro using nations easier and the end goal was thought out with the highest of hopes, but the results were mixed.

Self-check- ins were introduced Self check-in first came in about 20 years ago, but it was only used by a few airline on some routes. Self check-in has become very common at major airports such as Heathrow, Gatwick and London City. Scanning systems are improving rapidly to try to reduce terror attacks. One example of using self check-in machines is when a customer can hire a car without any personal contact. They can just collect the keys and make the payment at a vending machine. This procedure has changed the product and has encouraged more customers. The technology itself was brought into the industry, after the terrorist attack on 11th September and it seemed to be a way to improve customer service, while driving down staff costs. Online check-in services before the 11th September attack had already been closed down across the globe because of security parameters. However, the check-in services got smarter and they were able to detect security threats before any passenger boarded the plane. One advantage of using self check in at the airport is that you do not have to wait in line to be served and you can take your time at the kiosk to make sure you have checked every baggage before boarding. Moreover, the airlines do not need as many employees, as they can save money and use it to invest in other areas to expand as a company. On the other hand, self -check in can make the consumer frustrated when they are using them. This is due to the fact that many customers are unsure on how to work the self-check in.

Conclusion To conclude, I believe that the travel and tourism industry is rapidly growing due to the new technology, rules and regulations and acts that are being introduced. We see that the industry has served millions of customers with a range of good quality products, services and facilities according to their needs and it is vital that we keep serving the community with the right resources and to continue to create opportunities for employment associated with tourism.

P4 unit 1 investigating the travel and tourism sector  
P4 unit 1 investigating the travel and tourism sector