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THESIS

NAB LU S

BO O K

P U B LIC FADI HUDHUD

L I BRA RY


THESIS

NAB LU S

BO O K

P U B LIC

L I BRA RY

FADI HUDHUD

Lobby: Looking back to the city


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my thesis advisor Sam Mathau for his guidance.


CONTENTS

4

INTROD UC TI O N

6

PRECEDENTS

14

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

22

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

26

SITE ANALYSIS

56

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

78

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

98

BIBLIOG R APH Y


INTRODUCTION


INTRODUCTION

Project Narrative: This thesis project is a library modeled around the fractal composition of voids in Middle Eastern cities and in particular the city of Nablus, Palestine.

5

Targeted user group: The practical use of this project is to provide the city a library with adequate space to house the projected user-group in 2033 and the needed collection. This library will be the answer to the issue of the inadequate space and collection

HOSH

size found at the current public library. The calculated user group per year is 69.5% of the population in Nablus (253,576 users/year in 2013 and 355,790 users/year 2033). The division of this projection will consist of 60% of the financially underprivileged, 33.8% parents and their preteen children, 60% those with no internet access at home, 3.8% the elderly, and 38.9% school kids. Concept statement: There are three different types of voids found at different scales in Middle Eastern cities. These voids are the centers of community activities. Modeling

HARA

the library spaces around those voids would give rise to a socially centric typography and its culture of storytelling which takes place in these voids. The process in which these voids are formed is a combination of design intent and natural fractal growth that is a result of the addition and subtraction of spaces and structure in the old city. The additions and subtractions are often the result of juxtapositioning spaces into or on top of one another. This phenomenon is the result of utilitarian design to accommodate programmatic needs yet the result is complex spatial composition with a strong contrast between the forms and the voids in the old city.

SARA


PRECEDENTS VOID MOSA IC S MU SIC POETR Y NATU R E B U ILD ING


VOID VOID 1 : HOSH : HOSH: A space within the household that is open to the environment. House parameter walls

A water fountain or a body of water helps to condition the dry hot air during the summer months.

VOID 2 : HARA : A space surrounded by a small number of houses that is relatively less intimate and larger than the Hosh.

PRECEDENTS

HARA:

House parameter walls 7

Hosh

VOID 3 : SAHA : SAHA: A space larger and less intimate than a Hara, often surrounded by retail space, such as restaurants, coffee shops, or even light manufacturing businesses. The Hara could also contain a mosque or a church. Retail space, restaurants, coffee shops, or even light manufacturing businesses. Hara


VOID VOID 1 : HOSH : HOSH PRECEDENT

VOID 2 : HARA :

Syrian house Hosh

PRECEDENTS

HOSH PRECEDENT

8

H a r a s i n N a b l u s , Pa l e s t i n e

VOID 3 : SAHA : SAHA PRECEDENT

Bab el Saha (door of the S a h a ) i n N a b l u s , Pa l e s t i n e


Syrian house Hosh

Pa l a z z o m e d i c i . F l o o r p l a n

PRECEDENTS

Pa l a z z o M e d i c i . F l o r e n c e , I t a l y

9

Haras always have names. These names can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y, i t s h i s t o r i c a l significance, or the trade of the inhabitants.

Diagrammatical plan of the Bab el Saha

Piazza San Marco

Hara in Damascus, Syria


BUILDINGS ESPAÑA LIBRARY / GIANCARLO MAZZANTI

UNED LIBRARY, JOSE IGNACIO LINAZASORO

Santo Domingo, Colombia

Madrid, Spain

BIBLIOTHECA ALEXANDRINA, SNOHETTA & HAMZA ASSOCIATES Alexandria, Egypt

Medellín is geographically mountainous “This geography defines the identity and the image of the city. This image

“The actual library space ... is grouped around an internal ‘cone of light’ formed by the gentle rooflights. The rooflights are designed in order that no

is precisely what the project aims at, it intends to integrate itself into the

direct sunlight can reach the center of the library and all rays are diffused

landscape and become an interpretation of it.” (4)

by the panelling, generating a warm hued light.”

Architecture as landscape More than a building, it proposes the construction of an operative geography that belongs to the valley. An organization of the program and the zone,

Historical significance: Revival of the ancient library 2300 years ago. Area: 85,000-m2 (914,932-ft2) Diameter: 160-m (525-ft)

(17)

Height: 32-m (105-ft) Below ground: 12-m (39-ft) Design concept: “The library’s circular form alongside the circular Alexandrian harbor recalls the cyclical nature of knowledge, fluid throughout time” (18)

showing the unknown directions of the irregular mountain contours. This

Reading room: 20,000-m2 (215,278-ft2) with 2,000-seats, divided into three

is similar to an organization of the form of the building, a folded building

terraces.

cut like the mountains. (4)

Volume collection: Up to 4,000,000-volumes in conventional shelf storage and 8,000,000-volumes in compact storage

PRECEDENTS

Population of Alexandria: 4,546,000 (2013)

10

Proportion of Alexandria library’s square footage to the city’s population: (1:5) 914,932 ft2 : 4,546,000 population Proportion of Nablus library’s square footage to the city’s population: (1:3) 177,318 ft2 : 511,928 ft 2


U N E D L I B R A R Y, J O S E I G N A C I O L I N A Z A S O R O

BIBLIOTHECA ALEXANDRINA, SNOHETTA & HAMZA ASSOCIATES

PRECEDENTS

ESPAÑA LIBRARY / GIANCARLO MAZZANTI

11


N AT U R E There is a certain elegance and grace to growth patterns in natural processes. As explained by Ron Eglash during a TED (Technology Entertainment Design) conference, arrangements of many cities and settlements around the world are fractal in nature. Fractals are mathematically logical and this fact can be use to break down the spacial composition in the city of Nablus. There are intrinsic fractal properties of the traditional city. Nikos A. Salingaros illustrates the different aspects of this phenomenon that apply to circulation. (6)

(6)

PRECEDENTS

Ba-ila settlement in Africa, before 1944.

12

Plan of a non-fractal modernist city

Plan of unrealistically ordered fractal city

Flowing geometry of the city defines urban space.

Number of connections: N/2

The relative number of connections establishes

Number of nodes: N

Type of connection: Deliberate

how a living city works (Alexander, 1965)

Number of connections: N2/2

Number of nodes: N Number of connections: (N/2)lnN


MOSAICS/MUSIC/POETRY MOSAICS FOUND IN MOSQUES OR AROUND DRINKING WATER The self insisting rhythm Fractal arrangements in mosaics, poetry, and music found in the city of Nablus can be used as a case study for an overlaying formula to model the proposed library in my thesis project. Arabic music is self-insistent. There are a number of foundational chords that resonate throughout a melody in Arabic music. Characteristically those chords are used repeatedly in a melody but with modification each time. The chords

PRECEDENTS

are referred to as Makam.

13

Makam (2)

THE STRUCTURE AND BALANCE OF ARABIC POETRY /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo /o///o///oo///oo/o/ = /o///o///oo///oo/o/ o//o//oo//o///o/oo = o//o//oo//o///o/oo AROOD: the structure of Arabic poetry that gives balance and harmony to the poem(13)


U S E R G R O U P A N A LY S I S SIG NIFIC A NT VARIABL ES: DET ERM INING L IBRARY USER- G R O U P & NON-U SER GROUP IN NABL US NA B LU S PU B LIC L IBRARY: VISITORS PER M ONT H IN 2012 HOW A LIB R ARY COUL D BENEFIT T HE COM M UNIT Y IN NA B L U S TA R G ET U SER-GROUP


SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES: DETERMINING LIBRARY USER-GROUP & NON-USER GROUP IN NABLUS

( 31 )

Household demographics, social characteristics

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

• Household size

Large household size (more than 3 children)

• Includes member with disablities

No disabled persons in the household

Household size and disability

(5)

3% are disabled (2.9% female + 3.1% male) The likelihood of using a public library decreases with disability in the household

Population in 2013 (364,333) Population projection in 2033 (511,928)

H o u s e h o l d e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( 31 )

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

• 4-year college degree or more

85.9%

• 4-year college degree

75.5%

• Some college or 2-year degree

62.7%

• High school graduate

52.7%

• Less than high school diploma

30.6%

Proportion of the population in Nablus by type of highest education

Women make up 57.4% of all college and university enrolments and 50.1% of elementary school enrolments

15

(5)

Elementary school

Proportion of education in the population by type

Bachelor and above

10.8% 15.9% 4.8%

Associate Diploma

20.2% 37.6% Secondary school/highschool Preparatory school

Public libraries/Academic libraries

( 31 )

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

5.5 members per household (Drops 0.05/year)

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

• Public libraries per 10,000 population

> 1 library/10,000 inhabitants

• Academic libraries per 10,000 population

> 1 library/10,000 inhabitants

Number of libraries by type in Nablus One public library (2 floors x 2500 m2)

0.027 libraries/10,000 inhabitants

One University Library (6 floors x 1500 m2)

0.027 libraries/10,000 inhabitants

Conclusion Increasing the number of libraries per 10,000 will increase the number of library users.


Age of individual

( 31 )

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

• Under 20 years old

Likely

• Over 20 years old

Less Likely

Age groups distribution in Nablus

(5)

55-64 years ≥ 65 years

3.8 4.2 0-14 years

34.4%

Portion of the population unlikely to be library users

25-54 years

Portion of the population

35.9% USER GROUP ANALYSIS

likely to be library users

21.8%

H o u s e h o l d e c o n o m i c , j o b r e l a t e d ed 16

characteristics (31)

15-24 years

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

• Household income

Above poverty level

• Household with no telephone

Household with a telephone

• Household with no internet

Household with internet access

Household economic, job related characteristics in Nablus

(5)

60% are unlikely to be Below poverty line

library users

Do not own a mobile phone

39%

60%

40%

40% are likely to be library users

29% of the population are highly likely to be library users

Households with no maine phone line

Households with no internet access

71%

59%

61%

41%

29% Cumulative statistics (each column represents the % of the entire population)

D i s t a n c e f r o m c l o s e s t p u b l i c l i b r a r y ( 31 ) • Less than 1 mile

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users Highly likely

• 1 to 2 miles • 2 to 5 miles • 6 to 10 miles • More than 10 miles

Least likely


Travel distance within the city of Nablus

Conclusion Convenience and accessibility are key factors in determining library use. (28) It is highly to moderately likely that the population of Nablus will be part of the user group.

* • Longest distance traveled in Nablus: 6.8 ± 0.5 mile.

Time availability outside the work place/office

( 31 )

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

• Longest distance of travel to the site is 3.4 ± 0.5 mile.

Conditions which determine the likelihood of library users

and non establishments • Personal care and self-maintenance • Students • Mass nedia use • Unemployment

hours at work

• Employment/production/services for income in establishments

0

likelihood of being a library user

17

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T i m e S p e n t o n V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s b y g e n d e r. A v e r a g e o f A l l D a y s o f t h e W e e k i n H o u r s a n d M i n u t e s , 1 9 9 9 - 2 0 0 0

12

10

8

6

4

2

0 Employment in Establishments

(5)

Female

Primary Production not in Establishments

Male

Services for Income, and other Production of Goods not in Establishments Household Maintenance, Management and Shopping for Own Household Care for Children, the Sick, Elderly and Disabled for Own Household Community Services and Help to other Households Learning Social and Cultural Activities Mass Media Use Personal Care and Self-Maintenance (includes hours of sleep) Other Activities in the Group Hours (24)

Average time spent working per day for men and women (4.67 and 0.32 hours respectively) are significantly lower than that of the world average (5.7 hours/day). The portion of the population of men and women are highly likely to be library users.

0

2

4

6

8

10

12


NABLUS PUBLIC LIBRARY: VISITORS PER MONTH IN 2012

N A B L U S P U B L I C L I B R A R Y: V I S I T O R S P E R M O N T H I N 2 01 2

(5)

Summer break from Jul 1st – Aug 15th, results in drop of student use.

Female highest library use during March (1431 users)

1600 1400

Male highest library use during April (1157 users) 1200 1000 800

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

600 400

Female Male

200 0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

The max. and min. user corresponds with the end of the academic term for schools in 18

Nablus. The difference between the highest and lowest number of users suggests the numbers of users who are not students. 2375 - 809 = 1566 users not attending school

6.3% 40% 70%

Annual user group: 23,021 (6.3% of the population in 2012) Annual resident borrowing: 7,217 books (in 2012) Library area: 2 floors x 26,909SF = 53,818SF

40% is the minimum portion of the population (145,733) to be part of the user-group. Population 2013 (364,333)

This is determined by the most significant variable (those under poverty line is the largest percentile; 60%, 2012) The expected percentage of library users (40%) and the actual library use at Nablus’ public library (6.3%). This can be attributed to the following facts: • No internet/electronic resources • The small size of the library makes it crowded and impossible to segregate age groups in the reading area • The decor is uninviting

Studies suggest (Griffiths & King 2008) a library user group that represents 70% of the municipal population. This was the average user-group (adults >18 years old) in the United States of America (USA). By emulating the services provided in successful libraries a 70% user-group can be attained.


HOW A LIBRARY COULD BENEFIT THE COMMUNITY IN NABLUS

I n f o r m a t i o n S o c i e t y ( p e r i o d i c i t y 3 y e a r s , 2 011 )

(5)

Households with TV sets Households with satelite dish in households with a TV sets

96.7% .

93.9%

Households with own Computer

50.9%

Households with Internet Access

30.4%

Persons 10 Years and Over Who Use The Computer

53.7%

Persons 10 Years and Over Who Use The Internet

39.6%

Households with Mobile Line

95.0%

Households with Telephone Line

44.0%

Early Childhood Learning Opportunities

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

Impact on student achievement and digital literacy: Opportunities for members of households with no internet access (69.6%) must be provided. A public library with adequate internet and computer access furnishes students with information and digital literacy skills. (30)

(30)

Public libraries provide programs for early learners that: • Develop their individual capacity • Teach necessary early literacy skills

19

• Provide information to help parents and caregivers lend vital support Lifelong Learning Opportunities

Po v e r t y, s h a r e o f p o p u l a t i o n b e l o w p o v e r t y l i n e

Public libraries serve as common meeting spaces for interest groups,

70%

students and businesses. They also play an integral role in communities,

60%

both academically and socially, by supporting all learners.

50%

Since 60% of the population lives below poverty line, the library can

40%

provide learning opportunities for those with no financial means to

30%

enroll in tertiary education.

20% 1999

Economic impact of public libraries on the community

2000

(7)

• Direct economic benefits that communities receive from libraries are significantly greater than their cost • Case studies indicate $2.38 of direct economic benefit to each dollar of cost • Public library salaries and expenditures generate economic activity • >50% of community leaders believe libraries contribute to their local economic prosperity • Libraries significantly improve the local quality of life • Communities are proud of their libraries

2001

2002

(33)


USER GROUP ANALYSIS 20

USER-GROUP 69.5% OF THE POPULATION PER YEAR 253,576 USERS / YEAR (2013) 355,790 USERS / YEAR (2033)


TARGET USER-GROUP

T H E F I N A N C I A L LY U N D E R P R I V I L E G E D

60%

Those living below poverty line (60% of the population) and are unable to attain tertiary education

PARENTS AND THEIR PRE-TEEN CHILDREN

33.8%

THOSE WITH NO INTERNET ACCESS

60%

The 69.6% of the population with no access to the internet or a computer

USER GROUP ANALYSIS

Children in early childhood and their parents

21

T H E E L D E R LY

3.8%

Those are retired or unemployed (>65 years old)

SCHOOL KIDS School kids using the library for personal reasons or because of afďŹ liated school activities (up to secondary education)

38.9%


P R O G R A M A N A LY S I S C OLLEC TION SIZE EST IM AT ES AND PROJECT IONS C A LC U LATING PROGRAM SQUARE F OOTAGE THE LIB R A R Y IN T HE DIGITAL AGE PR OG R A M EL EM ENT REL AT IONSHIPS


COLLECTION SIZE ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS (19) Design Population (users/yr. in 2013)

253,576

Design Population (users/yr. in 2033)

355,790

C o l l e c t i o n S i z e 2 01 3 * Volumes (3.38 volumes/capita)

857,087

Periodicals (10.18 titles/1,000 population)

2,581 29,699

Recordings (117.12/1,000 population) C o l l e c t i o n S i z e 2 0 3 3 [ G r o s s r a t e o f a d d i t i o n 70 0 / y r ( o l d l i b. ) ]

C o l l e c t i o n S p a c e 2 01 3 * * Space for book collection

(19)

ft2 83,043

Collection Space 2033** Adult non-fiction Adult reference

871,087

Staff work space

ft2

Three staff work station

450

Special use space****** 27,127 2,883

Lobby

2,500

Building security

600

Adult fiction

25,655

Book return / free-standing

16

Children’s picture books

13,721

CD-ROM station

45

Children’s books

13,222

Dictionary stand

25

Secured storage collections Total

1,500

Display rack, well-mounted

9

84,108

Display rack, free-standing

20

Lateral filing cabinet

15

Listening station

40

Space for periodicals** Display, current issues (10% of collection)

258

Storage (retained for 3 years)

13,364

Photocoping container

Total

13,623

Display case

50

Newspaper rack

25

Staff lounge

80

Space for non print material (Recordings)

258

Space for computer work stations 5% for catalog terminal (32 terminals) 95% terminal with long periods of use (602 terminals) 5% Computer literacy classrooms (32 terminals) Total

792 15,056 792 16,641

6

Small kitchenette

30

Total

3,461

Parking

1,700

Total square footage

177,318

Reader Seating Space*** 1.25 seats per 1,000 population (1,307 seats)

13,342

Meeting room spaces**** Lecture hall (150 seat)

* The 2013 collection size was estimated based on the collection of the existing public library. The projected collection (2033) has been calculated using the existing library’s rate of addition and its

1,500

estimated projection for the new library.

Conference room (12 seats; no gallery or audience)

300

** Calculating collection spaces depends on several factors, including the height of the shelving, the width

Children’s storytime space (15 children)

200

of the aisles and the type of material. An average of ten volumes/sf was used for this calculation.

Computer training lab (20 stations) Small group study rooms (individual use, 10 rooms)

1,080 150

Group study rooms (5 rooms)

6,185

Total

9,415

corridors, stairwells, elevator shafts, and restrooms

Every seat was given 30 sf.

**** In a general meeting room, 10sf are allowed per audience seat, plus another 100sf for speaker’s podium / presentation area.

***** Generally non-assignable space (includes circulation) is given 25% of the gross square footage of the

Non-assignable space***** Furnace rooms, janitor’s closets, storage rooms vestibules,

*** For every 1,000 in the population 1.25 (specific to the population, 355,790) seats are recommended.

35,812

finished building.

****** Special use space is an estimate based on an example(19)

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

CALCULATING PROGRAM SQUARE FOOTAGE

( 31 )

23


THE LIBRARY IN THE DIGITAL AGE

Google Books Scanning Progress

(23)

130

The wall-mounted shelves will require 12,800 ft2 on the first level. This

Books Scanned (Million)

means that six tiers of glass walkways will be installed on the shelves/

129,864,880 total books in the world (2013 estimate)(B1)

100

wall. This will give the wall a height of 48 ft. 8’

80

Implementation of the wall mounted shelving design would bring the

40

Advantages of the wall mounted shelving system:

30,000,000 books scanned

• Adaptability to digitization resolves the issue of shelving space Books scaned

20

Projection

rendered useless in 2033 • Possible savings in floor construction (e.g. floors don’t have to be

0 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 20 10 20 11 20 12 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 16 20 17 20 18 20 19 20 20

05

20

20

04

thick to hold the weight of books)

20

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

93

total square footage from 177,318 ft2 down to 106,010 ft2

60

• Ability to see the entire physical collection in one view 6’

Temporary Walkway

24

2013

2033


PROGRAM ELEMENT RELATIONSHIPS

177,318 sf or 88,659

Parking Three staf work station

177,318 sf Building security Lobby

Collection Space 2033 $GXOWQRQÂżFWLRQ

Secluded space

Shared space

Secluded space

$GXOWUHIHUHQFH $GXOWÂżFWLRQ

Book return / free-standing Children’s picture books

Children’s storytime space

Computers for catalog terminal Computer terminal with long periods of use

Computerr literacy classrooms Lecture hall Group study rooms Small group study rooms Adult non-fiction

Reader Seating Space Restrooms Staff lounge Small kitchenette Three staf work station Conference room

Computer training lab Periodical display Non-print material CD-ROM station Dictionary stand Display rack, well-mounted Display rack, free-standing Listening station Photocoping container Display case Newspaper rack

&KLOGUHQÂśVSLFWXUHERRNV

&KLOGUHQÂśVERRNV

6HFXUHGVWRUDJH Periodicals 'LVSOD\ 6WRUDJH 1RQSULQW Space for computer work stations IRUFDWDORJWHUPLQDO WHUPLQDOZLWKORQJSHULRGVRIXVH

&RPSXWHUOLWHUDF\ Reader Seating Space

Adult references Adult fiction

Reader Seating Space

Restrooms Secured e storage collections Periodical storage

Furnace c rooms

Meeting room spaces /HFWXUHKDOO &RQIHUHQFHURRP &KLOGUHQÂśVVWRU\WLPHVSDFH &RPSXWHUWUDLQLQJODE 6PDOOJURXSVWXG\URRPV *URXSVWXG\URRPV Non-assignable space )XUQDFHURRPVMDQLWRUÂśV FORVHWVVWRUDJHURRPV YHVWLEXOHVFRUULGRUV VWDLUZHOOVHOHYDWRUVKDIWVDQG UHVWURRPV Special use space /REE\ %XLOGLQJVHFXULW\ %RRNUHWXUQIUHHVWDQGLQJ &'520VWDWLRQ 'LFWLRQDU\VWDQG 'LVSOD\UDFNZHOOPRXQWHG 'LVSOD\UDFNIUHHVWDQGLQJ /DWHUDOÂżOLQJFDELQHW /LVWHQLQJVWDWLRQ 3KRWRFRSLQJFRQWDLQHU 'LVSOD\FDVH 1HZVSDSHUUDFN 6WDIIORXQJH 6PDOONLWFKHQHWWH Staff work space 7KUHHVWDIIZRUNVWDWLRQ Parking

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Children’s books

25


Ki ng Fa isa ls tr ee t

As

S I T E A N A LY S I S

ala

s hi

tre

et

C ITY MA P SITE MA P SITE C R ITER IA C ITY MOR PHO L OGICAL EL EM ENT S OLD C ITY MO RPHOL OGICAL EL EM ENT S IC ONIC ELEM ENT S AND ORDERS OF T HE OL D CIT Y THE MID D LE EAST: “A CULT URE OF STORY T EL L ING” OLD C ITY SPAT IAL EL EM ENT S WATER FEATURES IN OL D CIT Y ARCHIT ECT URE OLD CITY MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND BUILDING PROGRAM ANALOGY PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT: THE VOID WITH NO PROGRAM ASSIGNMENT PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT: TREE PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT: PROGRAM RELATIONSHIPS AND ADJACENCIES SPA C IA L A NALYSIS DIAGRAM AND SKETCH C ONC EPTU A L ST UDY DIAGRAM S

0’

1000’ 2000’

4000’

0mi

0.19mi 0.38mi

0.76mi

1” = 1000’

8000’ 1.5mi


CITY MAP

Site

Bus station

Farmer’s Market

Schools

Am m rda an n

Public library

et

Jo

University and Colleges

ma

ns

tre

Government Buildings

Am

The Old City/City center

Factories

Churches

Mosques

C

Hotel

5.

Archaeological Site

Residential buildings

2.

1.

3.

Site

Site model parameters

SITE ANALYSIS

Refugee camps

City section

C

27

4.

Alq Jer uds us ale m Al q

ud

ss

tre

et

6.

0’

1000’

2000’

4000’

8000’

0mi

0.19mi

0.38mi

0.76mi

1.5mi


SITE MAP

1968

eet Asalahi Str

2000 ‘ E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

2034 ‘

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

A116 1

DN

DN DN

B4

DN

2066 ‘

C5

DN

A1

DN DN

D6 C6

B5

DN

A2

D3 DN

D5

DN

B6

2099’

DN

D4 A3 D1 B7 E21

213

CS13

2‘

B8

A4

E20

C3 B3 A5

SITE ANALYSIS

B2

C2

B1

E19 C1

216

5‘

D2

A6

E18 1 Site 3/32" = 1'-0"

A7

A8

A9

A10

A11

E17

2230 ‘

2198 ‘

1 A125

28 2263 ‘

2296 ‘

2329’

R

Views from the city

Landscaping zone

Possible street construction in 2033

Site

Low density streets

Noise pollution very low (from the city center)

Stairs

Radius of comfortable walking distance (1/4mi min world ave.)

R

Sunrise

Heavy pedestrian traffic

S

Sunset

Residential buildings

Annual wind direction South-East R

7.9” YEAR

S

Average temperatures range from 9-18° C in winter and 26- 30° C in summer S

Available site area: 158,317 sf Available landscaping area: 86,880 sf Total available area: 245,197 sf

0’

10’

20’

40’

80’


SITE CRITERIA

SITE ACCESSIBILITY

DESIGN AND CONCEPT COMPATIBILITY

• Equidistant from north-west and north-east corners of

• Adjacent to the old city where the three voids are clearly

the city

expressed

• ¼ mile from the bus and taxi station • ¼ mile from dense residential zones

• The site needs to be slightly elevated above the horizon as seen from the bottom of the Nablus valley. The climb up the hill represents the ascension into a higher level of enlightenment.

• ¼ mile from the old city (heavy foot traffic) • The site needs to be on the south facing hill to allow interplay between architecture and light (light representing knowledge). This is a metaphor that suggests the library as the source of knowledge.

* 6.8 Miles

SITE ANALYSIS

• The site needs to be visible to all Nabulsies

29


CITY MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS

5.

3.

2. 1.

30

4.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1. Organic 2. Order 3. Geometric grid (sloping land) 0’

1000’

2000’

4000’

8000’

0.76mi

1.5m

4. Geometric grid (flat land) 5. Eclectic

0mi

0.19mi

0.38mi


3.

4.

5.

SITE ANALYSIS

1.

2.

31


SITE ANALYSIS

OLD CITY MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS

32


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 1.

Jami’ al-’Ajaj

2.

Jami’ al- Anbiya’ (1176/1762-63) Minaret rebuilt 1311/1893

3.

Jami’ al-Bayk

4.

Jami’ al-Hanabila (933/1526-27) Minaret rebuilt ca. 1333/1913

5.

Jami’ al-Kabir (Crusader origin) Minaret rebuilt lO51/1641

6.

Jami’ al-Khadra’ (Crusader origin) Converted in ca. 689/129O (Plan 4b)

7.

Jami’ al-Khidr (1307/1889-9O)

8.

Jami’ al-Masakin (Crusader origin)

9.

Jami’ al-Nasr (Crusader origin ) Rebuilt 1354/1935

10. Jami’ Satur/Sutun (Founded 688/1289) Restored 1269/1852-53 (Plan 4c) 11.

Jami’ al-Tina (131O/1892-93) (Plan 4a) B) Shrines and Tombs

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

12. Hamm al-’Amud (799/1396 onwards) (Plan 13) 13. Maqam Muhamma I al-Bashir/Bishr al-Hafi 14. Turbat al-Shaykh Badr/Budran (672/1273-74) 15. Wali al-Shaykh Ghanim (on Mt. Gerizim) 16. Maqam ‘Imad al-Din (on Mt. Ebal) 17. Maqam al-Khidr 18. Maqam al-Shaykh Mas’ud 19. Turbat Mujir al-Din (sulla strada Tulkarm - on Tulkarm road 20. Turbat al-Shaykh Musallam (624/1226) 21. Turbat Mustafa Bayk al-Faqari (lO51/1586) 22. Qubbat al-Sharqiyya (62-/122-?) In cemetery 23. Qubbat al-Gharbiyya In cemetery 25. Turbat al-Shaykh Muhammad Taba’a 26. Maqam al-’Umari (1184/177O-71)

1. Saha

7. Third order street network (Zukak)

2. Hara (Batha’a)

8. Second order street

3. Hara (not through street)

9. First order street

4. Hara (through street)

11. Roman amphitheater

5. Hara (Dewan)

12. Al-Kabir mosques converted from

6. Hosh & fourth order street network

a Roman basilica

C) Religious areas 27. Zawiyat al-Harithiyya 28. Zawiyat al-Shaykh Nazmi/Masjid al-Tudmani (752/1351-52) Restored 1116/1704-5 29. Zawiyax al-Rifa’iyya/Diwan al-Saliqin D) Non-Islamic religious buildings 30. Greek Orthodox Church (AD 1882) 31. Samaritan Synagogue E) Springs, fountains and wells 32. ‘Ayn al-’Ajiba

A.

Mahall AL-Habaleh

D.

Mahall AL-Qaisaryya

B.

Mahall AL-Qaryun

E.

Mahall AL-Gharb

35. ‘Ayn Budran/Khitam 36. Bi’r Dawlab

Mahall AL-Yasmena

F.

Mahall AL-Qasbah

Masbanat ‘Abd al-Hadi

60.

Masbanat ‘Abu’l-Rus

61.

Mashanat ‘Ahid al-Shaka’a

62.

Masbanat’Alul

63.

Masbanat’Arafat

64.

Masbanat Ashur/Rantisi

65.

Masbanat Fitayir

66.

Masbanat Ghazzawi

67.

Masbanat Kan’an (1)

68.

Masbanat Kan’an (2)

69.

Masbanat Nabulusi (1)

70.

Masbanat Nabulusi (2)

71.

Masbanat Nabulusi (3)

72.

Masbanat Saqa’a

73.

Masbanat Tuqqan (Plan 7)

74.

Dar ‘Abd al-Hadi (1) (1272/1885)

33. ‘Ayn al-’Asil 34. ‘Ayn al-Aysh

C.

H) Soap factories 59.

37. ‘Ayn Ghawazan 38. ‘Ayn al-Khidr (1311/1893-94) 39. ‘Ayn al-Nabulusi (133O/1912) 40. ‘Ayn al-Qariyun 41. Sabil al-Salahi 42. Sabil Jami’ al-Satur (Plan 3) 43. Sabil al-Siqaya (574/1177) 44. ‘Ayn al-Sibat 45. ‘Ayn al-Sukkar 46. ‘Ayn al-Tudmani/Tubani 47. ‘Ayn al-Tuta F) Bath houses 48. Hammam al-Baydari (ca. 672/1273-74) (Plan 8; Plan 5a) 49. Hammam al-Daraja (Plan 5b) 50. Hammam al-Jadid (1205/179O-91) 51. Hammam al-Qadi 52. Hammam al-Raysh 53. Hammam al-Samira

I) Palaces 75.

Dar ‘Abd al-Hadi (2) Extention

76.

Dar ‘Abu Ghazala

77.

Dar ‘Arafat

78.

Dar Budran

79.

Dar Ghazzawi (132S/1907)

80.

Dar Hamana

81.

Dar Hashim (1) (1168/1754)

82.

Dar Hashim (2)

83.

Diwan al-Jawhari

84.

Dar Nabulusi

85.

Dar Nadi al-’Arabi

86.

Dar Nimr Agha (Plan 9)

87.

Dar Nimr al-Nabulusi

88.

Dar Sa’d al-Din

89.

Old Saray

90.

Dar Shaykh Mahir

91.

Dar Tamini

92.

Dar Tuffaha

93.

Dar Tuqqan (1) (Plan 1O)

94.

Dar Tuqqan (2) (Plan 11 )

95.

Dar Walwil

G) Caravanseries and markets 54. Khan al-Jadid 55. Suq al-Qumash (Plans 4 and 5) 56. Khan al Tujjar 57. Khan al-Wakala (121O/1795)(Plan 6) 0m:0ft

100:328

200:656

58. Khan al-Zabib

Other buildings 96.

Habs al-Dam (Crusader origin)

97.

Manara (1318/1900) Clock Tower

98.

Nablus Tower (Crusader origin)

SITE ANALYSIS

24. Maqam Sitt Sulaymiyya (836/1432-33) (on Mt. Ebal)

33


1. Saha

7. Third order street network (Zukak)

2. Hara (Batha’a)

8. Second order street

3. Hara (not through street)

9. First order street

4. Hara (hrough street)

11. Roman amphitheater

5. Hara (Dewan)

12. Al-Kabir mosques converted from

6. Hosh & fourth order street network

a Roman basilica

2.

SITE ANALYSIS

1.

4.

5.

6.

34

9.

10.


7.

8.

SITE ANALYSIS

3.

35

11.

12.


ICONIC ELEMENTS AND ORDERS OF THE OLD CITY 1

Sur (walls) The city walls date back to the Roman period, however, today few remnants of the wall exist. Apart from the defense requirements, the wall also functioned as a barrier for dust blowing from a variety of directions in the valley of Nablus. Nablus never had city walls like Jerusalem; however, the city’s labyrinthlike design was its defense.

SITE ANALYSIS

Bab (gates) The Old city of Nablus had two gates (eastern and western gates). Burj (fortified towers) The Burj is a fortified tower located along the ramparts of the wall. There are no remnants of any Burj still in existence, however it is claimed that guard towers existed at the city gates.

2

3

4

A

B

C

D

Street Network The system of street network is composed of four orders:

Souq The souq in the old city can take many forms:

1. The first order streets are the widest and connect all major city gates (Bab), major mosques and the suqs. The two main streets of the old city are Al-Khan Street and Al-Nasser Street. This street network remained from the Roman period and connects the east and west gates.

A. The linear continuous or semi-continuous souq at the al-nasser street and al-habali street.

2. Second order streets are often a clear divider between the Mahall (a quarter named after a prominent family or religious group). This system of streets often serves as shortcuts between the first order streets.

C. The main farmer’s souq located at the eastern gate. This is an open plaza that farmers occupy temporarily during the day.

3. Third order streets (Zukak) are narrower than the second order streets and serve the parts of the Mahall that are not accessible by the second order. This order can serve closed end streets or open ended streets that lead or pass through Haras (secluded spaces intimately nestled between a handful of houses).

B. The labyrinth of a continuous souq. This type is usually covered from the sun.

D. Small shops called Dukan with basic goods. Usually no more than one can be found in a Hara.

4. The fourth order is the narrowest, sometimes limited to one person’s width. These lead from the Hara to the interior void of the house (Hosh).

4

36

3

1

1

2

Modified drawing of Samantha Horn’s (London Metropolitan University, London UK) original “The Touqan Palace”

(35)


Zawiya The root of the word comes from zawiyah which means corner. It refers to a building or a group of buildings that resemble a monastery where religious men study and live. Zawiya is not common in the old city yet a few can be found.

Khazzan (water storage facility) The main water sources in the old city were private or semipublic water springs. Few of these Khazzan remain today.

Massassa Drinking water fountains found at the first and second order streets. There are 14 massassa in the old city.

Mida’at A water fountain found in the mosque and used for drinking and washing before prayer.

Wekala Caravanserais or a large courtyard for unloading pack animals.

Hammam Public baths, these are popular during the two Eids (religious Muslim holidays)

Turba A private cemetery often owned by a wealthy family.

Maqbara Public cemetery

1

2 1

SITE ANALYSIS

Mosques The mosque is not exclusively a place for prayer but also where forums and community activities are held. The oldest mosque in the old city is the al-kabir mosque which used to be a Roman basilica.

A

37

4

Bab Al-Saha B

D 3

Modified drawing of Samantha Horn’s (London Metropolitan University, London UK) original “The Hawsh and the Old City Map”

(36)


THE MIDDLE EAST: “A CULTURE OF STORY TELLING”

The evolution of libraries in Mesopotamia

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil

The evolution of passing on knowledge in context with ceartain spacial elements in the city

3,000 B.C.

200,000 clay tablets have been found in ancient

Verbally passing on knowledge: Storytelling, Poetry,

Mesopotamian cities

Singing, Music

The voids and the type of knowledge passing

Hosh: Storytelling & gossip

Dewan: A building for the storage of records of trade, military expenses and conquests, state management and for passing on beliefs. 8

2350 B.C.

30,000 cuneiform tablets

2100 B.C.

SITE ANALYSIS

5 2100 B.C. many tablets found near what is now modern Baghdad

The wealthy collected and translated books at special

Hara: hundreds of

spaces in their palaces. Often they shared their collection

kids’s street games & a

with the scientists and intellectual members of society.

few coffee shops

38

705 B.C.

Palace library founded under Sargon II at Khorsabad Mosques usually house a special space for books. This space is usually accompanied by a space which is open to the elements with a water fountain in the center.

668-627 B.C.

Alexandria palace library founded under Assurbanipal Saha: Religious education every

with 30,000 tablets (subjects were arranged by rooms)

friday & political discussions at coffee shops

323–283 BC

Library of Alexandria palace Eventually most schools/universities had a space devoted to s housing and viewing books. Some mosques include a special

space for books.


OLD CITY SPATIAL ELEMENTS

A.

B.

Privacy: open onto an external space similar

Public space (e.g. street) can be modified

This is a typical building extension claim-

to a living room of the adjacent house

to become more intimate and personal

ing the space above a public street.

(Blue).

39

C.

Building footprint complexity:

Historical footprint: facade remnants in the Tuqan palace created by the

Addition and modification of existing buildings defy the two

processes of addition and modification.

dimensional building footprint.

SITE ANALYSIS

The neighbor’s kitchen windows (green)

Ownership:


OLD CITY SPATIAL ELEMENTS

SITE ANALYSIS

C.

40

Conscious vs. natural growth: Old city ruins are shaped by natural elements. The resulting structure is a combination of the consciously designed and the naturally grown.


OLD CITY SPATIAL ELEMENTS

D. Split levels: split levels are evident all over the old city. Possible reasons are the constant addition and subtraction of building structures and the hilly typography (Nimir Palace). A

B

B

SITE ANALYSIS

A

41

AA

BB South Elevation


OLD CITY SPATIAL ELEMENTS

SITE ANALYSIS

E.

Phantom limbs of the city: interesting moments in the old city are created by modiďŹ cations to the existing structures over time. In this case one yearns for the completion of this arch’s symmetry.

42

Cosmic, sacred and contextual/social: Special entrances are composed of a fractal pattern that follows a progression in scale found in the cityscape facade. This progression can be categorized by the cosmic, the sacred and the contextual/social. This is evident in the scale of this opening.


SITE ANALYSIS

WATER FEATURES IN OLD CITY ARCHITECTURE

43

Terrace and Water


CITY SECTION CC

850m : 2788’

820m : 2690’

50’ 790m : 2591’

44

48’

760m m : 2493’

50’

730m : 2395’

36’

700m : 2296’

670m : 2198’

640m : 2099’

36’

610m : 2001’

Harat Al-Qaryoun

Jami' al-Nasr (Crusader origin ) Rebuilt 1354/1935

24’

Bab elsaha’s Clock tower

580m : 1902’

SITE

36’

550m : 1804’

0’

100’

200’

400’

800’ The old city's underground n tunnels

520m : 1706’

0m

30.48m

60.96m

121.92m

243.84m

80’

Hay Al-Habaleh 60’


45

TThe he oold ld city's underground tunnels

135’

40’ 140’

35’

105’

60’

70’ 50’ 50’

Dowar Nablus (roundabout) 60’

Limestone Alluvium (loose, unconsolidated soil or sediments)


ALQUDS (JERUSALEM) ALQUDS STREET

AMMAN, JORDAN AMMAN STREET

OLD CITY OF NABLUS

SITE ANALYSIS

PROJECT SITE

46

City Model


OLD CITY MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND BUILDING PROGRAM ANALOGY

HUMAN PERCEPTION /SCALE Contextual/Social

Contextual/Social

Sacred

Cosmic/Social

Contexual/Social

Cosmic Cosmic

OLD CITY MORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS Sur (city walls) Bab (city gates) Burj (fortified towers) The linear continuous or semi-continuous Suq The main farmer’s suq located at the eastern gate The labyrinth of continuous suq Small shops (dukan) with basic goods Wekala (caravanserais) Khandaq (underground tunnel system) Mosque Roman basilica (converted into Al-Kabir mosque) Church Synagogue Zawiya (Islamic, similar to a monastery) Roman amphitheater Hamam (public bath) Massassa (public drinking water fountain) Mida’at (water fountain in Juma Mosque) Hosh's water fountain vertical water fountains (near meeting rooms) Khazzan (underground water storage) Turba (private cemetery) Maqbara (public cemetery)

STREET NETWORK 1st order street 2nd order street 1st order street 2nd order street 3rd order street 2nd order street 3rd order street 4th order street 1st order street 2nd order street 1st order street 2nd order street 4th order street 2nd order street 3rd order street

VOID TYPE Saha Hara (batha’a) Hara (not through street) Hara (hrough street) Hara (Dewan) Hosh Saha Hara (batha’a) Hara (not through street) Hara (hrough street) Hara (Dewan) Hosh Hosh Hosh Hosh Saha Hosh Saha

Building security Lobby Book return/free-standing Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture books Children’s books Secured storage collections CD-ROM station Dictionary stand Display rack, wall-mounted Display rack, free-standing Lateral filing cabinet Display case Photocoping container Coffee shop Book store Poetry forum (Zajal) Periodicals: Display, current issues (10% collection) Periodicals: Storage (retained for 3 years) Periodicals: Recordings Listening station Newspaper rack Staff lounge Small kitchenette Loading zone Service elevators and corridors Lecture hall Catalog terminal Terminal with long periods of use Computer literacy classrooms Reader seating space Conference room Children’s storytime space Computer training lab Small group study rooms Group study rooms Building acoustic control elements Building humidity & temperature controle elements Private parking Public parking TOTAL

600 2,500 16 27,127 2,883 25,655 13,721 13,222 1,500 45 25 9 20 15 50 6 1,300 2,300 2,600 258 13,364 258 40 25 80 30 300 35,812 1,500 792 15,056 792 13,342 300 200 1,080 150 6,185 N/A N/A 700 1,000 177,318

SITE ANALYSIS

BUILDING PROGRAM

47


PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT: THE VOID WITH NO PROGRAM ASSIGNMENT

Terminal with long periods of

Computer literacy

Small group study rooms Computer training Listening station

CD-ROM station

Voide: intemacy level 3/3

Secured storage collections

Display rack, free-standing

Reader seating

SITE ANALYSIS

Catalog termi-

Group study rooms

Display case

Display rack, wall-mounted

Voide: intemacy level 2/3

Lateral filing cabinet

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture Children’s books

Photocoping contain-

48

Public parking Loading zone

Private parking

Poetry forum (Zajal)

Book Voide: intemacy level 1/3

Newspaper rack

Lecture hall

Book return/-

Coffee shop Lobb

Catalog terminal 792SF

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture books Children’s books Secured storage collections 76,800SF

Small group study rooms 150SF

Reader seating space 13,342SF

Computer training lab 1,080SF

Book store 2,300SF Lecture hall 1,500SF

Group study rooms 6,185SF

Computer literacy classrooms 800F

Terminal with long periods of use 15,056SF

Periodicals 13,880SF

Private & public parking 1,700SF

Poetry forum (Zajal) 2,600SF Lobby 2,500SF

Coffee shop 1,300SF


PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT:

TREE

Terminal with long periods of Computer training Small group study rooms

Computer literacy Catalog termi-

Group study rooms Listening station

Reader seating Display case

Photocoping contain-

Secured storage collections

Display rack, free-standing Display rack, wall-mounted

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture Children’s books

Lateral filing cabinet

SITE ANALYSIS

CD-ROM station

Loading zone

Private parking Poetry forum (Zajal)

Newspaper rack

Book return/-

Book

Public parking

49 Coffee shop

Lobb

Lecture hall

Small group study rooms 150SF

Terminal with long periods of use 15,056SF

Group study rooms 6,185SF

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture books Children’s books Secured storage collections 76,800SF

Catalog terminal 792SF

Reader seating space 13,342SF Book store 2,300SF Lecture hall 1,500SF

Computer literacy classrooms 800F

Computer training lab 1,080SF

Periodicals 13,880SF

Poetry forum (Zajal) 2,600SF

Private & public parking 1,700SF Lobby 2,500SF

Coffee shop 1,300SF


PROGRAM ARRANGEMENT: PROGRAM RELATIONSHIPS AND ADJACENCIES

Public parking

Private parking Coffee shop

Periodicals: Display, current issues Storage

Book

Secured storage collections Newspaper rack

CD-ROM station

Loading zone

Lobb Display rack, free-standing

Lecture hall

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture Children’s books

SITE ANALYSIS

Display rack, wall-mounted

50

Book return/Poetry forum (Zajal)

Reader seating

Catalog termi-

Lateral filing cabinet

Terminal with long periods of

Display case

Computer training

Photocoping contain-

Computer literacy Listening station

Group study rooms

Small group study rooms

Adult non-fiction Adult reference Adult fiction Children’s picture books Children’s books Secured storage collections 76,800SF

Terminal with long periods of use 15,056SF

Group study rooms 6,185SF

Private & public parking 1,700SF

Lecture hall 1,500SF

Reader seating space 13,342SF Book store 2,300SF

Lobby 2,500SF Catalog terminal 792SF Small group study rooms 150SF Computer literacy classrooms 800F Computer training lab 1,080SF

Coffee shop 1,300SF Periodicals 13,880SF


OLD CITY OF NABLUS

PROJECT SITE

TEL AVIV

HAIFA

ALQUDS (JERUSALEM)

AMMAN, JORDAN AMMAN STREET

SITE ANALYSIS

ALQUDS STREET

51


D

A

B

C


C

B

A D

Program/void association

Site

Heavy pedestrian traffic site

Stairs

0’

10’

20’

40’

80’


SITE ANALYSIS

SPACIAL ANALYSIS DIAGRAM AND SKETCH

54


SITE ANALYSIS

CONCEPTUAL STUDY DIAGRAMS

55


ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS NOR TH-EA ST EL EVAT ION NOR TH-EA ST EL EVAT ION SOU TH-EA ST EL EVAT ION FLOOR PLA N: SIT E B U ILD ING SECT ION OF CRIT ICAL PUBL IC SPACE: L OBBY D ETA ILED SECT ION D ETA IL D R AWINGS SEC TION A A D ETA ILED ELE VAT ION SEC TION C C


57

Poetry Forum ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS


NORTH-EAST ELEVATION

58

0’

1’

2’

4’

8’


59


ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

NORTH-WEST ELEVATION

60

0’ 4’ 8’

16’

32’’


ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

SOUTH-EAST ELEVATION

61

1

6RXWK(DVW(OHYDWLRQ   



0’ 4’ 8’

’

16’

32’

32’










62

Lobby and collection


FLOOR PLAN:

2ND FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

B2 A116 1

UP

UP

C5 DN UP DN

D6 UP

B4 C6

A1

DN

UP

D3

D5

UP UP

UP

B5

DN UP

1 A124

D4 A2 DN

D1 DN

E21

DN

CS13 B7

A3

1 A126 UP

E20

C3 B6

A4

B3

C2

E19

B2 D2 A5 C1 B1 B8 E18

A6 1 A117

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

1ST FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

A116 1

UP

DN

D6 B4

DN

A1 DN

D5 DN

B5

DN

DN

1

DN

A124

D4 A2

DN

B6 E21

CS13 B7 A3

1 UP

A126

E20 B8 C3 A4 D3 B3

C2

E19

C5

B2

D2 A5 C1 B1 D1 E18 C6

A6 1 A117

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

2ND FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

D6 B4

A1

DN

D5

B5

DN

1 A124

D4 DN

A2

DN UP

B6 E21

UP

CS13 B7

A3

E20 B8 C3

DN

A4 D3 B3

C2

E19

C5

B2

1

D2

A117

A5 C1 B1 D1

E18 C6

A6

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

3RD FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

B2 A116 1

C5

D6 B4 C6

A1

DN

D3

D5

B5 1 A124

D4 DN

A2

DN

D1 E21

CS13 B7

DN

A3

E20

C3 B6

A4

B3

C2

E19

1

D2

A117

A5 C1 B1 B8

E18

A6

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

4TH FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

B2 A116 1

C5

D6 B4 C6

A1

DN

D3

D5

B5 1 A124

A2

D4

DN

D1 E21

CS13 B7 A3

E20

C3 B6

A4

B3

C2

E19

1

D2

A117

A5 C1 B1 B8

E18

A6

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

5TH FLOOR

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

B2 A116 1

C5

D6 B4 C6

A1

DN

D3

D5

B5 1 A124

A2

D4

DN

D1 E21

CS13 B7 A3

E20

C3 B6

A4

B3

C2

E19

1

D2

A117

A5 C1 B1 B8

E18

A6

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


FLOOR PLAN:

SITE

E1

E2

E3

E5

E4

E6

E7

E8

E9

E10

E12

E11

E13

E14

E16

E15

A116 1

DN

C5 DN

DN

DN

D6 B4

DN

A1

C6

DN

DN

D3

DN

D5

DN

B5

DN

DN

D4 A2 B6

D1 E21 CS13

B7 A3

E20 B8 C3 A4

B3

C2

B2

E19

D2

A5 C1

B1

E18

A6

E17

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7

1 A125

0’

2’

4’

8’

16’


BUILDING SECTION OF CRITICAL PUBLIC SPACE: LOBBY

Level 7  

Level Roof 6  

1 A124

Level 5  

Level 4  

Level 3  

Level 2  

7HPS/HYHO Level 1  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO   6HFXUHGFROOHFWLRQ %DVHPHQW   7HPS/HYHO  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

1



6HFWLRQ   









7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

7HUUDFLQJJDUGHQV 7HUUDF/HYHO  

0DLQVWUHHWOHYHO $VDODKL6WUHHW  

0’

1’

2’

4’


DETAILED SECTION

5/8" Gypsum Wallboard

Aluminum Fixed Window Fixed Jamb Tube Shape

4 A131

Metal Fastenings

4" Skylight Curb (Double Glazed) Level Roof 6 65' - 0"

Aluminum Fixed Window Head/Jamb 1/2" A307 Bolt 1-5/8" Metal Stud Metal Caping 2-1/2" Channel Stud 4" Metal Stud 3-5/8" Channel Stud W18x158 1/2" A307 Bolt Aluminum Fixed Window Head/Jamb Aluminum Fixed Window Mullion

Level 5 52' - 0"

Aluminum Fixed Window Head/Jamb HP Shape 1/2" A307 Bolt Double Glazing U:Value = 0.40 min 1" A307 Bolt Metal Fastenings Aluminum Fixed Window Head/Jamb W Shape

4" Metal Stud 3-5/8" Channel Stud Level 4 39' - 0"

1 A131

8" Metal Stud 5/8" Hooked Anchor Bolt Ceramic Tile Reinforcing Steel Level 3 26' - 0"

5/8" Hooked Anchor Bolt 8x12R Reinforcing Steel Brush Weatherstrip Door Shoe With Integral Drip Threshold Used With Door Shoe Ceramic Tile W18x158 1.5 MR 16 Composite Metal Deck W18x158 12" Recessed Fluorescent Light Fixture

Level 2 13' - 0"

1/2" A307 Bolt

3 A131

Metal Fastenings Gravel Compact Earth

Temp. Level 1 0' - 0"

?

?

2 A131

Terracing Terrac gardens Level 7 -10' - 0"

SecuredBasement collection -13' - 0"

?

Temp. Level 1 -15' - 0"

2’

? ?

?

Terracing Terrac gardens Level 6 -20' - 0"

?

1’

?

1/2’

?

0’


DETAIL DRAWINGS

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

CALLOUT 1: Main Entrance Arch

Level 1  

&HUDPLF7LOH

:6KDSH

0HWDO6WXG

72

CALLOUT 2: Floor/Column Connection

&KDQQHO6WXG

W18x158 0HWDO)DVWHQLQJV W18x158 +RRNHG$QFKRU%ROW 5HLQIRUFLQJ6WHHO +RRNHG$QFKRU%ROW

5HLQIRUFLQJ6WHHO

0HWDOGHFN

W18x158 ,QVXODWLRQ

0HWDO6WXG


CALLOUT 3: Main Door

C A L L O U T 4 : S k y l i g h t a n d Pa n e l s

$OXPLQXP)L[HG:LQGRZ+HDG-DPE

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

7XEH6KDSH

$%ROW

0HWDO)DVWHQLQJV

5RRI(GJH

0HWDO6WXG 0HWDO6WXG W18x158 8x12R %UXVK:HDWKHUVWULS

Level 2  

W18x158

Level Roof 6   73

6WRQH$VVHPEOLHV $%ROW

$%ROW

KW

G

O


SECTION AA

E1

0’ 2’

4’

8’

16’

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7


E8

E9

E10

E11

E12

E13

E14

E15

E16

Level 7  

Roof  

Level 5  

Level 4  

Level 3  

Level 2  

Level 1  

7HPS/HYHO  

7HUUDF/HYHO   %DVHPHQW  

7HUUDF/HYHO  


DETAILED ELEVATION /LPHVWRQH

&RQFUHWHIDFDGHZLWK DUDELVNSDWWHUQ

1 A124

Level 7  

0HFKDQLFDOSDQHO 5RWDWLRQGHJUHHVFORFNZLVH

3HUIRUDWHGDOXPLQXPSDQHO

0HFKDQLFDOSDQHO 5RWDWLRQGHJUHHVFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH

3HUIRUDWHGDOXPLQXPSDQHO

Level Roof 6  

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Level 5  

:RRGLQQHUGRRUIUDPH

&RSSHUDUDELVNSDWHUQ Level 4  

%ODFNJUDQLWGRRUIUDPH 76

*ODVVUDLOLQJ Level 3  

Level 2  

7HPS/HYHO Level 1 7HUUDF/HYHO 7HPS/HYHO    

0’

1/2’

1’

2’


SECTION CC

Level 7  

Level Roof 6  

Level 4  

Level 3  

Level 2  

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS

Level 5  

77 7HPS/HYHO Level 1  

6HFXUHGFROOHFWLRQ %DVHPHQW   7HPS/HYHO  

0’

4’

8’

16’

32’


PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS EXPLOD ED A XONOM ET RIC PROGRAM DIAGRAM B U ILD ING C O DE STR U C TU R A L DIAGRAM S MEC HA NIC A L SYST EM S ( HVAC) SU STA INA B LE ST RAT EGIES FA C A D E: DYNAM IC PANEL S


EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC PROGRAM DIAGRAM

5TH FLO O R

4TH FLO O R

17824sf Collection space

12168sf Collection space

3RD FLO O R

300sf Office coffee room 439sf Book repair 13966sf Collection space

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

2331sf Offices

970 sf Lecture hall 2ND FLO O R

1S T FLO O R

6965sf Collection space

3515sf Terminals with long periods of use

1708sf Individual study rooms 1931sf Lecture hall 10540sf Collection space

BAS E M E NT

2537sf Book store 3030sf Coffee shop 3659sf Computer terminals with long periods of use

1090sf Poetry forum 3171sf Study rooms 13732sf Secured collection 576sf Electrical room 1827sf Mechanical room 19403sf Parking

79


80

Terrace and City

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS


81


BUILDING CODE

S U M M A R Y: Lecture hall (Assembly area with fixed seats): 2010 CBC Table 3-A section 303.1.1 --- Building Type A2.1 2010 CBC Table 10-A ------------------- Maximum occupancy 172 2010 CBC Table 10-A ------------------- Minimum of two means of egress where number of occupancy is at least 50 2010 CBC Table A-29-A ---------------- 4 male and 4 female water closets required Library: 2010 CBC Table 3-A section 304.1 ---- Building type B 2010 CBC Table 10-A ------------------ Maximum occupancy 966 2010 CBC Table 10-A ------------------- Minimum of two means of egress where number of occupancy is at least 50 in reading rooms and 30 in stack areas

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

2010 CBC Table A-29-A ---------------- 21 water closets required

82

Fire resistant building: 2010 CBC Section 602 ----------------- Construction Type 1 2010 CBC Section 502 ----------------- Allowable building heights for Type 1 Construction of building type A Unlimited 2010 CBC Section 502 ----------------- Allowable building heights for Type 1 Construction of building type B 160ft

1 hour rated seperation walls

Building type A2.1

Building type B

2010 CBC Table 3-B

Lecture hall (Assembly space)

2010 CBC Table 3-A section 304.1

2010 CBC Table 3-A section 303.1.1

A 116 1

UP

DN

D6 6 B4 4

DN

A1 DN

D5 5 DN

B5 5

DN

DN

-

DN

----

A2

DN

B6 6

CS13 3 B7 7 A3

UP

B8 8 C3 3 A4

B3 3

B2 2

C2 2

C5 5

A5 C1 B1


3rd floor

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (HVAC)

B2 2 A116 1

C5 5

D6 6 B4 4 C6 6

A1

DN

D3 3

D5 5

B5 5 ----

D4 4 DN

A2

DN

D1 E21

CS13 3 B7 7

DN

A3

E20 0

Basement

C3 3 B6 6

A4

B3 3

C2 2

E19 9

D2 2 A5 C1

B2 2 A 116 1

B8 8

UP

E18 8

UP

A6 C5 5 DN UP

E17 7

DN

D6 6 UP

B4 4

A11 A10 0 A9

C6 6

A1

DN

UP

D3 3

A8 A7

D5 5

UP P

UP

B5 5

DN UP

----

-

D4 4

----

A2 DN

D1 D DN

E21

DN

Air shaft

CS13 3 B7 7

A3 UP

E20 0

C3 3 B6 6

A4

B3 3

C2 2

E19 9

B2 2

4th floor

D2 2

A5 C1 B1 B8 8 E18 8

A6 ----

B2 2 E17 7

A116 1

A11 A10 0 A9 A8 A7

C5 5 ----

D6 6 B4 4 C6 6

DN

D3 3

D5 5

B5 5

Mechanical room

------

DN

D1

CS13 3 B7 7

C3 3 B6 6

1st floor

B3 3

C2 2

D C1 B1 B8 8

A 116 1

UP

A11

DN

A10 0

D6 6

A9 A8

B4 4

DN

DN

D5 5 DN

B5 5

DN

DN

-

DN

----

D4 4

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

Electrical room

DN

B6 6

CS13 3

5th floor

B7 7 UP

83

B8 8 C3 3 A4 4

B3 3

C2 2 B2 2 A 116 1

C5 5

B2 2

D2 2

A5 C1 B1 D1 C5 5

C6 6

D6 6

A6 B4 4 C6 6

A1

DN

D3 3

D5 5

A11 B5 5

A10 0 -

A9

----

A8

D4 4

A7 A2

DN

D1 E21 ----

CS13 3 B7 7 A3

E20 0

C3 3 B6 6

A4

B3 3

C2 2

E19 9

D2 2 A5 C1 B1 B8 8 E18 8

A6 ---

E17 7

2nd floor

A11 A10 0 A9 A8 A7

----

A 116 1

D6 B4 4

1

Roof

DN

D5

D4 4

B5 5

DN

----

D4 DN

A2

DN UP

B6 6 E21

UP

CS13 3

B2 2

B7 7

A 116

A3

1

E20 0

E21

B8 8 C3

DN

A4

C5 5 D3 B3 3

C2

D6 6

E19 9

B4 4 C5

B2 2

-

D2

C6 6

----

A5

D3 3

C1 B1

D5 5

D1 E18 8

B5 5

C6 ----

D4 4 A6

D1

E17 7

E20 0 A11 A10 0

CS13 3 B7 7

A9 A8 A7

----

C3 3 B6 6

B3 3

C2 2

D3 3 D2 2 C1 B1

E19 9

B8 8

D2 2 A11 A10 0 A9 A9 A8 A7

Cooling towers


STRUCTURAL DIAGRAMS

Structural elements:

Roof

- Steel structural frame - Concrete slab - Exterior and interior bearing walls/retaining walls - IBC: A type structure (protected structure, 2hr) - Concrete pile system

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

5th Floor

4th Floor

84

3rd Floor

2nd Floor

Basement & 1st Floor


Roof

5th Floor

3rd Floor

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

4th Floor

85

2nd Floor

Typical structural module

B.

Basement & 1st Floor

A.

A. M_W_Wide Flange -Column W250x73 (Insulated: 2hour) B. W18x158 Beam


PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS 87

Terrace and Water Feature


SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES

Sustainable design strategy has been utilized in the buildings of the old city of Nablus for thousands of years. 1. The city’s average wind direction is South-East. All inhabitants of the city take advantage of the relatively strong cool wind in the valley to naturally ventilate their homes during the summer. This can effectively take place by opening a window or a door on the North-West side of the building and another on the South-East side. 2. Spaces under the domes in the old city are always relatively cooler than other spaces in the building. This is due to the fact that the volume of space within domes takes longer to heat up than the smaller PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

volumes of spaces with no domes. 3. The voids within the buildings in the old city are always naturally ventilated. Similarly the voids in the library will utilize a mechanical skylight system that opens and closes automatically according to the heating needs of the building. 4. A palaces in the old city utilize gardens for sewage water treatment and recycling. The Nablus library terraces will be irrigated by recycled gray and black water. Limestone

Concrete facade w arabisk pattern

1 A124

88 Level 7 78' - 0"

Mechanical panel (Rotation 60 degrees clockwise) Perforated aluminum panel

Mechanical panel (Rotation 60 degrees counterclockwise) Perforated aluminum panel

Level Roof 6 65' - 0"

Mechanical facade: automatic sensing system controls the dialation between Level 5 52' - 0"

perforated aluminum pannels Wood inner door frame

Copper arabisk patern Level 4 39' - 0"

Black granit door frame

Glass railing

Tessellated pattern with deep grooves alows

Level 3 26' - 0"

only ambiant light to enter. The design is remminicent of the Mashrabeyah found in traditional buildings in the old city.

Level 2 13' - 0"

mp. Level 1 mp. ac Level 1 8 0' - 0" -0' - 2 1/8"

0’

1/2’

1’

2’


89

Lecture Hall Facade PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS


• Annual wind direction South-East • Average temperatures range from 9-18° C in

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

winter and 26- 30° C in summer

Light

90

Mechanical skylight: Double glazing with argon U:Value 0.33 The domes are located along the facade of the building. This creates a pocket of air that traps the rizing hot air, consequently taking longer to heat the space during the summer. Operable sliding windows: Natural ventilation during the summer months


91

Lobby and Collection Space 2


FACADE:

DYNAMIC PANELS

The panels cover the collection space facade. The panels are split into two systems that rotate 30 o across one another. This creates an opening similar to a camera lens shutter which can be adjusted to control the amount of sun light that enters the building. This can be useful during the summer months and to control the temperature in the collection space without losing views of the city below.

PROGRAM & HVAC DIAGRAMS

Rotation at 0 o

Rotation at 15 o

92

Rotation at 22.5 o

Rotation at 30 o


Facade panel mechanism

2’

60 o 60 o

60 o Module A: counterclockwise rotation

Module A: counterclockwise rotation

60 o 60 o

60 o

93

Main Entrance Facade


94 PHYSICAL MODEL


95

PHYSICAL MODEL


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 “Central Intelligence Agency.” The World Factbook. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 June 2013. 2 “Classical Turkish Music.” Classical Turkish Music. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. 3 “Edwin Lord Weeks.” Oil Painting. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 June 2013. 4 “Espa Library / Giancarlo Mazzanti.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2013. 5 “Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics - State of Palestine.” Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics - State of Palestine. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 June 2013. 6 “Physics 513 Previous Pictures.” Physics 513 Previous Pictures. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. 7 “The Economic Impact of Libraries in Indiana.” The Economic Impact of Libraries in Indiana. Indiana State Library, Nov. 2007. Web. 03 July 2013.

23 Jackson, Joab. “Google: 129 Million Different Books Have Been Published.” PCWorld. PCWorld, 6 Aug. 2010. Web. 16 July 2013. 24 Lin, Hui. Virtual Geographic Environments. Redlands, CA: ESRI, 2012. Print. 25 Loo, Chalsa M. Crowding and Behavior. New York: MSS Information, 1974. Print. 26 Lushington, Nolan. Libraries Designed for Users: A 21st Century Guide. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2002. Print. 27 Maguire, D. J., Michael Batty, and Michael F. Goodchild. GIS, Spatial Analysis, and Modeling. Redlands, CA: ESRI, 2005. Print. 28 O’Reilly, C. A. (1982). Variations in Decision Makers’ Use of Information Sources: The Impact of Quality and Accessibility of Information. The Academy of Management Journal, 25(4), 756~771.

8 “Connecting the Fractal City.” “Connecting the Fractal City”, by Nikos A. Salingaros. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.

29 Portes, Mary, Bin Mai, Thomas Bender, and Yan Yan Zhang. “Modern Moroccan Design.” (n.d.): n. pag. Print.

9 “Maison Neuf.” Maison Neuf. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. 30 Shrem, Jonathan. “Public Libraries INFORMATIONAL BRIEF: Impact of 10 “Math IS Global — Fractals, African Villages and Chaos.” SUPER DUPER SHARK BIBLIOGRAPHY

RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.

96

11 “Maths in Nature: The Maths Factor Blog.” The Maths Factor Blog RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. 12 “Observing Bacteria in a Petri Dish.” Society for General Microbiology. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. 13 “The Polyglot Blog: The Quran Is a Book of Poetry.” The Polyglot Blog: The Quran Is a Book of Poetry. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. 14 “Visualising Diurnal Wind Climatologies.” Rbloggers. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2013. 15 Batty, Michael, and Paul Longley. Fractal Cities: A Geometry of Form and Function. London: Academic, 1994. Print.

Publi C Libraries on Students and Lifelong Learners Prepared by the New York Comprehensive Center Educational Technology Team October 2012 Jonathan Shrem.” N.p., Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna, and Kyung-Sun Kim. “Use and Non-use of Public Libraries in the Information Age: A Logistic Regression Analysis of Household Characteristics and Library Services Variables.” Library & Information Science Research 30.3 (2008): 207-15. Print. 32 Stewart, Christopher. The Academic Library Building in the Digital Age: A Study of Construction, Planning, and Design of New Library Space. Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2010. Print. 33 Two Years of Intifada , Closures and Palestinian Economic Crisis. Rep. N.p.: World Bank, n.d. Worldbank. Web. 2 July 2013. <http://siteresources.worldbank. org/NEWS/Resources/pr030503-report.pdf>.

16 Batty, Michael. Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-based Models, and Fractals. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2005. Print.

34 Xiao.bao. “Casablanca Mosque Mosaic.” Flickr. Yahoo!, 30 July 2006. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

17 Brawne, Michael. Library Builders. London: Academy Editions, 1997. Print. 18 Crosbie, Michael J. Architecture for the Books. Mulgrave, Vic.: Images, 2003. Print. 19 Dahlgren, Anders C. “Public Library Space Needs: A Planning Outline / 1998.” Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (1998): n. pag. Print. 20 Eglash, Ron. “Ron Eglash: The Fractals at the Heart of African Designs.” Lecture. TEDGlobal 2007. Ted.com. Nov. 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. 21 Griffiths, Jose-Marie, Dr., and Donals W. King. “The IMLS National Study on the Use of Libraries, Museums and the Internet.” InterConnections Survey Results. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 July 2013. 22 Heppenstall, Alison J. Agent-based Models of Geographical Systems. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012. Print

35. Horn, Samantha. The Touqan Palace. 2012, London 36. Horn, Samantha. The Hawsh and the Old City May. 2012, London


As a scientist I have always found the allure of the creative design process fascinating. I began my higher education at the University of Western Ontario where I received my Bachelor of Science degree with a major in Biology. I continued my studies at the Academy of Art University in San Francisco where, in 2014, I recieved a Masters degree in Architecture. I have developed an intimate understanding of the levels of complexity where nature builds its most fascinating structures. I ďŹ nd the beauty of these levels of complexity in the inherently simple overriding order. Simplicity in complex biological structures can be traced back to the quantum level, from there, levels of complexity increase as we move towards larger scales. In my designs, I am currently focused on exploring this phenomenon where nature builds structures that appears chaotic out of ordered systems. My ideas of order and chaos closely match those of string physicist Michio Kaku who said in one of his interviews that â&#x20AC;&#x153;there is no chaos, only cosmic musicâ&#x20AC;?.


Nablus Public Library