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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﲪﻴﺪ ﳎﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻞ ‪ /‬ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪0‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﺪﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﺃﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻘﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ؛ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﺃﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺴﻜﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻔﻨﻰ ﺑﻐﻴﺎﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻻﺩﺗﻪ ؛ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺃﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺘﻠﺔ ﺭﻛﻨﺎً ﻫﺎﻣﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺗﻪ ﻭﺃﺣﻼﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺤﺐ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺃﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻨﺸﺮﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍء ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﻟﻨﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻊﻱﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻘﺮﺃ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ )ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻊ ﻱﺓ( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ؟‪ .‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﺒﺔ ﺃﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ؛ ﺃﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎء ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﺣـــــﺬﺭ !‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﻀﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺳﺌﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻵﺧﺮ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﺪﺩ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻧﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ :‬ـ‬ ‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ؛‬

‫ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎء ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺠﺪﺩ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ؛ ﻛﺄﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (3‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻨﻀﺐ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺁﺟﻼً ﺃﻡ ﻋﺎﺟﻼً ؛ ﻛﺄﻟﻔﺤﻢ ﺃﻟﺤﺠﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻨﻔﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻄﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻨﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻳﻤﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴــــــﻒ ‪ .......‬ﻟﻨﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﺇﺫﻥ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲء ﺣﻲ ‪ ....‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺃﷲ ﺃﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ(‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻫﺒﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻭﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺃﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﻭﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻻﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺫﺑﻠﺖ ﻭﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﺑﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﻧﻬﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﻘﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﺭﺍﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﻟﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺟﺮﺩﺍء ﻭﺗﺼﺤﺮﺕ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻋﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺑﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻻﻫﻢ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻣﺎﺗﺖ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺗﺤﻠﺖ ﺑﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﺃﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻻﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1400‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %70‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ) ‪ (%97‬ﻫﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﺎﻟﺤﺔ ﻭﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ) ‪ (%3‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 50‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻣﺘﺮﻣﻜﻌﺐ ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺘﺠﻤﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻘﻄﺒﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﻢ ﺃﻟﺠﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺟﻮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻻﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫)ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﺃﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﺑﺸﺮﺍً ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺭﺣﻤﺘﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻗﻠﺖ ﺳﺤﺎﺑﺎً ﺛﻘﺎﻻً ﺳﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻣﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﺄﺧﺮﺟﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺃﻟﺜﻤﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ....‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺃﷲ ﺃﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺪﺩ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﺸﻊ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﺴﻄﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺒﺨﺮ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺑﺨﺎﺭﻣﺎء ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺛﻠﻮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻬﻄﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺒﺮ ﻭﺃﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﻟﻨﺴﺐ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﺨﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ‪ 40‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﻫﻲ ‪.......‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺨﺮﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺇﻟﻰ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬

‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﻒ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺃﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬

‫ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﺜﻠﻮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻐﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﺇﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ ﺗﺴﺎﻗﻂ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً ﻋﺪﻡ ﺳﻘﻮﻃﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺄﻻﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﻟﺮﻃﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺃﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻻﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﺘﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ ‪ 250‬ﻣﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻊ ﻧﻬﺮﺍ ﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻮﺽ ﺃﻻﻧﺎﺿﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺃﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺃﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 2780‬ﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 1200‬ﻛﻢ ﻳﺠﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻨﻬﺮ ﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ‬

‫‪ 1950‬ﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 1408‬ﻛﻢ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻻﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﺩﺟﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﻘﺮﻧﺔ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺒﺼﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﺷﻂ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻً ـ ﻫــــﻞ ﺗﻌﻠـــﻢ ؟‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ـ ﺗﻘﺪﺭ ﺃﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺑﺤﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 50‬ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺃﻻﻧﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 44‬ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %93‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻫﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪.%3‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎً ‪ -‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺮﻑ‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻻﺳﺘﺤﻤﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﺧﺬ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺘﻚ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺃﻟﺤﻨﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻏﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻚ ﺑﺄﻟﻔﺮﺷﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺘﺮﻙ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﻸ ﺣﻮﺽ ﺃﻟﻐﺴﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﻟﻤﺎء ﺑﺪﻻً ﻣﻦ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﻮﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎً ـ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﺤﺮﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺃﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻳﺠﺮﻱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻧﻚ ﺑﺄﻟﻔﺮﺷﺎﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 20‬ﻟﺘﺮﺍً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (3‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻗﻄﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺃﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﺏ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻻ ﻓﺄﻟﻌﻮﺍﻗﺐ‬

‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻭﺧﻴﻤﺔ ؛ ﻓﺄﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻻﺳﻬﺎﻝ ﻭﺃﻟﺘﻴﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﻭﺃﻟﻜﻮﻟﻴﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﻻﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﺃﻟﻜﺒﺪﻱ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎً – ﺃﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ ﻏﻠﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺇﺫﺍ ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎً‪.‬‬‫ ﺭﺩﻡ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻙ ﺃﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺃﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻗﺮﺏ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬‫ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺮﻙ ﺃﻏﻄﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﺒﺎﻟﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍً ﻟﺨﺮﻭﺝ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺑﺆﺭﺓ ﻹﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﻳﻬﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﺃﻟﺘﺼﻠﻴﺢ ﺃﻟﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﻟﻼﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺕﺗﺴﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺃﺧﻴﺮﺍً ﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﻣﺮﺍﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻟﻬﺪﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻧﺐ ﺳﻴﺤﺎﺳﺒﻨﺎ ﺃﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺃﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳍﻮﺍء‬ ‫)ﺇﻧﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲء ﺧﻠﻘﻨﺎﻩ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ‪ ....‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺃﷲ ﺃﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺃﻻﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﻭﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻃﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻮﺍء ﻫﻲ ؛ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻟﻨﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ ) ‪ ، (%78‬ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻻﻭﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ ) ‪ ، (%21‬ﻭﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻬﻠﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﺎﻭﺓ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ )ﺃﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍﺋﻲ( ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻨﻚ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻨﻚ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ‪.‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﺑﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺘﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺎﻭﺓ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺬﻛـــــــﺮ !‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺇﻥ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ ﻫﻲ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪ %98‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ـ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻨﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺎﺳﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻨﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﻛﺎﺭﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺃﻟﻤﺰﺩﺣﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ‪ %90‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ـ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻟﻨﻘﻞ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﺘﺪﻓﺌﺔ ﺃﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺃﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻟﺤﺮﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺃﻟﻨﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺃﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﺣﻠﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺑﻐﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 1999‬ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 20.26‬ﺃﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻃﻦ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﺑﻐﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺖ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 580‬ﻃﻦ ﻣﺘﺮﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫‪ (4‬ﺇﻥ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﻣﻊ ﻫﻴﻤﻮﻛﻠﻮﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻟﺪﻡ ﺑـ‬

‫‪ 210‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺃﻻﻭﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻟﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎً ﻛﺎﺭﺑﻮﻛﺴﻲ ﻫﻴﻤﻮﻛﻠﻮﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺃﻟﻠﻌﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﺮﻙ ﺃﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﺭﺍً ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻀﺮﺓ ﺑﺼﺤﺘﻚ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪.%4‬‬ ‫‪ (5‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﺴﻴﻜﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 43‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (6‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍﺩﻡ ﺃﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﺨﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺠﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﺠﻮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﺣﻤﺎﺿﺎً ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ )ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﺤﺎﻣﻀﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ )ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍء( ـ ﻭﺃﻻﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺪﺧﺎﻥ ﺃﻻﺳﻮﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻕ ﺃﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ ـ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺧﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﻻﺣﻴﺎء ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻻﺳﻤﺎﻙ ﻭﺃﻻﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺂﻛﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻟﺤﺠﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﻮﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻮﺍء ﻧﻘﻲ ﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺸﻮﺍﺋﺐ ﺃﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺔ ﺃﻋﻤــــﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ـ‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺗﺮﻙ ﺃﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺃﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺪﺧﻨﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺚ ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻚ ﻭﺃﻫﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺪﺧﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻟﻤﻀﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻛﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻣﺒﺮﺭ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺄﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺄﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﺃﻟﺒﻄﻲء ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺑﺄﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺃﻟﻤﺪﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻻﻣﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﻟﺨﻄﺮﺓ ﻛﺄﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻣﻮﺗﻚ ﺃﻟﺒﻄﻲء ﺑﻤﺎﻟﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﺃﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻻﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺰﺩﺣﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ )ﻻ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻻﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺃﻟﻤﺰﺩﺣﻤﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺷﺒﺎﺑﻴﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎً ﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﺃﻟﻨﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻟﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬

‫ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺸﺒﺎﻙ ﺧﺮﺝ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺃﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺯﺍﺩ ﺇﺳﺘﻬﻼﻛﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﻫﻮﺍء ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺘﻚ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (5‬ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺃﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻟﺰﺍﺋﺪ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﻟﺒﺨﺎﺧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻭﺗﻀﺮﺃﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻭﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺄﻻﺿﺮﺍﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺃﻟﺠﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺴﻤﻌﻪ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻘﺐ ﺃﻻﻭﺯﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻜﺴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻟﺬﺭﺍﺕ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺃﻻﻭﺯﻭﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻼﻑ‬ ‫‪7‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﻻﻭﺯﻭﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻛﻮﻛﺒﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﺤﻦ ﺃﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻧﻔﻮﺫ ﺃﻻﺷﻌﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺃﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺃﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺃﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻏﻼﻑ ﺃﻻﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺃﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺃﻻﺷﻌﺔ ﺑﺄﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻭﺗﺸﺘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻔﻀﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (6‬ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻟﻘﻤﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺃﻟﻐﻠﻖ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻨﺒﺎً ﻹﻓﺴﺎﺩ ﻫﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺘﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺃﻻﻭﺑﺌﺔ ﺃﻟﻤﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺚ ﺯﻣﻼﺋﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﺘﺰﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻬﻢ ﻭﻛﻦ ﻗﺪﻭﺓ ﳍﻢ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‬

‫‪8‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﱰﺑــــﺔ‬ ‫)ﻭﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﻬﺎ ‪ ......‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺃﷲ ﺃﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ(‬ ‫)ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﺸﺄﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻭﺃﺳﺘﻌﻤﺮﻛﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ....‬ﺻﺪﻕ ﺃﷲ ﺃﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ(‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺄﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻻﺭﺿﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﺃﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻻﻧﻬﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺳﻤﻜﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 50‬ﻛﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺨﻮﺭ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﻜﺎﺕ ﺃﻻﻟﻮﻣﻨﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻟﻤﻐﻨﺴﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻻﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺸﺄﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺖ ﺃﻟﺼﺨﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﻭﺃﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺴﻤﻚ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 50‬ـ ‪ 100‬ﺳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ؟‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺳﻤﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﻤﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺘﺮ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺇﻧﺠﺮﻓﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﺕ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺎً ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺑﺄﻻﻧﺠﺮﺍﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﺗﺼﺤﺮﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﻗﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ؟‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻦ ‪ %10‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %82‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺃﻻﺭﺽ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍء ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ‬

‫‪ %55‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺃﻻﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺃﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻨﺪﺭﺓ ﻫﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺖ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻧﻔﺲ ﺃﻟﺸﻲء ﺑﺄﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻧﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻭﻧﻌﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺄﻻﺭﺽ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎً ﻟﻤﺒﺪﺃ‪ ......‬ﻋﺮﺍﻕ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ؟‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻻﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺃﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺃﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻳﺪ ﺃﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻓﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻐﺮﺳﻬﺎ(‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ‪ ....‬ﺃﺯﺭﻉ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ‪ ....‬ﻭﺣﺚ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ـ ﺃﻋﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺃﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﺤﺪﺍﺋﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪ +‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 3000‬ﻧﻮﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ +‬ﺃﻟﻬﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ )ﺃﻟﻬﻜﺘﺎﺭ = ‪ 10000‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ( ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﻟﻤﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺃﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 18‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎً‪.‬‬ ‫‪ +‬ﺃﻟﻬﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻳﻤﺘﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 220‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 280‬ﻛﻎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 180‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 240‬ﻙﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻏﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺃﻻﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫‪ +‬ﺃﻻﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻚ ﺃﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﺍ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﻧﺠﺮﺍﻑ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻟﺨﺼﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﻄﻮﻝ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﺃﻟﻐﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻫﺒﻮﺏ ﺃﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﺃﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻻﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﺰ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺃﻻﻣﻄﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﺃﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ +‬ﺃﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻌﻄﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﻴﻦ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻌﺐ ﺃﺑﻮﻙ ﻭﺟﺪﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﻤﻮﻫﺎ ﻭﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺯﺭﻋﻮﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﻲ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺛﻤﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﻋﻨﻚ ﺣﺮ ﺃﻟﺼﻴﻒ ﻭﻏﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻣﻄﺮ ﺃﻟﺸﺘﺎء‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺣﺮﺹ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺫﻛﺮﻯ ﻭﻋﻤﻼً ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺎً‬ ‫ﻓﻲﻛﻠﻮﻥ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻷﺑﻨﺎﺋﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺎﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺃﺟﺪﺍﺩﻙ )ﺯﺭﻋﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﻛﻠﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺰﺭﻉ ﺃ‬ ‫‪ +‬ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻴﻞ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻼﻋﺘﺪﺍﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎً ﺑﺄﻻﺭﺽ ﺃﻟﺠﺮﺩﺍء‪ .‬ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫؟ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺗﻄﺮﺡ ﻏﺎﺯﺃﻻﻭﻛﺲ ﺝﻳﻦ )ﻋﻜﺲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺗﻤﺘﺺ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﺠﻮ‪ .‬ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻚ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻟﻐﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻟﺴﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﺤﺲ ﺑﻬﻮﺍء ﻣﻨﻌﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫‪ +‬ﻟﻠﻐﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﺃﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻡ ﻥ ﺃﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﺼﻠﻚ ﻫﻮﺍء ﻧﻈﻴﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺃﻟﺮﺋﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻬﻮﺍء ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺋﺘﻚ ﺃﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ +‬ﻭﻟﻸﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻭﻳﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻻ ﺗﺤﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻀﻲ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻚ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺗﺎً ﺟﻤﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺳﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﺩﻱء ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻞ ؟‪.‬‬ ‫‪ +‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺃﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﻃﻨﺎً ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﺿﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻬﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻙ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺒﻪ ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺒﺐ ؟‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﱪﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﷲ ﺳﺒﺤﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭﺍً ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻻﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺇﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﻤﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﺮ ﺃﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻄﻴﺸﻪ ﻭﻋﺒﺜﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺭﻛﺰ ﺻﻴﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺄﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ؟ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﺨﺘﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ؟‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺃﻻﻋﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﻟﻐﺬﺍء ﺃﻻﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺷﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺄﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺷﺒﺔ ؛ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻐﺬﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻻﺟﺰﺍء ﺃﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺎﺋﺶ ﻭﺃﻻﻋﺸﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﻐﺰﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺎﻋﺰ ﻭﺃﻻﺭﻧﺐ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﺮﻳﺴﺔ ﻭﻏﺬﺍءﺍً ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺁﻛﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﻀﻮﺍﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﺜﻌﻠﺐ ﻭﺃﻟﻀﺒﻊ ﻭﺃﻟﺬﺋﺐ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻟﻐﺰﺍﻝ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺃﻟﻌﺸﺐ ﻭﺃﻟﻀﺒﻊ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺱ ﺃﻟﻐﺰﺍﻝ ﻟﻴﺘﻐﺬﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻮﺕ ﺃﻻﺧﻴﺮ‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺃﻻﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺃﻟﻬﺮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﺜﺘﻪ ﺗﺘﺤﻠﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩﺍً ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ ﺃﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪11‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻟﻨﺴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ ﺧﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺃﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﺃﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﻤﻴﻪ ﺑﺄﻻﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﺄﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﻠﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻟﻀﺒﺎﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻟﺬﺋﺎﺏ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ؟‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﺕ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍً ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ؛ ﺃﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﺔ ﺃﻟﻨﺒﺖ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﺃﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﺤﺮﻭﺏ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻘﻄﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺃﻟﻘﻄﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻟﻤﻘﺎﺻﺪ ‪،‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﺳﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪U‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 400‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺄﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺃﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺪﺭﺍﺝ ﻭﺃﻟﻘﻄﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﻟﻤﻬﺎﺟﺮﺓ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺰﺭﺍﺯﻳﺮ ﻭﺃﻟﺼﻘﻮﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 75‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻝ ﻟﺒﺎﺋﻦ ‪ 340 ،‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻻﺳﻤﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 6500‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ ‪ 83 ،‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺰﻭﺍﺣﻒ ‪،‬‬

‫‪ 7‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻣﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺄﻟﻠﺒﺎﺋﻦ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺃﻟﺜﺪﻳﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺿﻊ ﺻﻐﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﻟﺤﻠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﻐﺰﺍﻝ ﻭﺃﻻﺭﻧﺐ ﻭﺃﻟﺨﻔﺎﺵ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺒﺮﻣﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﺍﺃﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃﻟﻀﻔﺎﺩﻉ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ‪ ...‬ﺗﺮﺍﻗﺐ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻄﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺄﻟﻮﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺃﻟﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﺰﺍﻫﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻳﻀﺎً ﺃﻥ‪ ...‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻟﺒﻮﻣﺎً ﺧﺎﺻﺎً ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺚ‬ ‫‪12‬‬


‫ﻟﻨﺤﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ – ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺇﺭﺷﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪2011‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺤﺬﻭ ﺣﺬﻭﻙ‪ .‬ﻓﺤﺐ ﺃﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺷﻲء ﺟﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮﻫﺎ ﺃﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺷﻲء ﺃﺟﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﺭﻓﻊ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ )ﺃﻟﻜﺎﻣﲑﺍ ﺑﺪﻝ ﺃﻟﺒﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﻭﺃﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﱪﻳﺔ(‬

‫ﺃﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﲪﻴﺪ ﳎﻴﺪ ﺃﻟﺒﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ /‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﺭﺍﺿﻲ‬

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