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Pause, reflect, activate, impact: Co-designing consensus and dissensus for positive societal impacts

Alastair Fuad-Luke Professor Emerging Design Practices Aalto ARTS, Aalto University, Helsinki

Open Design, Shared Creativity FadFest, Barcelona, 01-02 July 2012

‘Pause reflect activate impact’ by Alastair Fuad-Luke is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License., where the following symbol is given. All other third party content is not covered under this licence.


Design activism is evolving‌fast!

A preliminary definition of design activism is ‘design thinking, imagination and practice applied knowingly or unknowingly to create a counter-narrative aimed at generating and balancing positive social, institutional, environmental and economic change’.

Fuad-Luke, A. (2009) Design Activism: Beautiful Strangeness for A Sustainable World, London: Earthscan, p27.


What are the strategic objectives of ’open design’ and ’shared creativity’? Can we really encourage positive societal change through open and co-design approaches?

If ’yes’, what do we need to focus on?


The challenge is huge…we have a perfect storm of ’wicked problems’… in the era of the ’Anthropocene’


from Holocene to Anthropocene

Holocene – since the last Ice Age, 10000 years ago Anthropocene – “the age of man” - a term coined by Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen in 2002. Recognised that humans are a geophysical force.

1876 8,000BC

Holocene

BC

1950s

AD

Sources: Image from http://www.geo.ucalgary.ca/~macrae/timescale/time_scale.gif; Vince, G. (2011) ‘The planet is entering a new epoch, say geologists – and it’s all down to humans’, p22, The Guardian, 4 June 2011.


Sedimentary plastic rocks of the future?

Source: The world's rubbish dump: a tip that stretches from Hawaii to Japan By Kathy Marks, Asia-Pacific Correspondent, and Daniel Howden http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/the-worlds-rubbish-dump-a-tip-that-stretches-from-hawaii-to-japan-778016.html; photo sourced from http://marineinsight.com/marine/environment/what-is-the-pacific-ocean-garbage-patch/


Wicked problem I: Peak oil, hydrocarbon global economy

Source: Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas


Dreams over?...in a Post Peak-oil world‌

x

x

x 2050


Wicked problem II: A rapidly warming world

+3 or +9 degrees by 2100?

source : METEO FRANCE


Wicked problem III: Water scarcity

Source: WRI Drinking from the Same Well: What Water Scarcity Means for Business and Society,Moderator, Carment Revenga, WRI, 7th Sustainable Enterprise Summit, March 17-18, Washington DC


Wicked problem IV: Loss of biodiversity

Source: UC San Diego Biological Sciences 2010


Wicked problem V: Global financial chaos

Source: International Monetary Fund


Wicked problem VI: Massive unemployment

Spanish unemployment hits 5.64million, 24.4% of workforce (51.5% of young people under 25 years old) in April 2012 Source: Eurostat 2010 and 2012


Wicked problem VII Growth for which economy? Based upon search results in Blackle.com 31.05.2012


Wicked problem VII Growth for which economy? Based upon search results in Blackle.com 31.05.2012

1 Service 2 National 3 Social 4 Open 5 Information 6 Global 7 Local 8 Market 9 Political 10 Digital

11 Green 12 Money-free 13 Social 14 market 14 Time-based 15 FIRE (Finance Insurance & Real Estate) 16 Black 17 Design 18 Regional 19 Industrial 20 Learning


Alternative & Emergent economies Non-monetary Un-measured or unofficial Barter Gift Money-free Time-based

Black Grey Informal

Based upon an internet search 31.05.2012

Dynamics Environmental technology orientated Alternative Distributed Emerging Open Transition

BioClean Tech EcoGreen Lithium Low-carbon Renewable energy Sustainable


Dominant political economies Type

Sector

Political orientation

Geographical & spatial

Conceptual Dual Hydrocarbon Market Mass consumerism Mixed Palace (historical use) Post-scarcity Subsistence

Creative Design Digital FIRE (Finance Insurance & Real Estate) Industrial Information Knowledge Learning Service

Planned Political Self-managed (decentralised) Social Social market Socialist market Stable State directed Sustainable Unsustainable

Global Local National Regional Distributed

Based upon an internet search 31.05.2012


Can open design be a means to rebalance Castells ’space of places’ through re-negotiation of the ’space of flows’… …by understanding which capitals we wish to grow, nourish, protect or diminish?


‘Space is the expression of society’ (Castells 2000, 440-441)

Castells, M. (1996/2000) The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Volume 1. 1st and 2nd editions. Oxford:Blackwell.


Space of flows is ‘the material organisation of time-sharing social practices that work through flows’ (flows of capital, information, technology, social interaction, images, sounds and symbols) (Castells 2000, 442)

Castells, M. (1996/2000) The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Volume 1. 1st and 2nd editions. Oxford:Blackwell.


Space of places, place being ‘a locale whose form, function and meaning are self-contained within the boundaries of physical contiguity’ (Castells 2000, 453)

Castells, M. (1996/2000) The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Volume 1. 1st and 2nd editions. Oxford:Blackwell.


How does open design re-negotiate the space of flows & space of places?

Space of flows

open design ?

Space of places

Castells recognised three mutually supporting layers:

• a circuit of electronic exchanges • its nodes and hubs. • the spatial organisation of the dominant, managerial elites


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design

NATURAL

Biotic/living

Any living plant, animal or other life-form which contributes to the world’s ecosystems

Natural ecology

Abiotic/non-living

Any non-living component which contributes to the world’s ecosystems, including geological, hydrological, atmospheric and solar resources.


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design

Human capital….‘any one individual’s physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual capacities’ and can include ‘cultural capital’ (Porritt, J. 2007 Capitalism as if the World Matters: 163) and (FuadLuke 2009:, Design Activism: Beautiful strangeness for a sustainable world, 8)

ANTHROPOCENTRIC

Human Social

Human ecology

Public Commercial


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design ‘Social capital …concerns connections between and within social networks that encourage civic engagement, engender trust, create mutual support, establish norms, contribute to communal health, cement shared interests, facilitate individual or collective action, and generate reciprocity between individuals and between individuals and a community.’ (Fuad-Luke 2009:, Design Activism: Beautiful strangeness for a sustainable world, 7)

Human ANTHROPOCENTRIC

Social Human ecology

Public Commercial


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design

Human ANTHROPOCENTRIC Any capital owned or managed by the state at national, regional and local levels. This includes buildings, infrastructure, intellectual property, financial assets and others.

Social Human ecology

Public Commercial


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design

Human ANTHROPOCENTRIC Social Any capital owned or managed by private individuals in corporations, companies and enterprises. This includes buildings, infrastructure, intellectual property, financial assets, man-made goods, and/or manufacturing facilities and others.

Human ecology

Public

Commercial


’Capitalia’ – key capitals to consider when we design

Human NATURAL

ANTHROPOCENTRIC

Biotic/living

Natural ecology

Abiotic/non-living

Natural & Human Ecology

Social Human ecology

Public Commercial

What are we growing, nourishing, protecting and/or diminishing?


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New resource use efficiency – existing artifacts

Democratisation of design, production and consumption

open design ’issues’?

Creation of new communities New ways of visualising information

Protecting & growing the Commons New models of enterprise New ways of designing & making New ways of generating concepts

Stimulated by van Abel et al (2011) Open Design Now, BIS Publishers, Creative Commons, Premsela & Waag Society


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? Public Domain with conditions

Copyleft - All wrongs reserved

Protecting & growing the Commons

Copyright - All rights reserved

Legal use of designs, sharing knowledge, generating & sharing skills, competences and Intellectual Property


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New models of enterprise

Shio light by Daniel MacDonald via kickstarter.com

Smart Textile Services, waag.org

P2P transactions, short value chains, transparent, accessible, shareable,


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New ways of designing & making

Downloadable designs, Droog.org

Shades of Wood Lamp by Jorn Van Eck and Overtreders Unlimiteddesigncontext.org

Openwear.org

Downloadable designs, Fritzing circuit boards, Instructables, 2D printing, 3D printing, cutting, generative design


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New ways of generating concepts

Nicholas Mika’s Intermodal pop-up cafe space at TEDx Grand Rapids, on openideo.com

Instuctuables restaurant Afrikaanderwijk, Rotterdam, at instructablesrestaurant.com

Collaborative, user-centered, user-driven, co-design, co-creation, sharable, crowdsourcing, half-way designs


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New ways of visualising information

Open Energy project, http://openenergy.francastillo.net/

Mapping issues, mapping live data, platforms for collaboration


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? Creation of new communities

Fab Labs by MIT, http://fab.cba.mit.edu/

Makerbot replicator, makerbot.com

Communities of practice/interest/place, alternative value chains, new societal structures e.g. Fab Labs, Ponoko, Makerbot, Frizing, Waag, Openideo, Instructables


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? Democratisation of design, production and consumption

Vambit by Drownspire, Boxlamp by madebydan, Cell Cycle Bracelet by Nervous System at ponoko.com

De-centralised, local and peer to peer production; anti-global economy; de-centralised power; alternative value chains; social modes of production; new attitudes (openness, transparency, sharing, possibilities); new social values


What ’issues’ are being addressed by open design? New resource use efficiency – existing artifacts

Shrunken sweater by Calypso Schuijt , www.platform21.nl,

Edible Chinese Checkers by Brenda Gartman INSTRUCTABLES, www.instructables.com

Re-use, re-cycling, re-purposing, repairing, redesign (DIWAMS, DIY, DIWO, DIT), hacking


Which ’capitals’ are being addressed by open design?

NATURAL

ANTHROPOCENTRIC

Human

Biotic/living

Natural ecology

Abiotic/non-living

Natural & Human Ecology

Social

Human ecology

Public

Commercial


The Sustainability Tetrahedron

to improve competitiveness

to minimize consumption of resources and ecological damage

ecological

economic

to strengthen participation

institutional

to strengthen cohesion

social Source: European DataBank Sustainable Development


Where is open design focusing on sustainability?

to improve competitiveness

to minimize consumption of resources and ecological damage

ecological

economic

to strengthen participation

institutional

to strengthen cohesion

social Source: European DataBank Sustainable Development


Open design only deals with part of the life cycle Waste stream End-of-life

Recycling, reuse

Virgin materials Concepting

Design file or blueprint

Extended life phase

Eco-efficiency & ecoeffectiveness of open design are not yet proven through the full life cycle

Digital distribution of the design

Local production

Use life phase Local distribution USER


Can we expand the open design agenda and make it more effective by embracing the co-design (designing together) approach? ‌by collectively defining the context, problem space and design brief‌ ‌by consensus?


We need to co-design upstream of the design brief

co-design Co-framing the context and problem space

upstream

Co-visioning, cocreating and cofuturing

downstream the design brief

sharing

experiences

understanding

designing

problems

solutions


Open co-design for new mobility products

‘c,mm,n’ – an OPEN SOURCE designed hydrogen car, launched Amsterdam, AutoRAI, Jan 2007 Partners: Netherlands Society for Nature and the Environment, The Technical University Delft, University of Eindhoven, University Enschede.


Co-designing new blueprints for enterprises

sow

know

eat

greet

Food Roots

Social cohesion

meet

grow

Food Roots was co-designed by Alaric Bozza, Alastair Fuad-Luke, Gina Lovett, Guy Robinson, Florian Gonzalez, Julia Lockheart, Julian Lindley, Lili de Larratea, Simon O’Rafferty and Valerie Abl, May 2009


Co-designing new blueprints for enterprises

trade

buy

cook

invest

share

Food Roots

Local economy

produce

Food Roots was co-designed by Alaric Bozza, Alastair Fuad-Luke, Gina Lovett, Guy Robinson, Florian Gonzalez, Julia Lockheart, Julian Lindley, Lili de Larratea, Simon O’Rafferty and Valerie Abl, May 2009


Can open co-design create new local enterprise models?

The People’s Supermarket, http://www.thepeoplessupermarket.org


Can open co-design create new energy supply models?

Lunchbox Laboratory by Future Farmers, futurefarmers.com


How can we further challenge the paradigm? ‌Design by dissensus


MetaboliCity

MetaboliCity by Loop Ph http://loop.ph/bin/view/Loop/MetaboliCity


Ecobox

Ecobox project, La Chapelle by Atelier D’Architecture Autogeree, http://www.urbantactics.org


Taking the Street

Taking the Street project by Santiago Cirugeda, http://www.recetasurbanas.net


Boxhome, Tromso, Norway by Rintala Eggertsson


‘Social’ urban acupuncture – Design as Seeding

Circada by Marco Casagrande, Taipei, 2011


‘Social’ urban acupuncture – Micro-sites

Life Line by Andreas Fernandiz-Calvo (lhs) and SMILE, Wai Yi Lai, TaiK Environmental Art group, Helsinki, 2008.


Opening up in the city of Lahti‌from user-centred design to co-design‌the city is beginning to explore the benefits of encouraging collaborative projects and environments


Lahti …what kind of sustainable city is designed?


Teams mapping the stakeholders for ‘Lahti design city’


Stakeholder mapping for ‘Lahti design city’

1 Citizens ;2 City, Service Providers & Retailers ;3 Designers, educators, associations ;4 Industry, Funding organisations, Edcuational establsihments in and beyond Lahti Copyright City of Lahti 2011


Ideas ‘dot’ as a ‘life-cycle’ start/finish

Active, joyful co-design based upon real needs


I.C.E. and the city ‘meta-design brief’

‘Generating ideas and creating stories by joyful and active co-designing while recognising the importance of life cycles and real needs in our local environment and bio-region.’

Development of ideas >>>>>>>>

Lifecycles

Environment

Cdeas o-design

Ideas from people in Lahti


Growing ‘social capital’ in Lahti…

Ignite communities > PRIDE > OWNERSHIP

Share stories, tools Projects, events

COCREATE

Co-create tools, stories and projects/events to share design knowledge among and within all communities in Lahti to ‘ignite’ the ‘design city’ and give it pride, while giving ownership back to everyone


User-centred and co-design projects for Lahti 2002-2012 2002-2010 User-centred design

2011 onwards Co-design


Growing ‘manufactured capital’ in Lahti…

’GrowHow’’

Start-up spaces Prototyping ecodesign park & exhibition centre

An exhibition and prototyping eco-design/green design park where “GrowHow” knowledge (business) sits alongside (bio-)materials, bio-mass energy, quality assurance, supply chain and technical manufacturing advice/knowledge. Inexpensive or free start-up space to help grow the design communities.


A new Clean Design Centre has recently opened in Lahti

The new Clean Design centre, Lahti Science & Business Park, Rikka Salokannel and others, http://www.lahtisbp.fi/fi/toimitilat_tutkimustilat/cleandesign_center


Growing ‘financial capital’ in Lahti…

’Seed capital’

Willingness to risk & experiment

Return on Design investment

More easily accessible funds and ‘seed capital’ for pilot projects, SMEs, young entrepreneurs, accepting that some of the funds have to accept the risk of some failure against the potential successes. Proof of Return on Design investment. Imaginative ways of raising money from notfor-profit and co-operative banks and by crowdsourcing (sourcing from communities, individuals).


Growing ‘natural capital’ in Lahti…

Nature’s cycles & zero waste LIVING BREATHING GREEN CITY Biomaterials, bio-mass, bio-shapes

Ecotourism + designing & making

A living, breathing, zero-waste, green city reflecting nature’s aesthetic shapes on a small and large scale, with hydro cycles, bio-mass energy and a vibrant ‘making’ ecotourism culture in and outside the city.


Involving the citizens and other stakeholders in Lahti

http://www.greencity.fi/en


Growing ‘human capital’ in Lahti…

Share skils

Widen horizons

OPEN KNOWLEDGE

Upgrade skills

Improve abilities

Widening horizons by improving skills and abilities, then sharing them and making the knowledge open to benefit everyone. Upgrading skills to strengthen individuals [and the potential of Lahti].


Dreams, needs, challenges – co-designing with the citizens

Getting to know the Tonttila community, Lahti, May 2012, http://window874.com/2012/06/08/tonttila-1exploring-community-views-and-needs/, Photos: Katharina Mosbus


Designing at complimentary scales

. Powers of 10, Charles & Ray Eames, 1977


How to balance Design as planning with Design as seeding? Hard - permanent Municipalities

Commercial-economy

DESIGN AS PLANNING Natural Biotic + Abiotic ecology

Human ecology

DESIGN AS SEEDING Socio-economy

Communities Soft - ephemeral


Measuring the impact of designing and making on social capital… …some projects in Devon, UK

Source: ‘Re-crafting capitalism, regenerating societies: How do designer-makers amplify, build and regenerate social capital?’ Making Futures: The Crafts in the Context of Emerging Global Sustainability Agendas, a conference organised by Plymouth College of Art, Dartington, Devon, UK, 15-16.09.2011


Social Capital – three approaches

Pierre Bourdieu, French social theorist, 1970s/1980s Marxist concerns, for example, equal access to resources James Coleman, American economic and social theorist Rational action theory – rational individuals acting in their own interests Robert Putnam, American political scientist Association and civic activity as basis for social integration

Source: Field, J. (2010) Social Capital. 2nd edition, p1-2, 15. London: Routledge.


Defining ‘social capital’

‘Social capital holds a wide variety of meanings but most agree that it concerns connections between and within social networks that encourage civic engagement, engender trust, create mutual support, establish norms, contribute to communal health, cement shared interests, facilitate individual or collective action, and generate reciprocity between individuals and between individuals and a community.’

Fuad-Luke, A. (2009) Design Activism: Beautiful Strangeness for a Sustainable World, p7, London: Earthscan


Focal areas and ‘potential indicators’ for measuring how social capital is developed STRUCTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Degree of organisational structure Quality of functioning of structure Effectiveness of internal communication Degree of identity of participants with structure Effectiveness of external communication

Measuring SOCIAL CAPITAL


Focal areas and ‘potential indicators’ for measuring how social capital is developed STRUCTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

RELATIONSHIPS

Degree of organisational structure Quality of functioning of structure Effectiveness of internal communication Degree of identity of participants with structure Effectiveness of external communication

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measuring SOCIAL CAPITAL

Strength of ties between individuals Levels of trust between individuals Levels of sharing and co-operation Levels of participation Levels of consensus


Focal areas and ‘potential indicators’ for measuring how social capital is developed STRUCTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

RELATIONSHIPS

Degree of organisational structure Quality of functioning of structure Effectiveness of internal communication Degree of identity of participants with structure Effectiveness of external communication

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measuring SOCIAL CAPITAL SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE 1. 2. 3. 4.

Exchange of explicit skills and knowledge Exchange of tacit skills and knowledge Shared understanding of the project context Sense of challenging values & meanings

Strength of ties between individuals Levels of trust between individuals Levels of sharing and co-operation Levels of participation Levels of consensus


Focal areas and ‘potential indicators’ for measuring how social capital is developed STRUCTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

RELATIONSHIPS

Degree of organisational structure Quality of functioning of structure Effectiveness of internal communication Degree of identity of participants with structure Effectiveness of external communication

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Strength of ties between individuals Levels of trust between individuals Levels of sharing and co-operation Levels of participation Levels of consensus

Measuring SOCIAL CAPITAL SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE 1. 2. 3. 4.

Exchange of explicit skills and knowledge Exchange of tacit skills and knowledge Shared understanding of the project context Sense of challenging values & meanings

EXPERIENCES 1. 2. 3. 4.

Strength of peer-to-peer interaction Levels of absorption in activities Improvements in self-esteem of participants Levels of sense of community engagement

Source: ‘Re-crafting capitalism, regenerating societies: How do designer-makers amplify, build and regenerate social capital?’ Making Futures: The Crafts in the Context of Emerging Global Sustainability Agendas, a conference organised by Plymouth College of Art, Dartington, Devon, UK, 15-16.09.2011


Give Fleece A Chance

sheep farmers & rare breeds

knitters & other creative people

the public ONLINE WOOL DIRECTORY Give Fleece a Chance, Copyright Claire Crompton, 2010 – a student on the MA Entrepreneurship for Creative Practice, Plymouth College of Art http://givefleeceachance.com/pattern/ and http://www.wooldirectory.org.uk/


Hands On Brixham – Transition Brixham and Brixham YES

Brixham YES and The Edge, http://www.brixhamedge.org

•20 designer-makers and artists involved •Over 1,000 people attended the event on 19-20 March 2011 •Representatives from 12 organisations


Imperfect Cinema – democratising film-making

All photos Copyright the film makers, sourced from www.imperfectcinema.com

•50 films made and screened •75-100 people per event •1000+ people involved


Did each project build social capital? STRUCTURES

Imperfect Cinema Hands On GFAC

EXPERIENCES

RELATIOINSHIPS

Poor

Moderate Strong

SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE


Exploring how open design can be applied to the design of services as well as the design of products‌


Aalto University’s 365wellbeing project explores new services

12 projects exploring how design can contribute to positive wellbeing in the lives of the elderly, Healthcare, the Suburbs, Smoke Free Environments and more, http://365wellbeing.aalto.fi/


How can (open) design (& shared creatvity) stimulate new hope and growth in Spain? •Encourage young people by a national programme of open, codesign and service design training • Explore alternative economies (service, co-, open, green/eco, non-monetary, time-based, local) • Expand the infrastructure to enable distributed local and regional design, production & consumption

• Focus on renewable solar energy and energy efficiency • Become experts in water use efficiency


Can open design create a new generation of entre-donneurs? PARTICIPATORY PRACTICE

co-preneur

co-donneur

[collaborative enterprise]

[collective altruism]

COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE

SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

entre-preneur

entre-donneur

[individual enterprise]

[individual altruism] INDIVIDUAL PRACTICE


How does open design balance these‌?

Me Generation (individualism)

Human focused (anthoropocentrism)

Nature focused (biocentrism)

Sharing Generation (communitarianism)


The MootSpace – Participatory Design Democracy

A space where all design voices can be heard, where there is participatory democracy and anticipatory co-futuring Fuad-Luke, A. (2009) Design Activism, London:Earthscan, pp196-200


1%

What if municipalities donate just of civic tax revenue to creating pop-up mootspaces where open, co-design can flourish?

What if we create an open source proposal at this conference‌that can be locally adapted by anyone, by any community?


GrĂ cies! Gracias! Thank you! Alastair Fuad-Luke Professor Emerging Design Practices Aalto ARTS, Helsinki

alastair.fuad-luke@aalto.fi Blog: http://window874.com Aalto University http://arts.aalto.fi/en NODUS, Sustainable Design Research group, http://designresearch.aalto.fi/groups/nodus/ Fuad-Luke http://www.fuad-luke.com

Alastair Fuad-Luke  

"Pause, reflect, activate, impact: Co-designing consensus and dissensus for positive societal impacts" - Open Design / Shared Creativity Con...

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