Page 1

Ornamental and Miscellaneous Metal


The official publication of the National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association

March / April 2011 $6.00 US

Shop Talk

Tips for managing windload, gate design page 20

Tech Talk

Straight talk about glass, page 33

Member Talk

Metal Head has a great year, page 42

Job Profile

A fly press lesson, page 46

METALfab 2011

Trade show products listing, page 37

69-60 79th St., P.O. Box 67, Middle Village, NY 11379

18 Great Reasons To Join NOMMA

A NOMMA membership provides a great value for your dues — you’ll get a wide array of benefits and tools that help your business. Four Easy Ways To Join: 1) Call Liz Johnson, our member care manager, at (888) 516-8585, ext. 101. 2) Email: 3) Download an application form from our website (click “Join Now!”) and fax to: (888) 516-8585. 4) Join online (click “Join Now!”) - Benefits of Membership NOMMA provides an excellent value for your membership investment — 18 benefits!

☛ Knowledgebase - Access hundreds of documents, including back issues of Fabricator, TechNotes, and Fabricator’s Journal.

☛ Member Kit - Upon joining, you’ll receive a kit containing a sampling of NEF publications and sales aides.

☛ Chapters - If you live in an area covered by a chapter, your dues also cover chapter membership. Chapter meetings feature demos, shop tours, and time for networking.

☛ Subscriptions - Receive a free subscription to O&MM Fabricator and NOMMA Newswire, our monthly email newsletter. ☛ Free monthly webinars - Focusing on business, shop, and technical issues. ☛ Vendor Discount Program - Receive discounts from a growing number of participating vendors. ☛ Awards Contest - As a member you’re eligible to compete in our annual Top Job competition, which recognizes outstanding industry work. ☛ Free Smartphone App - Now you can access the member’s area from your handheld device. ☛ Discounts - Reduced price for all NEF publications, videos, and events, including our annual METALfab education conference and trade show. ☛ Online Tutorials - View past NEF webinars, as well as print and video tutorials. ☛ ListServ - A great place to get your questions answered and to receive the latest news and information. ☛ Insurance Program - Obtain a free safety manual and receive bulletins on hot topics.

Membership Categories / Pricing Fabricator Member ($425) - Includes metal fabricating shops, blacksmiths, artists, or other firms and individuals in the industry whose products or services are sold directly to the consumer or the consumer’s immediate agent or contractor. Supplier Member - Firms that produce or distribute materials, machinery, and accessories for the industry or provide services that may be used by the industry. • Nationwide ($595) -Operating on a nationwide or international basis. • Regional ($465) -

☛ Affiliation - Receive a NOMMA member decal and certificate to proudly display in your front office. As a member, you show the world that you subscribe to NOMMA’s Code of Ethics. ☛ Member Locator - Make it easier for architects, designers, and consumers to find you, either by state or ZIP code. ☛ Technical Affairs - A portion of your dues supports our advocacy work with code bodies, standards organizations, and government. ☛ Mentor Program - Get connected with a seasoned craftsperson to help you develop both your professional growth and business. Additional benefits: ☛ NOMMA Education Foundation (NEF) - The foundation works to provide education and research services for the industry. NEF projects include education classes and training videos, support for chapters, research, scholarships, grants, etc... ☛ METALfab is our annual education conference and trade show. This is your opportunity to receive quality education and see the latest products and technology at our trade show.

Operating within a 500-mile radius. • Local ($375) - Operating within a 150-mile radius. Affiliate Member ($310) - Affiliate membership is limited to teachers, educational institutions, and nonprofit organizations that do not engage in the fabrication of ornamental or miscellaneous metal products, do not provide products or services to the industry, but have a special interest in the industry. American Express, VISA, MasterCard, and Discover accepted. As a NOMMA member, you agree to abide by NOMMA’s Code of Ethics.

Hi-Performance Gate Hardware



March / April 2011 Vol. 52, No. 2

This entry courtyard gate and fence is fabricated steel with a powdercoat finish by Metal Head Inc., page 42

NOMMA Network

Tech Talk

Member Benefits.................................. 10

Learn how to harness the power of one of your most valuable benefits. By Todd Daniel Tips & Tactics To create a custom texture, Cuper forged a custom set of spring dies for his power hammer. By Eric Cuper Play it safe at the wheel................. 18

The folks at Norton Abrasives warn what not to do with grinding wheels, and what to try instead. From Norton Abrasives Shop Talk

NOMMA’s code team speaks up as new comprehensive code is written. By Pete Hildebrandt

Gate design, heavy duty operators, magnetic locks, and other tips. By Pete Hildebrandt

Glass baluster guards still present code challenges................. 33

Improper use of terms and misinterpretations on glass rail code continue. By Tony Leto METALfab 2011 METALfab 2011 Trade Show Report, New Orleans, LA................. 37

See the latest from this year’s vendors.

A first generation success............. 42

Metal Head Inc. is doing great, despite the economy and only 10 years in biz. By Pete Hildebrandt

Exec. Director’s Letter.... 8

Need a fabricating question answered quick? ListServ it!

Meet Grace................................................. 46

A fly press bends the polynomial curves for a SS sculpture. By Robert Walsh Biz Side

Member Talk

Battling the wind.................................. 20

Boyler appreciates the spirit of cooperation in NOMMA.

Pool fencing code confusion....... 28

Tech Talk

Forging a custom texture............... 14

President’s Letter........... 6

Job Profiles

7 Personal finance tips.................... 50

Take care of personal business, too! By William J. Lynott What side of the certification issue are you?.......................................... 53

Get the low-down on a growing trend. By Molly A. Badgett What’s Hot! Business Briefs................................. 58 Events.................................................... 58 Chapters............................................... 60 New Products..................................... 61 Nationwide suppliers..................... 56 New members.................................... 57

NEF Chair Letter............ 12 The Wagner Companies wins Cliff Brown Award.

Metal Moment............... 66

Read excerpt on raising and sinking from Moving Metal.

About the cover: This gate was designed, fabricated, and finished by NOMMA member Picasso Gate, Cheyenne, WY. The

grape clusters and leaves are purchased items that were hammered and reshaped for a custom touch. See story on page 20. March / April 2011 n Fabricator


NOMMA O fficers President Bruce Boyler Boyler’s Ornamental Iron Inc. Bettendorf, IA Vice President/ Treasurer Will Keeler Keeler Iron Works Memphis, TN

President-Elect James Minter, Jr. Imagine Ironworks Brookhaven, MS Immediate Past President Bob Foust III Bob’s Ornamental Iron Studio Kansas City, KS

F abricator D i rectors Ray Michael R & F Metals Inc. Clinton, MD

Greg Terrill Division 5 Metalworks Kalamazoo, MI

J.R. Molina Big D Metalworks Dallas, TX

Todd Kinnikin Eureka Forge Pacific, MO

Mark O’Malley O’Malley Welding & Fabricating Inc. Yorkville, IL

Mark Koenke Germantown Iron & Steel Corp. Jackson, WI

S u ppli er D i rectors Wayne Haas Cleveland Steel Tool Co. Cleveland, OH

Cathee Speaks King Architectural Metals Dallas, TX

Gina Pietrocola D.J.A. Imports Ltd. Bronx, NY

NOMMA E ducation F ou n dation O fficers Chair Roger Carlsen Ephraim Forge Inc. Frankfort, IL Vice Chair Christopher Maitner Christopher Metal Fabricating Grand Rapids, MI Treasurer Mike Boyler Boyler’s Ornamental Iron Inc. Bettendorf, IA

T rustees Carl Grainger Grainger Metal Works Nichols, SC Heidi Bischmann The Wagner Companies Milwaukee, WI James Minter, Jr. Imagine Ironworks Brookhaven, MS Lynn Parquette Mueller Orn. Iron Works Inc. Elk Grove Village, IL

NOMMA C hapters Florida Chapter Britt Gordy, President Liberty Aluminum Co. Fort Myers, FL (239) 369-3000

Northeast Chapter Keith Majka, President Majka Railing Co. Inc. Paterson, NJ (973) 247-7603

Gulf Coast Chapter Scott Colson, President Iron Innovations Inc. Clinton, MS (866) 924-0640

Upper Midwest Chapter Mark Koenke, President Germantown Iron & Steel Corp. Richfield, WI (262) 677-2530

NOMMA S taff Executive Director, Editor J. Todd Daniel Managing Editor Rachel Bailey Layout Editor Robin Sherman


Meetings & Exposition Manager; NEF Executive Director Martha Pennington Member Care & Operations Manager Liz Johnson


Dedicated to the success of our members and industry.

President’s Letter

The cooperative spirit of NOMMA lives on This is my last letter as president

of NOMMA, so I thought that it would be appropriate to update you on the state of NOMMA. I could sum it up in two words: Very good. Board of directors tackles many tasks

Bruce Boyler, Boyler’s Ornamental Iron Inc., is president of NOMMA.

In the past year, your board of directors has continued to work on the strategic plan. This included several specific task force assignments. The task forces for Governance, METALfab Review, Needs Assessment, Staff Guidance, and Member Value Proposition have either finished or nearly finished their assignments, and many recommendations have been implemented. Two new task forces have been created to study certification and dues structure. We have also added a membership advisory council to the existing advisory councils. Technical Affairs and the new Certification Task Force continue to work hard to stay on the cutting edge and make regulations better for you. In addition, our NAAMM-NOMMA Manual Task Force is back in action, and is regularly holding meetings. Many of your fellow members, along with board members, have put in countless hours of work to make our task forces and committees successful.

NEF has become the integral part of NOMMA that it was intended to be. They are working hard on all facets of educating our members, and will soon be working on the certification education program. You can help them out by giving a generous monetary donation or a donation of your valuable time. NOMMA staff provides more with less

The brightest spot of all is our staff. We are blessed to have an experienced and dedicated staff that works tirelessly for the betterment of our industry. They continue to publish the finest magazine in the industry. They continue to be on the cutting edge of technology. Whether it is updating the web site, developing social media sites, or other avenues of communication, we remain on the edge because of their efforts. The ListServ is a godsend, and we have an ever-increasing number of webinars, forums, and tutorials. How we continue to do more with less is a testament to our staff and volunteers. That is the spirit of cooperation that NOMMA was founded on, and it remains alive and well today.

Membership and member value increases

Membership is on the increase; we have added a new NOMMA chapter, and just completed a successful convention. The Top Job awards contest enjoyed an increase in entries this year. We have had new suppliers exhibit at the trade show and advertise in Fabricator. Fabricator n March / April 2011

Wagnerail™ Slip-Fit™ System • Eliminate welded and glued joints • Simplify installation – complete system in minutes • Lumenrail® Ipe wood and laminated bamboo options • Starting at $11 per bracket

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

888.243.6914 7

Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metal Fabricator (ISSN 0191-5940), is the official publication of the National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association (NOMMA). O&MM Fabricator / NOMMA 805 South Glynn St., Ste. 127, #311 Fayetteville, GA 30214 Editorial We love articles! Send story ideas, letters, press releases, and product news to: Fabricator at address above. Ph/Fax: (888) 516-8585. E-mail: Advertise Reach 8,000 fabricators For information, call Jim Gorzek, Ph: (815) 227-8269. Email: Ads are due on the first Friday of the month preceding the cover date. Send ads to: Fabricator at address above. E-mail ads to: (max. 5 megs by e-mail). Or upload ads to our website where a downloadable media kit is available: Membership Join NOMMA! In addition to the magazine, enjoy more benefits as a NOMMA member. To join, call (888) 516-8585, ext. 101. For a list of benefits, see membership ad in this issue. Exhibit in METALfab Exhibit at METALfab, NOMMA’s annual convention and trade show. For more information, contact Martha Pennington at (888) 516-8585, ext. 104, or Subscriptions Subscription questions? Call (888) 516-8585. Send subscription address changes to: Fabricator Subscriptions, 805 South Glynn St., Ste. 127, #311, Fayetteville, GA 30214. Fax: (888) 5168585, or E-mail: 1-year: U.S., Canada, Mexico — $30 2-year: U.S., Canada, Mexico — $50 1-year: all other countries — $44 2-year: all other countries — $78 Payment in U.S. dollars by check drawn on U.S. bank or money order. For NOMMA members, a year’s subscription is a part of membership dues. NOMMA Buyer’s Guide Published each December as a separate issue. Deadline for all advertising materials is October 31. For info, contact Todd Daniel at (888) 516-8585 or 2011 Editorial Advisory Council Doug Bracken.......... Wiemann Metalcraft Nancy Hayden......... Tesko Enterprises Tom McDonough.... Master Metal Services Rob Rolves................ Foreman Fabricators Inc. Opinions expressed in Fabricator are not necessarily those of the editors or NOMMA. Articles appearing in Fabricator may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express permission of NOMMA. © 2011 National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association 8


How to reach us

Executive Director’s Letter

ListServ: Best benefit of all Members have often told me


that the NOMMA ListServ In five weeks, I have realone is worth the price of ceived six benefits, plus plenty membership. I recently decided of intangible benefits from the to put this statement to the test philosophical discussions. I by conducting an experiment. would say that already, the valI am a member of the Ameriue of the knowledge I obtained can Society of Association Exechas paid for my ASAE memutives (ASAE), which, believe it Todd Daniel bership dues. or not, is an association for as- is executive As a NOMMA fabricator, director of sociations. I joined five of their NOMMA. think how the ListServ can ListServs. benefit you, in terms of time On January 1, I started keepand money saved. One tip or ing a record of the benefits I vendor suggestion can help you received from the ListServs. As avoid a ton of grief. I write this column, it is only early February, and the results I’m seeEnd result ing are good: If you dedicate yourself to studying the ListServ you will gain tremendous n I’ve received links to two excellent articles on membership. knowledge that will allow you to make a better impression on clients and ben I saved two vendor recommendations, which may come in handy in the come a better problem-solver. future. In the end, the knowledge you obtain can help to increase efficiency n I obtained two great ideas, including a tip on membership and even reduce the stress in your life. recruitment. Knowledge is, indeed, power, and every day a geyser of it flows online. n In the spirit of “giving back,” I’ve helped two subscribers who posted I encourage all NOMMA members questions. For one, I recommended to subscribe and sip from this stream a vendor, and on the other, I shared a of knowledge. personal experience. You can subscribe from the Member’s Only area, or by contacting Liz n I posted a technology question on the ListServ and immediately received Johnson, our membership care manan answer from a colleague. In fact, ager (, 888-516-8585, the lead he gave me opened a series of ext. 101). additional doors. For more on the ListServ, see the article on page 10. Gurus

While I only have time to skim the daily chatter, I do make a special point to stop and read whenever a guru posts. There are about three gurus that I carefully follow, and king among these is Kevin Whorton, who has done work for NOMMA in the past. A market research consultant, Kevin gives away far too much for free, and his information has helped me tremendously. On the NOMMA ListServ, we have our own gurus as well. Fabricator n March / April 2011


The NOMMA Network NOMMA members rank ListServ tops after Fabricator mag The survey results are in. NOMMA members have ranked the ListServ as their second most useful benefit, followed only by Fabricator magazine. However, only 235 of our members use the service, which is about a third of our membership. Our hope is that more members will sign up — the more participants who join, the more effective this tool is. What is the ListServ?

Think of the ListServ as an ongoing conversation among NOMMA members around the world. If you have a code question or need a certain part, this is the place to get quick answers. Occasionally, there are great philosophical discussions like dealing with slow-paying clients or problem employees. The ListServ works by bouncing your message to all other subscribers on the list. If you prefer, you can also access the ListServ from the member’s area, in the forums. However, the email system is recommended. The archives

The archives record all past conversations and are a great storehouse of information. Conversations from 2001– 2008 are in the old ListServ archives. More recent conversations from

2009 forward are now fed directly into our Knowledgebase. To access these conversations, simply go to the members area and use the “Search” window at top right. What do I say?

You don’t have to say anything. In fact, you can just watch and learn. To post, either go to the foNOMMA’s new system allows access to the ListServ from rums or enter the ListServ either email or the online forums. email address. Common posts include: NEF Chair Roger n Where to find Carlsen leads an something. annual presentation n How to do at METALfab, called something. ListServ Live. Last n Opinions on how to year, he was joined handle something. by NOMMA Director Todd Kinnikin. n Code questions. NOMMA has an amazing culture of sharing, and chances are you will receive an answer within minutes. Community Forum.” If you prefer, email staff and we’ll Subscribe be glad to add you. Contact Liz JohnTo subscribe, simply go to the Mem- son ( or Todd Daniel ber’s Area, then to “My Options,” and ( then “My Subscriptions” and then Once subscribed, you’ll unlock a “Public Topics.” new world of information and make Next, choose “General NOMMA some new friends as well.

Congratulations to the Wagner Grant recipients Congratulations goes to the Wagner 2011 Grant recipients! Each recipient received a grant from The Wagner Companies to cover travel and hotel accommodations for METALfab 2011. In addition, the NOMMA Education Foundation provided each with a full registration. The 2011 recipients are: n Tim Campbell, Ironhaus Inc., Hamilton, MT n Eric Cuper, Cuper Studios LLC, Easton, PA n Brad Landry, Grunau Metals, Oak Creek, WI n Daniel Ortega, The Iron Hammer, Murray, KY A thanks goes to all the applicants in the Wagner Grant Program. This was a difficult decision because of the outstanding quality of the applicants. Also, a thanks to both The Wagner Companies and the NOMMA Education Foundation for making this program possible.


Manage ListServ emails with Outlook rule feature Need to manage your ListServ emails? In Microsoft Outlook, create a rule that assigns your Listserv mail a certain category and color. You can also define the rule to put your ListServ emails in a separate folder. Rules can be found in the “Tools” menu bar.

Fabricator n March / April 2011


The NOMMA Network NOMMA chapters to participate in museum volunteer day NOMMA’s chapters are hosting a volunteer day at the Metal Museum in Memphis, TN on April 30. Service projects will include finishing a gazebo and installing handicap rails. As an added treat, the NOMMA Education Foundation is hosting an education program on the museum grounds, titled, “Casting Scratch Block Class.” During the class, you’ll be able to freehand a unique design and have it cast in aluminum. For hotel info and a downloadable flyer, visit the “Chapter” area of the NOMMA website. Certification team reviews vendors

Certification Task Force Chair Roger Carlsen and Shop Certification Task Force Leader Henry Wheeler discussed certification with the NOMMA Board of Directors last January. Henry Wheeler The board reviewed the shop team’s third outline draft and gave them the “green light” to continue their work. Currently, the team is talking to potential vendors who could help produce the curriculum and even manage the program.

Plans are to unveil the first phase of the program at the METALfab 2012 conference in Orlando, FL. The first phase will cover basic shop accreditation. Plans are then to create a variety of shop and individual certification programs that will allow a shop to enhance its basic rating. Mentor program unveiled

One of the newest benefits of your NOMMA membership is the Mentor Program. As a member, you can either request a general mentor for business guidance or a specialized mentor, such as a stainless steel expert. A mentor support area has been set up on the NOMMA website under the “Member Resources” section. To request a mentor, simply visit the support site, download a form, complete it, and fax to the NOMMA office. Membership Advisory Council announced

The NOMMA Board has appointed a Membership Advisory Council (MAC) to work on membership growth and provide guidance to board members and staff. Members named to the council include: n Ed Mack, Fine Architectural Metalsmiths, Chester, NY.

Get involved in YOUR association! The following committees and task forces are welcoming volunteers for 2011–2012. Can you help? n Certification. Help NOMMA and NEF with their most exciting project ever! Volunteers serve in work groups and develop education curriculum and write test questions. n NAAMM-NOMMA Manual Task Force. Help with our latest project, which is the Metal Stair & Railing Manual. Plans are to release it in November 2011. n Convention. Volunteers are

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

needed for METALfab 2011 to help with various tasks, ranging from publicity to greeting new members. n Membership. The Membership Advisory Council needs help growing and strengthening membership. Tasks would include designing surveys, calling past members, and helping to design future membership campaigns. Other volunteer openings will regularly be posted. Contact Liz Johnson, 888-516-8585, ext. 101, liz@

n Mark O’Malley, O’Malley Welding & Fabricating Inc., Yorkville, IL. n Bill Coleman, Arc Angels Inc., Dunedin, FL. Already, MAC has conducted a survey, contacted expired members, and assisted the Tiered Membership Task Force. The group has also already made recommendations to the board, including an installment plan idea.

Free downloads added to member’s area

A few older NOMMA publications have been digitized and are now available as a free download. They are accessible from the member’s area home page. The titles include: n A Guide To the Development of the Ironworker’s Skills. Written in the 1970s by the late Cliff Brown, this handbook remains popular and provides good, basic information on stair layout. The publication also covers tools, terminology, and basic math. n NOMMA Safety Program. At nearly 200 pages, this book covers everything from record keeping to fleet safety. n Safety: A Step-By-Step Guide. This 38-page booklet provides six steps for starting an employee safety program in your shop. The back of the booklet features several checklists for determining the safety of your fleet, products, and shop.

Are you getting NOMMA Newswire and other emails? Emails from NOMMA give you the latest association and industry news. Is your current email on file? If you are not getting our monthly e-newsletter, NOMMA Newswire, and other correspondence, please let us know. If you’d like your coworkers on the list, we’ll add as many employees as you like. Contact Liz Johnson at the NOMMA office (888-516-8585, ext. 101;



NOMMA Educational Foundation

In partnership with the National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association

Wagner gets Cliff Brown Award By Roger Carlsen, NEF Chair

In 2008 the Cliff Brown Award was presented to James Wallace, The Metal Museum, for his outstanding career as an educator at the museum. Wally has When the NOMMA Education Foundation (NEF) was trained and mentored numerous outstanding metal established, President of Hallmark Iron Works, workers and provided programs for NEF Continuing Charles Mercer, said he was willing to support the Education and METALfab. foundation through a generous annual donation and Mike Boyler, Boyler’s Ornamental Iron was the the establishment of the Cliff Brown Award to recog2007 recipient. Mike and his family have been maUpdate from nize contributions to the education of the industry. jor participants in the development of NOMMA and Cliff Brown was the founder of Hallmark Iron and NEF Chair NEF. Mike was the original NEF Chair and a member Roger Carlsen, believed in the importance of giving back to the inof the committee that formed NEF. He has served as Ephraim dustry that had been good to him and his company. Forge Inc. NOMMA President, helped on numerous commitIn this vein Mr. Mercer wanted to continue recogniztees, planned education programs for METALfab, and ing outstanding efforts in the area of education for helped develop the video training program. the ornamental and miscellaneous metals industry. Jerry Grice, Grice Welding, received the award in Thus the Cliff Brown Award was established in 2002. 2006. Jerry served as President of NOMMA, chaired The NEF Board of Trustees would like to express numerous committees, and was always available to antheir gratitude to Mr. Mercer and Hallmark Iron for their swer member’s questions. He was a regular presenter at METcontributions to the industry and support of NEF. ALfab and at local chapter meetings. Jerry shared his experience and talents to help others become better fabricators. Award recipient for 2011 When NEF was formed, Stan Lawler was one of the first The 2011 Cliff Brown Award was presented to The Wagmembers to step forward and make numerous substantial ner Companies for the firm’s outstanding contributions to contributions, giving the foundation and its programs an industry education at the Partners in Education Reception at initial base for funding. For this significant contribution, METALfab. Wagner’s employees are always willing to present Stan Lawler of Lawler Foundry Corp. was recognized with education classes at METALfab and local chapter meetings, the award in 2005. provide solutions on the ListServ, work on committees and In 2004, the Cliff Brown Award went to Gib Plimpton, task forces, attend code hearings and update NOMMA memMyers & Co. Architectural Metals. Gib is always willing to bers on results, raise funds for NEF programs by managing provide education and support to the industry and members the auction and providing auction items, and provide grants of NOMMA by planning programs, teaching classes, and for attendance at METALfab during difficult financial times. working on education committees. Bob Wagner accepted the award for the company. Lloyd Hughes, Hughes Metalworking, the 2003 recipient, was known as “Mr. NOMMA” for his numerous apPast recipients of the Cliff Brown Award pearances in the NEF Video Program. Lloyd was a member The recipient in 2010, James Minter of Imagine Ironof the committee that formed the foundation. He served works, has been a major supporter of NEF and its programs as NOMMA president and planned outstanding education by teaching classes at METALfab, serving as NEF Chair for programs for METALfab. two terms, working on and chairing numerous committees, Anyone fortunate enough to take the estimating class and fundraising. was able to experience the wealth of knowledge that Ed 2009 recipient Jack Klahm, Klahm & Sons, has been a Powell, Powell’s Ornamental Metal, shared in this class. Ed, wealth of information for NOMMA members. He is a major the 2002 recipient, also served as NOMMA president, eduparticipant in the METALfab education program — demcation chair for METALfab, and has taught various METALonstrating, teaching, video “star,” and networking. Jack will fab classes. drop whatever he is doing to take a phone call from fellow fabricators and help them find a solution. DO N AT E!

For more information on donating to the NOMMA Education Foundation contact Martha Pennington, (888) 516-8585 x 104, 12

Fabricator n March / April 2011


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Tips& Tactics n


Forging a custom texture Making custom spring dies for a power hammer to provide custom texturing.

Problem A customer wanted custom texturing on 150 or so balusters of cold rolled steel. The first attempt did not work. Eric Cuper, Cuper Studios, showed his clients the pattern he typically uses, but they wanted a repeating pattern of squares not circles.

consists of several bad MIG welds on a small piece of plate attached to a handle. This is held over the square bar as I run it through the power hammer. I allow it to bounce around and overlap while forging in the texture so it is a more random texture rather than a repeating pattern. The customer thought it looked too much like bubbles and wanted a square texture. I always say “yes.” Then I scratch my head while figuring what I’m going to do. Step Create a new texture tool 2 — build new spring dies

Solution Cuper found advice on NOMMA’s members’ only ListServ. He then forged a custom pattern in a set of spring dies for his power hammer. Step Present sample using 1 current texture tool

This is a photo of a texture tool and the texture it makes. The architect and homeowner wanted vertical straight ¾-inch square balusters and 1¼-inch square posts but they wanted a texture. My standard quick texture tool

This is a photo of my tool steel rack. I needed to create a set of spring dies for my power hammer so I headed over to the tool steel rack. For this and most spring dies that I make for my power hammer I use large truck leaf springs. I am fortunate to have a garbage truck repair shop in town that will let me rummage through their broken spring pile. Step Forge a custom pattern 3 on the dies

This is a close up of the die pattern, a grid of squares I drew on the die with a fine point Sharpie. Then with a

band saw I cut into the die about 1/8inch on each of the lines I drew. Next I heated the die in a gas forge and used a handheld square punch to forge down every other square. Since this set of dies would make several hundred blusters and a few posts, I left a tang on each. These tangs were drilled for ¼-inch bolts so the dies could be attached to the 3/8-inch by 1-inch mild steel spring. If I weld the dies to the spring the weld usually breaks, then I have to remove everything for repair. By bolting it, if the bolts come loose or break, I can replace them in position and return to forging more quickly. Step Load spring die 4 on spring die holder

This is a photo of the spring die holder on the power hammer. My hammer is a 110 pound Sahinler self


Fabricator would like to publish your step-by-step tutorial or problem/solution case study. Please contact the Editor at (888) 516-8585 or e-mail: 14

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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contained air hammer that I’ve had for about six years. It has a base frame that accepts the spring dies made to fit around the bottom hammer die. A 1-inch square steel stem welded to the spring fits into a square hole on the base frame. My frame is made from ½-inch by 2-inch with four bolts to lock it to the hammer die and a spring die holder on each end. It is not still enough, though, and probably should be made from ¾-inch stock.

time. I usually have about five balusters in the forge at one time. I will have a cold bar in my hand to replace the one I am removing from the forge and by the time I work through the other four it will be up to forging temperature.

bricks. I do this because in the past when I have set the hot bars to cool on a metal table, the side touching the table cooled quicker causing the bars to arc slightly thus requiring straightening again. Step Finish the workpiece and 6 admire the work

Step Put the hammer and the 5 spring dies to work

In my shop we run Johnson forges for texturing balusters. The long forge allows us to heat half of the baluster at a


The bar is allowed to bounce around and overlap between the dies as I feed it through. This allows the pattern to appear more random. Immediately after texturing I turn around and straighten each bar at the anvil while it is still hot. As the bar is losing its heat, I wire brush with a hand held brush until the temperature falls below scaling temperature. I then set the bar on the table of my coal forge which is lined with fire

This is a close up photo of the finished balusters. The customer wanted the steel’s finish to show the natural variation of its tones. These balusters have several coats of clear lacquer. Thanks to NOMMA member Eric Cuper of Cuper Studios LLC for sending in these Tips & Tactics.

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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Tips& Tactics n Play it safe at the wheel 4 Tips when grinding a difficult workpiece. While fabricating complex designs,

ornamental and miscellaneous metal fabricators often find interesting challenges, particularly when grinding and finishing difficult workpieces. Sometimes, the inclination is to get creative with cut-off wheels. But Norton Abrasives warns against this and instead suggests using a different tool, the right tool. Below are some requests they’ve received from their customers concerning a workpiece that is difficult to reach followed by responses and alternative solutions. Please keep these tips in mind. Notice the emphasis on safety! Request number 1

Can we remove the machine’s wheel guard to grind in tight places? Answer NEVER! If you are grinding in tight areas where a wheel guard interferes with grinding, use a different tool and wheel. Solution Use mounted points and cones/plugs. These products do not require wheel guards and come in many sizes and shapes. They are designed for grinding in tight areas. Request number 2

Is it safe for our customer to mount a Type 27 wheel onto a machine upside down so that he/she can grind the bottom of a work-piece such as the bottom of a table top? Answer NO! Type 27 wheels and angle grinders are designed and manufactured so that the depressed center of the wheel is facing down (wheel’s hub is up). Improper mounting of these

wheels can lead to wheel breakages and personal injuries. Solution If you must grind under a work-piece, then get under the workpiece and turn the grinder over or use a different tool.

surface and can be an answer to this application.

These are just a few examples of the questions Norton Abrasives receives. They are always glad to respond to these requests. Always Request number 3 read all instrucWe have a very tions provided with For grinding in tight areas Norton tight area to grind; Abrasives recommends using mounted the abrasive wheels can we use the side points and cones or plugs, which do not and tools BEFORE of a type one cut-off require wheel guards and come in many you begin work. If sizes and shapes. wheel? you are unsure of an Answer No, cutapplication, always off wheels are not designed for use on check with ANSI, OSHA, or your Northeir sides. Side grinding, twisting, ton Abrasives Inc. representative bebending, or jamming the wheel are fore you begin work. Remember, safety misuses that can cause wheel breakis no accident, play it safe at the wheel! ages. Never use the side of a cut-off For additional information on this wheel to grind. topic or if you need any other abraSolution Instead, use the correct sive safety information, please review product for this application, posANSI, OSHA, and all literature providsibly a Type 27 wheel or coated disc ed by the abrasive wheel and machine application. manufacturer. You may contact the Norton Product Safety Department or Request number 4 your Norton Abrasives representative We are using small cut-off wheels with any safety related questions. on angle grinders to cut bolts flat with Contact Roger Cloutier a concrete floor. Can we bend the cutNorton Abrasives off wheel to get under the bolt? Senior Product Safety Engineer Answer No, as stated above, straight Product Safety Department cut-off wheels do not bend, but break when excessive side pressure is applied. (508) 795-2690 Never bend a straight cut-off wheel. Solution Type 27 cut-off wheels Thanks to Norton Abrasives for are designed to cut flush with the sending in these tips.


Fabricator would like to publish your tips and tactics. Please contact the Editor at (888) 516-8585 or e-mail: 18

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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Shop Talk For this 27' slide gate, Ornamental Gate used a Dynamic Gate Systems trolley. It rides inside a 4" square tube. Rick Nelson says he didn’t like doing slide gates until after building a few using this system. Now he’d rather build slide than swing.

Battling the wınd 3 Fabricators examine special treatments for the best gate function during gusty conditions.

By Peter Hildebrandt Among the most important variables to consider when designing, constructing,

decorating, installing, and servicing a gate is the wind. After all, who wants all their hard work to get damaged in a strong gust? While the gate may serve aesthetic or security purposes, the wind at the place of installation may determine the final look of the gate. It also plays a factor in terms of the gate’s automatic gate operating system and its hardware. NOMMA member Jan Allen Smith of Allen Iron Works & Supply Inc. recently asked for advice concerning a gate where wind would be a significant factor on the NOMMA members’ only ListServ. Smith’s customer wanted extreme privacy at a driveway entrance. The opening between the columns was 21 feet 6 inches and the gates needed to be 9 feet high on the sides and 7 feet high in the center. They would function as a double-leaf, swing gate, and the leaves would be mounted using pillow blocks for the hinges. On either side of the gates 15 linear feet of brick walls ran from 10 feet high down to 8 feet high, and the customer wanted the gates to have solid sheet panels for maximum vision obstruction. 20

For your information



Gate design variables such as length, height, and panel coverage affect wind load. n

Wind load affects a gate’s hardware and its automated operator. n

A solid panel design request should be a red flag. See if you can come up with creative alternatives that still provide sufficient visual obstruction. n

Magnetic locks and other devices can be used to support optimal gate function. n

About the author Peter Hildebrandt has been a contributing writer for Fabricator magazine since 2005. He writes about science, technology, industry, and history for a variety of trade publications.

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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Picasso Gate designed this gate, which obviously allows for plenty of wind to pass through. The gate frame is 3" by 2" by 3/16" rectangular tubing and 2" by 1" channel. The pickets are ¾" square bar, and the grape vines are from ¾" and ½" round bar. All bars, ornaments (grapes), and leaf stampings were textured by the fabricator for a custom touch.

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“My mind was already running with questions concerning wind resistance,” wrote Smith. “But, he would like to cover the area between the gate frame and the brick column, as well as an overlay of material in the center to cover the crack between the leaves.” Another NOMMA member piped in. “I have seen solid gates go badly wrong in high wind gusts,” wrote Tom Kervin of Kervin Brothers Ornamental Iron Inc. “If that is a concern, it is an engineer’s call.” Below a few members who deal a good bit with gates and wind issues offer their take on fabricating and installing gates. When you are faced with a request similar to the one Smith received, keep these suggestions in mind. Solid mass yields greater wind load

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Brent Nichols of Picasso Gate is involved in constructing, crafting, installing, and supplying gates to a large area of the Rocky Mountain West. Concerning the design of a gate, Nichols explains that a lot of solid mass area results in greater wind load on the gate. “It’s like carrying a four by eight sheet of plywood in the wind,” explains Nichols. “We worked on a gate project just west of Cheyenne, toward the mountains. This gate had a 4-inch square tubing frame with a center horizontal made of 3 by 3-inch square tubing, and pickets at about 7 to 7½Fabricator n March / April 2011

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A word on wind for swing gate applications




By Adam Witczak Weight of the gates

All manufacturers list a maximum gate weight their operator can move. When selecting an operator for an installation, it is critical the unit can handle the weight and amount of duty cycle needed. The gates must move freely on high quality hinges and the horsepower of the operator needs to be adequate to move the gate in any type of weather. Amount of resistance on gate face

It is very important to create an area on the gate face itself to allow wind, rain or snow to pass through. The more resistance (pickets, facing or decorative material), the greater the power needed from the operator. The duty cycle

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Witczak of Universal Entry Systems suggests the SEA Full Tank Hydraulic swing gate operator (leaf length max 23') or the New SEA Half Tank Hydraulic swing gate operator (leaf length max 13') for gates facing strong wind resistance.

The actual usage of the gate determines the duty cycle. Peak usage time should always be considered. The operator will have a maximum usage per hour specification. This is not to be exceeded. The environment where the gate is installed: Open spaces with no wind break can make moving even a light weight gate difficult. Snow can pile up in front of the gate leafs. Consideration of these factors as well as correct relay inputs for safety (UL325 listed equipment is the industry standard and must be followed) and access controls. Contact Adam Witczak Universal Entry Systems Inc. (800) 837-GATE

Fabricator n March / April 2011

CSU-201103-NOMMA Fab Hlf Ad_Layout 1 1/28/11 2:55 PM Page 1

inch centered. There were times — even with as much open space that the gate had — when it had a difficult time getting to the closed position.” Wind load is always a factor to consider when constructing and installing gates, according to Nichols. “I’ve had a situation where the gate was situated right on the ocean where the wind got so hard that the gates wouldn’t work. The wind load got so high that the gate just went to the open position and stayed there. When the wind load died down it would close it back again. We ended up getting a device that detects the wind load and used that.” There are specific things you really must look for in the design if you have a high wind area. Length of the gate also has something to do with wind resistance as does the size and height. But because there are a tremendous number of variables to consider when designing a gate for minimum wind resistance, relying on standards, even within certain areas, is not really practical.

Royal Iron Creations won a silver award in the 2007 Top Job contest for these gates. Rather than designing for wind, the major challenge was to replicate existing wood gates but in aluminum. The leading edge is fully radiused; lower portions are tongue and groove extrusions.

Strong wind disrupts magnetic lock function

Terry Barrett of Royal Iron Creations, West Palm Beach, FL also discourages solid gates since even a nonsolid gate already catches a lot of wind. “We have a pretty extreme situation since we need to engineer for March / April 2011 n Fabricator

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140 mph+ winds, as hurricanes are an try to open at the same time, causing a issue in our neck of the woods,” says sliding condition between the magnetBarrett. ic lock and the latch plate. One issue Barrett notices in partic“The primary force provided by ular in his windy area is the function a magnetic lock is straight away,” exof magnetic locks. plains Barrett, “while the weakest conRoyal Iron Creations has several indition for a magnetic lock is a shearing stallations in high wind zones that use condition where the latch plate slides a magnetic lock between gate leaves. sideways on the magnetic lock.” The problem is that when the wind Since a magnetic lock by itself hits a gate panel, the force does not under certain conditions does not pull one leaf away from the other10:09 in a AM provide Ad_2011:Layout 1 2/7/11 Page 1enough force to hold the gate straight direction. Instead both leaves shut, Barrett recommends also using a

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special “L” bracket that inhibits a shear force when the gates try to open. “This requires that one leaf closes slightly before the other. The gate operator must have the ability to delay closing on one leaf and to delay opening a leaf to get the timing correct.” Designing for optimal gate function

Rick Nelson of Ornamental Gate in Mead, WA distinguishes the challenges fabricators face in terms of wind by the type of gate. “On slide gates (many of which are cantilevered) you’re pretty much working against the hardware, the wheels, or whatever supports the gate,” He says. “On a swing gate you’re working against the automatic gate operator.” While it can be tricky to determine where the wind is going to have an effect and where it won’t, Nelson says determining what you’re facing can be easier if you take a good look around. And then he says, apply what you know about the force of the wind and its common direction patterns to the design of the gate and selecting the appropriate hardware and operator. Like Nichols and Barrett, Nelson agrees that the less coverage on a gate the better as far as managing wind load and stress on the operator. “A lighter duty gate operator may work just fine on a gate that doesn’t have a lot of coverage on it,” he says. “But then when you put all that coverage on it, you’re going to find that the gate operator may not hold up to all that pressure that will develop against it. There may be some trial and error involved.” Nelson says he tends to go heavier duty on everything he does and typically uses the heaviest gate operator he can get on a gate when necessary. He also tries to design the gate to minimize wind load. However, when customers want privacy such designs can be challenging. One example of overcoming this challenge is a gate Nelson fabricated for a customer who didn’t want his neighbors to know how many cars were in his area. Nelson designed the gate so that every three inches Fabricator n March / April 2011

Rick Nelson of Ornamental Gate designed this residential gate so that every three inches there is a two-inch wide space for air to go through. But behind that space there is another bar. Vision is obstructed, as requested by the customer, but the wind still has a way of channeling through the gate.

there was a two-inch wide space for air to go through. But behind that space there was another bar. Vision was obstructed, but the wind still had a way of channeling through the gate. In addition to strategic design of the panels, Nelson also uses magnetic locks to support gate function. He believes magnetic locks that hold the gate in the open and shut position help to remove some of the stress from the gate operator. Nelson has used magnetic locks in the closed position for non-hydraulic gate systems. But for gates that are whipping around a lot, he uses magnetic locks to hold the gate in the open position. He explains that the magnetic lock sits out at the latch end of the gate and that about 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of pull are needed to break it loose from the magnet, which can be three inches wide and eight inches long for the total magnetic area. In addition to putting more stress on the gate operator, Nelson warns that wind can also trip the operator into leaving the gate in an open position. “Gate operators nowadays have a reversing device built into them so that if it thinks it’s up against an obstruction it will reverse and open back up,” says Nelson. “I think the point in this was to stop the gate operator from self-destructing as it pushes against wind. But it also makes the customers mad when they come and find their gates halfway open because the gate operator tripped out in the wind.” One way to manage this issue is to adjust the sensitivity on the operator. In fact, whenever you are facing design challenges with automatic gates, whether it be wind or other environmental factors, be sure to call the manufacturer or your local distributor. These folks offer a wealth of information, and they have probably run across something similar to what you’re facing. March / April 2011 n Fabricator

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Tech Talk

NOMMA members take part in developing the ICC’s new comprehensive swimming pool code to fix . . .

Pool fencing code confusion By Peter Hildebrandt

Most of us are already aware of statistics

regarding unintentional drowning concerning young children and how such incidences have led to recommendations for barriers, such as pool fencing. These codes are intended to help prevent children from gaining access to pool areas without supervision. For example, the CDC recommends the installation of a four-sided pool fence at least four feet high that completely separates the house and play area of the yard from the pool area. However, some may wonder why the International Code Council (ICC) felt a need to change the swimming pool fence codes already in place. Tony Leto of The Wagner Companies in Milwaukee, WI explains that because the pool code was set up as an appendix and not part of the standard building codes, it led to confusion. “There have been safety concerns raised over the years as to its application since it is not automatically adopted as part of the building code. 28

A gate latch mounted at 54". The MagnaLatch Top Pull model shown here allows the latch release to be mounted at the required code height, even on a shorter gate perfect for the 48" code. However, as Leto suggests, the new code raises the required height of barriers from 48" to 60". This image provided by D&D Technologies.

In July of 2009, ICC approved the development of the first comprehensive swimming pool code coordinated with the current requirements found in the International Codes to meet the requirements of the Virginia Graeme Baker Act to upgrade pool safety. The ICC Board put in place a committee to put together a complete swimming pool code. There are multiple work groups doing reviews and producing study reports on different sections of the code. The committee met for the first time back in October in Chicago. Leto helps represent the concerns NOMMA members have about the existing codes and hopes the comprehensive codes will be written to address those concerns. “While the barrier code is an area we are concerned with, the ICC is looking at overall safety issues and definitions,” says Leto. “For instance, if someone goes to a big box store and purchases a pool with a filter, does that pool now need to meet the code? Such questions are ones we’d like answered.” According to Tom Zuzik, Jr. vice president sales and design for Artistic Railings,

For your information



Tony Leto, The Wagner Companies and Tom Zuzik Jr, Artistic Railings, represent NOMMA as the new code gets written. n

Load requirements are a concern as the code is rewritten, but Leto says NOMMA wins either way. n

Grizzly Iron Inc. now builds beyond current code and shares some of the challenges they face with the 10 percent of their business they dedicate to the pool fence market. n

About the author Peter Hildebrandt has been a contributing writer for Fabricator magazine since 2005. He writes about science, technology, industry, and history for a variety of trade publications.

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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Garfield, NJ, who is also on NOMMA’s code counsel, NOMMA is attending and participating in the Barrier Work Group as an interested party. More working groups will meet before another committee meeting takes place in early 2011. “A proposed code will then be presented in a code hearing type format in the future and voted on and then published.” says Zuzik. “This code is just in the beginning phases.” The timeline the ICC has set for publishing the new code is March 2012. NOMMA’s concern: Load requirement

NOMMA’s concerns include load requirements on the pool barrier. Under the present pool barrier code, barriers are defined as to height and opening restriction but no load requirement is defined, according to Leto. “We were proposing that they require a 50 pound per square foot load on the infill and some additional requirements regarding spread of infill components. The ICC doesn’t seem to be concerned with this as they feel it is not an issue in current inspections.”

For information on the new ICC codes being developed However, if no load is specified, a local inspector can reject an install if he/she considers it unsafe. In the absence of an infill load requirement, municipalities and counties must come up with their own definition of what is safe. The village of Gurnee, IL, for example, has already addressed this issue. In their building code, they require that barriers be constructed “to withstand a concentrated load of 200 pounds in any direction at any point along the top of the barrier. Barrier infill shall be constructed to withstand a load of 50 pounds per square foot applied to any point.” “For barrier requirements, we used what was in the code for guards or railings,” says David Ziegler, engineer with the village of Gurnee. “This has worked for us here in our village. Pools are definitely an attractive nui-

sance for kids, and any effort to address the need for protection is worth the extra attempt at making things safer out there.” So far, the 50 pound per square foot load that NOMMA supports has not made it into the draft, but NOMMA members benefit in either case, according to Leto. “If nothing changes, then it allows maximum flexibility in barrier design. If the load requirements are added, building stronger barriers that are properly installed will require metal barriers in preference to low cost substitutes.” The current draft of the code also carries other requirements that affect NOMMA members as far as design issues, such as barrier height and the 4-inch sphere and ladder effect wording. The current code has “the top of the barrier shall be at least 60 inches (1524 mm) above grade… the barrier shall not allow passage of a 4-inchdiameter (102 mm) sphere at the maximum barrier deflection.” It also states that horizontal members on the fence can’t be used as


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steps to get over the fence and requires 45 inches between horizontal members of the fence. These requirements have remained the same in the new code.

a wall. Many of the builders or contractors around here will build a three-foot wall and want a three or twofoot fence on top of that, which technically won’t pass code. There would Design challenges have to be a four-foot fence for fabricators up on top of the fence beWhile the codes do much cause of the 45- inch step to keep children safe, they requirement. Even archialso make it challenging to tects design pool fencing design a pool fence or to into the plans all the time make it interesting. that won’t pass.” Zeman Pool Fence. This fence was challenging for Grizzly Iron Inc. Fortunately, NOMMA “With the 45-inch step because they had to make it from entirely solid material. The pickets are ½" x 1½" flat bar and the rails are ½" x 1½". Because of this, member firm Grizzly Iron rule, if we’ve done a fence Inc. has been exceeding code each panel weighs over 220 lbs. The “x’s” in the top give the panels on top of a wall or it’s stepfor a long time, so they don’t rigidity without much sag. ping over the top of a wall, expect any changes in the we have to be up above that way they’ve been making pool fencing. doing general fencing. Gates and railfor the fence. But the five feet of the “We’ve been building at a fiveings have kept them busy ever since. fence also has to be two feet away from foot level for fences for I don’t know At present, approximately 10 percent that wall. It makes this gigantic step, how long,” says Jason LaBrash, vice of Grizzly Iron’s work is fabricating making it really look like you’re trying president and son of founder Rodger pool fences. to keep people in prison. To keep it to “Grizz” LaBrash. “But, I know for a lot “The design has to be fairly simple, code you have to leave it there.” of other places, it’s only four feet.” for the most part,” explains LaBrash. Because Arizona has so many pools, When their company was founded “This makes it especially demanding pool fencing safety is a big issue. Also, in 1987, Grizzly Iron Inc. started out when you’re building a fence on top of every town and every county in Ari-

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March / April 2011 n Fabricator


zona has different rules, acin a different county,” says cording to LaBrash. For the LaBrash. “For the most part most part, jobs are pretty it’s a standard you can work standard across the board, off and go by. But for some but on one job in particular, things, it just boggles your LaBrash recalls that the gap mind.” between the pickets and the For Grizzly Iron, it’s more columns on the fence had of a design challenge in the to be reduced. The gap had end and one of making the to be less than an inch and fence look appropriate. A three quarters, despite the couple of times they’ve had fact that the gap between customers comment when a the pickets was three and job was done, how unusual a three quarters. fence configuration looked. Code in that same area But usually Grizzly Iron works also required that the step be things out with the contractor more than 54 inches. It was The client for this fence wanted no visible posts and no top rail. ahead of time, explaining a special situation where in Grizzly Iron Inc. had to design the fence with pickets strong enough what has to happen to meet the county’s code applied to that they would not be pulled apart at the top. The pickets were code. The contractor undermade from rectangular tubing and the bottom rail was a channel. a small part of the city, exstands the importance of plains LaBrash. Apparently, depends on how the inspector interpassing code, but homeowners the gap between the columns and the prets the code. often wonder why pool fencing looks pickets created a step itself. Still, to avoid running into the issue different. If there are any problems “We have never run into this probagain, Grizzly Iron now makes sure to with a fence not meeting the code lem since, even though we work in double check all the codes that apply these will often come up when the that county most of the time. Most to a certain area ahead of time. homeowners go to sell their homes projects are inspected by city officials “You have to know each city’s because it has to meet codes at that and not the county, and even then, it code and each county’s code if you’re point.


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Fabricator n March / April 2011

Tech Talk

Glass baluster guards still present code challenges NOMMA’s code representative Tony Leto of The Wagner Companies explains why code confusion regarding glass rail continues.

By Tony Leto While the ICC opinion on top railing

requirements for monolithic glass baluster guards has remained consistent, we continue to see installations without the required top rail. Where is the disconnect on this issue?

Stair with required guard and attached handrail.

Required handrail for stair when a guard is not required.

For your information



Consult the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) regarding their position on applicable codes and standards. n

Have an engineer review and provide support information regarding the structural integrity of any glass railing system. n

If properly designed and engineered, a glass railing installation can still provide an unobstructed view while maintaining safety and code compliance. n

The confusion begins with IBC Section 2407.1.1.2 Support.

There are two issues: 1) The term guard is used improperly. The ICC defines guard as being in place to stop accidental falls and refers to the full assembly not the guard top. The intention was to refer to a top rail as is noted in the Exception later in that section.

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

About the author Tony Leto is executive vice president of sales and marketing for The Wagner Companies, Butler, WI, and a member of NOMMA’s Technical Affairs team. CO NTAC T

Tony Leto The Wagner Companies (888) 243-6914


Excerpts from International Building Code (IBC) 2009 Section 2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards

IBC 2407.1: Materials. Glass used as a handrail or a guard section shall be constructed of either single fully tempered glass, laminated fully tempered glass or laminated heat-strengthened glass. Glazing in railing in-fill panels shall be of an approved safety glazing material that conforms to the provisions of Section 2406.1. For all glazing types, the minimum nominal thickness shall be 1/4 inch (6.4mm). Fully tempered glass and laminated glass shall comply with Category II CPSC 16 CFR 1201 of Class A of ANSI Z97.1, listed in Chapter 25. IBC 2407.1.1 Loads. The panels and their support system shall be designed to withstand the loads specified in section 1607.7. A safety factor of 4 shall be used. IBC 2407.1.2: Support. Each handrail or guard section shall be supported by a minimum of three glass balusters or shall be supported to remain in place should one baluster panel fail. Glass balusters shall not be in stalled without an attached handrail or guard.

Exception. A top rail shall not be required where the glass balusters are laminated glass with two or more glass plies of equal thickness and the same glass type when approved by the building official. The panels shall be designed to withstand the load specified in Section 1607.7. Cross-referencing to section IBC 1607.7 regarding design loads we find this:

IBC1607.7.1 Handrails and guards. Handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed to resist a load of 50 pounds per linear foot (pound per foot) (0.73 kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to transfer this load through the supports to the structure. IBC1607.7.1.1 Concentrated Load. Handrail assemblies and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200 pounds (0.89kN), applied in any direction at any point along the top, and have attachment devices and supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate structural elements of the building.

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2) Misinterpretation of the phrase, Glass balusters shall not be installed without an attached handrail or guard. Handrail is required on stairs and is located 34 to 38 inches above the stair nosing. A guard is required when there is a 30 inch drop. The IBC minimum for a guard is 42 inches above the walking surface. If a stair has a drop of greater than 30 inches, it would be required to have both a handrail and a guard. However, if the stair height does not exceed 30 inches, only a handrail is required. There are some who interpret that Section 2407.1.1.2 allows a glass baluster guard to be installed with either a handrail or a guard (top rail). However, the section’s intention is that a glass baluster handrail must have an attached handrail and that a glass baluster guard must have an attached guard (top rail). The presence of a handrail on a guard does not eliminate the need for a top railing. Fabricator n March / April 2011

This interpretation is supported by: n The ICC

In 2008, Todd Daniel of the National Ornamental and Miscellaneous Metals Association (NOMMA) asked the following question of the International Code Council (ICC):

Guards. Top, guard with top railing.

Can a glass rail system be installed without a guard on top of the glass IF there is a handrail attached to the glass. In other cap, exposed top edge of glass at 42 inch height with a handrail mounted on the side of the glass at handrail heights.

Middle, guard without top railing. Permitted only when used with laminated, tempered glass. Bottom, guard with non-required handrail — handrail is in place in an attempt to meet the requirements of an attached handrail or guard.

ICC Staff Opinion: No Reason: The application you describe can only be allowed if the glass can withstand the loads for guards and handrails in Section 1607.7 n The 2009 IBC Exception

















March / April 2011 n Fabricator





Given the clarity provided by the ICC, the question remains, “How is it that glass railings using monolithic tempered glass are still commonly installed without a top railing?”




It’s up to the engineer of record

Nosotros ofrecemos entrenamiento y suporte técnico en español.


Section 2407.1.1 requires that glass baluster handrails and guards must meet the load requirements of 1607.7 with a safety factor of four. In a required guard, the loads must be applied to the top of the guard — not the top of the handrail. Tempered glass edges are the most susceptible to rupture under load. Directing an 800 pound concentrated load (200 lbs. multiplied by a safety factor of four) to that bare edge will most likely result in failure.

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The ICC approved an exception in 2009 that a top railing was not required if laminated glass is used that meets the load requirements and is approved by the building official. If this is the exception to the rule, then it should be understood that a top railing is required in all other situations.



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The answer lies in the hands of the engineer of record for the project. While the ICC staff opinion cited above is that a top railing is required, it was also noted that a top railing is not required if the “glass can withstand the loads for guards and handrails in 1607.7.” An engineer reviewing a glass baluster guard uses ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures and various ASTM standards for metal and glass to determine safety factors for design. Using their standard reference texts, engineers are able to provide calculations indicating the glass can withstand the loads set out in 1607.7. A local inspector when presented with stamped, engineered support data has little choice but to approve the system as meeting the IBC’s structural requirements. Tom Zuzik sought changes

During the recently completed 2012 code cycle, Tom Zuzik — on NOMMA’s behalf — submitted changes to

Using their standard reference texts, engineers

are able to provide calculations indicating the glass can withstand the loads set out in 1607.7. A local inspector when presented with stamped, engineered support data has little choice but to approve the system as meeting the IBC’s structural requirements. Section 2407 to eliminate some of the continuing confusion. In particular, his code change limited the four times safety factor to the glass and not the “support system” which would eliminate the need to over engineer the base and attachments. However, the IBC committee and membership were reluctant to make the change as they were unsure of the original basis for the requirement. The code therefore remains unchanged for the next scheduled publication in 2012, the next opportunity to submit another change until the 2015 code cycle. What to do now

In the meantime, varying levels of interpretation and enforcement are being applied across the country. As always, it all comes down to the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). To alleviate issues, always consult with the AHJ regarding their position on applicable codes and standards; and have an engineer review and provide support information regarding the structural integrity of any glass railing system. If properly designed and engineered, a glass railing installation that meets a desire for a completely unobstructed view — while still providing a safe, code compliant guard — is possible. 36

Fabricator n March / April 2011

METALfab 2011 Trade Show Report NOMMA’s annual METALfab Trade Show and Convention took place March 16–19, 2011 at the Morial Convention Center in New Orleans, LA. METALfab is the only trade show for the ornamental and miscellaneous metals industry. Below lists some of the products and services featured this year by our exhibitors. To find out about METALfab 2012, contact NOMMA (888) 516-8585;

Alloy Casting Co. Inc. Alloy Casting has over 2,500 designs of ornamental, decorative, architectural aluminum, brass, bronze, and stainless steel castings. Unique products cast from corrosion resistant, marine grade aluminum and bendable aluminum are available, plus custom casting from .1 to 400 lbs. Call for a free catalog and free AutoCAD library disc with 500 drawings. Contact (800) 527-1318;

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

American Fabricator Supply American Fabricator Supply featured the PTX Eco Smart, a multi-functional grinding and polishing system for flat surfaces and open or closed pipe constructions. The PTX Eco Smart leaves perfect finishes on large surfaces, with no shadows or streaks. Simply slide on the abrasive wheels and they secure themselves automatically when the machine turns on. Contact (630)499-9171; www.

Julius Blum & Co. Inc. Julius Blum & Co. Inc., the nation’s leading supplier of architectural metal, stocks a large selection of traditional and contemporary handrail profiles, fittings, and tubing, bars, and shapes. All products are available for immediate shipment. Visit our website or call toll-free to request your free copy of Catalog 19. Contact (800) 526-6293; www.juliusblum. com.

The Cable Connection Ultra-tec Cable Railing components are architecturally designed for a clean, streamlined look — some of which even hide inside your end posts. Tamper-resistant and requiring virtually no maintenance, our cable railing components are economical and easy to install. They complement your exterior deck view and preserve spaciousness for your interior application. Contact (775) 885-1443; www.


METALfab 2011

Carell Corporation Carell’s MT150 Ornamental Bar Working machine creates unique ornamental elements, fast, easy and economically. Tools are included to twist, scroll, bend and fold in manual or in automatic modes. 60" Bed with open collets allow working with bars to 20' long. Contact (251) 937-0948;

Century Group Inc. Century Group Inc. is a leading manufacturer of precast concrete stair treads for stairways at hotels, apartment complexes, educational facilities, public and commercial buildings. Open and closed riser stair treads along with landings for stairways meet applicable IBC and IRC building codes. Century Group also provides replacement treads. Contact (800) 527-5232, ext. 110; www.

Colorado Waterjet Co. Colorado WaterJet Co. creates custom railing infill panels like this panel cut from 1 inch aluminum. Any design, any material can be cut. You can deliver to your customer a unique design at a reasonable price. Cold cutting process avoids warping, hardening, and slag. Eliminates welded joints. Serving NOMMA members since 1998. Contact (970) 532-5404;

Complex Industries Inc. Complex Industries of Memphis is a supplier/ manufacturer of steel entry doors, fences, gates, mailboxes, security doors, bathroom vanities and related hardware. Complex Industries also provide customized versions of each of their product categories, so you are only limited by your imagination. Contact (901) 547-1198; www.

CS Unitec CS Unitec’s ROLEI-BE5 Sheet Metal Deburring Machine features double-sided deburring of stainless steel, aluminum, and other metal sheets up to 0.2 inches thick. Two speeds enable fine or standard deburring. Two abrasive flap wheels (40, 60, 80 or 120 grit) rotate in opposite directions to grind both sides of the metal. Contact (800) 700-5919; www.

Custom Ornamental Iron Works Custom Ornamental Iron Works provids fabricators, architects, home builders, carpenters, contractors, and home owners with quality products. The spindle above, one of their most novel products, is exclusively made by the company. In-house powdercoating and customized products available, quickly. Contact (866) 464-4766;

D.J.A. Imports Ltd. Among the diverse and vast selections of ornamental steel components and gate hardware, D.J.A. Imports offers the largest selection of Cantilever Gate Systems along with technical personnel with 30 plus years of experience in the field of iron works. Request your catalog today. Contact (718) 3246871;

Eagle Bending Machines Inc. Eagle showed its latest 3 Roll Universal Profile Bending machines including the CP30E. With 11/2 inch angle and pipe capacity, the CP30E has foot pedal controls, horizontal/vertical operation and fully universal tooling. It is the most affordable, widely used Ring Rolling Machine available. Contact (251) 397-0947; www.


Fabricator n March / April 2011

METALfab 2011

Elite Architectural Metal Supply LLC Elite Architectural Metal offers hand forged and cut lambs tongues and scrolls in bronze, aluminum, and steel all made in the USA, and 1-piece cast aluminum, iron post and caps, and custom patterns for casting. Elite carries embossed, decorative bars and Grande Forge, Regency Railings, and Heritage Cast Iron lines. Contact (847) 636-1233; www.

EPi EPi featured instant-acting black chemical conversion finishes for ferrous metals and stainless steel which are recommended for architectural steel surfaces (steel steps/steel framing), blackening re-machined black oxide surfaces, and quick touch-up to scratched black oxide finishes. EPi also displayed a black chemical conversion/antique finish. Contact (262) 786-9330;

FabCad Inc. FabCAD® introduced its newest Ornamental CAD drawing system featuring a new version of AutoRail. The program can draw any style of gate and is loaded with unlimited customization options for channel sizes, extruded top/bottom bars, and rectangular shapes. The current release also includes over 13,000 forgings and castings from 10 industry suppliers. Contact (800) 2559032;

Hebo/Stratford Gate Systems Inc. Hebo invented the modern wrought iron machine and is the worldwide leader in this field. The Hebo system can twist, endforge, scroll, emboss, texture, hammer tube, and press belly pickets. Designed and built by German blacksmiths for the ornamental iron industry, Hebo’s U.S. rep is Robert Rayson, Stratford Gate Systems Inc. Contact (503) 7227700; www.

ITW Finishing Equipment ITW Finishing Equipment Americas is a comprehensive single source for all your finishing needs. The consolidation of all of the ITW Finishing Equipment brands offers customers one stop shopping; from a variety of spray guns and accessories to clean air products for automotive and industrial industries. Contact (419) 470-2000;

King Architectural Metals With a selection of over 10,000 cast and hand-forged ornamental components, a hi-def plasma cutting design center, and a variety of light and heavy structural steel, King helps you save time and money. Count on same-day shipping, consistent product quality, and the most knowledgeable staff in the industry. Contact (800) 542-2379; www.

Lawler Foundry Corp. Lawler introduced the “QC Forgings” in 2007, and this new, economical line continues to allow fabricators and forgers to offer high quality at reasonable prices. Lawler remains the preferred supplier to over 1500 fulltime fabricators and forgers of ornamental metal products in the USA. Contact (800) 624-9512; www.

Marks USA Marks USA Ornamental Iron Locksets are available in US 26D, US 3, US 15, and US 10B finishes. These locksets feature a 9 Series mortise lock body, thrubolted solid brass trim assemblies, and spring loaded captivated spindles. Marks USA locksets are backed by a lifetime mechanical and electronic warranty. Contact (631) 2255400;

March / April 2011 n Fabricator




100 Years

Catalog19 Now Available

METALfab 2011

Metabo Corp. Metabo introduced the RBE12-180 Pipe and Tube Sander. This versatile finishing machine will grind, sand and finish pipe or tube up to 7 inch diameter. The tool features a 1200 watt, 10 amp motor, with variable electronic speed stabilization, tool-less belt change, overload protection as well as Metabo’s “Long Life” motor. Contact (281) 948-2823;

NOMMA / NEF The National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association and its educational arm, the NOMMA Education Foundation (NEF) presented NEF’s certification program for ornamental and miscellaneous metal fabricators. The program should be available in 2012. NEF will provide continuing education to help NOMMA members get and keep their certification. Contact (888) 516-8585;

Rockite Rockite is a powder-like compound that mixes with water to a pourable, pliable consistency for quick and permanent anchoring and repair of concrete. Compression strength of 4,500 lbs. per square inch develops in one hour. When fully set, it grips metal to concrete permanently, with over twice the holding power of fully cured concrete. Contact (216) 291-2303;

Scotchman Metal Fabricating Solutions Scotchman showed the 50514-CM, American-made, five-station ironworker. Features: 50-ton punch station with a keyed punch ram, 4-inch angle shear, 14-inch flat bar shear, built-in rectangle notcher, and a 3-year warranty. Fifth station (next to the angle shear) allows an optional pipe notcher to be mounted without removing the angle shear. Contact (800) 843-8844

To request a free Catalog 19, email

Julius Blum & Co. Inc. is the nation’s largest supplier of architectural metal products. For complete information on all stock components, visit or email

P.O. Box 816 Carlstadt, N.J. 07072-0816 800.526.6293 201.438.4600 fax 201.438.6003


Fabricator n March / April 2011

METALfab 2011 Sharpe Products

Sharpe showcased its unique tube bending capabilities with the Nissin 3D bender. This bender offers flexibility in part design and production that’s unmatched by other forms of traditional bending. Some capabilities include: Multi-radii bends without additional tooling, and no distance between bends. Contact (800) 879-4418; Sumter Coatings Sumter Coatings’ Metal Master brand is composed of primers and topcoats that are specifically formulated for use on ornamental and miscellaneous metals. Satin Shield is a fast drying direct-tometal paint with built in primer and topcoat. The first coat acts as a primer; second coat yields a beautiful satin finish. Contact (888) 4713400; The Wagner Companies Wagner featured unique new products including the WagnerailTM Slip-FitTM System which uses stock or custom Wagner Rail Ends, Wall Returns, Flanges, and pre-cut Pipe to make assembly and installation quick and easy; a Hex Head Tensioner for Cable Railings; Stock Cable Rail Posts, and the Bantam LED Mini Spot Light. Contact (414) 214-0444; www. March / April 2011 n Fabricator


Oak Tree Gate, left. Metal Head plasma cut this Oak Tree Gate by hand from ¼" steel and left it to weather. Below, the owner of a restaurant where LeBlanc first met his wife, Monique, commissioned this fish sculpture of forged copper, mild steel, and stainless with only a clearcoat finish. During the unveiling, LeBlanc proposed to the now Mrs. LeBlanc.

Member Talk

By Peter Hildebrandt

A first generation success

For Randy LeBlanc, owner of Metal Head Inc. Lafayette, LA, a new challeng-



Despite Louisiana doldrums, fabricator succeeds with his own helping hand, trust, high-end customers, and a little help from his NOMMA friends.

ing metal project is an opportunity to gather more knowledge and create one more tool to add to the arsenal in his shop. “If it’s something we’ve never done before, we jump in and get it done,” says LeBlanc. “I’m always learning, always trying to get better at techniques and conscious of what could be a better process. At the completion of one of our jobs, I’m the biggest critic. I think it pays off.” LeBlanc recently celebrated his 10th anniversary in business. Despite the increasing number of years he’s been doing metal work, he says changing circumstances in this line of work come up daily. “The second I feel comfortable is an uncomfortable feeling because I know things are changing constantly,” adds LeBlanc. Metal Head does residential iron, mostly what would be turn-key for any high end residential package, from the railing to the gate, to some decorative scrollwork or acting transom. Nearly anything that requires a little attention to detail and more craftsmanship than a typical, commercial shop would produce is their sweet spot. When you see LeBlanc’s gallery on his website, it’s hard to believe he’s only been doing metal work for a decade. “It’s been a long ten years, but I had no metal experience prior to college, so I’ve come a long way from when I took that first introductory class in industrial design. As soon as I got my hands on the equipment and material, I knew that this was what I was going to do.” He made the transition from design to sculpture at the University of Louisiana — Lafayette, with a BFA degree in Visual Arts/Sculpture in 2000. Fabricator n March / April 2011

For your information


Recognizing that change is constant in this industry has helped LeBlanc establish a strong foundation for his 10-year-old ornamental metal fabrication business. n

Despite the bad economy Metal Head enjoyed its best year ever. They focused on their high-end customer market and maintaining good relationships with clients. n

Randy believes in the ListServ, NOMMA’s member’s only online forum. You should too. Call NOMMA (888-516-8585) to find out how you can post questions. n

He opened his shop in January, 2001 and started out doing whatever would pay the bills. But he had a vision of being the best ornamental specialty fabrication shop. “To which I’d add, in my opinion, it sometimes seems like we’re almost there,” he says. “And we still have a lot of great projects ahead.” Good business despite economy

Lafayette is a hub for the oil industry in the Gulf and despite the downturn in activCO NTAC T ity involving the Gulf oil drilling, LeBlanc Randy LeBlanc Metal Head Inc. still has a backlog of 523 North University Ave. high-end customer Lafayette, LA 70506 jobs. Construction has (337) 232-3838 slowed in the region, especially involving mid-level housing, but he feels that small shops involved with high end customers shouldn’t anticipate too much of a drop in work. “Fortunately 2010 has just given us perhaps the best year we’ve ever had in the market. This was probably mostly based on a lot of productive meetings with trusting relationships that maintained the business this year.” Keeping a good relationship with his clients is important to LeBlanc. One of the best clients he’s worked for was a professional athlete in Lafayette. The project had extensive iron and glass guardrails. “The project was unique, and it’s not often you get to work with a client like this. I always enjoy working on jobs for those with a little bit different tastes.” The most difficult part about the project was eventually seeing it burn to the ground. “It was hard watching one of your own works destroyed. But the owner will be rebuilding the entire house from scratch, including the metalwork I did. I don’t know exactly how it will work, but I’ll be glad to do it all again.”

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Managing the shop

Equipment-wise, LeBlanc says his shop is pretty modest. “I love to fabricate tools and equipment. We’ve been modifying our custom power hammer to run more efficiently, and I still use my first roller. I have a list of projects for the shop that I may never get to build, but they are always there. We use these tools to produce anything from custom forgings to CNC-cut work, as long as it’s beautiful. I try to avoid the dirty industrial, ‘anything-for-a-buck’ work, though I have March / April 2011 n Fabricator


had to do that on occasion.” “When I find someone needing LeBlanc likes to keep a clean, orgasome help, even a competitor, I will nized shop. “It promotes a better work share with them any technique or skill environment and encourages safety. because I know I’m doing the action a If all is where it should be, you don’t certain way and they’re going to take it have to spend an hour looking for a and do it a certain way, and it’s tool and lose that energy and momenonly going to benefit our trade in the tum you have when you’re working on long run.” something significant and timely.” Currently he has three fabricators Benefiting from NOMMA at his shop in addition to his wife, Momembership nique who does the bookkeeping for What LeBlanc really likes about the business and whose help and supNOMMA is how he can always call up port has made his business possible. someone if he has a little bit of anxiety tri-state-quarter 12/19/07 Amongpage.qxd the biggest changes he 9:44 AM Page 1 about starting a new project. made in his shop was utilizing CAD “After a meeting and a couple as a fabrication tool. It helps manage nights of sleep I’ll be able to feel better communication among his fabricaabout taking on a project. It’s great to tors, particularly accuracy and scale of have a resource I can reach out to and complex railings. to have those glad to share, as I would A design can be developed by hand, always want to share with them to Metal Head fabricated these double gates but laser measuring and CAD software keep our industry alive. It’s really imfrom steel tubing. The cypress panels are give him an edge over those who portant to me.” copper sheet. were still doing this work completely LeBlanc is on the NOMMA ListServ by hand. show people because what that does internet tool every day. He finds him“Still, there is never a secret in my for me, especially on a local level, is self humbled by the breadth of knowlshop. If you want to come and see help create a breeding ground for oredge that he finds available there. He PROOF fabricators. - 45-3454-ACF-121807-V2doesn’t always know that he can prowhat I do and how I do it, I’m glad to AD namental

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CALL OR FAX FOR QUOTE Fabricator n March / April 2011

vide feedback and is still a listener, but reading what’s there is invaluable. “Everybody needs a hand, and the ListServ is a tremendous resource for our industry.” Unlike second and third generation fabricators, LeBlanc started out fairly cold with only the courses in college he was able to take. He had little shop experience and had developed few habits. He felt like he had to reinvent the wheel for so long until he was able to hook up with NOMMA. NOMMA has enabled him to grow and gain education in his business tremendously and at a much more accelerated rate. He gets honest opinions from other shop owners, foremen, and other people who are very experienced. Their knowledge and experience also comes without the bad habits. “You don’t need to do it wrong in your own shop if you don’t have to,”

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

For this iron and glass railing commission, Metal Head used CNC plasma cut bracketry and 1/2" tempered glass.

adds LeBlanc. “I have a very competitive nature. But I think you can be overly competitive and cheat yourself out of the market, which could lead to poor business. “I can’t hold a candle to some of the incredible talent that’s in the NOMMA organization. I like to think I can strive to someday be close to that. Ten years is not a long time in such a multigenerational business as this.” About four years ago, LeBlanc attended his first NOMMA convention and found it an overwhelming experience, one that opened his eyes to a wide array of possibilities. He and his wife have only missed one convention ever since. LeBlanc was especially excited about this year’s METALfab because of how close it was to home. As usual, he wasn’t disappointed.


Job Profile

Meet Grace n

A stainless steel sculpture born in a fly press.

By Robert Walsh Quite frankly, I think this might be of some interest to many NOMMA members. The reason

I say this is because bending three dimensional forms is a completely different ballgame than building two dimensional forms. This article may simplify the process for somebody. The fly press sure did for me. This sculpture Grace was conceived by Marcia McEachron and built by myself. The concept was inspired by a piece of found scrap metal and then further developed by blending the scrap with complementary forms. As a professional artist, Marcia McEachron is a master at envisioning things in various contexts. Her eyes pick up on shapes and forms, regardless of their current applications or functions. Imagination is her business. This sculpture is abstract and intended to be interesting from all angles. However, for those who prefer realism, if you look at the front view, you will see shapes suggesting those of a woman cradling a baby. In the upper left is her bonnet, and on the right is her lap covered with fabric. Meet Grace.

Robert Walsh used his fly press to bend the strips that comprise Grace by making 60 small bends per five-foot section, one per inch. The little ridges in the metal left from bending were later removed when polishing the surface. This sculpture, designed by Marcia McEachron, suggests a woman cradling a baby. In the upper left is her bonnet, and on the right is her lap covered with fabric.

Polynomial curves

Grace is made of type 304 stainless steel strips and is composed of 60th magnitude polynomial curves. I was never aware of what these strips with compound curves were formally 46

Fabricator n March / April 2011

The Fly Press

The fly press and its use are half the purpose of this article. I purchased the fly press from Old World Anvils which is owned by industry expert Bob Bergman. There are a number of sources for these presses. When purchasing mine, since they come from all over the world, I was concerned about the quality and strength of the casting. Maybe they’re all good strong castings or maybe not? I don’t know. What I do know, is that with mine, I have wailed on it with all my strength, with no problems. So, I am very pleased with Bergman’s product. After purchasing this tool it sat in my shop for months as I was not quite sure why I bought it, except that I thought it looked cool. Now, I use it March / April 2011 n Fabricator

Grace under construction. Strips welded together create the sculpture’s four planes. Walsh fed the strips into the fly press dies at different angles to maintain the helix shape.

For your information


called until reading the article by Lisa Bakewell in the May/ June 2010 issue of NOMMA’s Fabricator magazine. Lisa wrote about Columbia Wire & Iron Works and the polynomial structural work they produce for Architect Frank Gehry and his compound curve buildings. “Poly” means many. The strips that Grace is composed of were bent by making 60 small bends per five-foot section. Each five-foot section was marked every inch (60 inches total) which provided the calibrating system for placing the little bends. The little ridges in the metal left from bending were later removed when polishing the surface. “Nomial” is a hard word to define because it means different things in different applications. The description of the word nomial in this application runs similar to the words blending, smoothing, or averaging. Meaning, if you laid out a curve on paper with short little lines connecting 60 dotted locations and then smoothed out the curve freehand, it would be a nomial curve. The freehand line may not exactly match all the little short lines, and you may go over or under a few dots, but you end up with a graceful (nomial) curve.

Tips from Bob Walsh n Mount your fly press on a pedestal, not a table. Make the top die with a larger radius than the bottom dies. n

To avoid going nuts by the ram screwing itself down to a closed resting position, Walsh uses a pulley system. n

Feeding the workpiece into the fly press at different angles, as opposed to perpendicular, helps to create the helix shape as opposed to a circle. n

Before getting in too deep with a stainless steel project, practice working with stainless steel! n


Robert Walsh R. Walsh Gate & Railing Co. Pepin, WI (715) 442-3102

all the time. It amounts to a super controllable predecessor to the hydraulic press, except with one side open. Because one side is open, you have quick access to the dies which is great when you are working with hot metal and your working time is limited. Having one side open is also conve-

nient when working with odd shaped metal where the side members of an “H” frame can get in the way. I use the fly press often: For straightening forged architectural elements, frames etc.; making straight stuff straight again after texturing or working it in some other way; and tweaking things. The payback comes when I’m assembling a project and everything fits. I also purchased from Old World Anvils two fly press videos by Bob Haverstock. One of these videos instructs how to form bowls and spheres in a fly press. The video comes with a mushroomed shaped ram, sandbag, planishing block, and a copper disc. I haven’t made a bowl yet, but the video and tooling make it look quite straight forward. I see no reason why the sandbag could not be replaced with a metal ring and then this process could be used to form spheres with thick metal worked while hot, if needed. The second video shows among other things, how to make rings with a fly press. In order to make rings, a simple attachment (that you make in about 30 minutes) is used. When making rings, after the metal has turned about 180 degrees and is coming back at you, it will hit the ram or ram guides depending on the diameter. The attachment Haverstock uses gets the work out from under the ram and out in front of it where clearance is not an issue. If you look at the photo of my press, you will see that it is mounted on a table. If I had this to do over again, I would mount it on a pedestal. When making the forms for Grace for example, there were times when I overbent an arc. If the radius of the arc was severe enough, the piece could not be flipped over and un-bent. When flipped over, the legs of the arc pointed down, and they would hit on the table top before the center of the arc would touch the dies. If the fly press was on a pedestal, the legs could straddle the press when facing down. To remove a radius that is too tight to straddle the bottom of the press, a good solution 47

The Fly Press, left. Robert Walsh refers to his fly press as a super controllable predecessor to the hydraulic press, except with one side open. He uses it for straightening forged architectural elements, frames, workpieces after texturing, and general tweaking. Dies for a fly press, top. Walsh says the top die should have a larger radius than the two bottom dies, since the top die puts the crimp in the metal.

would be to use an inverted set of dies to match what is in the press. Look at the photo of the 3/16 inch by 1-inch steel circle evolving into a helix. The shape was produced by steering the metal into the dies from being perpendicular to almost being parallel with the dies, which changes the form of the metal on the out-feed side from being a circle into being a helix. This piece of metal, like Grace, was marked


with one-inch increments for the spacing of the pressing. When I need to complete a second pass through the fly press (on Grace there were many passes) I can hit the metal with the ram inbetween the calibration lines (previous bends) in efforts to keep the overall radius as smooth as possible. Once a feel for how hard to hit the metal is achieved, this system works very well. Regarding the dies, make the top

die with a larger radius than the bottom dies. The top die is the die that puts the crimp in the metal. The bottom dies have twice as much surface area touching the metal since there are two of them as compared with only one top die. The thinner the metal, the more important having a larger radius on the top die becomes as the crimps become more pronounced. On the top of the press note a turnbuckle attached to a rope going up. Because there is such a steep pitch in the threads of the press, if you let go of the handle, the ram screws itself down and rests in the closed position. This drove me nuts as I was always fighting this intrusion while working with the dies. So I discovered a solution where the rope goes up to a pulley on the ceiling above the press and then over to the wall to another pulley and then down to just above the floor by the wall. On the end of this rope is a counterweight of scrap metal that equals that of the ram wanting to screw itself down to the closed resting position. With the addition of this counterweight the ram stays in any position, freeing up your second hand from holding the bar so that it can be used for other work (like holding a cup of coffee). Forming Grace

Getting back to Grace, the sculpture was formed by welding a number of strips together to create four planes. The series of perimeter strips started out as three or four, five-foot long strips marked on their surfaces with a perpendicular line every inch. The strips were then fed into the fly press dies and slightly bent. Again, the strips were steered as they were fed into the press at different angles, so on the outfeed side of the dies the strips came out shaped correctly. If you strictly fed the metal into the dies perpendicularly, the end result would be a formed circle rather than a helix. Once the inside perimeter form of Grace was established, it was welded to a temporary armature to keep it positioned and stable. Fins were then added to connect the inside perimeter form to the outside perimeter form, resembling the fins you would see in a nautilus shell if cut in half. The fins Fabricator n March / April 2011

inside Grace, however, are straight, not curved as in a shell. The outside metal wrap was then formed and welded around the fins. Once the outside and inside forms were complete, patterns were made with rosin paper for the remaining two sides, the skirts. The skirts were then plasma cut from sheet and tack welded in place. The sculpture seams were then welded up, all 58 feet. Stainless steel

For those of you not familiar with stainless steel, from my perspective as a fabricator, stainless steel is a snarly, unforgiving material to work with. It warps like crazy when welding and is tougher than steel. Stainless steel work-hardens, making it just that much more difficult to work with. What does all the above mean? With a few minor exceptions, when working with stainless steel you either, A: Do it the right way, or B: Do it the wrong way and then do it over again, the right way. Or C: Throw up your hands and walk away from the project altogether and then come back later and do it the right way. I must admit, I applied all three approaches, the last two on many occasions. Stainless steel has no fudge factor. You cannot put auto body filler in mistakes and then cover everything up with paint. Or in the case of this sculpture, because of the close configuration of the materials and the internal fins, you cannot get behind warped areas with body shop tools and pound out any low areas. After forming and welding, what you see is what you get. I knew most of the above going into this project. Actually it was because of the above that I wanted to build this sculpture, to challenge myself. I’ve worked with stainless steel some in the past, so I was familiar with the process required. Because of my previous experience, my frustrations were not about how to work with the metal. Instead I focused on figuring out what was needed to create these compound shapes, make them fit together, and where and at what angle to bend the metal. There were times on the tighter bends around the head area that March / April 2011 n Fabricator

At times Walsh took the partially formed pieces to a cone mandrel and, with

a large wooden mallet, beat the metal into the final shape. required abandoning the fly press and taking the partially formed pieces to a cone mandrel and, with a large wooden mallet, beat the metal into the final shape. At times a modified Hossfield bender was used to un-bend sections so they could be re-formed.

All is well that ends well. I certainly stepped out of my comfort zone on this project. It was a great learning experience, and I am glad to have taken on this opportunity. The project was a win-win. I’m very happy with the experience I received, and Marcia is extremely pleased with the realization of her vision. Stainless steel, looking beyond all its process requirements, when finished and polished, is beautiful. A version of this article previously appeared in Metalsmith, Vol. 34, No. 3, September 2010. Reprinted with permission.

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Personal finance


Social Security Savings

Biz Side

7 personal finance tips n

Because a healthy business is not enough.

For your information


What you’ll learn n At the very least, never let money sit neglected in a low-interest earning savings account, and always pay your bills just on time. You can lower the amount of taxes you pay by lowering your marginal tax rate. n

The relatively quiet inflation rates of recent years are likely to become a memory n

The days of letting investments sit and never addressing them again are likely over. n

About the Author Bill Lynott is a long-time business writer for Fabricator. Since 1957 he has written nearly 1,000 essays and columns and is the author of three books. In addition to his career as a writer, Bill also has an extensive background in management, consulting, and marketing.


By William J. Lynott If you’re like some metalworking profes-

sionals, you keep a more watchful eye on the fiscal health of your business than on your personal finances. That’s not a good idea. These are two separate challenges; both need and deserve your best efforts. One NOMMA member we interviewed for this article said that she could serve as the model for not devoting enough attention to her personal finances. The only money she has put aside for retirement is resting in a bank savings account. She has never set up a tax-deferred retirement account. Jeffery Presbaugh, Aberdeen Custom Gate and Iron, Weatherford, TX represents the other side of the coin. “My wife and I pay a lot of attention to our personal finances. Business and personal finances are tied together. If you let one get out of control, it will eat the other.” Angelo Toglia, A.G.S. Stainless, Bainbridge, WA, agrees. He points out that family is the most important consideration and that means paying lots of attention to personal finances. Here are a few guidelines for keeping your personal finances in good health:

1 Never let any of your money lay idle Since most banks pay little or no interest on checking accounts, your job is to keep

that balance to a minimum while making certain that you never overdraw it or incur minimum balance fees. Here’s a technique that will allow you to come out the winner: Open a money market account at your bank. Then have the bank link your new account to your checking account so that you may transfer money between them by telephone or online. Never make a direct deposit into your checking account. Make all deposits into the money market account where they will immediately begin drawing interest. While interest on money market accounts is currently abysmally low, that’s a temporary situation. Money market accounts will always pay more interest than checking accounts. Transfer money online or over the phone to the checking account only as needed to cover the checks you write. This technique is so easy to use that there is no reasonable excuse for not taking advantage of it.

2 Don’t be in a hurry to pay your bills

There’s good reason why checks are slow to come in from customers who owe you money. It’s because hanging on to cash as long as possible keeps that money available to draw interest. Set up a system to pay your bills just before they come due. It’s easy and it moves you up another rung on the ladder of profitable cash management. Fabricator n March / April 2011

Don’t jeopardize your credit standing by paying bills late. Pay your bills just before they’re due — not before, not after. It’s especially important to avoid late payment on credit card bills because of the oppressive penalties that issuers now charge.

3 Maximize your tax-deferred retirement account early

“Don’t wait until tax filing time to fund your retirement account,” says CPA, Carol I. Katz, Baltimore, MD. “Making the maximum allowable deposits into your 401(k) or IRA account as early in the year as possible not only reduces your tax load, it also adds months to the tax-deferred compounding of your investment.” Not every NOMMA member interviewed for this story has a 401(k) account, but Angelo Toglia does and he regards it as an essential part of personal finance management. The maximum allowable 401(k) contribution for 2010 was $16,500, with an extra $5,000 allowed if one is age 55 or older. This figure changes every year and the IRS had not yet released the allowable amount for 2011 as of this writing. If you’re not in a position to make the highest allowable contribution, contributing the most that finances will permit is a wise move from both the tax and investment points of view.

4 Never forget taxes

If you’re like many business owners, you think of every dollar as being the same as every other dollar. Actually, there are two kinds of dollars. After-tax dollars are real dollars; each one is worth 100 cents. Before-tax dollars are quite different. While they may look the same on paper, a before-tax dollar is something of an illusion; it’s worth less than 100 cents. How much less depends on your tax bracket and how well you do your homework. That’s why it’s important to maximize those after-tax dollars. “One way to do that can be as simple as avoiding less tax efficient investments.” says Peter Miralles, president of Atlanta Wealth Consultants, Atlanta, GA. March / April 2011 n Fabricator

“One tax trap is high turnover mutual funds,” he says. “Fund managers who indulge in excessive turnover create additional tax burdens plus the additional cost of frequent sales and purchases within the funds.” Miralles suggests that the relatively new Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) can be highly tax efficient alternatives. “The interest from Series EE and I-Bonds is deferred until redemption,” he says, “and is fully exempt from state and federal taxes when used for higher education tuition.” Miralles, recommends keeping certificate of deposits (CDs) maturities short for now. When interest rates rise, he suggests tax free municipal bonds. “Tax free interest may have other additional benefits by lowering your marginal tax rate on other income,” he says. “If you lower your marginal rate, you get to keep more of what you earn.”

memory, according to many economists. The massive amount of money being pumped into our system is sparking fears that the Federal Reserve will be unable to keep prices in check; thus, a new round of significant inflation. While there are many ways to hedge against inflation, including investment in equities with a proven record of dividend increases, Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are among the expert’s favorite. “The only investment that gives you guaranteed payments that won’t lose value over time are TIPS bonds,” says Carol Fabbri, Fair Advisors, Denver, CO. “The return for both the interest and the principal on TIPS adjusts with inflation so your money is protected even if there is significant inflation. If possible, put TIPS in a tax-deferred portfolio.” For more information on TIPS check the U.S. Treasury’s web site:

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6 Don’t follow the herd

Virtually all financial professionals agree that investment in stocks is a necessity for building a solid financial future in our modern economy. When it comes to investing in the stock market, human nature likes to play tricks on us. When the market is reaching new peaks, we can’t wait to jump in. When it stumbles and falls, we stop investing, or worse, we start selling. As a result, the typical investor tends to buy-high and sell-low —

exactly the opposite strategy needed for profitable investing. “Today’s economy has caused many investors to realize that their tolerance for risk is not as great as they thought during the stock market boom of 2002–07,” says Bruce R. Barton, Certified Financial Planner, San Jose, CA. “As a result, many are lowering the amount of stock they hold in their portfolios. Reducing risk by decreasing stock holdings may be appropriate, however, people are living much longer now and a typical retiree will live

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on his or her retirement portfolio for 20 years or longer.” Barton points out that a portfolio must have a growth component to keep up with inflation over the long term. “That means portfolios should include a moderate amount of stock. You should think carefully before changing your long term commitment to stock investments,” he says.

7 Don’t neglect asset allocation

Most financial advisors agree that asset allocation is one of the most important keys to successful investing. In the minds of many, allocating your assets skillfully among the various classes of investments is more important than your selection of individual stocks or mutual funds. For people investing the long-term (10 years or longer) some advisors suggest a balance of 60 percent stocks, 30 percent bonds, and 10 percent cash. For really long periods, say a metalworker just starting in business, as much as 80 percent or 90 percent in stocks might be appropriate. Chances are that your bank or brokerage firm has published guidelines for asset allocation in differing circumstances. In the end, however, the choice is yours. No one knows your investment goals and your tolerance for risk as well as you do. Once you establish the right asset allocation for your circumstances, it’s important to re-balance at least once a year. “Quite often people invest money and then never make any changes,” says Seth Ingersol, President, Premier Wealth Management Group, Tempe, AZ. “Certain sectors of the market obviously perform better or worse than others at given times. This can alter your allocation mix to a level that may not be appropriate given your time frame and risk for tolerance. The days of letting investments sit and never addressing them again are likely over.” How much money we earn is the yardstick by which many of us measure financial success. For those in the know, however, earnings are only one-half of the money equation. Equally important is the manner in which we manage those earnings. Fabricator n March / April 2011

Biz Side

What side of the prequalification issue are you? A growing trend presents new opportunities for NOMMA.

By Molly A. Badgett A trend familiar to the general construction

industry is now knocking on the metal fabricator’s door. It’s the prequalifying of potential vendors as a business prerequisite. Such prequalifying — often by third parties — covers security, product quality, financial viability, environmental stewardship, health and safety, and other jobrisk factors. It could be viewed as one of those goodnews-bad-news issues. And, NOMMA members might find themselves split down the middle regarding its pros and cons, especially when it comes to who’s doing the certifying. On the plus side, there’s the convenience. As NOMMA Executive Director Todd Daniel recently pointed out, being prequalified means when an order is placed, you’re already set with the paperwork needed to bid, win the job, and get the work quickly under way. On the other hand, not going through such a process could mean not getting a chance to bid, or that you fall behind competitors if the timeline is critical to the project. Another plus for prequalifying is the potential for greater market exposure and access. Many third-party prequalifying agencies, or auditors, promote their approved list to member organizations. That can mean more contracts from companies already familiar with March / April 2011 n Fabricator

Shop Certification Task Force Leader Henry Wheeler, Wheeler Ornamental Metals, Dothan, AL, traveled to the Florida Chapter meeting in November to give a report on the certification program and recruit task force volunteers. Shown with Henry (center) are Florida Chapter officers Marco Vasquez and Britt Gordy.

For your information



Pros n Greater market exposure and access to win more job bids. n

The auditing process can help enhance shop processes.

Cons n Potential misfit for niche-industry firms. n

Costs can add up as there are many prequalifying agencies.

Solution A NOMMA Certification Program for our industry. About the Author Molly A. Badgett is a freelance writer based in Atlanta, GA. She often covers issues related to U.S. manufacturing.

your positive conformance status as a provider. For NOMMA member Palm Springs Welding Inc., in Palm Springs, CA, that latter benefit was enticing enough to go through the process for at least one operator. That’s because it represented a possible way for the company to get its foot further in the door to what could be an even larger market: contractors working on sprawling, power-generating wind parks. “Prequalifying us to many vendors in the same field could potentially give us significantly more work,” said Chantal Latulippe Francisco, administrative manager at the welding company. “In this sour economy, we need to explore these kinds of ventures. It might not be for everyone, but it appears to work for us!” Palm Springs Welding went through an extensive prequalifying process with Pacific Industrial Contractor Screening, or PICS, an auditing firm based in Irvine, CA. PICS places an emphasis on occupational safety. Its fees, which minimally include an annual charge of $99 and an activation charge of $199, are based on your risk exposure and the level of requirements from the company requesting your data. Palm Springs Welding’s activation fee was assessed at $699 based on its specialty. What to watch out for

For Dan Nibbelink, owner of NOMMA supplier member Colorado WaterJet Company in Berthoud, CO, a recent PICS proposition was 53

not enticing when it was posed as a condition to be considered for future jobs. It was the first such request he had ever received from a customer. “This customer is minor, and the work we do for them wouldn’t cover the expense,” he said, adding that the request wasn’t applicable to his kind of work, anyway. Such an experience highlights two possible disadvantages to prequalifying with third-party entities: 1) an unfavorable cost-benefit analysis, and 2) process-to-skill misfires that can leave niche-industry firms wondering where they fit in the credentialing process. Generally speaking, third-party

5 Book ad 2011:Layout 1


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For our members who

want to use it, [certification] is good advertising.

Roger Carlsen Ephraim Forge, Frankfort, IL Chair, NOMMA Education Foundation, Certification Program Committee

processes in the construction industry are intended for large contractors. When it comes to costs, registering with one credentialing agency might certainly be affordable. But if prequalifying grows as a trend in metal fabrication and several of your prospects choose several different agencies, the

Page 1

For Architec Blacksm ts and iths alik e.

costs could add up quickly and substantially. And that’s on top of fees for other, skill-specific certifications and continuing-education classes that fabricators already pay. Currently, PICS is just one of a handful of verifying auditors whose customer base feeds the metal-fabrication segment; others include ISNetworld, PEC Premiere, ConstructSecure, Browz, MICCS, and, in Canada, CanQual. As a sign of the complexity of the field, many consulting companies exist solely to help contractors (and subcontractors) manage the demands of prequalification. This, given the relatively large number of prequalifying companies with which to register, and the fact that these companies have brought much of their client-service systems online into technically intricate platforms. This Internet-based automation and verifiers’ growing online visibility might be the driving forces behind the second disadvantage to metal fabricators prequalifying with third-party agencies: the chance that the fit is not appropriate to provide enough value. At the same time, these companies’ online presence and integrated marketing efforts make the monetization of their services easier than ever, thus enticing to potential employers. For Gale Schmidt of NOMMA member A2 Fabrication, Inc., in Milwaukie, OR, that’s a reason to be a bit apprehensive. Recognizing a certain reward for companies like PICS, PEC Premiere, ISNetworld, and other agencies that have clearly learned the art of marketing, she is somewhat skeptical of the actual need for such due diligence. Benefits of auditing

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“I am concerned that we are getting pre-qualified by outside agencies,” she said. “Yes, there is a benefit to getting the seal of approval. But, so many times I see certification bodies arising just because someone can charge for a service that may not be needed.” Cathy Vequist, vice president at NOMMA member firm Royal Iron Creations in West Palm Beach, FL, might have come across the right balance between providing information a Fabricator n March / April 2011

contractor needs to manage risk, and working with a third-party auditing firm. Her experience involved a major contractor who asked her to meet with an auditor. By means of a meeting and a questionnaire, the auditor assessed her company’s safety practices, security systems, employee processes, etc. “The contractor was trying to protect themselves on liability issues, and the auditor was trying to sell services to us to review our processes in detail and make them secure and safe – similar to certification,” Vequist said. The experience was, overall, a positive one. 2007 05 g-s co:2007 05 G-S “It was a useful meeting, as the auditor did point out some issues that we had not even considered,” she said, adding that she fully expects to go through this type of process again. “I would not be surprised if this type of activity continues to grow – especially among contractors with large projects,” she said. “It’s another way to reduce their insurance cost and potential litigation costs.” Vequist said whether you work with a larger agency that covers an extensive range of certification focus areas, which can be helpful, or a smaller, more targeted organization, the key is whether the certification you gain is marketed aggressively to your key target audiences as the industry standard.

here when you need me.’” Like others, Carlsen believes the trend for employers requesting certification is here to stay. To give metal fabricators even more traction, the task force also is looking to provide individual certification so that a single shop can benefit from the collective certification of individual employees. Any certifications would be backed by the standard requirements for ongoing continuing education. Regardless of whether certification is provided at the shop level or by an Co 4/5/07 10:41 AM Page 1 individual, the goal for the NOMMA

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NOMMA’s developing certification program

For those working in the miscellaneous and ornamental metals fields, the industry standard couldn’t get more spot-on than with a certification through NOMMA. That’s the goal behind a task force of NOMMA members that’s working to establish such a certification program for members and non-members alike. Roger Carlsen of NOMMA member firm Ephraim Forge in Frankfort, IL, is the chair of the NOMMA Education Foundation and the Certification Task Force. “For our members who want to use it, this is good advertising,” Carlsen said. “General contractors want something that says more than simply, ‘sure, I can weld anything.’ Certification means being able to say, ‘Yes, I’m a certified shop; I’ve already passed some stringent requirements and I’m March / April 2011 n Fabricator

accreditation program is to proceed in a thoughtful way and with input from all affected groups. Carlsen said surveys are expected to be taken to make sure all NOMMA members have a chance to express what’s most important to them, including the type of requirements they’re being asked to maintain currently by employment prospects, and what they expect to need in the future. A NOMMA accreditation report will be given to the membership in March at the 2011 METALfab convention, Carlsen said, adding, “We have a good momentum right now.”

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Elite Architectural Metal Supply LLC (847) 636-1233

Rogers Mfg. Inc. (940) 325-7806 L.E. Sauer Machine Co. (800) 745-4107

King Architectural Metals (800) 542-2379

Scotchman Industries Inc. (800) 843-8844

King Architectural Metals - CA (800) 542-2379

SECO South (888) 535-SECO

Artist Supplies & Products (800) 825-0029


Artistic Ornamental Supply (305) 836-0192

ETemplate Systems (919) 676-2244

King Architectural Metals - MD (800) 542-2379

Sharpe Products (800) 879-4418

Atlas Metal Sales (800) 662-0143

EURO-FER SPA (011) 39-044-544-0033

C.R. Laurence Co. Inc. (800) 421-6144

South Camden Iron Works Inc. (800) 962-1029

Banker Wire (800) 523-6772

FabCad Inc. (866) 427-2454

Lavi Industries (800) 624-6225

Stairways Inc. (800) 231-0793

Barnett Bates Corp. (800) 541-3912

Feeney Inc. (Feeney Architectural Products) (800) 888-2418

Lawler Foundry Corp. (800) 624-9512

Steel Masters Inc. (602) 243-5245

Lewis Brass & Copper Co. Inc. (800) 221-5579

Stephens Pipe & Steel LLC (800) 451-2612

Locinox USA (708) 579-0286

Sumter Coatings Inc. (888) 471-3400

Logical Decisions Inc. (800) 676-5537

TACO Metals (800) 653-8568

Mac Metals Inc. (800) 631-9510

Transpacific Industrial Supply Inc. (909) 581-3058

Bavarian Iron Works Co. (800) 522-4766 BFT U.S. Inc. (877) 995-8155 Big Blu Hammer Mfg. (828) 437-5348 Julius Blum & Co. Inc. (800) 526-6293 Bridgeton Drafting Co. LLC (856) 205-1279 Byan Systems Inc. (800) 223-2926 The Cable Connection (800) 851-2961 Carell Corp. (251) 937-0948 Carl Stahl DecorCable Innovations (800) 444-6271 Century Group Inc. (800) 527-5232 Cleveland Steel Tool Co. (800) 446-4402 Colorado Waterjet Co. (866) 532-5404 CompLex Industries Inc. (901) 547-1198 Custom Mfg. & Polishing Inc. (417) 831-7900 Custom Orn. Iron Works Ltd. (866) 464-4766


(262) 786-9330

Gates That Open LLC (GTO) (800) 543-4283 Genova Imports LLC (972) 395-8199 Geo. Bezdan Sales Ltd. (800) 663-6356 Glasswerks LA Inc. (800) 350-4527 The G-S Co. (410) 284-9549 Hartford Standard Co. Inc. (270) 298-3227 Hayn Enterprises LLC (800) 346-4296 Hebo/Stratford Gate Systems Inc. (503) 722-7700 Hendrick Mfg., Perforated Metals Div. (800) 225-7373 Heritage Cast Iron USA (918) 592-1700 House of Forgings LLC (866) 443-4848 Hypertherm Inc. (603) 643-3441 Illinois Engineered Products Inc. (312) 850-3710 Indiana Gratings Inc. (800) 634-1988

Marks U.S.A. (800) 526-0233 McKey Perforating (800) 345-7373 Metabo Corp. (800) 638-2264 Mittler Bros. Machine & Tool (800) 467-2464 Multi Sales Inc. (800) 421-3575 NC Tool Co. (800) 446-6498

Tri-State Shearing & Bending (718) 485-2200 TS Distributors Inc. (800) 392-3655 The Wagner Companies (888) 243-6914 Wasatch Steel Inc. (888) 486-4463 West Tennessee Ornamental Door (866) 790-3667

New Metals Inc. (888) 639-6382 O.K. Foundry Co. Inc. (888) 592-2240 Ohio Gratings Inc. (800) 321-9800 Overseas Supply Inc. (866) 985-9885 P & J Mfg. Co. (419) 227-8742 Precision Glass Bending Corp. (800) 543-8796 Fabricator n March / April 2011


New Members We are pleased to introduce our newest members. We encourage our new member firms to “jump in and get involved.” New NOMMA Members as of March 4, 2011. *Asterisk denotes returning member. Alfab Inc. Enterprise, AL Neal Brown Fabricator

Custom Mfg. & Polishing Inc. Springfield, MO Tom Hughes Nationwide Supplier

Renaissance Man Pensacola, FL John K. Marchetti Fabricator

Bemis Gin & Warehouse Co. Jackson, TN Ted Hazlehurst Fabricator

Hypertherm Hanover, NH Evan Winston Fabricator

Universal Iron Doors* Sun Vally, CA Marat Kapukchuyen Fabricator

Westchester Automated Gate Baldwin Place, NY Vincent Bellisimo Fabricator

If there is a new member in your area, please call them and welcome them to your association.

METALfab 2012 Feb. 29 - Mar. 3, 2012 Orlando, FL

Catch the energy! Make plans now.

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

• Demos Classes • Trade Show

Sites • A ction •





What’s Hot? n Events April 7-8, 2011 Glass Expo Midwest™ 2011 Glass Expo Midwest™ returns to Indianapolis at Indianapolis Marriott East, Indianapolis, IN. Instead of traveling to the coasts for education, Glass Expo Midwest is bringing the information and networking opportunities straight to your area. Contact USGlass magazine, Indianapolis Marriott East, Indianapolis, IN; gems. April 16, 2011 Forging Fundamentals with Vivian Beer Learn the fundamentals of working hot iron with Vivian Beer. With her wide-ranging experience in working hot iron, Vivian Beer is an engaging instructor. She held the 3-year residency at Penland before moving to New England, and has a lot more to teach than you can pick up in a day. Contact Center for Metal Arts, Florida, NY; (845) 651-7550; www. April 30, 2011 Metal Museum Volunteer Day The Volunteer day at the Metal Museum, Memphis, TN, is set for April 30. Service projects include finishing a gazebo from castings furnished by Lawler and installing a handicap ramp. The NOMMA Education Foundation will offer a Casting Scratch Block class. Contact NOMMA, (888) 5168585;, or The Metal Museum, Memphis, TN; (901) 774-6380;


Industry News

Sharpe ramps up bending services Sharpe Products exhibited the features and benefits of its shop’s latest technology, the Nissin 3D bender at NOMMA’s METALfab 2011. The new equipment offers flexibility in part design and production thanks to its single die technology, which allows the machine to continuously guide tubing through a single die according to programmed specifications. Advantages of this technology include little to no tooling marking for cosmetic parts. Also, the bender supports production of multi-radii bends without additional tooling. It allows little to no distance between bends and angles

over 180 degrees. According to Sharpe, tube roundness/thickness are maintained as the part continuously passes through the die. Set-up and lead times are minimized, even for complex parts. Sharpe’s Nissin 3D Bender can bend up to 1.25-inch O.D. thin wall tubing, making it particularly effective for ornamental and artistic applications. It also supports bending custom shapes to add to fabricated in-fill panels, adding non-structural art to a standard handrail structure, or having custom bent spindles. Contact Sharpe Products, (800) 879-4418;

Easyfit launches new website Easyfit’s new website at www., displays its line of structural slip-on pipe fittings, railing systems and components. Applications include building handrails, guardrails, safety railings, car ports, greenhouses, displays, racks, tables, barriers, playground equipment, store fixtures, boat docks, theatrical sets, awnings, furniture, lighting grids and booms, fences, “CrossFit” type exercise equipment supports, and other tubular pipe structures. The site features a resource center with general and technical information (e.g. Maximum Post Centers, Upright Load Ratings) to support installation of Easyfit structures. It also has a project gallery with examples of successful Easyfit installations supplied by their customers. The company now accepts PayPal, VISA, MasterCard, American Express, and Discover credit card orders. Contact Easyfit, (330) 494-9615;

Evans Metal president travels to Belize on mission trip In January, David Evans, president of NOMMA member firm Evans Metal Products, traveled to Belize with a group of teachers, youth workers and health care providers. The group, working with the Anglican Diocese in Belize, helped teachers develop their teaching skills and parents strengthen involvement in their children’s education. Evans, who is pastor of his church in Ohio, provided daily devotions. He also worked with the Belize building department to design a new cafeteria building to be built on a subsequent trip. Missionaries on this trip were supported entirely by donations. If you’d like to support this trip or learn more about future ones, visit www. Contact Evans Metal Products, (574) 264-2166; Fabricator n March / April 2011

What’s Hot? n

Industry News

Finney to be wholesale distributor of EAIA and Larson Publishing books Finney Company, an independent publisher and distributor of educational materials and trade books, has entered into an exclusive arrangement with Early American Industries Association Inc. (E.A.I.A.) and Larson Publishing Company to be a wholesale distributor of their books. In recent years, Finney Company has sought to expand their distribution practice in order to fulfill the company’s mission to promote lifelong learning worldwide. E.A.I.A.’s first title, A Pattern Book of Tools and Household Goods, is a Since 1925


reproduction of a pattern book that was probably issued by W. & C. Wynn of Birmingham about 1820. Also to be published: n The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association which includes volume 1 (1933) through volume 60 (2007) of the E.A.I.A.’s published magazine on DVD. n The Directory of American Toolmakers — CD-ROM, the largest single source of information on North American toolmakers ever compiled. Contact Finney Co., (952) 4696699;

May 12−14, 2011 AIA 2011 National Convention and Design Exposition American Institute of Architects hosts its 2011 convention at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center in New Orleans, LA. This year’s theme is Regional Design REVOLUTION: ecology matters. Programs range from business planning to marketing and business development. Contact AIA, http://convention.

Brasstown, NC

John C. Campbell Folk School Workshops in Blacksmithing, Bladesmithing, Toolmaking, Design Process, Repoussé and more

Restoring the Past. Building the Future.

To request a free catalog or register for a class, or call 1.800.FOLK.SCH


Questions? Call Peter H. Miller, President: 202.339.0744 x 104. Or email

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

59 Fabricator RM house ad.indd 1

10/12/2010 1:14:13 PM

What’s Hot? n


NOMMA presents Julius Blum’s Sam Paresi with lifetime honor

Many of us today don’t thing more, an honorary lifeknow the history of the men time membership to NOMMA. and women whose dedication At one of Paresi’s favorite reshelped form NOMMA and the taurants on Long Island, about building standards that guide 40 members of the ornamenornamental fabricators today. tal and miscellaneous metals Sam Paresi, who began industry witnessed this honor working for NOMMA member and said thanks to a man who Julius Blum & Co. Inc. in 1944 helped them and their business. at the age of 18, is one of these As Northeast NOMMA individuals. Chapter President Keith Majka, On January 19, 2011 the Majka Railings, New Jersey, puts Northeast Chapter, on behalf of Northeast NOMMA chapter. More than 40 members of the it, “These people came because on 1: Garamond NOMMA,Pro honored Sam whenever they needed help figornamental and miscellaneous metals industry located in the Paresi for his life-long dedica- northeast area came out to a special dinner on Long Island uring out how to do something, tion towards the betterment of honoring Sam Paresi. Sam always had an answer.” our industry, for his “That’s why National Gates anddiligent Railings • Great reviews! service to NOMMA, andSet for being one (NOMMA) asked us to do this,” Majka 2 Volume • Over 1,300 photos of the founders of NOMMA and the explained. “Chapters are a good local • All work of recent construction Metal Museum in Memphis, TN. connection to the organization.” Vol I - Modern look It was exactly 19 days after his He says many stories were told Vol II - Traditional/Classical look official retirement from Julius Blum. that night at the dinner of how Paresi That’s 66 years of service. helped people and how he visited their Paresi was a cornerstone at Julius shops in the northeast area. Visit our website to see our large Blum and instrumental in creating the Majka told a story about the first collection of metalworking books. technical standards represented in the time he met Sam Paresi, 30 years ago. NAAMM-NOMMA Manuals, particu“He was breaking in a new rookie sales Ph: 800-843-9567 larly the Metal Finishes Manual, which rep, and it was Rich Dantoni.” Fax: 717-772-4301 was revised and released in 2006, and About that same time, Paresi also Artisan Imported from Italy the Metal Rail Manual, which is now took another kid around to meet being revised and expanded. potential customers, Joe Romeo of Paresi and family. Sam Paresi, center, For this work and more he won Industrial Coverage Corp. is joined by his wife, Marge, their son NOMMA’s Julius Blum award in 1992. According to Joanne Blum, Paresi Anthony, their son Joe, and Joe’s ption 2: Minion Pro wife April. But NOMMA wanted to extend somestarted working for Julius Blum & Co. Inc. after seeing an ad in The New York Times. He had two ads in his Gates and Railings • Great reviews! pocket but her father hired him on the 2 Volume Set • Over 1,300 photos spot and he started the next day as an • All work of recent construction errand boy. Vol I - Modern look He quickly moved up to inside Vol II - Traditional/Classical look sales, then foreman of the warehouse, and then of course outside sales. According to Keith Majka the only Visit our website to see our large time Paresi left Blum was to serve his collection of metalworking books. country in World War II. Blum is fortunate to have had such Ph: 800-843-9567 a fine man be a part of their firm for Fax: 717-772-4301 so many years, and so are the memArtisan Imported from Italy bers of NOMMA.


Fabricator n March / April 2011

What’s Hot? n


Capabilities include large-hole tapping up to 15/8 inch diameter; twist drilling up to 13/4 inch, and reaming up to 2 inch. The unit includes an automatic cooling/lubrication system to increase the life of the annular cutters. Contact CS Unitec Inc., 800-7005919;

Magnetic drill CS Unitec CS Unitec’s new MAB 1300 drills large holes up to 51/8 inch and tapping up to 15/8 inch, in structural steel and other metals. Designed for continuous use in heavy-duty drilling applications, it features a 20 amp, 110 volt double-insulated, reversible motor.

Angle roller Carell Corp. The new 310HV4 Angle Roll with 6-inch pipe and 6-inch angle bending capacity is a three-driven rolls, double initial pinch, fully hydraulic Universal Roll Bending Machine. It has an independent hydraulic adjustment of both lower bending rolls and hydraulic powered rotation of all three rolls. Lateral guides are hydraulic powered in all three axii (6 directional movements). Tooling for angle iron leg-in and leg-out is standard. According to

Carell, the 310HV4’s 100 percent hydraulic drive trains require near zero maintenance. Contact Carell Corp., (251) 9370948; Bracket system The Wagner Companies The Wagner Slip-FitTM Brackets are designed for use with 1¼ inch Schedule

Whether you choose 1-½" diamond wire mesh or 2"x1" rectangular partition systems both are pre-engineered for easy installation and with multiple functions for use in high security or low security, tool cribs, quality control cages or safety storage caging on mezzanines.

"From the simplest to the complex, Jesco does it best!" 1" Square, 10 gauge. 1-½" Diamond, 10 gauge. 2" Square / Diamond, 8 and 6 gauge. Contact us today and we'll take care of your wire mesh needs. Call toll free

96 1-800-609-82 View our complete catalog at nline .com www.JescoO Jesco Industries, Inc.

950 Anderson @ Fab Road Litchfield, MI 49252-0388

Phone: 1-517-542-2353 Fax: 1-517-542-2501

March / April 2011 n Fabricator


What’s Hot? n 5 or Schedule 10 pipe or Wagner’s 1.66inch OD slotted tube. The Slip-FitTM System uses stock or custom Wagner rail ends, wall returns, flanges and precut pipe to make assembly and installation quick and easy. No welding, and no unsightly gaps at butt joints. The Slip-FitTM Brackets meet the grasp-

ability requirements of the 2010 ADA. Combine with Lumenrail® Light Sticks and hardware to create LED lighted handrail assemblies. Contact The Wagner Companies, (888) 243-6914; www.


LEED silver certification, The Brompton is energy efficient and uses sustainable building materials and water conservation. Contact Marks USA, (800) 5260233;

Custom locksets Marks USA

Electronic band file Metabo Marks USA Custom Lockset Division is manufacturing solid brass, nickel-plated leversets that are being used in the new luxury twenty-two story condominium, The Brompton in New York City. The locksets are created using mixes of virgin and 10 percent recycled metals (post consumer) to reduce environmental impacts from extracting and processing virgin materials. Registered with the U.S. Green Building Council in anticipation of

A new band file from Metabo offers 900 watts of power. The BFE 9-90 electronic band file is designed

TUBING BENDERS Hand Tube Bender Rolls:  1 1/2” Square Tubing  1 x 1 1/2” Rectangular Tubing  Flat Bar (1/2 x 1 1/2” & smaller)  Pipe & Tubing


Magnum Hand Tube Bender Rolls:


 2” Square Tubing 1 x 2” Rectangular Tubing Flat Bar (1/2 x 2” & smaller)  Pipe & Tubing Additional Rollers Available

1-800-200-4685 UNIQUE ROLLING SYSTEM Works with both hand tubing benders

Cap Rails



 Flat Bar (on edge hard way) R&D Hydraulics, Mfg. and Machine Co. 1431 West 5th St. Chico, CA 95928


Fabricator n March / April 2011

What’s Hot? n


for metal removal and de-burring in hard-to-reach places. Including Metabo’s Marathon motor with slim motor housing for comfort handling, it has a variable belt speed of 750–1770 feet per minute. The file has die cast aluminum gear housing, a tool-less belt exchange, and a grinding arm that swivels 270° for clean finishing in angular spaces. Contact Metabo, (800) 638-2264; Right angle grinding discs Norton Abrasives Norton has introduced a new lineup of Norton/Merit flap discs and fiber discs in a multi-tier selection designed to offer right angle grinding options at all performance and price levels. Norton/Merit flap discs are engineered for applications ranging from stock removal to blending and are available in Type 27 and Type 29

stop systems. The SG is a portable, automated length measuring system that attaches to any type of equipment.

shapes with fiberglass, plastic, and aluminum backing plates. Norton/Merit fiber discs feature a full resin bond system with heavy-duty fiber backing for increased strength, durability, and tear resistance. Contact Norton Abrasives, (508) 795-4435;

Operators enter the required dimension, with the material against the rugged stop, and cut the part. The SG is a go-to stop only and is available in 8-foot and 12-foot packages, which include: SawGear, conveyor, and mounting bracket. In addition, Scotchman announced

Portable automated measuring system Scotchman Industries Scotchman has added SawGear (SG) to their line of advanced feed and

DON’T USE A TWIST DRILL TO DO AN ANNULAR CUTTER’S JOB. For materials up to 1/2" thick

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Cut round, virtually burrfree holes in seconds

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Whether you’re making a few holes with hand-held tools or thousands of holes in production applications, only Hougen RotaCut ™ Sheet Metal Cutters give you clean, accurate and virtually burr-free holes 3X faster than twist drills or hole saws with longer tool life and no need for secondary operations. Available in two convenient kits... 5/16 thru 3/4" and 7/8 thru 1-1/2" diameters.

800-426-7818 •

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

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Made in USA


5/19/09 11:25:02 AM

METALfab 2012 Feb. 29 - Mar. 3, 2012 Orlando, FL

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that new chip drawers come standard on all Scotchman manual cold saws. Contact Scotchman Industries, (800) 843-8844;

Catch the energy! Make plans now.

Aqueous cleaning systems brochure Jensen Fabricating Engineers Jensen Fabricating Engineers, Inc. (Jenfab) has released a new brochure describing its line of LeanClean 360 rotating basket, cellular aqueous cleaning systems. Jenfab is the only company to offer rotary basket washers with capacities to clean and passivate 1, 2, 4 and 8 baskets of parts per cycle. In addition, the Jumbo 360 system is designed to accommodate especially large parts and custom fixturing and ultrasonics are available. Full specifications for each model are included in the brochure.

Contact Jensen Fabricating Engineers Inc., (860) 828-6516; www.











15754 Widewater Drive Dumfries, VA 22025-1212 703-680-1632


Association of North America, Inc.



PHONE: 1-800-888-9768 INDUSTRIES, INC. FAX: 616-235-2901 600 ELEVENTH ST. N.W. GRAND RAPIDS, MI 49504



Fabricator n March / April 2011 2011NOMMAFabricatorMarAprilIssue.indd 1

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Advertiser’s Index A thanks to the following advertisers for their support of O&MM Fabricator magazine. Pg Company*


 Pg Company*


57....Industrial Coverage Corp..............

30...Alumina Railing Products

54...International Gate

22...Architectural Iron Designs

68...The Iron

63...Atlas Metal Sales.............................................

48...Jansen Ornamental Supply Co..............

60...Artisan Ideas.................................................

61....Jesco Industries Inc. WIPCO div...............

15....BFT US

67...King Architectural Metals............................

29...Big Blu Hammer Mfg.

13....Lawler Foundry

45...Blacksmiths Depot...........................

2......Lewis Brass & Copper Co. Inc.....................

54...Blue Moon Press....................................

62...Lindblade Metal

40...Julius Blum & Co.


24...The Cable Connection................

49...Metabo Corp.............................................................

59...John C. Campbell Folk

32...Pat Mooney

16....Carell Corporation...........................................

36...National Bronze & Metal............................

19....Chicago Metal Rolled Products Co.....................

32...NC Tool Company

52...Colorado Waterjet

36...Peters Valley Craft Education

41....CompLex Industries

62...R & D Hydraulics Mfg. & Machine

25...CS Unitec Inc........................................................

27...Sharpe Products....................................

4......D & D Technologies (USA) Inc...............


23...D.J.A. Imports Ltd...........................................


64...DAC Industries

55...Steptoe & Wife Antiques

16.... Eagle Bending Machines

43...Suhner Industrial Products Corp..............

51...Eberl Iron Works

26...Sumter Coatings


59...Traditional Building.......................

34...FabCad Inc...............................................................

44...Tri-State Shearing & Bending................................... 718-485-2200

21...Feeney Inc. ..........................................................

61....Universal Entry Systems Inc.......................................216-631-4777

55...The G-S Co..................................................................

41....Vogel Tool & Die Corp.....................................

17....Hebo - Stratford Gate Systems

7......The Wagner

63...Hougen Mfg. Inc..................................................

52...Weaver’s Iron Works.......................

Contact your O&MM Fabricator sales representative Sales Manager Jim Gorzek Direct 815.227.8269 Mobile 815.985.4089 Fax 815.484.7730 jimg@

AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, ID, KS, LA, MO, MS, MT, NE, ND, NM, NV, OR, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, WA, WY Tony Arnone Direct 815.227.8263 Toll Free 888.394.4362 Fax 815.484.7758 tony@

March / April 2011 n Fabricator

CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT Sean Smith Direct 815.227.8265 Toll Free 888.394.4362 Fax 815.484.7760 seans@

FL, GA, IN, KY, NC, OH, SC, VA, WV Michael J. Lacny Direct 815.227.8264 Toll Free 888.394.4362 Fax 815.484.7749 mikel@

IA, IL, MN, WI, Canada Amy Hudson Direct 815.227.8237 Toll Free 888.394.4362 Fax 815.484.7777 amyh@



Metal Moment

Book Excerpt

Sinking and raising technologies of repoussé Editor’s note: This excerpt of “Work Techniques” from Adolph Steines’ Moving Metal: The Art of Chasing and Repoussé, 2001, is provided by Blue Moon Press, www.


Sinking deprives the material of a significant amount of its original thickness; therefore, this method is not suited for deeper profiles or when later work is required. Especially when additional work with punches is In repoussé the material is usually worked necessary, as when sculpting a face, the full cold. A commercially produced smooth piece thickness of the material has to be mainof sheet is shaped with punches and hammers tained. To achieve this, material may not be into that form that reflects the image of our stretched in order to gain the desired depth. imagination. Instead raising is the appropriate techThere are various work techniques which nique. There are two different methods to correspond to the variety of desired shapes. achieve this. The first one is suited for more shallow pieces and the second if more Sinking depth is desired. A stump in which Sinking is the simplest of these a slight hollow has been carved can techniques. It consists of a firm blow serve as a support. The process begins of the hammer, creating a dent in a by working the material with a woodpiece of sheet metal. By placing seven or leather mallet in a spiral pattern eral hammer blows very close to each beginning from the outside edge and other, an indentation is created. stopping short of the center. The proThe strongest blows are first carried cess is then repeated from the center out in the center of the piece of work. outward. This will create small folds Towards the edge the blows should that warp away from the supporting become lighter. The edge itself should stump. They must be hammered flat Sinking is the simplest of repoussé work not be struck at all. In this way the against the hollow. A certain degree of techniques in which a sheet of metal is shaped original diameter remains the same. skill is necessary since uneven or tooby pounding it into a receiving shape, such as Towards the center, however, the heavy hammering may result in large a hollowed out wood stump. material is stretched so much that folds, which can easily overlap and it eventually becomes very thin, later cause a tear. thus limiting the depth that can be The process ends by straightenachieved. ing out all irregularities with powerful As a support base an old carpet, hammer blows., which are carried out some lead or even a hollowed out again in a spiral pattern towards the wood stump will suffice. outer rim. For this a slightly rounded Frequent annealing can restore chasing hammer should be used. What a certain amount of elasticity to the this achieves is a progressive upsetting metal which has been work hardened from the center towards the rim, leavby the hammer blows. ing he center essentially untouched. One is well advised, however, to Following this, annealing is required Raising. The two methods of raising help avoid test the limits of malleability gently before the process is repeated. This is and with soft hammer blows because stretching the workpiece and making it too thin. continued until the desired depth is The first method of raising described by Adolph any crack, once it appears, ruins all the Steines is appropriate for shallow depths. achieved. After several passes, the form effort put into the work. of a rounded bowl or kettle is achieved. For this very reason it is important to avoid a center With finishing touches this could serve as the final product or punch when marking the circumference, because even it could be further shaped from the outside. this small indentation may provoke the formation of a The second method requires somewhat greater skill but crack. offers considerably more shaping possibilities. In the meantime, any bowl can be produced which does Read more on repoussé techniques. Order Adolph Steines’ not require further finishing work. Moving Metal: The Art of Chasing and Repoussé. 66

Fabricator n March / April 2011

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