Page 1

i

Journal Number 1 2012

SASTA

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Supporting Teachers of Science: Advancing Science Education

Features Australia Day Honours For SASTA Honorary Life Member, Peter Schodde 2012 SASTA Annual Conference Awards for Service to SASTA Introducing the 2012 Oliphant Science Awards Indigenous science students develop inquiry skills Introduction To Psychology - Research Designs National Science Week 2012 Registered by Australia Post - Print Post Publication No. PP 540031/00003

CONASTA 63


2012 SASTA Committee Patron of South Australian Science Teachers Association Dr Barbara Hardy AO Executive Committee Mark Divito: President John Glistak: Vice President Chris Jordison: Vice President Dr Jane Wright: Vice President Peter Turnbull: Secretary Ian Maynard: Treasurer SASTA Board: Tatiana Anesbury Mark Divito Katrina Elliott John Glistak Chris Jordison Ingrid Lees Bronwyn Mart Priscilla Martinus Ian Maynard Marianne Nicholas Dianne Paech Karen Palumbo Peter Turnbull Dr Jane Wright Yvonne Zeegers Convenors & Reference Group Chairs: Annual Conference John Glistak – Chair Peter Donnelly – Convenor Communications John Glistak Journal Email: journal@sasta.asn.au Newsletter Email: newsletter@sasta.asn.au Membership Katrina Elliot

SASTA Office: Executive Officer: Greg Cole Office Manager: Kristy Cummins ACHPER Building Ground Floor, 214 Port Road Hindmarsh SA 5007 Phone: 08 8346 6922 Fax: 08 8346 9599 Email: office@sasta.asn.au URL: www.sasta.asn.au Journal copy deadlines for 2012 (Advertising deadlines one week earlier) 1 February for 29 February 1 June for 30 June 1 October for 31 October Advertising Rates (Including GST) Full Page $275 (190mm wide x 257mm high) Half Page $155 (190mm wide x 125mm high) Quarter Page $95 (92mm wide x 125mm high)

National Science Week Priscilla Martinus

Inserts: A4, trifolds or brochures up to 9g. $175.00 (supplied)

Oliphant Science Awards Peter Turnbull

Email booking and advertising copy (pdf format) to: journal @sasta.asn.au cc to eo@sasta.asn.au

Professional Development Peter Donnelly Dr Jane Wright Resources Chris Jordison SASTA Awards Chris Jordison

Views expressed in this Journal are not necessarily those of SASTA or the editors. Whilst every effort is made to be factual, no liability is accepted for the accuracy of information presented.

ASTA Councillors Mark Divito Chris Jordison

© 2012 SASTA. Reproduction of material contained herein is permitted provided its source is acknowledged. All contributions should be emailed to journal@sasta.asn.au cc eo@sasta.asn.au

Honorary Life Members Doug Anders Tony Diercks Elma Gurney Bob Morton AM Ronne Page Mike Roach Lester Russell Peter Schodde OAM Jack Smith Ray Smith Alby Whitelaw Dr Jane Wright

Adhering to the following guidelines would be appreciated: Save as Microsoft Word document Tables to be set up as text with one tab between columns and a return at the end of each row. For spelling please use the Macquarie Dictionary and where several alternative spellings are listed, use the first. The exception to this is when you are citing, referencing or quoting directly from a source which uses alternative spelling. Photographs should be high quality untouched digital photographs.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Contents Editorial John Glistak

FEATURES A Word from SASTA’s President Australia Day Honours For SASTA Honorary Life Member, Peter Schodde 2012 SASTA Annual Conference Teachers new to teaching Year 12 science subjects Awards for Service to SASTA Introducing the 2012 Oliphant Science Awards Indigenous science students develop inquiry skills Lyn Jefferies Introduction To Psychology - Research Designs Kirsty Gebert National Science Week 2012 Flourish Book Reviews: Sea Creatures and Sea Shores Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales Peter J. Helman CONASTA 63

HOLIDAY REVISION SEMINARS MAXIMISE YOUR RESULTS

SUPPORTING TEACHERS OF SCIENCE: ADVANCING SCIENCE EDUCATION

• • • •

Revise key topics in the Curriculum Statement Clarify questions with subject specialists Develop your study skills Prepare for exams

TO BE HELD DURING THE HOLIDAYS Please visit the website http://www.sasta.asn.au for program details and registration. Biology, Chemistry, Nutrition, Physics and Psychology seminars will be held for small groups of Year 12 students who are would like to improve their results. Students enrol for 5 days x 3 hours of tuition per subject Dates: Times: Venue: Cost:

16-20 April, 2-6 July, 9-13 July, 24-28 September & 1-5 October. 9:30 am – 12:30 pm and 1:30 pm – 4:30 pm. Eynesbury Senior College, 19 Franklin Street, Adelaide Early Bird Fee: $255 – Register by: 20 March, 12 June or 4 September. After these dates, Full Fee: $285 applies.

1

2 3 4 6 11 12 16 18 22 26 28 30 31 32


2

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Editorial John Glistak

Welcome to the first of three planned SASTA Journals for 2012. It has been almost ten months since one of SASTA’s esteemed Honorary Life Members Peter Schodde passed away, shortly after the official launch of his book, SASTA - The First 60 Years.

John Glistak

It was with immense pride that SASTA received news that Peter was posthumously awarded the Order of Australia Medal on Australia Day 2012. We acknowledge that honour within this issue.

A quiet time at SASTA – that is a rather rare occurrence. Significant changes to SASTA’s membership structure were approved at the Special General Meeting held in December 2011. What effect these changes have on our membership is explained in an article provided by SASTA President, Mark Divito. SASTA’s Annual Conference Committee has been busy over the past nine months preparing for the upcoming Annual Conference on 12-13 April 2012 to be held at Immanuel College, Novar Gardens. The theme for this Annual Conference is ‘Sustainability’. Dr Paul Willis, Director RiAus, and Professor Ray Norris, Astrophysicist, CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility are the two Keynote Speakers addressing our Annual Conference. In addition, six Cutting Edge presentations will take place together with some fifty workshops. The Annual Conference also provides attendees an opportunity to view resources on display from a range of exhibitors that will be present over the two days.

Further information about the Annual Conference is provided. We encourage as many science teachers as possible to consider registering for our major SASTA conference. Another important activity for SASTA is its Annual General Meeting which coincides with the Annual Conference. Have you considered attending the Annual General Meeting? Are you interested in joining the SASTA Board? Did you know that SASTA has a range of Awards available to recognise teachers of science, to acknowledge the work that teachers have done in support of SASTA’s activities etc. Perhaps you may know a colleague that is deserving of one of the Awards. Here is your chance to start the ball rolling to arrange for an Award to be presented, perhaps not at this year’s Annual Conference, but definitely in 2013. Arrangements for this year’s Oliphant Science Awards are virtually finalised and preliminary information about OSA is provided as an encouragement for teachers to consider involving their students in this important competition. The annual Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) was held in Adelaide during December 2011. A comprehensive report on this highly successful endeavour has been supplied by Lyn Jefferies. Can we encourage other indigenous science students to consider applying for the 2012 ASSETS program? SASTA conducts a Conference for Psychology teachers each January. Once again, this Conference was well attended and well received by teachers of Psychology. One of the resources presented at the Conference has been included in this Journal. We thank Kirsty Gebert for making this resource available.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

3

A Word from

SASTA’s President Mark Divito

As previously advised, a Special General Meeting was held on 5 December 2011 to endorse a series of proposed changes to the SASTA Constitution. The main changes involved an amalgamation of membership categories as follows and timing of the payment of subscriptions.  Individual Full Membership, Individual Full Membership (Primary) and Individual Full Membership (Laboratory Officer) have been combined to become ‘Personal Members’.  Institutional Membership and School Membership (Primary) has been combined to become ‘Corporate Members’.  The categories of Joint Membership, Retired Membership, Student Membership and Honorary Life Membership remain. Membership benefits for those persons now classified as Personal Members remain unchanged and they will continue to receive a significant discount on registration fees for professional learning activities of approximately 35%. Membership benefits for schools and universities now classified as ‘Corporate Members’, which prior to the change were limited in the number of staff eligible for a discount on Annual Conference registration fees, will now receive a discount of approximately 20%. Specific membership category benefits previously listed in the Constitution have been

Mark Divito

removed and now appear as part of SASTA By-Laws. Membership subscriptions will now become due and payable on the first day of January each year commencing 2013. This current year will see the phasing in of the new due date and subscriptions will be invoiced on a pro-rata basis. For example, if your membership


4

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

subscription falls due this February you will be invoiced for the period March to December 2012 so you will not be disadvantaged. It is expected that invoices for the 2013 financial year will be distributed in November 2012 and, as mentioned previously, will be due and payable on 1 January 2013. Apart from the membership changes SASTA is due for a busy year which will see a redeveloped website and integrated membership database established. I would like to take this opportunity at the beginning of the year just to remind members about the range of benefits and services available from SASTA and ASTA as follows:

Australia Day Honours For Sasta Honorary Life Member,

Peter Schodde

 Membership benefits provided by SASTA: •

7 SASTA newsletters plus regular email updates;

3 Journals for Journal subscribers;

20%-40% discount on registration fees for professional learning activities; and

Members Only resource area on the SASTA website.

 Membership benefits provided by ASTA: •

4 refereed journals (Teaching Science);

Access to free & member only national programs such as: o

National Science Teachers Summer School;

o

National Science Week Resource Book, Schools Kit and School Grants;

o

Annual Science at the Shine Dome;

o

$200 discount on CONASTA registration;

o

Ruth Dircks Scholarship to CONASTA; and

o

ASTA Online PD

If you wish to find out further details about any of the services or programs offered please do not hesitate to contact the SASTA office or visit the SASTA website – www.sasta.asn.au.

Mark Divito SASTA President

It was with immense pride that SASTA received news that Honorary Life Member, Peter Schodde, posthumously, was awarded the OAM Medal on Australia Day 2012. The OAM Award that Peter received acknowledged the impressive achievements accomplished during the lifetime of a remarkable individual who sadly passed away just a month after the launch of SASTA - The First 60 Years, a book that he authored about SASTA’s history. Featured below is the information that accompanied Peter Schodde’s OAM Award: MEDAL (OAM) OF THE ORDER OF AUSTRALIA IN THE GENERAL DIVISION Mr Peter SCHODDE, deceased Late of Grange SA 5022 For service to science education, and to a range of professional associations


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

5

Appointments with the Education Department of South Australia include:  Chemistry Teacher, Gilles Plains TAFE College, 1995-1998  Lecturer, Science Methodology, University of South Australia, Underdale, 1994-1996  Teaching Practice Supervisor, Faculty of Education, University of Adelaide, 1993-1997  Superintendent of Curriculum, 1989-1992.  Superintendent of Schools, 1988  Senior Adviser (Science), 1987  Principal Education Officer/Superintendent (Science), 1977-1986  Earlier roles as Subject Consultant (Chemistry), Senior Master (Chemistry) and Chemistry/Science Teacher, during the 1960s and 1970s  Department Committee roles include:  Chair, Animal Ethics Committee, 1986-1991  Chair, Secondary Science Curriculum Committee, in the 1980s  Project Manager; a number of projects produced either key position papers or curriculum documents, in the 1980s State Monitor, Program for International Student Assessment, Australian Council for Educational Research, 2000 Various roles with the Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia included Chief Moderator, Assessor, Public Examinations Board Member, Syllabus and Curriculum Advisory Committees Member, and Chief Examiner, 1968-1991 Contributor to a number of projects of the Commonwealth Curriculum Development Centre, in the 1980s Founder and Coordinator, CSIRO Student Research Scheme for Year 12 science students in South Australian Schools, 1993-1998 Leadership role in the development of the CSIRO Science Education Centre, Woodville North, 1982-1985 Member, Australian Science Teachers Association; Editorial roles, 1970s and 1980s Former Secretary, South Australian Science Teachers Association (SASTA); Editorial roles, 1970-1997; Author, SASTA - The First 60 Years Inaugural Coordinator, National Science Week in South Australia on behalf of SASTA, 1998; Chair, South Australian Coordinating Committee, 1999-2000 Treasurer and Executive Committee Member, South Australian Institute of Senior Education Officers, 1980-1991; Trustee, 1992-2006 Secretary, Chemical Education Group (SA), Royal Australian Chemical Institute, 1975-1985; Member, 1976-1996 Convenor, Youth ANZAAS (Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science), Adelaide, 1997 Vice-President, Recitals Australia (formerly the Australian Society for Keyboard Music), 2008-2011; Treasurer, 1999-2011; Member, since 1980s Organiser, two nationwide piano competitions; organiser, inaugural Yamaha Recitals Australia Showcase, 2008, and Committee Member, 2009; performer in 30 concerts for Recitals Australia Lay Member, Biosafety Committee, Flinders University/Flinders University Medical Centre, 1993-1998 Mr Schodde died on 31 May 2011. Sources: http://www.gg.gov.au/res/file/2012/honours/ad2012/Media%20Notes%20OAM%20(S-Z)%20(final).pdf http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ipad/obituaries-tributes-to-three-of-our-finest/story-fn6bqvxz-1226123223703 http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/awards/medals/medal_order_australia.cfm


6

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

SASTA’s Annual Conference SASTA’s Annual Conference will be held at Immanuel College on Thursday 12th and Friday 13th April 2012. Conference Convenor is Peter Donnelly. The Conference’s theme is ‘Sustainability’ with Keynote Speakers, Cutting Edge Presenters and a wide range of Workshops on offer to conference attendees.

and keen sense of adventure to his role as Director of RiAus. He is ready and willing to engage with non-scientists and to stimulate community conversations about science, life, and everything.

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS This year’s Conference features Dr Paul Willis and Professor Ray Norris as its two Keynote Speakers. Dr Paul Willis, Director RiAus, is well-known as a science broadcaster with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, presenting and producing on ABC television science shows including Quantum and Catalyst. Paul is passionate about informing, educating and amusing people of all ages and backgrounds about science and is keen to seize the opportunity to talk about science in a variety of public forums. He was rewarded for his passion in 2000 when he was joint recipient of the Eureka Prize for Science Communication. Dr Willis brings a solid research career in vertebrate palaeontology to his work as a science communicator, and has produced many academic reports and papers. He has also authored or co-authored seven books on dinosaurs, rocks and fossils, as well as numerous popular science articles for a variety of publications. Paul was the resident palaeontologist on seven Antarctic expeditions and brings this enthusiasm

Dr Paul Willis

Dr Paul Willis’ Keynote address is entitled, “How do we engage Australians with science?” a synopsis of which follows: We live in challenging times when it comes to talking science in public. There is widespread distrust and multiple misconceptions among the Australian public when it comes to scientific issues and this is at the root of the lack of willingness to engage with science. But there is a crushing need for science engagement here as our society becomes more dependent on technology and becomes a greater burden on the natural systems that support us.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

So how do we engage Australians with science? Traditional lectures and other modalities for science communication have not had the desired impact so it’s time to consider new delivery formats and new, high tech ways of delivering them. It’s time to take science engagement into the 21st Century. Professor Ray Norris, Edith Cowan University, is an astrophysicist at the CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility. He received an Honours Degree in Theoretical Physics at Cambridge University, UK, and then a PhD at Manchester University, UK. He moved to Australia in 1983 to work for CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility, where he became Head of Astrophysics in 1994, and Deputy Director in 2000. He currently leads a project to image the faintest radio galaxies and star-forming galaxies in the Universe, to understand how they form and evolve. He also studies the astronomy of Aboriginal Australians, and is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Indigenous Studies at Macquarie University.

7

some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain the origin of eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Such traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This talk will explore the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting, as well as describing the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge. CUTTING EDGE PRESENTATIONS Six Cutting Edge Presenters will also feature at the SASTA Annual Conference, each providing an interesting insight into their field of expertise. The Cutting Edge Presenters include Associate Professor Peter Ashman (The University of Adelaide), Professor Joe Shapter (Flinders University), Dr Evangeline Mantzioris (University of South Australia), Dr Tara Pukala (The University of Adelaide), Professor Howard Fallowfield (Flinders University) and Associate Professor David Beattie (University of South Australia).

Professor Ray Norris

“The Astronomy of Indigenous Australians” is the focus of Professor Ray Norris’ Keynote Address, a synopsis of which is: Each of the 400 different indigenous cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the “emu in the sky” constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon, Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and

Associate Professor Peter Ashman

Associate Professor Peter Ashman’s Cutting Edge presentation is entitled, “Sustainable Engineering – Meeting the planet’s ravenous appetite for energy and economic growth in a carbonconstrained economy”. In the coming decades mankind faces enormous challenges, including the provision of affordable and convenient energy which does not contribute to local or global pollution. This challenge is particularly acute in developing countries where the social aspects


8

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

of energy provision intersect with the needs of local economies that are growing at close to 10% per annum, or higher. These challenges, which differ markedly due to local circumstances, will be met through a combination of different technical and policy solutions. In this complex context, it is increasingly important that society has access to a cohort of talented, articulate and sociallyaware engineers - and particularly of chemical engineers, due to their unique positioning at the nexus between technology and the physical and biological sciences and their understanding of complex and sustainable processes. In this talk, we will explore these issues and outline some practical solutions for the production of sustainable biofuels being investigated at the University of Adelaide.

Professor Joe Shapter

In his Cutting Edge presentation, Professor Joe Shapter will discuss “Nanotechnology: What is it and what use is it?” Nanotechnology is a new science which deals with things one billionth the size of our “normal” working world. This means it is possible for us to view individual atoms or molecules. More importantly in this case, we can manipulate or modify these atoms or molecules to make new, useful devices and structures. Therefore we can make perfect gears for use in the world’s smallest motors or make long lines of single atoms to conduct electrical signals leading to the ultimate miniaturisation of electronic circuits such as those in computer chips. In medicine, nanotechnology is involved in making very small microchips which can be implanted in the eyes or ears. It is quite

possible that in the near future this will allow the blind to see and the deaf to hear. The talk will focus on some of these exciting aspects of this new science. Flinders University has been teaching nanotechnology to undergraduates since 2000. This was the first degree of its kind in the world. The talk will also discuss how to bring nanotechnology to the classroom and use it to engage, excite and interest students in a range of sciences. “Food Additives - the Good the Bad and the Ugly” is the focus of Dr Evangeline Mantozioris’ Cutting Edge presentation.

Dr Evangeline Mantozioris

Do food additives deserve their notorious reputation in our society? While many additives are naturally occurring, some may cause problems for a small percentage of the population. This is an interactive and engaging workshop with material that is applicable in the classroom setting across a number of learning areas. Dr Tara Pukala’s Cutting Edge presentation is entitled, “Sustainable Science”. Meeting the wants and needs of future generations will require us to address a number of significant challenges including greater production and consumption of goods and services, with more demand for land, water, energy, and materials, while reducing reliance on world resources. In addition, managing


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Dr Tara Pukala

factors such as human disease and wellbeing, biodiversity and environmental health is important for maintaining future quality of life. Science is critical to both the origins of the sustainability challenge, and to the prospects for successfully dealing with it. It is therefore imperative that science teaching prepares students to be productive professionals who can make skilled and informed decisions for sustainable environmental, social, political and economic solutions. This presentation will outline two concepts in the theme of sustainable science. Firstly, the importance of science on the path to a sustainable future. And secondly, teaching science sustainably; that is providing students with a relevant curriculum, placing it in a context that everyone will understand and value, thereby making the study of science more appealing and highly sought after as a pathway to a diverse range of careers. “The use of algae for sustainable waste water treatment and biomass energy production” is the title of Professor Howard Fallowfield’s Cutting Edge presentation. The 350 ha of lagoons at Bolivar wastewater treatment plant treat sewage from some 800,000 residents of Adelaide; furthermore, 180,000 rural South Australians depend upon Community Waste Management Scheme (CWMS) wastewater lagoon systems for their wastewater treatment. All these lagoon systems depend upon a consortium of algae-bacteria-

Professor Howard Fallowfield

zooplankton and detritus (ALBAZOD) to effect wastewater treatment. These systems offer sustainable, low energy wastewater treatment at a time when water utilities are addressing the water – energy nexus. Recently much attention has focused on the purposeful growth of microalgae as a Gen 2 source of liquid transport fuel e.g. biodiesel, aviation fuel. This in part addresses concerns raised in the ‘fuel or food’ debate associated with land based crops. Notwithstanding it is becoming apparent that indirect competition between fuel and food crops for resources e.g. fertilizer, remains an issue. This seminar will consider the design and wastewater treatment performance of these systems and the opportunity to exploit wastewater grown ALBAZOD for biomass energy. The last of the Cutting Edge presentations will be given by Associate Professor David Beattie. His presentation will explore “Advanced Materials for Sustainability and Health”. David undertakes fundamental research and applied industrial research. His work spans a range of areas including nano- and biolubrication, the surface chemistry of mineral processing and waste management, and novel stimulus responsive coatings. The main aim of his research is to link the adsorption and structure of molecules at surfaces with the ability of those molecules to alter material properties (wettability, reactivity, friction). The objective of his research is to gain the ability to control and manipulate surface properties for a range of

9


10

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

FURTHER ANNUAL CONFERENCE INFORMATION In excess of 50 workshops are also planned to provide high quality professional development for Laboratory Officers, Primary, Middle, Senior Secondary and Tertiary Educators attending the Conference.

Professor David Beattie

scientific and industrial outcomes. In terms of teaching, David is a specialization coordinator (Nanomaterials) and course coordinator (Nano and Biomaterials) in the new UniSA BSc undergraduate program in Advanced Materials. David will talk about some of the recent research from his institute (The Wark) in the area of advanced materials. Advanced materials are those that have been processed, designed, or altered to have specific and novel properties that make them more useful. An example would be the coatings placed on soft contact lenses to allow a wearer to leave them in their eye for 30 days without needing to wash/sterilise them. Advanced Materials is a multidisciplinary area of science that combines chemistry, physics, maths, and biology to address the needs of society and industry. He will highlight some of his own research on issues around sustainability in mineral processing, as well as some of his new research on biolubrication. In addition, he will discuss some novel developments in pharmaceutical drug delivery from the research of his colleagues.

The following Exhibitors will also be in attendance during the Annual Conference: Cool Australia, 555 Electronics, Encyclopaedia Britannica Australia Pty Ltd, Flexibooks, Jacaranda, Macmillan Education, Moore Educational Pty Ltd, Cengage Learning, Oxford University Press, Pearson Australia, Scientrific Pty Ltd, SciWorld, Southern Cross Science Pty Ltd and TechNvou. It is an excellent opportunity to view and/ or purchase teaching resources with many of the booksellers, no doubt, showcasing their science textbooks that cater for the new National Science Curriculum SASTA’s Annual Conference provides attendees the opportunity to renew or establish extensive networking opportunities as well as engage in social activities such as the Happy Hours and the Conference Dinner. On a more serious note, the Annual Conference is the venue for SASTA’s Annual General Meeting which will be held on Friday 13th April 2012, as well as the forum for presentation of such Awards as the SASTA Medal, the Helen Castle Memorial Scholarship, the SASTA Honour Awards, and the Credit Union SA/SASTA Outstanding Teacher awards. More information about these and other Awards is featured elsewhere in this Journal. Finally, without the generous support of Immanuel College, The University of Adelaide, University of South Australia, Flinders University, and Credit Union SA, conferences such as the SASTA Annual Conference would not be possible. All SASTA Members are urged to attend the 2012 SASTA Annual Conference. Encourage non-members to also come along to the Conference. Further Conference details and Online Registration information can be found on the SASTA website: www.sasta.asn.au.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

11

Teachers new to teaching Year 12 science subjects

(Biology, Chemistry, Physics & Psychology) participated in some professional learning organised by SASTA at the Education Development Centre, on Friday 16 March.

SASTA wishes to gratefully acknowledge the presenters who generously shared their experience and expertise. Biology: Tony Diercks & Brian LeCornu Chemistry: Lois Ey, Chris Evans & Mike McCann Physics: Lois Ey, Peter van der Zwaag & David Baker Psychology: Kate Cutts & Zena Tan.


12

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

SASTA

AWARDS

What do you know about the various Awards that SASTA bestows at its Annual Conference and at its Annual General Meeting, which normally forms a part of the Annual Conference proceedings? Do you know someone who may deserve an Award but have not known what Awards were available or what the criteria were for that Award? The following is a listing of the various Awards that SASTA bestows: HONORARY LIFE MEMBERSHIP Honorary Life Membership of SASTA recognises the awardee’s exceptional long term contribution to the cause of the Association and to the promotion of science education on a broad front over a period of at least twenty years. The following list of Honorary Life Members is as accurate as SASTA’s records allow:

otherwise representing the Association. They have also had an active input to science education at a State or national level. 1983

Lester Russell

1984

Bob Morton AM

1985

John Smith

1986

Peter Schodde OAM

1987

Terry Woolley OAM

1988

Ronne Page

1989

D’Arcy Walsh

1990

Thelma Pike

1991

Maris Silis

1992

Tony Diercks

1993

Cees van Putten

1994

Iris Mullins

1995

Peter Russo

1955

Alby Whitelaw

c. 1960

Ray Smith

c. 1963

Jack Smith

1968

Doug Anders

1996

Phil Allan

c.1970

Elma Gurney

1997

Yvonne Zeegers

c. 1986

Ronne Page

1998

Jane Wright

c. 1990

Lester Russell

1998

Peter Schodde OAM

2000

Mike Roach

2002

Bob Morton AM

2001

Rick Daley

2010

Tony Diercks

2002

Jan Brooks

2010

Jane Wright

2003

Simon Langsford

2010

Mike Roach

2004

Sharon Russo

2005

Grahame Ferguson

2006

Bronwyn Mart

2007

Peter Turnbull

2008

David LeCornu

2009

Anne Langsford

2010

Cliff Rothenberg

2011

David Lloyd

SASTA MEDAL The SASTA Medal is awarded in recognition of a member’s significant long term commitment to SASTA and to science education. Medal winners have had a deep involvement in the SASTA enterprise over at least ten years. Further, they have made a significant contribution to SASTA over at least four years on SASTA Committees, contributing voluntarily to SASTA activities or


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

13

HONOUR AWARDS SASTA instituted Honour Awards in 2007 to recognise the contribution and commitment to SASTA by the recipient in a specific area of SASTA endeavour. 2007

David LeCornu, John Glistak, Jane Wright, Mike Roach

2008

Chris Evans, Michael McCann, Ian McMahon, Kathy Zed, Mark Divito, Cliff Rothenberg

2009

Brendan Dowling, Martin Rumsby, Angas Wood

2010

Priscilla Martinus, Chris Jordison, Jan Brooks, Peter Schodde OAM

2011

John Glistak

SASTA AWARDS FOR SERVICE TO SCIENCE EDUCATION SASTA has also been generous in its acknowledgement of science teachers in the field by instituting the following awards: CREDIT UNION SA / SASTA OUTSTANDING TEACHER AWARDS Credit Union SA (formerly SATISFAC) / SASTA Outstanding Teacher Awards ‘recognise teachers’ contribution to the education of students in science.’ The criteria associated with this Award are:  The Award is only open to SASTA members.  Participation in professional development activities in science as a facilitator and/or participant and continuous development as an effective science educator.  Promote student interest in science by providing an environment that stimulates student curiosity and interest in science.  Develop and/or use innovative instructional material or technologies and new approaches to teaching science.  Be a positive role model for other teachers of science within the school/work site. Credit Union SA / SASTA Outstanding Teacher Awards were first awarded in 2001. They operate at four levels – Junior Primary (R-2), Primary (3-6), Middle School (7-9) and Upper Secondary (10-12).

2001

2002

2003

Junior Primary

Marianne Nicholas

East Adelaide Primary School

Primary

Neil Piggott

Grange Primary School

Middle School

Robyn White

Port Lincoln High School

Upper Secondary

Alan Pepper

Charles Campbell Secondary School

Primary

Kathy Zed

St Patrick’s School

Upper Secondary

Peter Haines

Waikerie High School

Junior Primary

Sue Ogden

Highgate Junior Primary School

Primary

Jill Varga

Clovelly Primary School

Middle School

David Le Cornu

Norwood Morialta High School

Upper Secondary

Susan Cockshell

Annesley College


14

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Primary

Phil Ogden

Burnside Primary School

Middle School

Julie Suhanek

St Joseph’s School, Port Lincoln

Upper Secondary

Cynthia Pyle

Thebarton Senior College

Primary

Jacqui McMahon

Whitefriars School

Middle School

Phil Coles

Blackwood High School

Upper Secondary

Lynton Hall

Murray Bridge High School

Primary

Peter Hoskin

Star of the Sea School

Middle School

Bob Haskard

Valley View Secondary School

Upper Secondary

Judy Sara

Australian Science and Mathematics School (ASMS)

Upper Secondary

John Salamon

Unley High School

Primary

Bronwyn Mart

Magill Primary School

Primary

Roger Burford

Unley Primary School

Middle School

Richard Drogemuller

Pulteney Grammar School

Upper Secondary

Lyn Jefferies

ASMS

Primary

Sonia Cooke

Seacliff Primary School

Middle School

Chris Jordison

Prince Alfred College

Upper Secondary

Peter Donnelly

Christian Brothers College

Junior Primary

Sue Burdett

Craigburn Primary School

Middle Primary

Vicki Stewart

Walkerville Primary School

Senior Secondary

Bruno Falcinella

Loxton High School

Senior Secondary

Dr Murray Thompson

University Senior College

Primary

Mark Dorman

Magill Primary School

Primary

Dagmar Preusker

Tanunda Primary School

Senior Secondary

Jane Wright

Loreto College

Senior Secondary

Kate Cutts

University Senior College

Primary

Sue Cox

Woodcroft Primary School

Middle School

David Andrewartha

Pulteney Grammar School

Upper Secondary

Sandra Reynolds

University Senior College

Upper Secondary

Sharon Davey

Prince Alfred College

Middle Years &

2011


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

15

HELEN CASTLE MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP 2005

Sarah Pfennig

Karcultaby Area School

2006

James Young

Barmera Primary School

Robyn Dewar

St John’s College, Whyalla

Jenni Wilson

Lake Wangary Primary School

John Agnew

Naracoorte High School

Lauren Michael

Leigh Creek Area School

Steve Hall

Mt Gambier High School

Jamie Brock

Hawker Area School

Samantha Brown

Mt Gambier High School

2010

Kym Willis

Quorn Area School

2011

Ruth Calcott

Port Lincoln High School

John Flint

Wudinna Area School

2007

2008 Helen Castle

The Helen Castle Memorial Scholarship is awarded in memory of Helen Castle, a dedicated and enthusiastic science teacher who tragically died during the Eyre Peninsula bushfires in early 2005. This Scholarship is designed to assist country science teachers attend the SASTA Annual Conference and gain professional development to assist themselves and other country teachers in maintaining a high standard of science teaching within country areas. The criteria for the Helen Castle Memorial Scholarship are as follows:  The Scholarship is open to all teachers but preference will be given to SASTA members.  The teacher is currently teaching in a country school.  The teacher is an aspiring and highly motivating teacher of science, who enthuses and engages students in scientific learning.  The teacher has difficulty attending professional development due to the distance of their school from Adelaide.

2009

As mentioned above, these Awards are presented at various stages within SASTA’s Annual Conference. Apart from the Honorary Life Membership category, information about the remaining Awards can be found on SASTA’s website: http://www.sasta.asn.au/about_us/awards_ nominations_and_criteria. While the closing date for nominations is 16th March 2012 may have passed by the time this Journal reaches members, still feel free to contact SASTA for further information if you a person in mind for any of the above Awards.


16

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Introducing the 2012

Oliphant Science Awards South Australian Science Teachers Association (SASTA) has conducted the Oliphant Science Awards every year since 1981. AIM: Oliphant Science Awards will stimulate students and enable them to:  Undertake and report on scientific investigations in real life settings.  Explore their interests, skills, talents and creativity.  Develop their science knowledge and understandings.  Show their work to a broader audience.  Motivate themselves to conceive and complete an independent project.  Involve themselves in scientific and technological discovery and the application of these processes and knowledge to themselves and their world. OLIPHANT SCIENCE AWARDS:  Raise the profile and understanding of science in schools  Attract thousands of entries from hundreds of schools  Allow students and teachers to explore how curricular science can be extended as part of the greater scientific enterprise  Support the implementation of the new Australian Curriculum in Science, and its emphasis on science inquiry and the doing of science, and support teachers in assisting their students to achieve these curriculum outcomes

 Support current inquiry based pedagogical initiatives and practices in teaching and learning  Promote teamwork and communication among entrants and among the many teachers and parents who volunteer their time to encourage their students  Raise an awareness of the many careers made possible by studies in science  Support the view that science promotes innovation in thinking and acting, and the development of novel questions and solutions  Encourage students to become involved in science in creative and exciting ways extending their skills and expertise in science  Support the application of new technologies including ICTs in learning  Foster a greater awareness and appreciation of the role played by science and technology in our daily lives  Offer prizes in cash or in kind to a value in excess of $20,000 OLIPHANT SCIENCE AWARDS ENABLE STUDENTS TO EXPLORE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY THROUGH:  Inquiry and investigation  Innovation  New technologies  Writing  Art and photography


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

17

CATEGORIES

PRIZES:

A range of categories are offered in the 2012 Oliphant Science Awards to suit a wide variety of abilities and interests. These categories include:

 The overall winner of the Oliphant Science Awards receives the Oliphant Trophy, which was made by Sir Mark Oliphant. The trophy is engraved with their name and kept for one year. The trophy is replaced in the following year with the Oliphant Medal, which is the student’s permanent record of achievement.  Cash prizes are awarded for 1st, 2nd and 3rd in each year level group for every category. There are also sponsors’ prizes for individuals and schools.  All students entering receive a Certificate of Participation (non-winners), a Highly Commended Certificate (outstanding entries) or a Prize Certificate (winners).

 Computing Programming & Robotics  Crystal investigation  Games  Models & Inventions  Multimedia  Photography  Posters  Science Writing  Scientific Inquiry Further, specific categories list prescribed titles for investigation, as follows: PHOTOGRAPHY: •

The Science of Coastlines

Different mirrors – different reflections

Fantastic Plastic

The Science of Farming

Reversible and irreversible changes

Carbon Cycle

KEY DATES: y y y y y

y

POSTERS: •

Sustainable Energy

Robotic Explorers

Life on a Reef

Pre-historic Australia

Deep Sea

Warning!

y

y

y SCIENCE WRITING: •

GM Foods – are they our future?

Why have Marine Reserves?

Is 50km/h safer than 60km/h?

Science as a Human endeavour

Environmental evaluations are essential

Radiation and Communication

Thursday 7 June – Registration Forms due Friday 8 June – Judges Registration Forms due Monday 23 July – Science Writing, Scientific Inquiry, Games and Multimedia entries due Saturday 4 August – Computer Programming & Robotics entries judged Friday 17 August, 9.00am – 5.00pm – Crystal Investigation, Models & Inventions, Photography and Posters due at Adelaide Festival Centre (Banquet Room), King William Road, Adelaide. Saturday 18 August, 9.00am – 1.00pm – Judging of Crystal Investigation, Models & Inventions, Photography and Posters at Adelaide Festival Centre (Banquet Room), King William Road, Adelaide. Sunday 19 August, 12noon – 4.00pm – Open Day Exhibition at Adelaide Festival Centre (Banquet Room), King William Road, Adelaide. Monday 20 August, 9.00am – 5.00pm – Collection of non-winning entries from Adelaide Festival Centre (Banquet Room), King William Road, Adelaide. Friday 14 September - Presentation Ceremony at Adelaide Festival Centre (Banquet Room), King William Road, Adelaide. Years R – 7, 6.30pm – 7.45pm and Years 8 – 12, 8.15pm – 9.30pm

FURTHER DETAILS: Full details about the 2012 Oliphant Science Awards can be located on the SASTA website: www.sasta.asn.au.


18

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Indigenous science students develop inquiry skills Lyn Jefferies

DECD, Consultant teacher – SA Water

‘The basic goal of education is understanding. You have to take enough time to get kids deeply involved in something they can think about in lots of different ways.’ Howard Gardner (1993) For the first time an open inquiry methodology was employed for the Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS) program. Spanning just five and a half days for the academic component, students, tutors and mentors were under pressure to understand cutting edge science content as well as the process of scientific inquiry and to communicate their research project in a presentation for esteemed guests at the Royal Institution of Australia (RiAus) culminating ceremony.

WHAT IS ASSETS? Year 10 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students from around Australia travelled to Adelaide in December 2011 to attend the annual Aboriginal Summer School for Excellence in Technology and Science (ASSETS). Proposed outcomes of this residential camp include provision of a networking opportunity for academically high performing students from Aboriginal heritage, support and encouragement for the participants to pursue their dreams of attending university in the future. As part of the engaging academic program, students participated in gene technology and forensic investigations and studied the process

Atomic Absorption Spectrometer testing water for metals

of scientific inquiry which culminated with a group presentation of their own water research investigation. During the nine day event they met scientists, toured labs and were generally immersed in learning experiences provided by SA Water, the Gene Technology Access Centre, SANTOS, the Australian Science and Mathematics School and RiAus. A cultural component of the program held at the Living Kaurna Cultural Centre and Wiltja Aboriginal Boarding Facility included inspiring guest speakers who encouraged students to embrace their heritage while pursuing a passion for science. Many organisations within the corporate and education sectors enthusiastically support the ASSETS program. For information about these or to register interest, visit the RiAus website at http://riaus.org.au/ programs/education/assets/assets-supporters/ .


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Grace Casey (student) and Lyn Jefferies (SA Water) discuss water filtration

19

Students investigating E.coli in water samples

UNDERLYING EDUCATIONAL MODELS In 2011 the academic program was reviewed and redesigned using the ideas of Wiggins and McTighe, (2005), from Understanding by Design. Planning for the program starts early in the year following a process detailed below: 1. Identify desired results - Topics/ Concepts/Standards to be addressed 2. Determine acceptable evidence - using a variety of assessment methods

yearly. See Appendix 1 for an overview of the 2011 program. Educational alignment with the Australian Curriculum: Science and current education research and opinion (Anderson, 2002; Tytler, 2007) encouraged us to plan for an open inquiry activity in the ASSETS program for the first time in 2011. As stated in the aims of science inquiry skills in the Australian Curriculum: Science –

4. Factor in flexibility to adjust plans depending on student learning needs

“Science inquiry involves identifying and posing questions; planning, conducting and reflecting on investigations; processing, analysing and interpreting evidence; and communicating findings. This strand is concerned with evaluating claims, investigating ideas, solving problems, drawing valid conclusions and developing evidence-based arguments.� ACARA website (2011)

The program follows constructivist theories of learning and is certainly learner centred, using inquiry based teaching. However, as this is a diverse group of students brought together from a range of backgrounds, design of the program is based on our perceptions of what is relevant and valued learning for this cohort of students in a contemporary setting. This knowledge is based on review of previous ASSETS feedback from teachers and students and a wealth of experience found in the tutors and mentors who participate

Having experience with student inquiry projects in the past, the planning team faced the prospect of diverse student questions and the possibilities of indecision, timeframe issues and equipment malfunction with a certain degree of trepidation. Although the risks were fearsome with such a tight timeline and auspicious audience, we were buoyed on by the conviction that this methodology would not only engage our students but establish an understanding of scientific thinking that would aid lifelong learning.

3. Plan learning experiences and instruction - identify desired activities/materials/ approach for success


20

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

WORK SHOPPING SCIENCE INQUIRY Scaffolding for the process of scientific inquiry was introduced using the following steps: 1. Introduce the skills of making observations and questioning with the ever popular ‘ice balls’ inquiry 2. Use the Predict, Observe, Explain technique, explained in ‘Inquiry-based teaching’ a Science by Doing resource, to investigate “which water tastes the best?” 3. Undertake water quality testing in order to identify and solve a multifaceted water quality issue for a fictitious town (Chemistry in Action - learning program developed as part of the SA Water Brainwave for year 12 Chemistry students) and 4. Ultimately developing and refining their own small group inquiry, undertaking the research, collecting data, making evidence based decisions, and communicating their findings to an authentic audience of experts in the field. The presentations held at RiAus exceeded all of our expectations. Students displayed confidence and poise, with one collaborating group even handling difficult technology issues with professionalism. The research investigations were of the highest quality, students demonstrating a depth of understanding of the science, technology and mathematics involved as well as a passion for their learning. A list of the students’ water research topics can be found in Appendix 2. The open inquiry model certainly appears to have engaged students. Positive feedback reflected their enthusiasm for the ownership they felt over their research. The authentic nature of the presentations with an esteemed list of attendees, including the Governor of South Australia, His Excellency Rear Admiral Kevin Scarce, and the formality of the RiAus setting added to the expectation and the sense of occasion.

AND THE FUTURE? Dannielle Ghezzi participated in the 2008 ASSETS program; in 2011 she was made the inaugural ASSETS Ambassador. A striking role model for others, Dannielle stated: “The experience made me realise that I had a passion for science” and

“I made many friends whilst participating in the ASSETS program, who I continue to keep in contact with today.” The 2011 group of ASSETS graduates formed strong bonds of friendship, cultural and academic networks and gained knowledge and skills which will be useful in their future. Currently 17 universities have committed to continue communications with students for the next few years, reinforcing the opportunities available to them. In addition, industry mentoring opportunities have been identified and contacts within industry explored. In 2011 only one student from South Australia was part of the ASSETS program. This student was Jemima Rickett from Wirreanda High School who expressed her thanks that her teacher had nominated her. Do you know of students who would enjoy this experience and opportunity? Expressions of interest for the 2012 program will be available on the RiAus website in April, and promotional information will be sent to schools via the Public, Independent, Catholic, and Lutheran school systems prior to that.

REFERENCES Anderson, R.D. (2002), Reforming Science Teaching: What research says about inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1-12. Australian Academy of Science, (2006), Science by Doing: Inquiry-based Teaching, Professional Learning Module. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science. Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority ACARA (2010), Australian Curriculum Online. Accessed 24/1/11 at www. australiancurriculum.edu.au/Science/Content-structure Brainwave –SA Water Learning Program for Teachers and Students, (2012), Online learning program guide. Accessed 20/2/12 at www.sawater.com.au/education Gardner, H., (1993), Frames of Mind. Basic Books, New York. Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J., (2005), Understanding by Design. 2nd Edition, USA. Tytler, R. (2007) Reimagining Science Education, Engaging students in science for Australia’s future, Australian Council for Educational Research, Accessed online 21/2/12 at http://www. scimas.sa.edu.au/scimas/files/pages/SCIMAS/Articles/Science/ AER51_ReimaginingSciEdu.pdf Strategic Directions for Science and Mathematics in South Australian Schools, Accessed online 20/2/12 at SCIMAS website, http://www.scimas.sa.edu.au/scimas/default.asp?navgrp=science


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Appendix 1: Short summary – ASSETS daily program (13th-21st December 2011) Tuesday 13th

Arrival and welcome dinner

Wednesday 14th

CSI investigation, Living Kaurna Cultural Centre & wetlands science

Thursday 15th

SA Water laboratory tour, introduction to inquiry, Santos presentations

Friday 16th

SA Water reservoir tour, Chemistry in Action SA Water House

Saturday 17th

Wiltja residence – cultural and recreational activities

Sunday 18th

Wiltja residence – cultural and recreational activities

Monday 19th

Gene technology access centre activity, Inquiry group work begins

Tuesday 20th

Inquiry presentation preparation, rehearsals, Final Dinner, cultural presentations

Wednesday 21st

Presentations at RiAus, Farewell

Appendix 2: Student Inquiry Investigation Topics 2011 GROUP 1

The Importance of Being Oxygenated!

GROUP 2

Water Inquiry

GROUP 3

Bacteria in Water

GROUP 4

The Residual Chlorine Present in Tap Water

GROUP 5

How Safe is Your Water?

GROUP 6

Is Desalinated Water Better Than Standard Tap Water?

GROUP 7

Micro Organisms in Water

GROUP 8

pH and Water Hardness of the Warriparinga Wetlands

SASTA ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING NOTICE South Australian Science Teachers Association’s Annual General Meeting will be held on Friday 13 April 2012 at 12 noon at Immanuel College, 32 Morphett Road, Novar Gardens.

AGENDA • Welcome and Apologies

• Executive Officer’s Report

• Minutes of 2011 Annual General Meeting

• Election of Board Councillors

• Business Arising

• Appointment of Auditor

• President’s Report

• Membership Fees

• Treasurer’s Report

• Any Other Business

21


22

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Introduction to Psychology RESEARCH DESIGNS Kirsty Gebert

A very successful Conference for teachers of Psychology was conducted by SASTA in January 2012. The following material was among the resources presented at the Conference. Stage 1 and Stage 2 Psychology requires students to have a thorough understanding of three different Research Designs. Students need to understand that empirical investigations in Psychology may be experimental, quantitative observational, or qualitative. • All research designs require an understanding of how samples are selected from the research population and the reasons why it is important to have an adequate sample size and representation of the population. • An experiment is an investigation in which the experimenter is able to manipulate an independent variable and observe the changes in a dependent variable. • Quantitative observational investigations involve the investigator collecting quantitative data by observing selected participants. Both experimental and quantitative observational investigations can be conducted under either controlled or ‘field’ conditions. • In contrast, qualitative investigations are fieldfocused. These investigations are distinctive because the researcher is an explicit part of the investigation, interpreting observations using subjective and objective language that is descriptive rather than quantitative, and paying attention to predetermined criteria. Psychology 2012 Subject Outline — Stage 1 and Stage 2

This resource focuses on the first of the Research Designs to be introduced to students – the Experimental Research Design. Let’s presume I want to test the effect of Hours spent Studying on Exam Performance. This Research could be conducted using a Quantitative Observational Design by observing naturally occurring hours of time students spent studying prior to an exam, and their results on an exam. This study could also be conducted using a Qualitative Design by gathering groups of students together to discuss and record their thoughts and opinions about the effects of studying on their performance. USING AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN VARIABLES The Independent Variable (IV) is Hours spent Studying (this is what I want to see the effect of, what I am going to vary or manipulate, I am going to get people to either study or not study and then take an exam). The Dependent Variable (DV) is Exam Performance (this is what I am going to measure to see any effect the IV has had, I am going to record their performance on the exam). FINDING A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS My Population of interest is all year 12 students in South Australia. Obviously I cannot test every Year 12 student in SA so I will draw a Smaller Sample of students to represent the larger population.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Before I draw my sample I need to consider if there are any groups within my population of interest that may test differently to other groups. If there are I need to make sure that these groups are represented in my sample, if they are not then my sample is not representative and my results will be meaningless. For example the type of school attended by the students (public or private) in my study may affect their exam performance. Thus I need to make sure that I use stratified sampling. I must divide the population into groups based on the type of school attended, (eg. Public or private) and then draw my sample randomly from within each of these groups. Doing this will ensure that my sample contains the same proportions of males and females as appear in the population. E.g. If in the population 50% of students attend public schools and 50% attend private schools and I am drawing a sample of 100. To stratify my sample and make it truly representative of the population I must randomly draw 50 public students and 50 private students from the population.

Wrong answer!!! If you study you will do well!!!

EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES Once I have obtained my sample of students I must consider other factors before I assign participants to the experimental and control groups. There are lots of things which are specific to the individuals I have chosen for my study that may affect exam performance other than studying. These factors are called extraneous (uncontrolled) variables (EV). These might include: intelligence, anxiety, previous experience etc. If I simply use random allocation to decide who will be in the Experimental and Control groups I may get a severe mismatch that will affect my results. For example, my experimental group will have all of the students who are intelligent and my control group will have all of the students who are not intelligent! E.g. If by chance my experimental group contains all of the students in my sample who are intelligent then I cannot know if my experimental group performed better on the exam because they studied or because they were just smarter than the control group! Now my results are meaningless! I don’t know if it was studying or intelligence that effected exam performance. If this happens the extraneous variable has become what we call a confounding variable. We don’t know which variable has had an effect, our IV or the extraneous (now referred to as confounding) variable.

EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS To test whether studying effects exam performance I need to organize my experiment. I need to divide my participants into two groups. One group will study and then complete the exam; the other group will not study and then complete the same exam. Doing this allows me to compare the performance on the exam of people who studied vs people who did not study. Group One is the Experimental group – they were exposed to the IV (studying) Group Two is called the Control group – they were not exposed to the IV (they did not study) Now I can compare the difference in performance between the experimental and control groups and find out if studying affected exam performance.

Was it studying?

OR

Intelligence?

that caused our experimental group to perform better?

23


24

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

CONTROLLING EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES

Independent Groups Design

To control extraneous variables we need to make our experimental and control groups as similar as possible. If they are identical in almost every way then any difference between them should be due to the effects of the IV not other factors.

Allocate participants to groups via a random procedure such as the toss of a coin. Then all those who toss a head might be allocated to the control group and all those who toss a tail to the experimental group. This only works when our experimental and control groups are very large. The idea being that if we have enough people then most of the extraneous variables will cancel themselves out just by chance!

E.g. If we make sure that there is the same number of intelligent and stupid individuals in the experimental and control groups then intelligence should not create a difference in exam performance between our groups. Any difference in exam performance should be due to the effects of studying. There are a number of ways we can ensure our experimental and control groups are as similar as possible on all factors except the IV. Each participant is involved in both the experimental and control conditions. This design controls or eliminates any effects that might be attributed to participant’s personal characteristics, since they remain constant.

Boris tossed a head so he goes into the CONTROL GROUP

Some dude in a suit of armour tossed a tail so he goes into the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

Little Jimmy will first complete the exam without studying CONTROL GROUP

Note that an equivalent exam is used in the second condition.

SOME USEFUL CLIPS TO SUPPORT THE TEACHING OF INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Research methods The Running Machine: Overt and Covert Behaviour http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5RHH4h9kXY

Little Jimmy will then complete an equivalent exam after studying EXPERIMENTAL GROUP Why am I in your study again???

Unethical Science Experiments (Run down some of our greatest unethical experiments) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zv5632uqsu4 Unethical Kisses http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=hUZB7CM394w Minute to Win It - Sampling http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CzJjAJRXd3U& feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYpcg-SI1wE

Quiet Jimmy!!!!!

Positive & Negative Skewed Data http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzSbAkZE8jw& feature=related


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT AND EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES For each of the following research questions you must identify some possible extraneous variables, that is things other than the IV that may affect the DV in an unwanted way. 1. Does taking caffeine tablets, give footballers more endurance? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Does warming up before exercise reduce injury? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Does drinking milk at bedtime lead to a better night’s sleep? IV = ________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Does studying effect exam performance? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Does sleep deprivation cause people to be grumpy? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Does eating red meat make people stronger? IV = ________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 7. Do working class people have lower IQ’s than middle class people? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 8. Does smoking marijuana cause memory problems? IV = ________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 9. Are people who work in higher paid jobs happier than those who work in low paying jobs? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________ 10. Do parents with high IQ’s have children with high IQ’s? IV = _________________________________________________________________________ DV = ________________________________________________________________________ EV = ________________________________________________________________________

25


26

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

11-19 August 2012

Grants for Schools Applications close Monday 14 May 2012

National Science Week provides a chance to focus on the impact science, engineering, technology and mathematics has on our lives, our economy, our society and our world. To help Australian schools celebrate National Science Week, the Australian Science Teachers Association (ASTA), with funding assistance from the Australian Government, provides grants for school-initiated National Science Week activities.

WHAT IS A NATIONAL SCIENCE WEEK SCHOOL GRANT? Grants up to $500 are available to all schools (preschool through to senior secondary) in Australia to help them conduct science activities/events during National Science Week 11-19 August 2012. Proposed activities that involve neighbouring schools will be viewed favourably. These grants are intended to be a contribution to the running of a National Science Week activity or event in a school not the sole means of support.

WHAT KIND OF ACTIVITIES COULD BE FUNDED? LOOKING FOR IDEAS? Examples of previously funded National Science Week school activities can be found at www.asta. edu.au/nscwk_2012/activity_ideas Additional information on running a National Science Week activity in your school can be found at www. scienceweek.net.au

SELECTION CRITERIA Each application will be assessed on the following criteria, which are of equal importance:  The grant should enable your school to conduct science, engineering and/or mathematics activities/events beyond its usual science program.  The activity/event should bring to the attention of students (and teachers and the community) the relevance of science to everyday life and/or to industry.  The activity/event should support the ongoing and increased participation in, and engagement with, science programs within your school.  The activity/event should be manageable with the funds granted and the contribution from your school and community. An indication of the funding/ resources/personnel that your school is willing to contribute will help the selection panel determine the extent to which this criterion can be met. Please note: Funding offered to an applicant may not be the same as the amount requested. Due to the limited availability of funding, the costs of transport, food, routine science incursions and excursions (such as to museums/science centres) and capital equipment are unlikely to be funded.


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

27

OBLIGATIONS OF SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS

HOW DO I APPLY FOR A GRANT?

1) Upon notification of your successful application send a school invoice ASAP to ASTA stating the grant amount you have been awarded plus GST component. Funding will be made as one advance payment on receipt of this invoice.

The application process is online. Click http:// tinyurl.com/ScienceWeek2012 to fill out an application form. Carefully read all the grant information below before completing all sections on the online application form. Ensure you click on ‘submit’ and it is advisable that you keep a copy of your application.

2) List your grant funded activity on the Science Week website (www.scienceweek.net.au) NO LATER than Friday 16 July 2012. 3) Complete the science activity/event as stated in the application during National Science Week 11-19 August 2012.

SELECTION PROCESS After the closing date, eligible applications will be grouped according to state and territory and forwarded to a grant selection committee from each Science Teachers Association. Each application will be assessed on its merits relative to other applications.

4) Provide feedback on your funded activity/ event by completing and submitting a brief online evaluation form (details of link will be provided before Science Week) All feedback must be received by Monday 10 September 2012. NB. On the application form you will need to tick a box that then indicates that you agree to abide by the obligations of receiving and administering the grant. Successful applicants will be notified by email by 28 May 2012. All applicants can access the list of successful applicants on the ASTA website www. asta.edu.au and the Science Week website on 28 May 2012.

FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT YOUR STATE OR TERRITORY COORDINATOR: ACT

Mark Merritt

SEA*ACT

mark.merritt@ed.act.edu.au

NT

Neil Rankin

STANT

neil.rankin@nt.gov.au

NSW

Josephine Cali

STANSW

josephine.cali@stansw.asn.au

QLD

Susan Kennedy Smith

STAQ

susan.kennedysmith@deta.qld.gov.au

SA

Priscilla Martinus

SASTA

fullerst@adam.com.au

TAS

Jill Reade

STAT

jillr@netspace.net.au

VIC

Ann Pisarevsky

STAV

annpisarevsky@gmail.com

WA

Lauren Clarke

STAWA

lauren.clarke86@gmail.com

OR ASTA NATIONAL COORDINATOR: Delese Brewster asta@asta.edu.au ph. (02) 6282 9377


28

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

FLOURISH Adelaide’s Thinker in Residence Martin Seligman has been presenting seminars during February promoting his latest findings, research and methodology to educators and community. Read below his beliefs about the promotion of Wellbeing for all of us. HAPPINESS IS NOT ENOUGH When I started my work in Positive Psychology, my original view was closest to Aristotle’s—that everything we do is done in order to make us happy—but I actually detest the word happiness, which is so overused that it has become almost meaningless. It is an unworkable term for science, or for any practical goal such as education, therapy, public policy, or just changing your personal life. Moreover, the modern ear immediately hears “happy” to mean buoyant mood, merriment, good cheer, and smiling. “Happiness” historically is not closely tied to such hedonics— feeling cheerful or merry is a far cry from what Thomas Jefferson declared that we have the right to pursue—and it is an even further cry from my intentions for a positive psychology. To understand what “happiness” is really about, the first step is to dissolve “happiness” into more workable terms. When I wrote Authentic Happiness a decade ago, I thought that happiness could be analyzed into three different elements that we choose for their own sakes: positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. Positive emotion refers to what we feel: pleasure, rapture, ecstasy, warmth, comfort, and other such emotions that contribute to the “pleasant life.” Engagement is about flow: being one with the music, time stopping, and the loss of self-consciousness during an absorbing activity, experiences which contribute to the

“engaged life.” The third element is meaning. I go into flow while playing bridge, but after a long tournament, when I look in the mirror, I worry that I am fidgeting until I die. Human beings, ineluctably, want the “meaningful life”: belonging to and serving something that you believe is bigger than you are. Happiness and life satisfaction, I thought, could be increased by building positive emotion, engagement, and a sense of meaning in life. THIS IS NOT ENOUGH. I no longer think that positive psychology is about happiness, or about a quest for increasing life satisfaction through positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. It turns out that how much life satisfaction people report is itself determined by how good we feel at the very moment we are asked the question. Averaged over many people, the mood you are in determines more than 70 percent of how much life satisfaction you report. If positive psychology is to be more than a “happiology” of cheerful mood, we need to shift our focus to well-being. I believe the gold standard for measuring well-being is flourishing, and that the goal of positive psychology is to increase flourishing. Flourishing rests on five pillars, each of which we value for its own sake, not merely as a means to some other end. Positive emotion, engagement, and meaning are three of the pillars, but they cannot do the “heavy lifting” of supporting human flourishing by themselves. THE NEED TO ACHIEVE Accomplishment (or achievement) is often pursued for its own sake, even when it brings no positive emotion, no meaning, and nothing in the way of


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

positive relationships. Here is what ultimately convinced me: I play a lot of serious duplicate bridge. I have played with and against many of the greatest players. Some expert bridge players play to improve, to solve problems, to be in flow, or to experience outright joy. Other experts play only to win. For them, losing is devastating no matter how well they played. Some will even cheat to win. It does not seem that winning for them reduces to positive emotion (many of the stonier experts deny feeling anything at all when they win and quickly rush on to the next game), nor does the pursuit reduce to engagement, since defeat nullifies the experience so easily. Nor is it about meaning; bridge is not about anything remotely larger than the self. Winning only for winning’s sake can also be seen in the pursuit of wealth. In contrast to philanthropic millionaires, there are “accumulators” who believe that the person who dies with the most toys wins. Their lives are built around winning, and they do not give away their toys except in the service of winning more toys. So well-being theory requires a third element: the “achieving life,” dedicated to accomplishment for the sake of accomplishment. OTHER PEOPLE MATTER Near the Portuguese island of Madeira, there lies a small island shaped like an enormous cylinder. At the top is a several-acre plateau on which are grown the most prized grapes that go into Madeira wine. On this plateau lives only one large animal: an ox whose job is to plow the field. There is only one way up to the top, a winding and narrow path. How in the world does a new ox get up there when the old ox dies? A baby ox is carried on the back of a worker up the mountain, where it spends the next forty years plowing the field alone. If you are moved by this story, ask yourself why. Very little that is positive is solitary. When was the last time you laughed uproariously? The last time you felt indescribable joy? The last time you sensed profound meaning and purpose? The last time you felt enormously proud of an accomplishment? Even without knowing the particulars of these high points of your life, I know their form: all of them took place around other people. When asked what, in two words or fewer,

29

positive psychology is about, Christopher Peterson, one of its founders, replies, “Other people.” Other people are the best antidote to the downs of life and the single most reliable up. Recent streams of argument about human evolution point to the importance of positive relationships in their own right and for their own sake. Studies of the big social brain, the hive emotions, and group selection persuade me that positive relationships—key to “the connected life”— are a basic element of well-being. WELL-BEING THEORY: PERMA In the new well-being theory, human flourishing rests on five pillars, denoted by the handy mnemonic PERMA:

Positive Emotion Engagement Relationships Meaning Accomplishment These elements, which we choose for their own sake in our efforts to flourish, are the rock-bottom fundamentals to human well-being. What is the good life? It is pleasant, engaged, meaningful, achieving, and connected. This excerpt is edited from Chapter One of Martin E.P. Seligman’s Flourish. Published April 5, 2011, Simon and Schuster.


30

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

Book Reviews New release

A new book about South Australia’s marine environment is now available.

Sea Creatures and Sea Shores

An underwater guide to the Gulfs of South Australia Developed by local divers for local divers, snorkellers and beachcombers, Sea Creatures and Sea Shores: • describes and illustrates the creatures most commonly seen underwater, • presents information on the biology and ecology of different species, and • provides advice on where to go for good diving and snorkelling experiences. This book will help people understand the creatures they see underwater and on the seashore – and their intriguing relationships with each other and their environment. Although developed for South Australia it will be relevant to much of Southern Australia. Authors: Peter Day, Antony King & James Manna Sub-editing & Design: Anne Burgi The book is available from the SA Museum shop, dive shops, leading book shops or online. Recommended Retail Price: $29.95 (incl GST) Visit www.seacreatures.net.au to: • View an extract from the book, • Find details of all resellers, or • Purchase a copy online. For more information: Email: info@seacreatures.net.au


S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

31

“Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales” Wegmann, Ute with Helman, Dr Anthony 2011, Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales, Wakefield Press, Adelaide, S.A. Book Review by Peter J Helman

Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales, subtitled “Close encounters with Australian wildlife rescue & conservation” is a fascinating behind-the-scenes look at the altruistic and hard-working individuals who care for our injured wildlife. The main author entry is for Ute Wegmann, who is the photographer. Ms Wegmann has a very impressive and lengthy pedigree, so to speak, both as an animal photographer (Burke’s Backyard Magazine, Dog’s Life Magazine, Black and White), and in the wider commercial world (Luxury Luxury Homes, Australian House and Garden, Australian HiFi Magazine, Iron Man etc). The benefits of this professional expertise are immediately apparent in the extremely high quality photographs – beautiful to look at, informative and expressive, varied settings, and nicely framed. A wide variety of rescued wildlife is covered, including the Greater Bilby, Flatback Turtle, Platypus, Carpet Python, Swamp Wallaby and many others. We read about the situation in which the animal was found, and interesting information is provided about the particular carer. Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales contains a significant amount of text, written by Dr Anthony Helman, who has the added author entry. [I must declare an interest here, as Dr Helman is my brother, but rest assured, I would not be writing about the book in the first place if I did not think it warranted a favourable review!] The writing takes an interesting lateral approach to the study of wildlife, as we approach the topic

firstly through the circumstances of the animal’s rescue and their carer, and the focus then broadens out to a wider look at the animal’s particular behaviour and ecology. This is done in a humorous and accessible manner, for example the section on Milsom the platypus: “The platypus was such a surprise to naturalists who received the first specimens sent back to England that they thought someone had played an elaborate hoax by stitching together the bill and webbed feet of a duck to the body of a mammal!” This excerpt brings me to the only point of caution I would make about Wild Whiskers and Tender Tales, which is that although the pictures and layout appeal to a wide age range, the literacy, font size and text presentation would be more suited to secondary than primary readers.


32

S A S TA J O U R N A L N o 1 2 0 1 2

CONASTA 63 Organising Committee for 2014

Members will be aware that SASTA’s turn to host the national science education conference arrives in July 2014 with CONASTA 63 in Adelaide.

Particular aspects that we will need to consider include: o

Conference theme

o

Conference logo

o

Conference venue(s)

o

Conference catering

We hope to involve the whole SASTA community and its wider connections in this event, and to make it a vibrant success.

o

Keynote Speaker and Cutting Edge programs General Workshop program

The Conference management aspects will be undertaken by the ASTA secretariat, who will work in collaboration with our local SASTA Conference Organising Committee that will have ownership of the Conference program, theme and venues.

o o

Primary program

o

Laboratory Officer program

o

Conference excursions

o

Advertising and promotion both within the South Australian sectors and beyond

o

Sponsorship for the Conference

o

Conference Dinner

o

Social program

o

Trade displayers and advertisers

o

Visitors’ accommodation

o

Post Conference tours

This event will put SASTA in the national science education spotlight, and it is very important, financially and otherwise, that we deliver an outstanding Conference. We have always done so before, and I know that we can again in 2014.

It is now time for us to form our CONASTA 63 Conference Organising Committee and to begin our planning, so I am asking for expressions of interest from members who would like to contribute to this exciting project. Commitment for team members at this stage would be around 2 face to face meetings per term, with some investigation and email communication in between. We would like many members to contribute in some way to a shared effort.

I am sure that this list is not complete. However it is important that we start some concrete planning, with the first three points above being immediate priorities. I therefore invite expressions of interest from members to join our CONASTA Organising Committee and to contribute. If you are able to help in any of the above aspects, then please contact me or the SASTA Office to register your interest.

Peter Turnbull, CONASTA 63 Convenor, receiving Distinguished Services Award from ASTA President Anna Davis at CONASTA 60 in Darwin 2011

Regards Pete Turnbull CONASTA 63 Convenor Ph: 8226 1603 Email: Peter.Turnbull@sa.gov.au


SASTA STUDY GUIDES Biology • Nutrition • Chemistry • Geology • Physics • Psychology

s

k

if verified, these views should have significant impact on curriculum offerings at all levels of schooling. providing authentic learning experiences that focus on our australian environment may be one way to begin rebuilding student interest in science and their belief that they can make a difference.

$26.00

WANTED

Order Now for 2012 SCIENCE/ENVIRONMENTAL

EDUCATION COORDINATOR asta has established an email list for australian science educators. (GST Inclusive) astarix has been set up to provide a means of communication and Mount Gambier High School is a large country high school (8-12) with a rich and Copiesinteraction of some pastscience editions ofacross the australia. SASTA Study Guides, professional between teachers varied curriculum and a long history of sporting subscription to astarix does require a (free) edna membership. including exam answers, are now available for $15.00and academic success. Applicants for this the astarix subscription link – http://www.lists.edna.adu.au/lists/ position will be required to provide leadership and teach subjects in the Science curriculum to SASTA study guides (approx. 200 pages) are the complete lists/subscribe?list=astarix messages can be posted via email to year 12. The South East is rich in resources to astrarix@edna.edu.au resource for students preparing for Year 12 SACE Board exams. support the Science and Environmental Education curriculum. the sasta asta web sites are being regularly with updated to share solutions covering Theseandguides include questions worked each opportunities news on science education.and i recommend visiting Job exam. and Person Specifications can be obtained topic inand the Subject Outlines address all sections of the from www.decs.sa.gov.au., click on Vacancies. these sites to keep in touch between newsletters. 11 September 2008 Please send a school purchase order or phone for more detailsClosing if thisdate: is a personal order:

SASTA: 214 Port Road, Hindmarsh SA 5007 Ph: (08) 8346 6922 Fax: (08) 8346 9599 Bronwyn mart. email: office@sasta.asn.au warm regards,

All prices shown are inclusive of GST.

up

opy

School information can be obtained from www.mghs.sa.edu.au. For more information, contact Garry Costello, phone 8725 6244.

DETAILS AVAILABLE BY PHONING SASTA (08) 8346 6922

www.sasta.asn.au

SUPPORTING TEACHERS OF SCIENCE: ADVANCING SCIENCE EDUCATION

This is a second book of more than 100 science demonstrations aimed at upper primary and lower secondary levels, and selected to be quick to set up and quick to show.

e he to or ted.

ted d. to

Again these demonstrations are taken from the four classical areas of science teaching, and again they try to make science more accessible by using familiar materials, rather than repeating what can readily be found in many textbooks. In each case, full details of what is needed, how to go about it, what to expect, the concepts illustrated and the science behind it, are given.

tab he

While it is not intended that demonstrations should replace individual practical work, used well they can provide a focus and a way of generating greater enthusiasm by providing motivating and challenging experiences. Currently many students find science boring and irrelevant, but this shouldn’t be. So, if in any way these demonstrations can improve matters, my primary aim will be met.

rie

Available from SASTA $29.50 Purchase with Watch this! and pay $50 for the two.

h phs



SASTA Newsletter | September 2008


A w o N

e l b a l vai SASTA 2

SASTA 2012

Y G O L O H C Y S 2 1 P 0 2 A SAST e d i u G y d Stu

012

Study Guides

CHEMI

Educat

logy Psycho

y Stud

CRICOS No. 00114A

Telecommunications

A No. 00114 CRICOS

ience: Ad

vancing

Science

N O I T I R T U N 0 2 A 12 SAST e d i u G y d Stu

Supporting Teachers of Science: Advancing Science Education

13/12/11 5:20 PM

Nutritio n Study

Supporting

Teachers of

Science: Adv ancing Scie

nce Educati

Guide heia

(sa)

vancing

ers

ing Teach

Support

ce: Ad of Scien

a Inc (SA Australi

Science

) Division

Education

Education

BIOLOG Y 2012 Study Guide SASTA

Education

itute of ics Inst Econom Home

Science

5:20 PM

dy Guide

Teaching

Oceanographer

ers of Sc

vancing

ience: Ad

ers of Sc

ing Teach

Support

Biology Stu

Nanotechnologist

ing Teach

012

Mechanical Engineer

Science Communication/ Journalism

dd 5

_final.in

de Ads

Study Gui

Support

SASTA 2

Robotics Engineer

13/12/11

SASTA 2012

Physics Study Guide

Research Scientist

Defence Sector

Youth r Worke

Humanrces Resouger Mana

y Guide

SASTA 2012

Optics

Support Officer

nce Guidasel lor Coun

rk Social Wo ial and Soc Planning

du.au inders.e www.fl 4 SASTA

Biomedical Engineer

Social r Worke

Field rcher Resea

PHYSICS SASTA 2012 Study Guide FU1834

Atomic Physicist

Humanrce Resougement Mana

logist Psycho

logist Crimino

logy Psychours) (Hono

Health Science

Policy r Office

onal Correcti Services

Nursing

ion

y Guide gy Stud

ural

t Markerch er Resea

e Aged Car Sector

g Marketin

Chemis tr

Behavio Science

Career Possibilities

Study G uide

ent Managem Arts

STRY

ties Possibili Career

Courses Flinders

Subject School

at Flinders

Psycholo

SASTA 2 012

T A GSTRAETEA C rs lindeE t FH M SaA D S N T I A 2012 IST RY OF M

on


SASTA Journal 2012  

SASTA Journal 2012

Advertisement
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you